Authors: A. W. Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.
This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditons for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson.
Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 6 pages
We propose two new novel techniques for detecting gravitational waves. First technique is based on detecting variation in angular speed of the system of two circular disks connected by a light rod, kept perpendicularly to incoming gravitational wave, in the y-z plane say. This dumbbell-like system is kept in y-z plane in free rotational motion with constant speed, and further in vacuum to avoid any dissipation, and with as much high speed as possible, such that it will be revolving around the axis of rotation parallel to say x axis that passes through the center of mass of this assembly of two disks connected by light rod. The idea to achieve variation in angular speed is based on the principle of conservation of angular momentum. The synchronization is arranged so that there will be elongation when the centers of circular disks are along the line parallel to y axis as well as when the centers of circular disks are along line parallel to z axis. Thus, the synchronization is to be so arranged that we take advantage of periodically switching of direction of elongation and contraction in such a way that there will be always elongation along the direction in line with the resonant dumbbell shaped antenna, i.e. when the antenna is aligned with y-axis there will be elongation along y-direction and when the antenna is aligned with z-axis there will also be elongation along z-direction. Due to conservation of angular momentum this must result in detectable slowing down in the otherwise constant angular speed in absence of any gravitational waves passing through this apparatus. This lowering in the value of angular speed will result in lowering of the number of turns made by the dumbbell shaped antenna per second around the axis of rotation. This lowered rotational frequency is to be measured to conclude the arrival of gravitational waves! The second technique that we propose is based on combination of Weber-like setup using single cylindrical bar to act as a resonant antenna as per the idea of Joseph Weber  and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) based upon idea of generating current by tunneling . This tunneling current is managed by setting up suitable potential difference between sharp tips of suitably fixed probes and surface of suspended Weber bar or its spherical version . We propose to keep the STM probes rigidly fixed at a predefined suitable locations and at constant distance between tips and surface of suspended Weber bar or its spherical version. Now, STM works on simple idea of applying potential difference between surface to be scanned and the probe having a sharp tip producing tunneling current from tip of probe to surface or surface to tip of probe depending upon polarity. This current is further amplified for using it as input for image producing software. We give here a proposal to use this arrangement for the process of detecting gravitational waves. Even with very small change in size (length) of Weber bar or its spherical version on passing of gravitational waves we hope to get detectable change in the amplitude of amplified current. Due to contractions and expansions encountered with suspended Weber bar upon the passing of gravitational waves there can be detectable change in the quantity of tunneling electrons. responsible for quantity of current flowing between tip of probes and Weber bar or its spherical version. This idea of achieving detectable change in the amplitude of tunneling current on arrival and passing of gravitational waves, essentially because of variation in distance between probes fixed suitably at different locations and resonating Weber bar, may lead us to successful detection of gravitational waves!
Comments: 6 pages, addition of a useful reference, 5, plus elaborations
The structural formation and baryonic fluctutations being presented initially come from an article by Chechin as to perturbation growth in the early universe. Due to a set of notes as written up by Sahoo, and Misra the author has reviewed what would be the consequences of adding in strange quark matter, cosmic strings and also domain walls, which change the nature of the initial baryonic model perturbations. The conclusion which jumps out, via what is the consequences for domain walls and galaxy formation , after the electro weak, is that the initial perturbations are heavily influenced by domain wall tension. I.e. almost as a free parameter, which is troubling since there is no experimental way to quantify what sort of domain wall tension is suitable at/ before the electro-weak regime.
Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 3 Pages. Accepted for publication at the 19th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Albuquerque. N.M. 2012
High redshift broadening of supernovae light curves, taken at face value, is the only direct evidence for expansion and is often used to discount Tired Light Theories. However, the authors of these papers look at high redshifts since these results are said to give “conclusive evidence for expansion.” But what of the smaller redshifts?, what do they show? This paper reviews supernovae aging data and shows that if we ignore Malmquist biases and that fact that brighter supernova Ia do have intrinsically broader light curves, then the main stream super-novae evidence is that whilst there may be expansion at high redshifts, there is no time dilation and therefore no expansion at low redshifts. That is, if we are to believe the main stream version of supernovae light curves then we must believe that the Universe is presently static.
These results are then compared to average Hydrogen cloud separation in the Lyman alpha forest in qua-sar spectra. These also show that at high redshifts the average spacing between Hydrogen clouds reduces as the redshift increases – showing evidence that the clouds are moving further apart with time and therefore expan-sion. However, at low redshifts the average spacing is constant - again showing a static Universe in the region. Is it just coincidence that both sets of data show expansion at high redshifts and a static Universe at low red-shifts?
Together, both sets of data are consistent with a Universe that did expand in the past but stopped ex-panding some time ago. The density of the Universe would then be equal to the critical density and we would have reached the point where the expansion has been arrested. There is then no need for inflation, ‘dark energy' or ‘dark matter.' However, in this static epoch of the Universe the Hydrogen clouds and supernovae at low red-shifts have differing redshifts dependent on distance. It is proposed that in this scenario, redshifts are due to the New Tired Light theory alone.
Do you believe you live in some state of darkness, full of worry and uncertainty? Do you want to make a change of your life? Scientific progress may help you. The simplest way to achieve this change is for you to forget the misery that comes from the miniature world of your immediate life, zoom out of this world, look at the large natural structure of the universe, and find its meaning. As you know, the large scale structure is not relevant to humans' activity. Unfortunately, the meaning has not been identified. Now, with Dr. He's study on galaxies, the meaning of the universe may emerge. The good news is that people, whatever their origin (politician, lawyer, doctor, musician, or beggar), could claim a big discovery on the meaning by playing a computer software of galaxy anatomy. This article is a simple instruction for the design of such a program.