Authors: Keith D. Foote
Comments: 10 Pages. V2-minor typo corrections
The characteristics and behavior patterns of dark matter are examined and described as a support mechanism for the electromagnetic field. Flaws in Einstein’s models are examined and compared with an updated version of the aether as dark matter.
It may be true that mankind's hope is the identification of the living meaning of natural structures. However, scientists including physicists, chemists, and biologists have not found any evidence of the meaning. In the natural world, there exists one kind of structure which is beyond the scope of human laboratorial experiment. It is the structure of galaxies. Spiral galaxies are flat disk-shaped. There are two types of spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies with some bar-shaped pattern are called barred spirals, and the ones without the pattern are called ordinary spirals. Longer-wavelength galaxy images (infrared, for example) show that ordinary spiral galaxies are basically an axi-symmetric disk that is called exponential disk. For a planar distribution of matter, Jin He and Bo He defined Darwin curves on the plane as such that the ratio of the matter densities at both sides of the curve is constant along the curve. Therefore, the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are Darwin curves. Now an important question facing humans is that: Are the arms of barred spiral galaxies the Darwin curves too? Fortunately, Dr. Jin He made a piece of Galaxy Anatomy Graphic Software (www.galaxyanatomy.com). With the software, not only can people simulate the stellar density distribution of barred spiral galaxies but also can draw the Darwin curves of the simulated galaxy structure. Therefore, if Dr. Jin He's idea is true then people all over the world will witness the evidence that the arms of barred spiral galaxies are identical to the corresponding Darwin curves. This paper shows partial evidence that the arms of galaxy NGC 3275 follow Darwin curves. Note: Ammar Sakaji and Ignazio Licata are the founder or the editor-in-chief of the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics. Over fifty journals of astronomy and physics had rejected Dr. Jin He's core article on galaxy structure before 2010. It is Sakaji and Licata's journal that accepted the article.
Authors: Hu Wang
Comments: 5 Pages.
Start from denying universal gravitation…
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture, 7 references
Redshift as a measurement of cosmological distance has been falsified by Mr. Halton Arp’s discovery.
Authors: Hu Wang
Comments: 18 Pages.
Studies on nautiloids, coral fossils, rotation of the Earth, and Earth-Moon distance variation may lead to a conclusion that Kepler's constant is decreasing in the system with the Earth as the central celestial.
Authors: Andrej Rehak
Comments: 8 Pages.
Simple mathematical demonstration solves one of the problems of lunar motion, the regression of lunar nodes, observed more than 2000 years ago. Although their motions draw similar traces (such as retrograde motion in Ptolemy’s and Copernicus’s models of the universe) we show that celestial bodies do not rotate around their common centre of mass, but, by unified law, one around the other. Due to the rigidity of principle, regardless of the calculation of rounded up values, the range of discrepancy between predicted and observed cycle of regression is in level of magnitude of only 3.4x10-5 (due to lunar trajectory perturbation, its perceived values also on a small-scale vary cyclically). Besides the constant π and Terrestrial measure of time, the only variables used in the solution of this dual orbiting system problem are radiuses and surface accelerations of observed bodies.
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 pictures
It is hypothesized that a very dangerous assumption has been made in the science of astrophysics. It was assumed that interstellar space is a pure vacuum and that stars are seen as they are. It is understood by the author that this is a very dangerous assumption to astronomy. If it is not true that outer space is a pure vacuum then this realization sets entire educational establishments back to zero. An explanation is provided.
Authors: Andrej Rehak
Comments: 6 Pages.
Respecting the mechanism of simple machines, in described case the lever in balance, the application of universal principle (g=cd) is demonstrated by calculating the radius and velocity of the geostationary orbit. Derived is the ratio between geostationary and equatorial radius, specific to each celestial body. Implicitly, formulated is the law of geostationary orbits symmetrical to third Kepler’s law of planetary motion. As a derivation of these equations is not using the gravitational constant G and calculates the corrected celestial body masses, due to their mathematical equivalence, equalities presented give absolutely accurate results. The elegance, precision and simplicity of the presented model indicate misinterpretation of Newton's arbitrary masses and nature, in the conventional physics inevitable gravitational constant G, the so-called "Universal constant of nature".
Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 12 Pages.
Exactly 100 years ago, German scientist Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), sailed against the prevailing wisdom of his day when he posited that not only have the Earth's continental plates receded from each other over the course of the Earth's history, but that they are currently in a state of motion relative to one another. To explain this, Wegener setforth the hypothesis that the Earth must be expanding as a whole. Wegener's inability to provide an adequate explanation of the forces and energy source responsible for continental drift and the prevailing belief that the Earth was a rigid solid body resulted in the acrimonious dismissal of his theories. Today, that the continents are receding from each other is no longer a point of debate but a sacrosanct pillar of modern geophysics. What is debatable is the energy source driving this phenomenon. Herein, we hold that continental drift is a result of the Earth undergoing a secular radial expansion. An expanding Earth hypothesis is currently an idea that is not accepted on a general consensus level. Be that it may, we show herein that the law of conversation of angular momentum and energy entail that the Earth must not only expand as a consequence of the secular recession of the Earth-Moon system from the Sun, but invariably, that the Moon must contract as-well. As a result, the much sort for energy source driving plate tectonics can (hypothetically) be identified with the energy transfers occurring between the orbital and rotational kinetic energy of the Earth. If our calculations are to be believed -- as we do; then, the Earth must be expanding radially at a paltry rate of about 1.50+/-mm/yr while the Moon is contracting radially at a relatively high rate of about -410+/- mm/yr.
The Small Bang model has received this name because it considers that all the energy and matter in the Universe arose due to the process of cosmic inflation and thus at the initial time of creation space is essentially an empty bubble.
It is important to note that after the process of cosmic inflation the energy density in the Universe would be basically the same as proposed by the Big Bang theory and thus the two models differ only with respect to the behavior of the Universe and its galaxies before the end of cosmic inflation.
Besides eliminating the problem of infinite energy densities and temperatures, the Small Bang model also solves the problem of the loss of antimatter, proposing that focusing on the supermassive antimatter black hole that lies at the center of each galaxy allows for a better understanding of the formation process of galaxies.
The Small Bang model also suggests that the effects attributed to dark matter today are in fact due to the high angular momentum of supermassive antimatter black holes and the effect of drag on the space-time that extends beyond the limits of the galaxy and creates a region of constant rotation that is currently attributed to some type of “dark matter.”
The most basic principal of the Big Bang model is that of a "primeval atom" or "cosmic egg" that concentrates all the matter and energy in the Universe and was first proposed in 1927 by Georges Lemaître The Small Bang model eliminates the notion of the "cosmic egg" and represents an innovation to an idea that is almost a century old.