Authors: Donald E. Scott
Comments: 12 Pages.
The fundamental vector calculus definition of a force-free, field-aligned, Birkeland current is expanded in cylindrical coordinates to obtain the partial differential equations (DEs) that yield the magnetic field created by such a current. The resulting equations are put into state-variable form and an Euler, step-wise, approximation incorporating a 4th order Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied. In single-variable form, the DEs are identified as Bessel equations. J0(r) and J1(r) Bessel function solutions confirm the Euler results thus yielding closed form solutions for both the linking (azimuthal) and collinear (axial) components of the force-free field. Results show that both of these magnetic components reverse their directions and vary in magnitude in a way that aids the formation of concentric cylindrical shells of matter as has been observed in Marklund convection. Another result is the finding that magnetic fields extend relatively farther from Birkeland currents than they would from a straight-line current. They slowly decay as
1/SQRT(r) for large r.
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture
Neutron stars are theoretical constructs invented by mathematical physicists, they do not exist.
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 reference, 1 graph, 1 picture
Red Giant stars are theoretical constructs that are rooted in extremely unreliable parallax measurements. They are simply red dwarf stars that are vastly closer than believed by the establishment. No extra theoretical fantasy is required to explain star evolution to include supposed stars that are as big as our solar system.
Authors: A Paramashivam
Comments: 3 Pages. Email:email@example.com
This paper hypothesis a planet sized object collided with the Jupiter few hundred years ago which could possibly created the Great Red spot and the moon Io. This paper analysis Jupiter's diameter predicted by ancient Indian astronomical text Surya-siddhanta with modern values, Jupiter's moon Io and Jupiter's the Great Red spot for a big collision evidences.
Einstein's refinement of Newtonian gravitation repeated for General Relativity (GR) by quantum cosmology requires inflationary
models of the universe to be critically reevaluated; the Hubble redshift is shown not to result from Doppler velocity, but anisotropic
coupling to vacuum zero point fluctuations through harmonic structure described in terms of the Wheeler - Feynman absorber theory
of radiation in the context of a Dirac vacuum and compactification dynamics. The quantum gravity of the comoving hyperstructure
of a universe topologically both open and closed like a Klein bottle, also implies that frequency shift in photon propagation over
cosmological distances is an inherent part of the spin exchange process, removing the ad hoc criticism of the well known Vigier
theory of 'tired light'.
A new type of scaling applicable to a variety of physical parameters in the universe is
proposed here. This utilizes a relation linking the fundamental masses and fundamental
constants in nature and an axiomatic approach is developed for the relations between
microscopic and macroscopic found by Eddington and Dirac. In this approach, the
fundamental constants are changing with time and the variation is related to the changing
of the scale of the universe. The variation of the fundamental constants leads to an arrow
of time in the present universe as well as scale-invariant relationships linking all scales.
All lengths in the universe are proportional to the scale of the universe R, and similar
relations exist for other physical parameters.
Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 7 Pages.
In a previous article (1), we presented a very complete cosmological theory of ether. In this article we bring complements to this cosmology. In particular we study fluid mechanics for a spherical concentration of ether-substance moving inside the intergalactic ether-substance. We make also appear 2 kinds of radius for a galaxy and we establish the evolution as a function of time of the 1st kind. We also verify a simple relation between the 2 radius of the milky way at an age of the universe equal to 5 billion years. We also study the thermal transfer linked to the motion of a galaxy inside the intergalactic ether-substance (ether-substance occupying the space between galaxies) .
Authors: A Paramashivam
Comments: 5 Pages. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Modern observations of star formation in different galaxies contradicts with the current star formation theories. There are few questions and observations where current star formation theories were not able to explain well. This paper proposes an alternative theory of Star formation and birth of Supermassive Black holes after the Big Bang, which can answer the contradictions without violating the physics laws and fit perfectly well with the modern observations.
Extending EM and Quantum Theory suggests the possibility of photon mass, additional terms for Maxwell‘s equations, reality of de Broglie-Bohm causality and the Vigier model of extended charged particles. Experimental tests indicative of these hypotheses can be performed with double-slit interferometry of single visible wavelengths comparing near and far field sources over laboratory and various cosmological distances to observe the possibility of spreading of the photon wavepacket during propagation. These observations could determine whether nonlinearities causing non-dispersivity are associated with Maxwell’s equations. If so, this may be an indirect determination of non-zero restmass photon anisotropy, de Broglie photon piloting and vacuum permittivity reincarnating the Michelson-Morley experiment in terms of a Dirac covariant ether.
Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 2 Pages.
You will get the horizontal rotation curve of spiral galaxies and the increasing rotation curve of small galaxies respectively by using the well-known features of normal baryonic matter. There is no need for any speculative matter or other unknown.
Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages. 17
Quantum Function Follows Form (Q-FFF) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless dual Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral truncated tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light.
As a consequence there are no attraction forces on Fermions, which are supposed to have a real propeller shape and real double axis spin.
Higgs oscillations are the origin of all energy processes in the universe and the origin of so called Dark Energy.
NON oscillating Higgs particles are supposed to be trapped inside black hole nuclei of variable sizes called “Quantum Knots”, and the origin for all Dark matter.
Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses in the form of Higgs vector arrays from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena and gravity in the universe.
However, the vacuum lattice has only 2x6= 12 (twelve) oscillation directions, which seem to be observed in the 27 day sidereal moon related period of similar histograms found by Simon E. Shnoll.
These periods of 27 days seem to show a split in 2 or 3 subgroups of similar histograms, which have a possible relation with the12 oscillation directions of the vacuum with cubic and hexagonal elements..
As a second consequence, all “eigen energy” (even nuclear decay) and spin of Fermions is the result of the Dark Energy Higgs vector Field (DEHF) collision process with Fermions
As a third consequence Solar, Planetary and Moon masses influence the DEHF by less powerful Graviton vector array information transfer, which is assumed to be the origin of peculiar Shnoll effects like Solar and Sidereal day periods, sidereal Moon periods and year periods of similar histograms of nuclear decay measurements like Plutonium, 239 Pu.
Michelson-Morley didn’t find the ether, BUT Simon Shnoll did!