Astrophysics

1708 Submissions

[21] viXra:1708.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 11:50:11

Newton’s Gravitational Constant is not a Constant

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: Pages.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite of one of the longest history of measurements in physics, a definite value of Newton's gravitational constant γ is still not in sight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thought experiment is performed to analyze the log- ical structure of the claim that Newton's gravitational constant γ is a constant. Two masses in deep space are accelerated (non-inertial frames of reference). After a period of time the acceleration stops. The behavior of Newton's gravitational constant γ is ana- lyzed. RESULTS: The assumption of the constancy of Newton's gravitational constant γ leads straightforward to a logical contradiction. Thus far, if we accept that Newton's gravita- tional constant γ we must accept too that +1=+0.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1708.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:27:43

Action Without Reaction Symmetry for em Space Propulsion Thruster Technology.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF model (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different rigid string shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South ( N+S) vector field component. Two different monopole stringy particle are also suggested for the dual electric quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components. Based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the oscillating Axion-Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. . As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field formulas around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1708.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:09:58

Laser on High-Energy-Density

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Those are among the reasons the University of Rochester has turned its attention to the relatively new field of high-energy-density physics. [15] Using ultrashort laser pulses an international team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has managed to manipulate the positions of atoms in hydrocarbon molecules in a targeted fashion. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1708.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 01:40:40

Known and Unknown about Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1708.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 12:51:24

Kepler-438b, Life or No Life?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative diagram

It is well understood that establishment astronomy and astrophysics (the dogma for short) does not understand that planets are evolving, evolved/dead stars. The two objects, planets and stars, were never mutually exclusive. They were assumed to be exclusive in light of the complete absence of data concerning stars in all mass ranges. What they did is claim to understand how stars evolved, while simultaneously ignoring the evolved/evolving stars by calling them “exoplanets/planets”. This essentially means that all their models and theories concerning planet formation/star evolution are built on mountains of false knowledge. They simply do not have good enough theories or data interpretation to explain what is actually happening. We can determine if life is on Kepler 438b by using the life hypothesis of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis and the MVT principles as coupled to the principle of biostellar evolution in the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1708.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 13:46:01

Numbers Added to the Mobility, Volume and Time Principles of the Biostellar Evolution Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Numbers are added to the MVT Principles of the Biostellar evolution principle of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1708.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 18:40:18

Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces the first generation of "ordinary" massive particles, with are identified with neutrinos. The estimated in this theory mass of neutrino satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is estimated. A connection of this theory with the Standard Model is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1708.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:41:56

Mysteries of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1708.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 11:18:20

The Foundation of Ξ Theory

Authors: douG aka Douglas D Snell
Comments: 62 Pages. Copyrighted, All Rights Reserved

The Foundation of Ξ Theory explains the cosmological redshift is merely due to gravity's affects on light; explaining the lost energy (mass) of the photon, redshifting, occurs during curvature. Ξ Theory uses Einstein's W= withdraw and R= curvature equations to qualify the lost energy unique to the electromagnetic spectrum energies (light etc). With the Sum of the kinetic energy lost from emission to observance quantified, cosmological redshift is merely an 'effect'. Accounting for the effect Ξ Theory presents a Universe that is contracting at an increasing rate, via Gravity, being a sum of its contracting parts; requiring no hypotheticals dark energy opposing gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1708.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 14:30:07

Coronal Heating Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

It is known that the sun's corona—the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere—is roughly 100 times hotter than its photosphere—the sun's visible layer. [16] A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1708.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 11:20:20

Pulsating Blue Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1708.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 05:48:21

Black Holes Pervade the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

After conducting a cosmic inventory of sorts to calculate and categorize stellar-remnant black holes, astronomers from the University of California, Irvine have concluded that there are probably tens of millions of the enigmatic, dark objects in the Milky Way-far more than expected. [17] Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1708.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 03:16:30

Origin of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1708.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 04:15:26

Dipole Repeller Gravity Effects at Different Universal Scales as the Origin of Large Scale and Local Quantum Gravity and Hubble Redshift.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 36 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum dark energy particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the large scale repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. This seems to be a great support for the dual Quantum gravity proposal of Quantum FFF Theory, as opposing quantum push effects between vacuum particles and gravitons on Fermion around massive objects. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1708.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 09:10:22

Dominance of Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1708.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:36:49

The First Five Minutes in the Universe

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 1 Page. 1

From about 14 billions years ago all of the universe was contained in a single point called singularity, the point had infinite temperature and density and smaller than the size of a proton, space-time in the laws of physics didn't exist in this singularity and then it expands to form space and time.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1708.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-05 04:59:02

Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1708.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 10:29:25

Dark Energy Survey

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1708.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 22:51:09

Relative and Absolute Ages in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Relative and absolute ages are mentioned in stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1708.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:29:13

The Cyclic Universe Through the Origins

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 4 pages

I report the result of the cyclic universe theory and connect it to the origin of science and God showing some discussions about the cyclic model and the string theory, the cyclic model and the cosmological constant. And discussing the equation of Albert Einstein of the relation between mass and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1708.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:37:51

The Taylor Threshold

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It was mentioned by Baz Taylor that life could have existing on the Moon. A threshold for the formation of life, given it has had enough time to evolve on any individual star is presented. In short, the star had to have evolved on long enough timescales to host life. If it evolves too fast, then no life will form, regardless of the chemicals present.
Category: Astrophysics