Astrophysics

1911 Submissions

[34] viXra:1911.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 23:31:24

On the Generation of High-Energy Gamma Rays Near Sunspots During the Transition from Solar Minimum to Maximum

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 6 Pages.

It has been recently discovered by Linden and others that high-energy gamma rays (>100 GeV in some cases) are being generated from the solar disk near the location of sunspots as the solar cycle progresses from solar minimum to solar maximum, corresponding with the movement of sunspots from the equator to the poles. It is postulated that the generation of the gamma rays are due to the interaction and inter-modulation of multiple magnetic fields near and under sunspots, which from the Wave Structure of Matter, will result in the conversion the static magnetic fields into high-energy gamma rays based on the moving wave structure of the electron, which in turn makes up the magnetic field.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1911.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 09:09:24

Is There A Contradiction In The Physics Book?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

I claim there's a contradiction in the physics book, let's explain it: Lorentz Transformations Effect Lorentz Transformations tell us that, Particle data is created relative to its motion, basically because Particle mass and length are changed because of particle high velocity motion… If Lorentz length contraction is a real effect on particle own nature or just illusion of measurements! This question we have discussed before- and we have found that- Lorentz Length Contraction is a real phenomenon effects on Particle own nature similar to Particle mass increasing as a result of high velocity motion The previous consideration we have adopted for the next reasons: (1)The measurements show this contraction and in physics what's measured is what's real (2)If we consider the length contraction is an illusion of measurements, that tells Particle properties correct definition is found when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle, which supposes that I'm The Universe Reference Point – that's similar to a person looks at mirror – which pushes us to refuse the claim that the contraction is an illusion of measurement Conclusion I. Lorentz Length Contraction is a real phenomenon effects on Particle own length II. Particle Data is created relative to this particle motion The last conclusion leads us to a contradiction with Newton mechanics Newton had interpreted Planet motion based on the masses gravity between this planet and the sun – So Planet Mass is the reason of its motion But Lorentz transformation tell us that – Particle Data (and mass) is created based on this particle Motion…! i.e. Planet Motion – according to Lorentz Transformation- must be the reason of Planet Mass – so Planet doesn't move by Masses Gravity – because planet mass is created depending on its motion which tells that Planet motion is found before any other planet data! So how does planet move? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1911.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 10:11:28

Lorentz Length Contraction Is A Real Phenomenon & Not Illusion Of Measurements

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Question: "Is Lorentz Length Contraction a real phenomenon or illusion of Measurements?" Or … "What's happened For Particle Own Nature, if this particle travels by high velocity?" We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that –Particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is found as illusion of measurements Or (2nd) to accept the idea that –Particle own nature changes with high velocity motion. I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined correctly when no difference in motions velocities found between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror Specifically for the previous reason we should refuse both next statements "Particle Own Nature doesn't Change" and "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"…. Lorentz equations for particle length and mass provide the sufficient proof for this fact - Particle Length And Mass are changing with high velocity motion – which shows clearly that Particle data is created relative to this particle motion. The previous conclusions are consistent clearly with Lorentz vision based on which Lorentz transformations were created… The basic difficulty here is found with an old unanswered question let's refer to it: How the matter is created? How does any Particle define its data? Conclusion: Lorentz tells us that, Particle own nature and data must be defined relative to this particle motion This conclusion we need to discuss in this paper Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1911.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 01:47:23

Heavy Thermal Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Astrophysicists have been searching for dark matter for several decades, but these searches have so far yielded disappointing results. In a recent study, two researchers at Weizmann Institute of Science and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel have introduced a new theoretical framework outlining a mechanism of elementary thermal dark matter with a mass up to 10 14 GeV. [23] Scientists have found evidence that dark matter can be heated up and moved around, as a result of star formation in galaxies. [22] Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1911.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 06:35:16

Carbon Soccer Ball in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

It is one of the most common forms of carbon in space: C60, a soccer ball-shaped carbon molecule, but one that has an extra proton attached to it. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1911.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-01 04:57:38

The Energetics of the an e X B Propulsor that Avoids the Hidden Momentum Pitfall

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 6 Pages. Complement to earlier paper http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0484

This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative electromagnetic propulsion system, to perform a more detailed energy balance. The previous paper demonstrated how momentum could be dumped to the ground state of the electromagnetic field but a claim was left somewhat hanging at the end of the previous paper, that the work done in changing the craft's velocity would effectively shift the centre of mass of the field-although that would be an infinitesimal shift in practice. The craft must always supply work to change velocity, such as by an accelerate/de-accelerate cycle and superficially this looks to violate the conservation of energy; we prove that this isn't so.
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1911.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 21:26:46

Lorentz Length Contraction (More Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity tells us that The matter is created of electromagnetic wave or at least depend on it i.e. The Universe Matter Is Related To Electromagnetic Waves
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1911.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-18 08:06:34

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained by Fix to Vanishing of Falling Matter

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 9 Pages.

Considered motion in Kerr-Newman, Kerr, and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. As an example, in Kerr spacetime, if you release from rest-state an electrically neutral test-particle (from any position outside the Black Hole, but not at equatorial plane) it will end up in abrupt-end apart from the point of spacetime singularity. As solution to this problem the Dark Matter is used.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1911.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 17:48:13

Stellar Metamorphosis: Potassium

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Potassium is present in young, middle aged, old and dead stars. Its atomic symbol is K. The main point of this paper is to note that potassium concentration increases per unit mass as the star evolves. This means that stars which reach the point of being able to not only create life, but to host it, will have larger concentrations per unit mass of potassium. The potassium increases concentration in youthful stages, then combines to form salts and the beginnings of life, then the left over remains get locked in the crust as rocks/minerals. This is due to mass dependent fractionation as well as potassium's high reactivity and ability to form ionic salts.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1911.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 11:06:09

Spectrometer of Cosmic Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The measurements presented by Oliva and the rest of the AMS collaboration provide new interesting insight about the properties of 3He and 4He isotopes, which could have important implications for future astrophysics research investigating cosmic ray production and propagation. [27] One such mystery is the origin of electromagnetic fields on the very largest scale in the universe. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1911.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 10:44:22

The Cyclic Undivided Raspberry Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a Super Symmetric multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum and wavefunction.. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes. At the same time John Cramer proposed a parallel Transactional Interpretation (T.I.) a so called “Handshake system” responsible for entanglement and wavefunction collapse processes between anti copy systems on earth. However If we take such a handshake system as functional for each (anti material) copy quantum, living inside one of the entangled anti copy universal bubbles, then we may accept it as the start for NEW PHYSICS.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1911.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 10:30:17

Light-Sensing Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made one of the highest-performance cameras ever composed of sensors that count single photons, or particles of light. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1911.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 17:38:27

The Big Bang is a Mystery (SR Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The Universe Is A Continuum Explanation Question no. 1 If the universe is a continuum why that disprove the big bang concept? Because – in this case – the universe will no longer be created by some random process otherwise it can't be a continuum – to be a continuum its components should be created complementary to each other to consist together one continuum Question no. 2 Why does the Special theory of relativity prove that the universe is a continuum? Einstein told that Space-time is a continuum but he didn't tell that the universe is a continuum- Space-time is coordinates consist one continuum because it's coordinates –means – the time and distance values are defined by the point position in space-time – So when Einstein told the Space-time is a continuum he didn't effect on the universe geometry itself – he simply provided a new geometry to define the coordinates But When we accept the hypothesis that – the universe is a continuum - that means -we accept that the particle properties are defined by coordinates! Specifically – that means – Particle Mass will be defined as time and distance in the space-time coordinates! But particle mass is a particle property and can't be defined by any coordinates! We have 2 different visions here! But … in fact ....the particle high velocity motion changes its time, length and MASS So, simply if the mass can be added to the space-time and defined as particle coordinates – so the special theory of relativity disproves the big bang theory Otherwise –it can't …. In this paper I try to prove that – practical mass is defined as distance & time values – all of them are space-time coordinates – that proves the hypothesis – the universe is a continuum – and disproves the big bang theory Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1911.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:22:25

Constraints on Dark Matter Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

ADMX, with its world-leading sensitivity, has ruled out axions of a certain mass range as dark matter. [30] In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1911.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 12:12:14

Wolf 1061c in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

A few issues are addressed to explain Wolf 1061c, which are different than the dogma. Explanation is provided. A screenshot of the Wikipedia page of Wolf 1061c is provided to juxtapose the General Theory from dogma.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1911.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 17:23:15

Simultaneity Role in The Solar System (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

One of the basic difficulties I have faced with the Special Theory of Relativity….is What's happened on the next day after the relativistic effects?! We know L0 will be contracted and be L1 - and t0 will be longer t1 – also m0 will be greater m1 But how these values will live their rest of lives?! Imagine we have a rectangle its length L0 now if this length be contracted by lorentz length contraction phenomenon to become L1 – is this new length will work as the rectangle length or this position will change….? Shortly How the relativistic system will cooperate with the non-relativistic one? Special Theory of relativity gives us a short information – it's a story for what's happening in accident – but what will happen after?…. we don't know! Now I wish to write my conclusion how Einstein created this theory…. While Einstein depends on hundreds of electrodynamics experimental results and many of new discoveries in particle motion analysis – he had a very hard job to find the cooperation point between all this material – In addition to his incredible brilliant intelligence – he was so brave warrior to accept such heavy job to do The theory gives us incomplete picture –because – he didn't allow himself to provide imagination has no proves – so he provided the facts which are proved by experiments and their direct conclusions with so deep insights Now this is almost the electrodynamics apex capacity – means – this is the highest result can reach by the 5 senses experiments – instead we have to use Data Analysis to see much deeper We simply ask why they didn't use the data analysis? The difficulty here is in the experiment meaning in itself… Because we don't know how the matter is created?, we don't really know the experiment tools which we use – Einstein told us that – we even didn't know how to use the time and distance values which we measure in labs that because we have wrong definitions about them Shortly If we search for a system in which a relativistic dimension has cooperation with non-relativistic one- so this system we can't be created in experiments – we have to find it in the nature itself – Clearly we can't create such system – basically because we have no the required sufficient knowledge to do I provide a clear claim here– I claim that the solar system has relativistic effects – and because the system works sufficiently – we conclude that the relativistic dimension cooperates with the non-relativistic one perfectly- and they consist together the solar system – This idea gives us a chance to a new-approach analysis for the theory– let's start in following Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1911.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 01:16:00

Antimatter and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Thinking that they might be, scientists from the international BASE collaboration, led by Stefan Ulmer of the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, and collaborators have performed the first laboratory experiments to determine whether a slightly different way in which matter and antimatter interact with dark matter might be a key to solving both mysteries. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1911.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 10:34:46

The Shape of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Therefore, the most interesting result of our paper is not that the universe appears to be curved rather than flat, but the fact that it may force us to rearrange the pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a completely different way. [32] Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31] At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1911.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 16:43:54

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lorentz Length Contraction Is A Real Phenomenon Done For Particle Own Length And Cause To Be Contracted. Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1911.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 13:28:39

Dark Baryonic and Dark Gravitational as Solution for D.M. in M33

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 25 Pages.

After the success of the DG theory explaining the data known for DM in M31 and Milky Way and published in [1] Abarca,M., it is right to check the same theory in M33, because DG theory aims to be a universal theory as it is based on a quantum gravitation effect. Taking as starting point the remarkable rotation curve of Corbelli,E , and applying DG theory it has been possible to show that DG matter in M33 cannot explain the total amount of DM needed to justify the rotation curve of M33. Therefore, it has been postulated that the extra amount of DM is dark baryon. Even such mass has been estimated roughly. Similarly, thanks a rotation curve of LMC got by Vasiliev,E. and applying DG theory has been demonstrated that in LMC there is a DM proportion at least four times bigger than such proportion in MW. Therefore in order to preserve the DG theory as universal based on a property of gravitational propagation, it has been postulated the existence of an important amount of dark baryonic. Consequently this conclusion arises an extraordinary test to check the DG theory. Currently, it has been published a method called nanolensing which might be applied to search a type of dark baryon called SULCOs (Sub Lunar Compact Object) in Milky Way and LMC. Possibly, it could be made measures of DB in the Milky Way and LMC in a close future. If measures backed the proportion of DB predicted by the theory then DG theory would be a real theory able to explain DG as a universal law. A second important result showed in the paper is related to the concept of Dark Gravitational mass, DG, because according the theory, the calculus of DG mass has to be extended up to the distance where is placed the interacting system. For example, when it is studied the interaction between M33 and M31, the distance to calculate the DG mass has to be 220 kpc, not only for DG mass of M33 but also for M31, whereas when it is studied the interaction between MW and M31 then both DG masses has to be calculated for a distance of 770 kpc. By DG theory has been found a lower bound for total masses of M33 and LMC. It has not been possible to calculate a more accurate value of masses for both galaxies because the rotation curve published are a bit short and even at the furthest radius of rotation curve, the proportion of baryonic matter versus DG mass is too high to be neglected. Consequently the parameter C, which is the initial condition of a Bernoulli differential equation, cannot be calculated properly. It would be suitable new measures of rotation curves of M33 especially for radius bigger than 23 kpc in order to calculate parameter C with more accuracy. It worth to highlight an interesting property of DG mass formula, which is that its value tends to a finite value, Mo, as variable X grows indefinitely. Physically is important that mass does not tend to infinite. However the NFW formula for mass tends to infinite as x grows, so it is only right inside a bounded halo dominion. Similarly it happens with Burkert DM mass, which is unbounded as x grows. Another important result got in this paper is a very good estimation of Local Group total mass. According [13]Fattahi & Navarro the dynamical mass at 3 Mpc in the Local Group gives a mass of 10^13 Msun. Calculus made with DG theory at such distance gives a total mass bigger than 7*10^12 Msun, when it is considered M31, M33, Milky Way and LMC, obviously when is added the total mass of the rest of dwarfs galaxies of Local Group the total mass will be even more close to the value estimated by Fattahi & Navarro. There is no doubt that this is a magnificent result for DG theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1911.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 19:04:20

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Human Realization process Is The Universe Reference Point
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1911.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:06:30

CERN Cosmic-Ray Showers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Cosmic rays are particles from outer space, typically protons, travelling at almost the speed of light. When the most energetic of these particles strike the atmosphere of our planet, they interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles that shower down to the Earth's surface. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1911.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-26 08:28:27

Tutorial: Binary Star Masses from Newton's Laws

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's Law of Gravitational Force together with his Second and Third Laws of Motion implies that the inverse of the ratio of the acceleration magnitudes of the two stars of a binary system equals their mass ratio, and that the difference of their accelerations is proportional to their mass sum as well as being inversely proportional to the square of their separation, which causes their vector separation to trace out an elliptical orbit. The period and major axis length of that elliptical orbit yield the two stars' mass sum. The complete orbit's data isn't needed; five or more of the points which lie on an ellipse determine it, and the orbit sweeps out the area enclosed by that ellipse at a constant rate.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1911.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 16:00:44

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Particle Nature (Definition) depends On Light Velocity 1- Particle Nature Absolute Meaning Special theory of relativity states that If a particle (with length L0) travels by speed of light (approximately), it will suffer from Lorentz length contraction and be seen with a contracted length (L1) So – the question is - "What's happened For The Particle Own Nature?" The theory states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is seen by us as a wrong vision (as mirage) but the particle length itself has no real change Or (2nd) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature changes with this motion – and by such way – the particle nature should be created relative to speed of light! I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined clearly when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror Specifically for the previous reason we should refuse the assumption that "Particle Own Nature doesn't Change" or the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"…. In fact ….Particle length is changed already Let's consider this point with some deep analysis in following: We deal here with the assumption "Particle length doesn’t change and the contracted length is only an imaginary vision" How do we measure the particle length in static case (before any motion)? and how do we measure the moving particle length? Where we use The Same Methods in both cases – practically and logically – we have to consider both results are equal in power – no result is better than the other because both are produced by the same methods of measurements.. Although I consider that –Particle in static should be considered as a special case because it moves by my velocity – means – instead to choose any other velocity the particle chooses to move by my velocity which makes it specific case for particle different motions cases So the analysis tells us that – the particle different velocities motions is the general case and static situation (relative to me) is a special one Spite of that SR states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! I mean – if the theory means – the proper length will stay with particle during its motion – that means – the special case is used here as a general one – and depending on it all other parameters are created Conclusion (1) Particle own length is contracted by high velocity (light velocity approximately) Because I'm not "The Universe Reference Point" I refuse the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change" (2) Light Velocity should be a player in Human Realization Process Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1911.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 01:22:55

Unified Theory

Authors: Pastushenko Vladimir
Comments: 6 Pages. Unified theory

Unified theory
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1911.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 10:30:02

Massive Black Holes Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. along with one in India and one in Hungary has created simulations that could explain how larger than expected black holes could form near supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1911.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 18:11:34

Planet Motion Depends on Light Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Planet motion depends on light motion A Proof I-Data (A) 17.4 degrees (inner planets orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 17.2 degrees (Pluto orbital inclination) (B) 23.6 degrees (outer planets orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 23.4 degrees (Earth Axial Tilt) (C) (180 degrees /π) x 0.99 = 28.3 degrees (Neptune Axial Tilt) (D) Earth Moon Distance At Perigee 0.363 mkm = 0.99 x0.366 mkm (Outer Planets Diameters Total) (and the moon diameter = 1% of Outer Planets Diameters Total) II-Discussion The previous data is an example of many similar where the rate 0.99 is used frequently as a rate between different planets data – and the question is that Why This Rate 0.99 Is Used So Frequently In Different Data (axial tilts – orbital inclinations…etc)? The answer is told by Einstein himself – let's read it: Book / Relativity: The Special and General Theory (Einstein book) Section 13 (in Fizu experiment which is repeated frequently by others) "According to recent and most excellent measurements by Zeeman, the influence of the velocity of flow v on the propagation of light is represented by formula(B)(x'=wt') to within one percent (1%) I claim the difference 1% is found in the solar planets data by light motion as in Fizu experiment measurements- someone will refuse, claiming that we have no Fizu experiment here – no light beam –no tube and no liquid- I don't know how that's happened – but it's a property of light motion – and as in Fizu experiment there was a reason to find this percentages 1% and 99%- this same geometrical reason can be found in the solar planets data and motions to use frequently the rates 99% or 1% which we have seen before– simply we need to analyze and discover how the matter is crated and how the distance is formed and based on such analysis we should find that it's the light motion which creates the using of the rates 99% and 1% in the solar planets data.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1911.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 10:41:11

Black Holes like Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

According to quantum mechanics black holes should behave like other ordinary quantum systems. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1911.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 10:26:31

The Amplification Effect of Parallel Counter-streaming Gravitons

Authors: Kurt L. Becker
Comments: 6 Pages.

Amplification effect of counter-streaming gravitons may give a physical foundation to MOND. Abstract: Modified Newtonian Dynamics can explain the flat rotation curves of stars in very weak gravitational fields in the outlying regions of our galaxy, but it needs a physical basis to form a complete theory. In the MOND paradigm, acceleration decreases slower, by 1/r, than in Newtonian dynamics, 1/r2. This paper explores a physical process with amplifies the stream of gravitons between distant stars, thereby keeping gravity stronger at longer distances, yet allowing the acceleration to decrease as 1/r. The streams of gravitons between distant stars is parallel, allowing time for counter-streaming gravitons to interact with each other. This interaction will compress the beam and, most importantly, will pull adjacent streams into the main gravitation stream. This results in an amplification of gravity between the two stars. The frequency of gravitational interaction with the mass of the stars will decrease as 1/r, due to the longer travel time of the gravitons between the stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1911.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 13:14:26

Conservation of Mass Limits and White Dwarfs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new idea is presented which follows from the General Theory. It is hypothesized that mass is conserved in closed systems, but there is a caveat to that due to white dwarfs. In the General Theory white dwarfs have mass that is not conserved. Meaning if you take all transfers of heat and matter away, it will become more massive as it transitions to more massive stages of evolution. This means mass is not conserved under extreme pressures and temperatures. In short, there are properties of mass that we do not understand yet, and white dwarfs show this in light of the General Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1911.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 14:54:57

The Observer Effects on Observation Results (SR Tells)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 2 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis (No. 1) The Observer Effects On The Observational Results 1st Hypothesis Explanation If a particle (with length L0) moves by speed of light (approximately), this particle may suffer from length contraction effect and be seen with a contracted length (L1) Then "What's happened For The Particle Own Nature?" The theory states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is seen by us as a wrong vision (as mirage) but the particle length itself has no real change Or (2nd) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature changes with this motion – and by such way – the particle nature should be created relative to speed of light! I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined clearly when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror So the particle nature is created relative to speed of light! Is it true? NOT The human mind realization process depends on speed of light – and that explains how the observer effects on observational results… Paper Hypothesis (No. 2) Human Mind Realization Process depends On And uses Speed Of Light - Paper Hypothesis (No. 3) The Human Mind Realization process (Using Speed Of Light) effects on the universe around.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1911.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 05:29:41

Merger Inside Binary Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics have recently gathered strong numerical evidence for a new phenomenon that takes place in the interior of binary black holes. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1911.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 07:52:09

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis; 17. Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 12 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden die Vor- und Nachteile einer Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1911.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 21:25:00

Why Don't We Understand The Solar System Geometry?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

Why don't We Understand The Solar System Geometry? Because Paper Hypothesis -The Planets Motions are Motions of Light Beams, That means each planet motion depends on a motion of light beam – Based on that, we have to use the light geometry to explain the solar planets motions. Shortly -Planet Motion = Light Motion and should be studied under Relativistic Considerations -Because we see the planets as matters move by low velocity– We consider that the light geometry is unsuitable science to explain the solar planets motions. -That's Why – There Are Many Contradictions In The Solar Planets Motions Current Understanding And Description.. Paper Objective -The Paper tries to prove the claim that "The Solar Planets Motions Are Motions Of Light Beams"
Category: Astrophysics