Astrophysics

1905 Submissions

[36] viXra:1905.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 22:37:49

Using Stellar Metamorphosis to Avoid Astronomical Pigeonholing

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

As exoplanet data is collected, astronomers need to use a theory that can guard them against the pitfalls of pigeonholing the discoveries.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1905.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 12:38:19

Thermal Spectrum of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1905.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:19:07

Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Recent advances in the observation of high-energy radiations, including X-rays and gamma-rays, have unveiled many high-energy aspects of the universe. [46] Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1905.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 15:08:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbonaceous Meteorite Fingerprints Using D/H Ratios

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the General Theory stars can impact other older stars to create interstellar shrapnel. The shrapnel can have its formation age determined by measuring its D/H ratio.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1905.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 16:47:51

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I- The Paper Claim: -The Solar Planets Order was (Pluto – Mercury – Mars ……..etc) But -Mars Ancient Orbital Distance was 84 millions km, found after Mercury Immediately…. -Pluto was before Mercury in order and nearer to the sun (or may Pluto was the Mercury Moon) -This order I suggest based on the rule "Greater Diameter Needs Greater Orbital Distance". (This Rule Is Discussed In This Paper Introduction) Then -Mars immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance = 227.9 mkm. -Mars Immigration was process has a great effect on the solar group especially on Pluto (the smallest planet). And As a result of it, Pluto also immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance =5870 mkm -The Planet diameter and orbital distance rule is (A Greater Diameter needs A Greater Orbital Distance) is disturbed by Mars and Pluto Immigration. -Mars is Exceptional Planet in different arguments because of its immigration.. I- The Claim Explanation: How to prove this fact? -The Solar Group is One Body (Building) – If this is a fact- So, Each Planet Data is created based on the other planets data –i.e. if Mars changed his orbital distance through the solar group history – This Change should be Registered in the solar planets data- i.e. -Mars Immigration Argument Is Another Proof For The Claim ….… "The Solar Group Is One Body and Each Planet is A Member Of It", Or "The Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building"…
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1905.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 19:25:21

Stellar Metamorphosis: Transformation Curves on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". Some aspects to transformation curves are explained on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1905.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:53:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using the Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio to Determine the Ages of Hydrous Rocks and Hydrocarbons

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis the D/H ratio can be used to determine the formation ages of rocks, minerals and hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen. Explanation is provided of how this can be done and why it is important.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1905.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:16:01

Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Research Main Conclusion: The Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity This conclusion is produced by the Following Questions Analysis: Special Theory Of Relativity Tells Us "If a particle moves by high velocity (Approximately) relative to an observer – the observer will see relativistic effects effected on this particle – (The relativistic effects are Length Contraction - Time Dilation - Mass Increase) The Questions 1-Are These Relativistic Effects Occurred For The Particle Nature Or For Our Vision Only? (to see something wrong as in the mirage) 2-If these effects are occurred for the Particle Nature – Why the Particle Nature Changes As Result Of The Light Velocity Motion? 3-Is The Particle Nature A Real Nature Or Found Because Of The Observer Effect On This Particle? This Paper discusses these questions and The Conclusion Proves which are: 1-The Relativistic Effects Analysis 2-A Quantized Experiment 3-The Solar Planet Moves According To A Physical Law (and Not in Chaos) 4-The Moon Angular Diameter 5-The Human Body Contains Electromagnetic Waves This paper contains 2 points only – Point No.2 (Research Methodology) and Point No. 3 (Research Conclusion Proves) Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1905.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:21:49

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory5

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.all the masses in the universe volume 2.the volume of space all the masses in the universe take 3.the actual volume the masses take from space playing with those 3 would who use what is time and distance and velocity if the volume of masses and the actual volume of space all the masses take are constant we could say that they both behave with each other against the volume of space all the masses in the universe take so the actual volume of space all the masses take is time velocity is the volume of masses and the distance is the volume of space all the masses in the universe take
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1905.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 20:55:41

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Saturn and Jupiter to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. Includes EA (Earth Age) in case total Earth age changes

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as 4.5 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Saturn and Jupiter are.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-22 06:22:15

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to seek an explanation to the following questions: “What is the Great Filter?” and “When it will arrive?”. Creating a theoretical model capable to provide an objectively valuable solution over those issues, it is also possible to hypothesize a valid solution for the Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The ultimate aim of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 16 Pages.

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 13:49:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. replacing because I had Mercury written in Mars' spot.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1905.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 02:08:57

Exploring Extra Dimensions by the Help of Dnas of the Egg Cell and the Earth

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

In this research, we introduce two natural telescope for detecting events of extra dimensions. First, we will show that missing genes which are needed for keepping the animals alive, could be existed in extra dimensions. These genes could act like the receiver or sender of radio waves and transmit information from extra dimensions into our universe. These genes could lead to some changes in radiated waves of egg cells and missing some electrons. Thus, by considering evolutions of egg cells, we can obtain some information about biological events interior of extra dimensions. For example, if we put a fertilized egg and a non-fertilized egg interior of an inductor and produce a magnetic field, we can observe that non-fertilized egg obtains some properties of fertilized egg. It seems that sperms are teleported via extra dimensions into non-fertilized eggs. However, this system can only send us a report of biological events and for considering cosmological events, we need to a bigger object. We show that earth has a system similar to the DNAs in egg cell however with the cosmological size and can communicate with objects in extra dimensions. This DNA-like shell is located interior of the earth's core and leads to the emergence of high temperature. Exchanging information between the earth's DNA like shell and objects in extra dimensions leads to the production of some extra matters around the core, unstability interior of the earth's layers and the emergence of some earthquakes. Also, DNA-like object interior of the core has a direct effect on the water, ions and charged particles around the earth. In fact, this object induced some properties into water in clouds via extra dimensions and for this reason, water of rain is very different from normal water. For example, water of rain can communicate with DNA of plants very better of other waters.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1905.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 09:13:05

ATLAS Constraints Supersymmetric Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Both results place strong constraints on important supersymmetric scenarios, which will guide future ATLAS searches. Further, they provide an example how novel reconstruction techniques can help improve the sensitivity of new physics searches at the LHC. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1905.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:51:24

Supermassive Black Holes Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

It is believed that the formation and growth of most galaxies across the history of the universe has been fueled by supermassive black holes growing together with their host galaxy as they collect matter to attain millions of solar masses. [27] Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1905.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 09:06:47

Dark Matter Direct Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1905.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 10:20:09

Space Telescope Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1905.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 13:35:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Aluminum

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain aluminum and it is a main building block of the crusts of highly evolved stars like the Earth. A conceptual bridge is built using aluminum as an important element in the evolution of a star, into its life hosting stages and beyond. Water, hydroxides, iron, hydrogen are all included in this bridge paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1905.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:10:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain carbon and it is the main building block for all life in the universe. In the general theory, the carbon of a star combines with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (as well as many others) in various combinations during its evolution, forming all biological molecules. This of course takes billions of years (alongside the evolution of life itself, which happens later on) and the carbon molecules increase in complexity as the stars' interiors evolve. For this paper some new ideas that have never been considered before are presented using the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1905.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:38:27

Calculating Black Hole Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Sean McWilliams, an assistant professor at West Virginia University, has developed a mathematical method for calculating black hole properties from gravitational wave data. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1905.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 12:36:53

Map the Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The earliest known light in our universe, known as the cosmic microwave background, was emitted about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. [26] Technology originally developed for CERN's Large Hadron Collider and then flown in space by ESA is now being used to analyse historic artworks, helping to detect forgeries. [25] Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1905.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:01:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Mass-Age Relation for Solar Mass, Orange, Yellow and Red Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two hand drawn graphs show two transformation curves for young stars between 1 and .5 solar mass, and .5 to .1 solar mass. It conforms to the general theory, and brings a new perspective of stars. They can have their ages roughly determined by their masses. This is in direct opposition to the establishment's version of stellar evolution. To them stars do not evolve down transformation curves, but stay put. They were born with the same mass they die with. The observations of stars in all mass ranges contradicts the establishment's claim. In fact, the stars lose mass as they evolve, therefore their masses (when they are young) can be used to determine how old they are.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1905.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 21:06:53

Openly Addressing American Scientist Magazine, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily", by Kevin Heng

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper serves as an open address to American Scientist Magazine's article written by Kevin Heng, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily." https://www.americanscientist.org/article/why-does-nature-form-exoplanets-easily
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1905.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 11:28:39

Stellar Metamorphosis: Interpreting Why the Deuterium/Hydrogen Ratios are Different on Different Celestial Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, one from ESA

For this paper a simple graph is provided by the ESA (European Space Agency) of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of different celestial bodies in our solar system. To interpret the graph in a meaningful fashion, all that is needed is that the graph needs to be spun 90 degrees clockwise and then compared to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The sizes/masses of the objects are not representative, only the ages/ratios of D/H are compared. In essence, as the objects age and evolve/disintegrate, the D/H ratio of the material rises. This means the most pristine D/H ratio that is representative of any star or stellar remains is contained in the youngest of stars, to the very left hand side of the diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1905.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 22:51:41

The Explanation of The Moving Bright Areas In The First M87 Black Hole Images

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 3 Pages.

After reading the papers about the first M87 event horizon telescope results, we find the moving bright areas in the observation images from Apr. 5 to Apr. 11 and the conclusion about that the south is brighter than the north is incorrect. We propose an explanation to initially explain the movement of the bright areas as the animation reveals.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1905.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 18:00:59

Stellar Metamorphosis: Correction of Radiometric Dating Assumptions of Solar System Formation, Addressing Radio-geocentrism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper a few assumptions are corrected in light of the general theory concerning radiometric dating methods. Those assumptions include the idea of Earth being the same age as all solar system bodies, and the assumption that meteoroids that land on Earth (meteorites) are leftover remains of the solar systems formation. These changing assumptions should naturally leave reinterpreted data available to give a more accurate tale of what the bodies in our solar system are actually up to. A new term called, "radio-geocentrism" is put forth, to classify all the assumptions into one main issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1905.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:21:25

Black Hole Neutron Star Merger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been detected for the first time. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1905.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 20:53:26

Stellar Metamorphosis: White Dwarfs are not Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper a simple graph is shown that places white dwarfs at the beginning of stellar evolution. This means that any and all stellar evolution models dreamed up in the 1930's forward to before 2011 are wrong. This has a serious implication for understanding what causes fusion, and how heavy elements can be made. As well, it places stellar birthing as reliant on processes not involving purely gravity alone, but processes that somehow rip the electrons off atoms, so that they can sit close to one another.
Category: Astrophysics