[6] **viXra:0911.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Chris Forbes, Dan Visser

**Comments:** 18 pages

In this, the final paper in the recent series on the new twin-tori model of
cosmology, the model is developed in a logical way. Its historical
development is included, and what follows is a statement of the central
axioms of the theory. The reasons for them are described and their use in the
theory is shown. What then follows is a brief description of the cosmological
side of the theory, and its application to large scale structures and
astrophysics. The paper then begins to develop the opposite length scale of
the model, that on the order of the nuclear scale and ranging down to planck
scale physics and Quantum Gravity.
The theory is developed by laying theoretical foundations and mathematical
idea's and structures and building on these using phenomenology and
statistical techniques to fit parameters for the theory, including the dark
energy - dark matter coupling constants. Many basic simplified models are
then set out in various dimensions and with varying degrees of physical
relevance.
The models are also tested against current theory using observations of
various physical systems ranging from nuclear physics, both earth-bound
and stellar, to galactic dynamics and rotations. Historical deatils are included
to increase readability from a variety of backgrounds.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:0911.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** James Gunasekera

**Comments:** All databases and the source code are available. Abstract: Percentage
of persons satisfying the criterion is higher than expected not only for Nobel Prize
laureates, but also for winners of similar awards in similar categories: Ramon Magsaysay
Award, Wolf Prize, Pulitzer Prize.

The main purpose of this study is to test the criterion and methods described in the article about
Nobel Prize laureates[1] on other data.
It was shown that the moments of birth of Nobel Prize laureates satisfy the so-called Quaoar
criterion much more often than other moments. A random moment of time satisfies the criterion
with probability around 0.245, but among the Nobel laureates 33.47% satisfy the criterion.
Because there are 726 persons in five categories, this is a statistically significant deviation: 243 of
them satisfy, while the mean value is 177.352, and the standard deviation is 11.535. Shape of the
distribution is "bell curve". It was observed that deviation is higher if all laureates in Chemistry
and Physics are excluded. +6.145 stdev if only 391 laureates in the remaining three categories
are considered: Literature, Physiology/Medicine, Peace prize.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:0911.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 14 pages, 1 figure. Published: Research in Astron. Astrophys. 2010 Vol. 10 No. 11, pp.1137-1150

A massive star is defined to be one with mass greater than ~ 8-10M_{☉}. Central
to the on-going debate on how these objects [massive stars] come into being is the socalled
Radiation Problem. For nearly forty years, it has been argued that the radiation field
emanating from massive stars is high enough to cause a global reversal of direct radial
in-fall of material onto the nascent star. We argue that only in the case of a non-spinning
isolated star does the gravitational field of the nascent star overcome the radiation field. An
isolated non-spinning star is a non-spinning star without any circumstellar material around
it, and the gravitational field beyond its surface is described exactly by Newton's inverse
square law. The supposed fact that massive stars have a gravitational field that is much
stronger than their radiation field is drawn from the analysis of an isolated massive star. In
this case the gravitational field is much stronger than the radiation field. This conclusion
has been erroneously extended to the case of massive stars enshrouded in gas & dust. We
find that, for the case of a non-spinning gravitating body where we take into consideration
the circumstellar material, that at ~ 8 - 10M_{☉}, the radiation field will not reverse the
radial in-fall of matter, but rather a stalemate between the radiation and gravitational field
will be achieved, i.e. in-fall is halted but not reversed. This picture is very different from
the common picture that is projected and accepted in the popular literature that at ~
8-10M_{☉}, all the circumstellar material, from the surface of the star right up to the edge
of the molecular core, is expected to be swept away by the radiation field. We argue that
massive stars should be able to start their normal stellar processes if the molecular core
from which they form has some rotation, because a rotating core exhibits an Azimuthally
Symmetric Gravitational Field which causes there to be an accretion disk and along this
disk. The radiation field cannot be much stronger than the gravitational field, hence this
equatorial accretion disk becomes the channel via which the nascent massive star accretes
all of its material.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:0911.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 26 pages, 2 Figures, Published in Research in Astron. Astrophys. 2010 Vol. 10 No. 11, 1151-1176

Abstract This reading is part in a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of
Gravitation (ASTG) set-out in Nyambuya (2010a). This theory is built on
Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown therein (Nyambuya 2010a) that the
ASTG is capable of explaining - from a purely classical physics standpoint; the precession
of the perihelion of solar planets as being a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry
emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the
emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG
- under some critical conditions determined by the spin - do possess repulsive gravitational
fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG
on an interesting pedal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomena.
Outflows are an ubiquitous phenomena found in star forming systems and their true
origins is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origins, the
direction that the present reading takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional
wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift as gravitation is not at
all associated; let alone considered to have anything to do with the out-pour of matter but
is thought to be an all-attractive force that tries only to squash matter together into a single
point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational
Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem
that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at
~ 8 - 10M_{☉}, radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter
onto the nascent star. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk
and from there, this material will be channelled onto the forming star via the equatorial
plane thus accretion of mass continues well past the curtain value of ~ 8-10M_{☉} albeit
via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included)
on any material there-on right up-till the surface of the star, is directed toward the forming
star, hence accretion of mass by the nascent star is un-hampered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:0911.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables, Published: MNRAS, Vol. 403, Issue 3, pp.1381-1392 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16196.x

From a purely none-general relativistic standpoint, we solve the empty space Poisson equation,
i.e. ∇^{2}Φ = 0, for an azimuthally symmetric setting, i.e., for a spinning gravitational system like
the Sun. We seek the general solution of the form Φ = Φ(r, θ). This general solution is constrained
such that in the zeroth order approximation it reduces to Newton's well known inverse
square law of gravitation. For this general solution, it is seen that it has implications on the orbits
of test bodies in the gravitational field of this spinning body.We show that to second order
approximation, this azimuthally symmetric gravitational field is capable of explaining at least
two things (1) the observed perihelion shift of solar planets (2) that the Astronomical Unit must
be increasing - this resonates with the observations of two independent groups of astronomers
(Krasinsky & Brumberg 2004; Standish 2005) who have measured that the Astronomical Unit
must be increasing at a rate of about 7.0±0.2m/cy (Standish 2005) to 15.0±0.3m/cy (Krasinsky
& Brumberg 2004). In-principle, we are able to explain this result as a consequence of loss
of orbital angular momentum - this loss of orbital angular momentum is a direct prediction of
the theory. Further, we show that the theory is able to explain at a satisfactory level the observed
secular increase Earth Year (1.70±0.05ms/yr;Miura et al. 2009). Furthermore, we show that
the theory makes a significant and testable prediction to the effect that the period of the solar
spin must be decreasing at a rate of at least 8.00 ± 2.00 s/cy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:0911.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The loss of energy of the photon with the time by emission of heat to the intergalactic
space might explain the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Astrophysics