[11] **viXra:1402.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-24 08:42:38*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An evolving galactic cloud, depending on its parameters, may attain stable state for brief period. Total matter-content, spin speed and diameter of spinning galactic cloud determine duration of stable period. This article proposes mutual relation, between these factors, required for a galactic cloud during its life as a stable galaxy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:1402.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-23 02:36:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page-manuscript

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the foundations of physics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1402.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-26 14:10:47*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The non existence of black holes has been predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi, obtained after the quantization of gravity [7]. Here, we review this theoretical discovery, which point to a revolution in fundamental physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8] **viXra:1402.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-17 23:48:02*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages. My article results from a discussion at http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1971

According to the article "Quark Star Plays Role in New Theory for Brightest Supernovae" by Jeanna Bryner, Senior Writer | June 03, 2008 (http://www.space.com/5450-quark-star-plays-role-theory-brightest-supernovae.html), "Other explanations for the bright supernovae are possible, the researchers say". I think these "other explanations" reveal that the scientists are going in the right direction but have failed to go far enough. As the article says, "Quarks are considered to be the tiniest elementary particles that form the building blocks for protons and neutrons, which in turn form atoms." The term "tiniest elementary particles" appears to mean "the ground state or lowest possible energy level". And according to the next paragraph I've written, "the binary digits of 1 and 0 must surely be the ground state or lowest possible energy level". Admittedly, this explanation probably sounds more unusual than the notion of quark stars. But I believe my explanations answer every question more than satisfactorily. In the end, my explanations lead back to black holes instead of quark stars. And black holes, while as unusual as my ideas, are scientifically accepted while the article points out that quark stars are still just theoretical.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[7] **viXra:1402.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 09:10:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams, 5 references

Two diagrams and an explanation for the public are provided which outline the main differences between establishment dogma and stellar metamorphosis in their predictions of star evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[6] **viXra:1402.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-11 10:31:41*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 2 Figures. Computer language program file is include (1 page)

A mother, a father, and their daughter were taking a picture. They were 5, 7, and 2 feet tall respectively. The parents stood in a row, and their daughter stood in front of her mother. My son saw this and ran quickly in front of the father before the picture was taken. I asked my son why. He answered that he was exactly 4 feet tall. I figured out his reasoning, and afterwards I have become an astrophysicist. A pattern is a distribution of differences. In the array pattern of the above-said four people, the height differences between adults and between kids are equal, and the height differences between females and between males are equal too. This simple pattern can be generalized into any array of numbers. Assume the differences of numbers in a row are equal to the corresponding differences in any other row. That is, there exist the common differences in all rows. Similarly assume the common differences in all columns. Then the pattern is called a rational structure. Assume the number at the bottom left corner is zero, C(0,0) = 0, and denote the series of numbers in the bottom row by U(i) and the series of numbers in the first column by V(j). I found the formula for the rational array: C = U(i) + V(j). This is called Skew Law. I generalized the rows and columns to be curved, and required that the curves cross each other at a right angle. This was exactly my idea of galaxy patterns. In this paper I show that the patterns are governed by the Riccati equation with constant coefficients; and the curves are governed by a type of algebraic equations. The cubic equation of the type gives a pattern which resembles the sharp bar of galaxy NGC 1073. Are all barred galaxies governed by the cubic and higher degrees of algebraic equations? The question will be resolved in the near future.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1402.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-10 16:27:54*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is proposed that the “apparent horizons” assumed by Hawking to resolve the black hole information paradox, are in reality the regions where in Lorentzian relativity the absolute velocity against a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy reaches the velocity of light, and where an elliptical differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over a transluminal Euler-Tricomi equation into a hyperbolic differential equation where such an equilibrium is not more possible, with matter in approaching this region disintegrating into radiation. Hawking’s proposal depends on the AdS/CFT conjecture which in turn depending on string/M theory which in the absence of super -symmetry will not work.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1402.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 16:19:29*

**Authors:** Suomy Nona

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The following equation was found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. During the search, roughly 56000 equations were identified that had the correct units and then a handful of those equations where found to have low error rates of roughly one part in a trillion, when compared to the original constants. The simplest equation of the high accuracy set is presented in this paper. [G = (10390/23)*R^73*w^73*e^2/(c^68*h^74*A^2*N^73)]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1402.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 06:56:36*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 35 Pages. 35

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects.
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form)
Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon ( fig 5).
Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way.
That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN.
That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum.
The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons, which can explain lots of astronomical unresolved phenomena such as the peculiar shape of dumbbell Comets like Hartley 2 and 67P C-G (Churyumov-Gerasimenko)..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1402.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-06 02:52:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 5 Pages. To be submitted to a journal. This paper complete the earlier paper Nyambuya 2010, MNRAS 403, pp.1381-1391

The present letter presents an improved version of the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG-model) which was presented for the first time four years ago (in Nyambuya 2010). Herein, we propose a solution to the standing problem of the lambda-parameters in which effort we put the ASTG-model on a clear pedestal for falsification. The perihelion precessional data of Solar planetary orbits is used to set the theory into motion. As a way of demonstrating the latent power of the new theory, we show in separate letters that -- one of the most important and outstanding problems in astrophysics today -- the Radiation Problem; which is thought to bedevil massive stars during their formation, may find a plausible solution in the ASTG-model. Further, from within the confines of this new theory, we also demonstrate (in a separate letter) that the Emergence of Bipolar Molecular Outflows may very be an azimuthal gravitational phenomenon. Furthermore, we also show (in a separate letter as-well) that the ASTG-model does, to a reasonable extent explain the tilt of Solar planetary orbits.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1402.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 09:17:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 3 references

A binary star system has been discovered that completely falsifies the nebular hypothesis. The replacement theory is offered as stellar metamorphosis. The stars in question are simply in different stages to their evolution, they did not form from a theoretical nebular disk. Establishment physics will ignore the falsification of their accepted models and its effective replacement and they will ridicule and label the discoverers and sharers of this understanding as cranks/crackpots and pseudoscientists. Stellar Metamorphosis completely replaces their ad hoc mathematical models of star evolution. A diagram of where the stars are in their evolution is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics