Authors: Jay D Rynbrandt
Comments: 26 Pages. This paper accompanies "Alternative Mechanisms of Dark Matter, Galactic Filaments and the Big Crunch"
Black holes (BH) hold immense energy. In most cases, when BH collide, they release a sufficient pulse of energy that they do not combine. These collisions are supra elastic so that BH leave them with extra kinetic energy. With mutual BH rejection, new mechanisms emerge for the big bang (BB), inflation, galaxy formation and quasars.
Mutual BH rejection also held separate, highly energetic, ultra-massive, (galaxy-acquired) black holes (UMBH), of a dying universe, as they accelerated their collapse into a universal black hole. However, an instant before complete collapse, UMBH reached a critical temperature/pressure and detonated the big bang (BB) to consume all UMBH. The BB released energy, mass and space constrained by billions of UMBH. The relativistic mass, that had been created with as galactic components fell into their UMBH, enlarged this succeeding universe. The freed space produced inflation, and the matter mass steered the new universe toward continued matter domination. But a few (hundred billion), much smaller (and previously far more numerous) stellar BH (stBH) survived both the collapse and BB, aligned themselves at the intersections of inflation bubbles, grew to super-massive size (due to BB pressure) and then began building galaxies as continuing inflation converted accretion disk trajectories into stable galactic orbits.
These galaxies retained filament associations, which their central BH had established earlier. (A mechanism to maintain and sharpen these structures is discussed in the “Alternative Mechanisms…” note, which follows.) In rare cases, super massive BH (SMBH) also survived the BB, grew into astoundingly massive black holes (~10+13 solar mass, AMBH) and then organized clusters of galaxies like the Coma cluster.
Also rarely, the extreme differential energy/mass accretion pressures following the BB held some colliding BH together while they paired as intimately-coupled, binary SMBH. We see them today as ancient, energetic quasars spewing immense plasma radiation, or as younger, radio frequency, active galactic nuclei (AGN) -- depending their SMBH-orbital separation. Plasma quasars orbit each other within their reactive (surface disruptive) distance, and radio AGN exceed it. BH precursors needed to be present at the time of the BB to be pressure-joined as close-coupled, equal-mass, SMBH pairs, and the high efficiency of their plasma-based, light-generating mechanism suggests that current quasar size estimates may be high. Plasma quasars expire when their SMBH separation distance exceeds their surface-disruptive distance; and they leave behind energetic, radio frequency AGN. As this paired AGN whips their intense, intertwined magnetic fields through the narrow gap between them, their compressed fields tear electrons from their atomic nuclei and eject both as relativistic, radio frequency electrons and as extreme energy cosmic rays, respectively.
Authors: Jay D. Rynbrandt
Comments: 8 Pages. A companion paper: "Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars" vixra: 1401.0231 may also be of interest.
This note describes some effects of: an attraction of space to mass, black holes’ (BH) spatial capture, and an intrinsic property of space to expand:
1.Local, constant-(radial)speed, spatial rotation within galaxies and clusters explains stable, flat-speed, stellar orbits within galaxies and stable galactic orbits within clusters. Spatial movement enhances gravitational lensing around galaxies and clusters. Both of these phenomena are currently ascribed to dark energy.
2.Space, captured by super massive black holes (SMBH) and other BH, reduces spatial expansion pressure (an attribute of space itself) in the vicinity of galactic filaments, to maintain and sharpen these structures.
3.As the universe expands, galactic, spatial rotation rates increase to promote galactic collapse into ultra massive black holes (UMBH). These galactic masses acquire additional relativistic mass during accretion, which promotes universal collapse.
Authors: Victor Demjanenko
Comments: 4 Pages.
In this brief note, suggestions are made for an improved black hole model. Prof. Hawking has just rescinded some of his thoughts on what a black hole is or isn’t. The suggested model characteristics are the result of back-to-basics thoughts about the interactions of a black hole and its surroundings.
Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 6 Pages. Spanish
A rotating body induces a gravitational force on a test particle perpendicular to its motion, similar to what happens with the magnetic force. In complete analogy with electromagnetism there is an interaction between a rotating body and a gravitomagnetic dipole moment: that is, a gravitomagnetic rotation-rotation coupling. We study this interaction and apply it to the study of orbital perturbations of a gyroscope orbiting the Earth.
Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.
In this work it is theoretically shown that a millisecond pulsar spinning with angular velocity close to 1000 rotations per second (or more) has its gravitational mass reduced below its inertial mass, i.e., under these circumstances, the gravitational and the inertial masses of the millisecond pulsar are not equivalents. This can easily be experimentally checked, and it would seem to be an ideal test to the equivalence principle of general relativity.
Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 12 pages, including 10 figures. Accepted for publication in "Progress in Physics"
J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept have been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macrocontours) formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form—independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. Formation of low-density planets was explained. The possibility of formation Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.
Singularity-free superstar is proposed as a model for the collapse of large stars and for GRBs, and as an alternative to black hole and gravastar. Similar to a superconductor, a superstar contains extreme force fields that have non-zero momentum and non-zero wavelength to prevent the inactivation of force field at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density, respectively, based on the uncertainty principle. Emerging only at an extremely low temperature above absolute zero or an extremely high density below infinite density, extreme force fields are shortrange, and located in between a particle and its ordinary force fields (electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational forces) to prevent the inactivation of force fields at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density in ordinary force fields. Extreme force fields are manifested as the bonds among electrons in a superconductor and among atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. When the stellar core of a large star reaches the critical extreme density during the stellar collapse, the stellar core is transformed into the super matter core with extreme force fields and ordinary force fields without singularity. A pre-superstar contains the super matter core, the ordinary matter region, and the thin phase boundary between the super matter core and the ordinary matter region. The stellar collapse increases the super matter core by converting the in falling ordinary energy and matter from the ordinary matter region into the super matter, and decreases the ordinary matter region. Eventually, the stellar breakup occurs to detach the ordinary matter region and the phase boundary from the super matter core, resulting in GRB to account for the observed high amount of gamma rays and the observed complex light curves in GRBs. Unlike black holes and gravastars that lose information, singularity-free superstars that keep all information exist.
Authors: T.M. Eubanks
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to Dark Matter 2014
Although Dark Matter (DM) apparently pervades the universe, it is rarely con- sidered in the context of the formation of the Solar System and other planetary systems. However, a relatively small but non-negligible fraction of the mass of any such systems would consist of DM gravitationally captured during the collapse of the proto-planetary Nebula, subject to the very general assumption that DM particles have an individual mass << than the mass of the Earth. This process, much more efficient than the previously considered post-formation captures by three-body interactions (1, 2), would apply to both microscopic DM, such as axions or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and macroscopic DM candidates such as Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBH).
In the liquid metallic hydrogen solar model (LMHSM), the chromosphere is the site of hydrogen condensation (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15-L21). Line emission is associated with the dissipation of energy from condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Previously considered reactions resulted in hydrogen atom or cluster addition to the site of condensation. In this work, an additional mechanism is presented, wherein atomic or molecular species interact with CHS, but do not deposit hydrogen. These reactions channel heat away from CHS, enabling them to cool even more rapidly. As a result, this new class of processes could complement true hydrogen condensation reactions by providing an auxiliary mechanism for the removal of heat. Such `futile' reactions lead to the formation of activated atoms, ions, or molecules and might contribute to line emission from such species. Evidence that complimentary `futile' reactions might be important in the chromosphere can be extracted from lineshape analysis.
Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 166 pages, 126 references, 121 figures
A new method for studying astrophysics is now yielding fascinating results. Instead of mindlessly accepting existing constructs that are untestable by definition (e.g., dark matter, dark energy, etc.), this new method is based entirely on laboratory physics. It solves problems that have defied previous efforts by integrating all of the provable forces into non-linear systems, where competing forces cause instabilities that resolve into the distinctive forms that we observe. Existing theories acknowledge only inertia and gravity, and if those forces can't fully explain something, the theorists account for the discrepancies with untestable inventions. The new method acknowledges inertia, gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces, and demonstrates that the resulting combinatorial complexity can plausibly resolve into a wide variety of forms. When two or more configurations of forces appear to match the explanandum, additional data are tested against the expectations of each configuration. In the end, this method settles on the most probable combination of known forces, given the available data. And nothing within the problem domain has been found to necessitate the invention of anything new.
Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 3 Pages. Abstract Submitted to the 2014 UCLA Dark Matter Conference
Observational Constraints on Ultra-Dense Dark Matter
T. Marshall Eubanks
Asteroid Initiatives LLC, 7243 Archlaw Drive, Clifton, Va 20124, USA
There have been numerous suggestions that macroscopic ultra-dense objects, either quark nuggets or Primordial Black Holes (PBH), formed in the early universe, persisted until the present, and provide the Dark Matter (DM) required by a variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations. An important check on these DM theories comes from the condensed object mass spectrum, observational estimates of space density or flux compared to the known DM density. The three conventional checks on macroscopic DM, observations of the flux through laboratory detectors, planetary detectors and ground-based gravitational microlensing surveys, allow two disjoint mass regions for viable macroscopic DM particle masses. New Kepler satellite microlensing data restrict the allowed DM region somewhat, while a search for femtolensing of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) provides a new set of DM constraints, greatly restricting the allowed region for larger masses and leaving three allowed “windows” in the mass spectrum. Combining all of these constraints, DM made up exclusively of a particle of mass M_DM would not violate current observational constraints if 6 × 10^−6 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10 kg, or 10^5 kg ≤ M_DM ≤10^18 kg, or 10^20 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10^22 kg.
Primordial capture of any macroscopic DM in the Solar System and other planetary systems provide a different means of observing DM that may provide profound constraints on DM over a wide range of particle masses. In particular, primordial capture can be immediately used to derive severe restrictions in the mass range of PBH, which would consume any ordinary matter objects they come in contact with, a process easily detectable in the Solar System. Capela et al. considered primordial capture as part of stellar formation, and concluded that it can be used to exclude PBH with MP BH > 10^13 kg, with smaller PBH not being excluded as they would not have sufficient time to consume their host stars. The extension of primordial capture of PBH to planetary formation can be used to exclude all smaller masses of PBH as such PBH, if captured, would rapidly consume their host planets or asteroids. As the Solar System has manifestly not been consumed, and as other planetary systems appear not to be in the process of being consumed, this implies that M_PBH must be > 10^−8 M⊙, or > 10^22 kg, to be viable. If this exclusion is combined with the Kepler and other microlensing constraints, then there is very little possibility of PBH making the DM at any mass up to ∼ 30 M⊙, effectively ruling out PBH as a viable DM candidate.
Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 142 Pages.
The main difference between classic physics and complex physics is the acceptance in complex physics of a 2nd arrow of information in the Universe besides the arrow of entropy or expansive energy, used by XX century physics.
Such duality of energy, stored in the spatial vacuum, and information, stored in the frequency of the cyclical clocks of charges and masses (E=Mc2+ExT=k->M=kv) - defines a new Fundamental Principle of Science:
‘All what exists are relative surfaces of spatial energy that transform themselves back and forth into clock-cycles of temporal information: Se⇔Ti’.
This law that substitutes the law of conservation of energy is formalized by the ‘Generator, feedback equation of the Universe’, whose dynamic expression, Se⇔Ti, defines the fundamental events of physical systems and its complementary duality, as particles of information attached to fields of energy and its static expression, ExTi=K discovered by Heisenberg in the quantum membrane and Einstein in the cosmological membrane defines the 2 scales of the fractal Universe, the microcosmic membrane of electromagnetic forces and charges and the cosmological membrane of gravitational forces and masses, which according to Einstein’s principle of equivalence are attractive vortices of space-time.
Thus, Complex Physics defines a Universe made of multiple, fractal cycles of time that break and enclose a surface of spatial energy becoming quantum knots called masses and charges, formalized as fractal, non-Euclidean points with ‘breath’.
Those Space-Time cycles gather then into particles that gather into social networks called atoms, units of a bigger scale of molecules; units of celestial bodies; units of galaxies; units of a Universe, made of networks of informative galaxies that implode energy into mass, and fields of dark energy that explode mass into energy, balancing each other and creating an infinite, scalar, organic Universe.
In this paper we solve with those 2 time arrows and fractal membranes of the Universe, departing from the Generator equation of space-time cycles the main questions that monist physics could not resolve with a single arrow: the meaning of mass; the Unification equation of charges and masses - the two vortices of information of the 2 scales of the Universe; the meaning of dark energy; the deficit of antiparticles; the reasons why there are 3 families of mass; the meaning of Universal Constants; the weakness of gravitational forces in the quantum realm; and why there are 4 dimensions and 4 quantum numbers; deducing most of the laws and equations of physics from the generator equation of space-time cycles.
For example, Einstein’s famous equation, E=M (Planck’s notation) becomes now a simple transformation of two type of motions: E⇔M(i), as lineal, expansive energy coils into a cyclical vortex of mass. This paper introduces the model and resolves with it the main questions left unanswered by classic physics.