[3] **viXra:1112.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-26 15:45:48*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Vast amounts of data clearly demonstrate discrepancies between the observed dynamics, in large astronomical systems, and the predicted dynamics by Newtonian gravity and general relativity. The appearance of these discrepancies has two possible explanations: either these systems contain large quantities of a new kind of unseen matter −the Dark Matter (DM)− or the gravitational law has to be modified at this scale −as in MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)−. This dichotomy is not entirely new in the history of physics, with DM playing now the role of the old non-existent Vulcan planet.

We have shown how both (i) the MONDian form and (ii) Milgrom acceleration follow from an extended theory of gravity −characterized by a new kind of gravitational potentials *h _{μν}*(

[2] **viXra:1112.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 07:36:55*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam

**Comments:** 16 Pages. U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Unied model of universe and the atom. Book. ISBN: 9783843393966, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, Germany, 2011 March.

It is noticed that $\frac{c^4}{G}$
is the classical limit of force and ($\frac{c^5}{G}$ is the classical limit
of power. With these two limits, mathematical complexity involved in GTR can be simplified. Planck mass can be derived very easily. Light speed rotating black hole’s formation can be understood. Force $\frac{c^4}{G}$ keeps the light speed rotating black hole stable. It is noticed that, any elementary particle can escape from the light speed rotating black hole’s equator. Origin of cosmic ray can be understood in this
view. GTR and quantum mechanics can be coupled in a unified manner. Rotating black hole temperature
formula can be derived very easily. Finally a rotating model of ’black hole cosmology’ can be developed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1112.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-07 14:14:43*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Presented at the APS April 2013 Meeting , Denver, CO, USA, published at Frontiers in Science, 3(2), 2013

It is proposed that the arms of spiral galaxies are formed by the continuous outflow of matter from their centers. It is then shown that the ratio between the radial and tangential velocities of the outflow is the parameter responsible for the logarithmic spiral structure of spiral galaxies. The fitting of some spiral galaxies to the model allows the calculation of the expansion velocities of matter in these galaxies and such values completely agree with the observational data. An approximate universal equation is proposed for the description of the arms of spiral galaxies with or without bars. Some important consequences are discussed with respect to dark matter, galactic evolution, cosmology, and the Milky Way. It is, particularly, concluded that dark matter does not exist in spiral galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics