1205 Submissions

[21] viXra:1205.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-30 19:45:18

Using Higher Dimensions to Unify Dark Matter and Dark Energy if Massive Gravitons Are Stable

Authors: A.Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages. DSU document not part of conference proceedings, because DSU 2010 did NOT publish conference proceedings. It was accepted for a proceedings and then the organizers never delivered on that final step

Discussion of a joint DM and DE model if massive gravitons are stable. Presented at Dark side of the Universe in Leon, Mexico, 2010, represented here due to inexplicable non publishing of conference proceedings for DSU 2010, of Leon, Mexico. Kaluza Klein treatment of graviton leads to DM and if there exists massive gravitons up to the present day, contributions to DE are presented. The caveat being if the graviton with a slight rest mass can be a stable particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1205.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-30 21:22:57

Representing the Massive Graviton in the Metric Tensor G(u,v)

Authors: A.W. Beckwith
Comments: 3 Pages. Exact copy of the Rencontres Du Vietnam poster entry in 2011 by the author, and chosen to signify the main point of the Authors accepted contribution of the Republic of San Marino meeting in matter and Anti Matter, Sept 5 to Sept 9, 2011.

Represents g(u,v)=h(u,v)+n(u,v) which has h(u,v) entries in it due to gravitons with a slight non zero rest mass. The entries of h(u,v) have dramatic differences in terms of peak absolute magnitude, and the non vanishing of the heavy h(1,0) graviton induced term representing (1+1) geometry contravenes predictions of no relic gravitational waves and makes predictions if the prior universe was a single event a la Steinhardt or a multiverse in the form suggested by Tegmark.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1205.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-30 21:33:27

Cosmology: the Nature of Semi Classical Nature of Gravity Reviewed, and Can We Use a Graviton Entanglement Version of the EPR Experiment to Answer if the Graviton is Classical or Quantum in Origin?

Authors: A.W.Beckwith
Comments: 84 Pages. presents the main high lights of an EPR experiment involving gravitons which covers the same ground as the later Machian universe linkage between Gravititinos and Gravitons, in May 2012

Entanglement, EPR, and gravitons ? Speculation plus thoughts of the big picture of cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1205.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-15 16:48:50

Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 pictures, 14 illustrations, 7 references

This paper explains that planetary formation is stellar evolution. Planets are ancient stars and stars are young planets. The “star” is the nebular collapsing dust cloud that becomes the “planet”. It retains its spherical shape throughout its evolution, no nebular disk is needed. This common sense is ignored for reasons unknown by the author, but is probably because of graduate school not allowing students to think on their own for the sake of their careers.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1205.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-19 00:13:12

Three-Body Problem a Deception

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Abstract: By simple mechanics, it is impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another moving macro body, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, while considering two-body problems, relative parameters of macro bodies are considered with one of them steady in space. This simple method of mathematical analysis can give accurate prediction of their future relative parameters. Orbital path of a planetary body appears around its static central body. Circular/elliptical orbits around a static central body, being an imaginary figure, has no value other than to indicate relative positions of concerned macro bodies. All macro bodies, in nature, are moving. In cases of moving central bodies (real situations) or when there are more than two macro bodies in a system, relative considerations cannot describe their orbital paths. Due to phenomenal success of solution to two-body problem by relative considerations, a firm but erroneous belief has established that all planetary bodies move around their central bodies. Adamant belief in imaginary circular/elliptical orbital path is carried forward to three-body system to create an imaginary but unsolvable problem. Three-body problem (as considered today with respect to planetary motions) is unsolvable because real and imaginary situations are mixed in it. It is nothing but a deception from reality, adopted to create a baseless mystery.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1205.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-21 14:15:46

Detection of Gravitational Waves with High Frequency Square Waves from Crystal Oscillator

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages

We propose novel technique for detecting gravitational waves using setup like LIGO and a robust square wave generator as source of waves generating stable square waves with high frequency using an appropriate crystal oscillator. This change in source will prove very effective for the process of detecting gravitational waves because even if with extremely small change in phase of two interfering waves reaching the beam splitter there will be detectable change in the amplitude due to the suddenly rising sharp edge of these almost but not exactly destructively interfering waves upon the passing of gravitational waves. This idea of achieving detectable amplitude of a portion of signal reaching the detector will make it possible to record extremely small phase difference generated due to passing of some gravitational waves through apparatus in the two interfering square wave beams. The change suggested in the gravitational wave detection experiment using high frequency well regulated square wave source will produce the following effects. When no gravitational waves will reach the apparatus the square waves from crystal oscillator will move towards beam splitter and will split into two square waves heading towards reflectors kept orthogonally to each other at equal distance from beam splitter at the ends of two interferometer arms and these waves will reflect back to interfere destructively so that no signal will reach the detector. But when some gravitational waves will be reaching the apparatus and further suppose there is squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer as an effect these gravitational waves will be producing the (very small) phase difference in the interfering square waves reaching back to beam splitter. Now, however small may be this phase difference its undetectably small amount still will remain detectable because of sharp rise and fall of amplitude at edges of square wave because of its typical shape and so some detectable part of these interfering waves will pass towards detector to offer a conclusive proof for the existence of gravitational waves!
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1205.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-15 14:18:13

The Gravitomagnetic Vector Potential and the Gravitomagnetic Field of a Rotating Sphere

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 18 Pages, including 5 figures and 1 table

The gravitomagnetic vector potential and corresponding gravitomagnetic field generated by a rotating sphere with a homogeneous mass density are investigated. Outside the sphere both vector potential and field may coincide with the results from the ideal dipole model. For the axial gravitomagnetic field inside the sphere a new exact expression is derived. More general expressions for both vector potential and field inside the sphere are proposed and checked. Their validity is compared with series expansions for the equatorial gravitomagnetic vector potential and gravitomagnetic field. Application of Stokes’ theorem to the basic gravitomagnetic equation is compatible with the ideal dipole result for the gravitomagnetic field at the surface of the sphere. Starting from the basic gravitomagnetic equations, the validity of the general internal gravitomagnetic field is confirmed. Observations of two LAGEOS satellites, Gravity Probe B mission and planned ring-laser experiment are shortly discussed. Starting from the Maxwell equations, the present treatment can also be applied to the electromagnetic case. Analogous results are found for the electromagnetic vector potential and the electromagnetic field.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1205.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-14 07:46:41

The Smallest Black Hole

Authors: Bassera Hamid
Comments: 3 Pages.

There must be a paradox if we consider black hole as singularity in space-time! Indeed, if all black hole mass is concentrated in one point (the alleged singularity) and its horizon consists in a sphere of radius R, then by definition of the black hole there must be no energy at all between the singularity and its horizon - for any energy inside the horizon must be absorbed by the so-called singularity! - this sphere must be absolutely empty. The question then is, by which means this singularity does communicate with the rest of the universe? It simply can’t! Unless we accept that the horizon of the black hole is exactly its surface, so the black hole can’t be a singularity but a macroscopic object .
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1205.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-07 15:57:14

Detection of Gravitational Waves II Cumulative Enhancement of Phase Difference

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages. A new technique for cumulative enhancement of phase difference.

We propose novel technique for detecting gravitational waves using facilities at LIGO with certain easy changes in the process of detecting gravitational waves based upon a novel technique of adding up of the extremely small phase difference in two laser beams generated through passing of one wavelength of a gravitational wave. The change suggested in performing of the gravitational wave detection experiment that is carried out at present will be aimed at achieving adding up such phase difference that is produced through passing of each successive wavelength such that the cumulatively obtained phase difference through passing of sufficiently many wavelengths of gravitational wave automatically becomes detectable. The new suggested experiment in brief will proceed as given below. We begin with usual experiment using high energy well regulated pulsed laser source. When one pulse of laser beam will be emitted to move towards beam splitter we remove the source and replace it by a perfectly reflecting mirror kept orthogonally to the direction of laser beam incident on the beam splitter, and further this mirror can be moved in backward/forward direction as per requirement, by keeping it orthogonal to the direction of incident laser beam. Suppose there is squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer producing the (very small) phase difference in the interfering light waves reaching back to beam splitter and let this phase difference is undetectably small so that almost all light is directed back to this new perfectly reflecting mirror, the one that replaced the source. Now, keep this mirror at such distance that the light that will reflect back from this newly kept mirror that replaced the source to act as source and to proceed again to fall upon the beam splitter and again will start running through two arms of interferometer for second round there will be again squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer. Because of such arrangement the same amount of phase difference will result again and this will add up in the phase difference created in the first round. After sufficiently many bounces on newly introduced perfectly reflecting mirror replacing the laser source this phase difference will build up to a value so that now all light will no more be directed towards mirror that replaced the source but some light will go towards detector to offer a conclusive proof for the existence of gravitational waves!
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1205.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-06 20:29:08

Comments to Friedman, A. (1922). "Uber die Krummung des Raumes"

Authors: Gubin Veaceslav
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures, English/Russian

This article is an attempt to understand the world in which we live. The interpretation and calculation of concrete (fixed) values for Big Bang time, the dark energy, dark matter, the lambda constant, Hubble constant, redshift
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1205.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:38:26

A Coherent Dual Vector Field Theory for Gravitation

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 14 Pages.

This publication concerns the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation. We start with the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field, and we develop a model. This model ofdynamics, which we know takes in account the retardation of light, allow us to quantify the transfer of angularmovement point by point by the means of vectors, and to bring a simple, precise and detailed explanation to a largenumber of cosmic phenomena. And to all appearances, the theory completes gravitation into a wave theory.With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way can be explained as being caused by an angularcollapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. Also the halo is explained. The “missing mass” (darkmatter) problem is solved, and without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the Diabolo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and itdefines the angle of mass losses at 0° and at 35°16’.Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotatingstars, the tendency of distortion toward a toroid-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotaryblack hole. Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion ofthe mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process.The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are alsoexplained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit chaos is better explained as well. Finally,the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1205.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:45:52

On the Orbital Velocities Nearby Rotary Stars and Black Holes

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 5 Pages.

Observation of some huge spinning black holes in the centre of galaxies, and surrounded by orbiting stars, shows that stars close-by the black hole orbit at much higher speeds than normally expected, whereas the velocity of stars at higher distances suddenly falls down to normal values.In a former paper “On the shape of rotary stars and black holes” I found the analytic expressions for the forces on rotary stars and black holes, due to the gyrotation forces. These forces are generated by the second field of gravitation, based on the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (or historically more correctly: the Heaviside Analogy for Gravitation). In earlier papers, I showed the great workability of this analytical method, at the condition that the “local absolute velocity” is defined in relation to a major gravitational field instead of the “observer system” as with GRT. I found so the detailed explanation for the double-lobes explosions of supernova, and for the equator explosions. Here, I deduct the velocity distribution of orbital objects nearby or farther away from rotary stars or black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1205.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:48:43

Mass and Light-Horizons, Black Holes' Radii, the Schwartzschild Metric and the Kerr Metric

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 12 Pages.

Black holes generally are defined as stellar objects which do not release any light. The Schwarzschild radius, derivedfrom GRT, defines the horizon radius for non-rotating black holes. The Kerr metric is supposed to define the “eventhorizon” of rotating black holes, and this metric is derived from generally “acceptable” principles. The limit for theKerr metric's horizon for non-rotating black holes is the Schwarzschild radius.By analyzing the horizon outcome for rotating and non-rotating black holes, using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation(MAG) (or historically more correctly: the Heaviside Analogy for Gravitation, often called gravitomagnetism), Ifind that the Kerr metric must be incomplete in relation to the definition of “event” horizons of rotating black holes. Ifthe Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (gravitomagnetism) is supposed to be “a good approach” of GRT, we may assumethat it is a valid analysis tool for the star horizon metrics.The Kerr metric only defines the horizons for light, but not the “mass-horizons”. I find both the “light-horizons” and thethe “mass-horizons” based on MAG. Moreover, I deduct the equatorial radii of rotating black holes. The probable originof the minutes-lasting gamma bursts near black holes is unveiled as well. Finally, I deduct the spin velocity of blackholes with a 'Critical Compression Radius'.The deductions are based on the findings of my papers “Did Einstein cheat?”, “On the geometry of rotary stars andblack holes” and “On the orbital velocities nearby rotary stars and black holes”.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1205.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:53:18

Deduction of Orbital Velocities in Disk Galaxies, Or: “Dark Matter”: a Myth?

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 14 Pages.

In my paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” is explained how simply the Gravitation Theory of Newton can be extended by transposing the Maxwell Electromagnetism into Gravitation. There exists indeed a second field, which can be called: co-gravitation-, Gyrotation- (which I prefer), gravito-magnetic field and so on. In this paper, I will call this global theory the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (MAG) “Gyro-Gravitation”. One of the many consequences of this Gyro-Gravitation Theory that I have written down, is that Dark Matter does not exist. At least far not in the quantities that some ones expect, but rather in marginalized quantities. Many researchers suppose that disk galaxies cannot subsist without missing mass that, apparently, is invisible, and which has to be taken into account in the classic Newton-Kepler model to better explain the disk galaxies' shapes. An remarkable point is that Gyro-gravitation Theory is not only very close to GRT, but more important, easy to calculate with, and coherent with Electromagnetism. It is no coincidence that nobody found the same result with GRT, not because GRT would obtain some other result, but because it is almost impossible to calculate with it. A demonstration is again given in this paper, where I deduce the general equations for the orbital velocities of stars in disk galaxies, based on the assumption of a simple mass distribution of the initial spherical galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1205.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:56:49

Swivelling Time of Spherical Galaxies Towards Disk Galaxies

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is the second paper dedicated to detailed calculations of disk galaxies. The first is “On orbital velocities in disk galaxies : “Dark Matter”, a myth?” [2] wherein I explain how to calculate the mass distribution of a disk galaxy and the orbital velocities of the stars, starting from a mass distribution of the originally spherical galaxy. This is based on the extended gravitation theory, called “Gyro-Gravitation” or gravitomagnetism. No existence of Dark Matter nor any other fancy supposition is needed at all in these calculations. The objective of this paper is to find the mathematical equations related to the time which is needed for the star's orbit to swivel down to the equator. The total diameter-change of the disk galaxy in the time can be found as well. Yet, these deductions are simplified by keeping constant the bulge's gyrogravitational properties during the process. I leave to the reader to experiment with time-dependent models of gyrogravitational fields in the bulge. An explanation for the very limited windings of our Milky Way's spirals is a direct consequence of this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1205.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 12:01:22

The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in Relationship with Their Tilt and Their Orbital Inclination

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 17 Pages.

Several observational studies of the main belt asteroids showed a direct link between the evolution of the spin vectors and the inclination of their orbit. A study wherein the evolution of 25 main belt asteroids and 125 synthetic objects was computed over 1Myr (E. Skoglöv, A. Erikson, 2002) clearly quantified this link. Verification of these results with the observation of 73 asteroids confirmed the results. Non-gravitational (YORP-/Yarkovsky-) torques are not considered here. Following observational conclusions have been made by E. Skoglöv and A. Erikson: - the spin oscillations' amplitude increases with increasing orbital inclination of the asteroid. - the largest spin oscillations' amplitudes are found if the initial spin vector lays in the orbital plane. - the spin obliquity differences are generally insensitive to the shape, composition and spin rate of the asteroids. - there is a significant majority of asteroids with a prograde spin vector compared to retrograde ones. - the spin vectors of prograde asteroids are more chaotic than the spin vectors of retrograde asteroids. - there are very few asteroids having a spin vector that lays in the vicinity of the orbital plane. - the heliocentric distance is relevant for the spin vector behaviour. In this paper it was found that the gyro-gravitation theory, which is the closest Euclid theory to the General Relativity Theory of Einstein, complies very well with these observations. We find that the asteroid's tilt swings continuously during a full orbit. The theoretical values of the cyclic tilt variations are calculated.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1205.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 12:04:12

Cyclic Tilt Spin Vector Variations of Main Belt Asteroids due to the Solar Gyro-Gravitation

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” I found the excellent compliance between the observations and the extrapolations of E. Skoglöv and A. Erikson, 2002, and the theoretical deductions according the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation. This implies namely the existence of the second gravitational field : Gyrotation (Co-gravitation). Six of the seven observations are directly explained by the theory. The seventh observation : “there is a significant majority of asteroids with a prograde spin vector compared to retrograde ones” is explainable by supposing that the asteroids are created, like most of the planets are, prograde. The theory found that the asteroids' spins are expected to end-up as retrograde. Two factors play a role : the speed of change of tilt due to gyrotation, and the other influences like the perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn or the gravitational librations. Here, mainly the gyrotation part is studied analytically and graphically, and commented.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1205.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 12:10:12

How Really Massive are the Super-Massive Rotating Black Holes in the Milky Way's Bulge?

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 9 Pages.

The centre of the Milky Way is populated with so-called super-massive black holes. In most of the papers and books about black holes at the centre of galaxies, the mass is said to be gigantic. In this paper, we will see how to calculate the mass of these super-massive black holes out of observational data,by using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation, and we see how to make the difference between real physical mass and apparent (fictive) mass. We discover that so-called 'super-massive black holes' do not have huge masses at all but that they have an apparent mass that can be thousands times the real mass. This suggests that the energy of such black-holes could decrease very fast in relative terms.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1205.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 12:18:14

Quasar's Gyro-gravity Behavior, Luminosity and Redshift

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 7 Pages.

The high redshift value of quasars is generally described by the Hubble constant, related to the Doppler-effect due to the expansion of the universe. In this paper, we look closer to the part of the redshift that is caused by gyro-gravitation, which is the analogue application of the electromagnetic Maxwell equations upon gravitation. The result of our analysis explains the possibility of a high value difference between the quasar redshift and the related galaxy redshift due to the quasar's rotation (spin). Moreover, we find results that are within the observed redshifts, based only on the expected quasar-radius of a few light-weeks, without the artifact of an expanding universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1205.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-03 14:06:47

On the Structure of the Universe

Authors: Hans Schäfer
Comments: 27 Pages.

a new modell of the universe that removes the fundamental flaws of the big bang modell. it explains the nature of dark matter, dark energy and other phenomena not understood so far.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1205.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-02 15:22:11

Comments on the Thermal Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll introduce some comments regarded to the paper “support for the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly” Turyshev [3]. These comments introduce the lack of the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly, and may refute it. My comments also support the proposed explanations fall into new physics.
Category: Astrophysics