Astrophysics

1910 Submissions

[48] viXra:1910.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 11:17:11

Black Hole Collision Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have found a way to better detect all collisions of stellar-mass black holes in the universe. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1910.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 18:52:19

Planet Orbital Period Definition (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Previous Paper Conclusion -Planets Cycles Periods are defined relative to each other. Example -Mercury & Venus Cycles Periods interacted with each other, creating an effect on Earth Moon Cycles and causing that, The Moon Orbital Period to be equal Its Rotation Period (27.3 days) -This effect of Mercury and Venus, on Earth Moon Cycles Periods, is a general effect on the solar system, and be seen also on the outer planets cycles periods -A result of that, The Outer Planets Days Periods Are = Their Rotations Periods – this is found Because Earth Moon Orbital Period = Its Rotation Period =27.3 days A Proof -The Outer Planets Rotation Periods Total =(Earth Moon Rotation Period /Π) (Planets Cycles Periods, Means, Planet Orbital Period, Planet Rotation Period And Planet Day Period) Paper Objective -This paper provides more proves for the claim that "The Outer Planets Rotations Periods Are Found Depending On Earth Moon Rotation Period"
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1910.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 19:50:00

The Myth of Black Holes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

An explanation for why the irrational idea known as "black hole", persists even in the 21st century. It has to do with the belief divorced from its relevant context. In short, black holes only exist because the environment exists to support them, and not because they are rational constructs. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[45] viXra:1910.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 01:49:46

The Mass of the Graviton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in France has revisited the idea of improving on estimates of the upper limit of the mass of a graviton. [20] An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe-not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1910.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 20:58:15

Planet Orbital Period Definition

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -Planet Orbital Period, Rotation Period And Day Period (Planet Cycles Periods), Are Defined Depending On Each Other And On Other Planets Cycles Periods. -1 Hour On Mercury = 1 Solar Day On Earth (Venus Also uses This Rate Of Time) -The Solar Group Is One Machine Works As A Mechanical Clock- Transports The Motion From Planet To Another With Different Rates Of Time, Aiming To Enable Light Motion During 1 Second Period To Cause A Planet Motion For 1 Solar Day
Category: Astrophysics

[43] viXra:1910.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 19:09:30

Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods = 3 Mercury Rotation Periods? (Theoretical Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

The paper title provides a clear question… and I wish to provide the answer directly Why Mercury Day Period =2 Mercury orbital periods =3 Mercury rotation periods? Because 1-Mercury moves during its Day Period (175.94 solar days) a distance = 720.7 mkm= Mercury Jupiter Distance 2-In Jupiter full revolution around the sun (360 degrees) the distance 720.7 mkm is seen 2 times along Jupiter orbital diameter – that means – a distance = 1441.4 mkm – and Mercury moves this distance in 2 Mercury Days (=351.9 solar days) 3-We know that – the solar system is one building each planet is a part of it – and the solar system moves as a train (all carriages move together) – similar to that all planets move together in one unified motion – the planets velocities difference doesn't disprove this idea because planets velocities are complementary to each to produce one unified general motion as any machine of gears 4-The solar system moves (All Planets Together) a distance = 1433.5 mkm = Saturn orbital distance Per A Solar Day 5-So Mercury Motion Distance during 2 Mercury Days = The Solar System motion distance in 1 Solar Day – that supports the claim "2 Mercury Days Are Used To Produce 1 Solar Day"(Please review Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion) (I &II) (The Links are In Paper References) i.e. 6-Mercury moves during 2 Mercury days (=351.9 solar days) a distance =Saturn Orbital Distance =1433.5 7-We have agreed that – Uranus Orbital Distance is created as 2 days of the solar system motion – and we have suggested that – the solar system geometry building needs 2 days of the solar system motion – means – needs 2872.5 mkm = Uranus Orbital Distance – and to pass 2872.5 mkm Mercury has to move along 4 Mercury Days period (703.76 solar days) 8-Again in full revolution Uranus orbital distance is used 2 times along Uranus orbital diameter where the total distance = 2872.5 mkm x 2 = 5745 mkm – to pass this distance Mercury has to move a long 8 Mercury Days (1407.6 solar days) 9-Mercury rotation period = 1407.6 hours! What’s going on here?!!
Category: Astrophysics

[42] viXra:1910.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 09:14:35

Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion) (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

We complete our discussion in the previous paper let's summarize its conclusion Previous Paper Conclusion -Before matter creation, the universe was created of light beam its velocity=1.16 mkm/sec -The light supposed velocity (1.16 mkm/sec) is the origin source of energy from which the matter and light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) were created -In some interaction (or coherence) process light supposed velocity (1.16 mkm/sec) was the only input and the output were light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) and the matters – this interaction (coherence) process is occurred above Earth Axis – that means Earth was the First Matter is created in the universe. -Because the motions are motions of light beams (different velocities of light) so the time and distance values simply are exchangeable with each other – that's why the equal values can be used in time or distance units… Previous Paper Question "Why Mercury Day Period =175.94 Solar Days?"
Category: Astrophysics

[41] viXra:1910.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 09:55:05

Dark Matter Puzzle Piece

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1910.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 15:46:20

Snowball Earth and Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The multiple glaciations on the Earth in the General Theory are caused by orbit changes. In short, the Earth did not always orbit the Sun, it orbited other stars in the past. The Sun is far too young, at ~100 million years old to have hosted the Earth at ~4.5-10 billion years old, for Earth's entire evolutionary sequence. This fact of nature is brought to the forefront, we are dealing with a transitionary star system, and have misplaced Sun-like stars as being as evolved as Earth-like stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[39] viXra:1910.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 21:04:03

Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper Question Why Mercury Day Period =175.94 Solar Days? Let's try to explain this question in following… I suppose the solar system is one building and each planet is a part of it – for that reason – each planet data is created complementary to other planets data- and no planet is created individually… Also– because the solar system is one building – so the solar system moves as a train- So as the train moves with its carriages together in one motion –regardless what's first carriage and what's last one – similar to the solar system moves with all planets together spite of Planets Different Velocities – the solar system general unified motion unify these velocities in one motion only – Based on this description – each planet data effect on the solar system geometry From this approach the question should be … Why Mercury Day Period = 175.94 solar days… But the deep question is another ….let's ask it in following… Why Mercury Day Period is used in double value (=2 x 175.94 days) generally in the solar system geometry? What does that mean? because the solar system is one building – so each planet data is used by other planets – and I have found that Mercury Day Period isn't used as 175.94 solar days but used usually as 351.8 (= 2 x 175.94) solar days – So – I write this paper to prove this fact and I use it to support the claim that the solar system is one building and each planet data is complementary to the others So this paper has 2 objectives– (1st) to prove Mercury Day Period Using (2nd) to support the claim that the solar group is one building…
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1910.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 06:56:26

Reheating Kickstarted the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31] At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[37] viXra:1910.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 08:34:17

Spot a Wormhole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A new study outlines a method for detecting a speculative phenomenon that has long captured the imagination of sci-fi fans: wormholes, which form a passage between two separate regions of spacetime. [32] Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1910.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 07:29:38

Planetary Formation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The differential orbital speeds of planets tell us that they were not formed in a proto-planetary disk, why?, because those differential orbital speeds are a unique property of a natural phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1910.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 12:30:27

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis… Mars Orbital Distance was 84 mkm and Mars has immigrated from it to dwell in the new point with Orbital Distance = 227.9 mkm i.e. Mars Was The Next Direct Planet After Mercury – where Mercury orbital distance =57.9 mkm and Mars orbital distance was 84 mkm How to prove that? Mars Daily Motion Data shows a great effect of Mercury on Mars Motion – which can't be explained unless by A Direct Effect Of The Neighbor Planet How such effect can be found with a great distance?! Mercury effected on Mars Creation and Motion Data when Mars was its neighbor with orbital distance =84 mkm – So When Mars has immigrated – the planet geometrical structure reserved this effect in its data – accordingly – Mars Motion Data shows clearly Mercury Effect on Mars Motion - which proves that Mars was the direct next neighbor of Mercury Paper Question Why Mars motion daily degrees (0.524 deg) = (1/ Mars orbital inclination 1.9 deg.)?
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1910.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 09:32:39

An Auxiliary Gravitational Field Operating in Galaxies (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 24 Pages.

A theory has been developed of an auxiliary gravitational field which operates in conjunction with relativistic gravity and accounts for the empirical success of Milgrom’s modified Newtonian dynamics theory. Remarkable links between this astronomical theory and atomic physics have been discovered. Resonant, standing-wave properties of the field encourage the formation of flat rotation curves, bar or spiral structures and quantised galactic rings. Gravitational lensing due to this field is also significant. The angular momentum proportional to mass-squared relationship observed in galaxies is attributed to this field selecting a preferred galactic rotation velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1910.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-23 14:19:01

Stellar Metamorphosis: One Giant Leap For Mankind

Authors: Jeffrey Wolynski, Barrington Taylor
Comments: 55 Pages. Stellar evolution is planet formation.

Stellar evolution is planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1910.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 06:15:31

Physics of White Dwarf Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

State University has recently discovered that Wigner crystallization inside white dwarfs can be studied in the lab using a new class of classical systems, called gravity crystals. [26] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1910.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 07:45:49

Lasers Study How Star Stuff is Made

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

On a typical day at the world's biggest laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, you can find scientists casually making star-like conditions using 192 high-powered lasers. [27] State University has recently discovered that Wigner crystallization inside white dwarfs can be studied in the lab using a new class of classical systems, called gravity crystals. [26] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1910.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 08:08:47

Magnetic Reconnection Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1910.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 10:57:06

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part VI)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

We still try to understand the data… (1) Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods =3 Mercury rotation periods (2) Uranus Orbital Distance = 2 Saturn Orbital Distances (3) Also I have claimed that Moon Daily Displacement 88000 km is used As 2 x 88000 km Shortly Why The Rate 2: 1 Is Found In The Solar System Geometry? Paper Hypothesis Mercury Periods Data causes The Moon Daily Displacement 88000 km to be used in double value = 2 x 88000 km The Moon Daily Displacement (88000 km) effects On Mercury Periods Data
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1910.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 19:14:18

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part V)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -The moon is a light beam (known Velocity 0.3 mkm/sec) -The moon orbit is created of light (supposed velocity 1.16 mkm/sec) -The moon passing through the orbit causes light coherence which creates the moon planet matter (Matter Creation Process) i.e. -The moon was a light beam and becomes a planet (matter) with passing through the orbit – the moon planet moves by masses gravity -The moon as light beam is still connected with the moon planet – that's why the moon moves by 2 rates of time How to prove this claim? I have 3 proves which are: (1st) The Moon Daily Displacement Analysis (88000 km) (2nd) The relativistic effects in the solar system (3rd) There's a light coherence in the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1910.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 20:36:06

Rare Earth Hypothesis vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The rare Earth hypothesis posits that Earth is a rare phenomenon in the Universe. This is flat wrong. All stars have the chance to become Earth-like, this means there are more than likely hundreds of billions (even trillions) of Earths in our galaxy with life on them. This is to include even younger staged Earths, snowball Earths (which have internal oceans with life), and post-Earth staged objects that are older and have less internal heat, but still have life.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1910.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-19 18:41:42

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part IV)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods= 3 Mercury Rotation Periods? We still discuss this question whose discussion is started in the previous paper "Uranus Orbital Distance = 2 Saturn Orbital Distances" Also we try to know If the previous relationship has any effect of Mercury Data We complete the same discussion (in previous parts of the same series)
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1910.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 22:31:15

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

We still discuss our subject "Earth Moon moves with 2 rates of time" (Parts I and II) The last paper concluded an interesting mystery which led to a serious question! Let's ask it in following: Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Period = 3 Mercury Rotation Period? Let's remember the mastery to see why this question is important: -Moon moves daily 2.58 mkm where this distance is contracted to be 2.41 mkm by length contraction effect – this difference in distances causes difference in velocities between Earth and Moon -The moon needs 0.17 mkm to perform a distance = 2.58 mkm = Earth Motion daily and based on that they will not separate from each other - but the moon moves daily by gravity forces a distance =88000 km only (Moon Daily Displacement) -So – The moon sends the distance 88000 km (Energy)- to Mercury who receives the value 88000 km and transforms it into 88 days – and Mercury based on this 88 days produced his Day period 176 days and transforms this value into 176000km and sends them to the moon to enable it to move the required distance 2.58 mkm. Interesting Mystery! But even contradicts another one! Which is -The moon moves 88000 km but this value becomes 176000 km because Uranus orbital distance =2 Saturn orbital distance – means – Uranus Saturn Relationship causes the value 88000 km to be 176000km! Based on that -What answer we expect for the question… Why Mercury Day period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods?! -We expect that Uranus Saturn Relationship causes Mercury Day Period to be = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods… So this paper doesn't deal with any mystery… We here to answer the question Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Period = 3 Mercury Rotation Period?
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1910.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 05:24:31

Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

One such mystery is the origin of electromagnetic fields on the very largest scale in the universe. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1910.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:26:24

Supermassive Black Holes Star Clusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Further investigation of how nuclear star clusters form and evolve will be needed to determine how frequently phase transitions of this kind occur in nature. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1910.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:07:32

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The moon moves with 2 different velocities – Why? ….Because The moon is a light beam his velocity is The Light Known Velocity (0.3mkm/s) And The moon orbit is created of light beam also (Light Supposed Velocity 1.16 mkm/s) The moon passing through his orbit causes light coherence, creating the matter to be created (The Moon Planet Creation) i.e. The moon was a light beam before to enter his orbit around Earth and becomes A Planet moves by masses gravity when he enters the orbit i.e. The Moon Moves By 2 Rates Of Time Because He Moves 2 Different Motions – Moves As A Light Beam And As A Planet. What does prove the moon motion as a light beam? 10921 km (moon circumference) x 27.3 days (moon orbital period) = 0.3 mkm This equation tells -If the moon rotates around his axis one rotation daily, he will pass during his orbital period a distance = light motion (0.3mkm/s) for 1 second! 10921 km (moon circumference) x 86400 seconds (solar day)= 940 mkm This equation tells- If Earth revolves around the sun one complete revolution in 1 solar day – so the moon circumference will = its motion for 1 second The equations geometrical mechanism is hard to be explained – but the light velocity effect is seen (And need deep discussion to discover it)
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1910.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 07:29:38

If Electromagnetic Fine Structure =1/137 Then Hubble Constant=73 Km/s Mpc-1

Authors: Miroslaw Kozlowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recent overview of the results of the research of Hubble constant by Joshua Sokol is very interesting[1]. We can learn that the numerical value of Hubble constant is still open. In Essay I present my own research results which are very old but in the light of Sokol discussion are valuable. I state and answer the question Can Hubble constant be calculated in the frame of Planck Epoch constant. The answer is yes
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1910.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 04:28:10

Black Holes of Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1910.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 05:26:00

Cosmic Energy System

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 10 Pages. Redefing black hole concept

The problem of proper quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open and is discussed here. So, we introduce here the term of CES to replace the erroneous term of “black hole”, since there can’t be a hole per se in the fabric of matter that exists in gaseous, liquid and solid states in spacetime continuum. Accordingly, we attempt here to merge the loop quantum gravity (LQG) with quantum mechanics and general relativity, for per Einstein, gravity is not a force – it is a property of spacetime itself. Hence, our CES loop quantum spring model (ill. 1) fits said property of spacetime and is based on our previously published unified theory and model where we apply the string theory to loop quantum gravity by showing that a CES (formerly termed a “black hole”) is created by gravitational coupling of two linear superstrings in specified boundaries of open strings which are segments with endpoints, and closed strings which form closed loops.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1910.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 19:49:04

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

What does mean 2 rates of time? 1 Day On The Sun = 1 Year On Earth In this equation there are 2 rates of time How to create them? By relativistic effects –in the solar group I have claimed that there's a physical point moves by a velocity =0.9999 C – where c= light known velocity =0.3 mkm/sec Based on this light velocity length contraction with rate 71 can be created but if the moon orbital inclination 5.1 degrees effect on the result will be 71 x 5.1 = 365.25 days (also Length contraction effect may contract 71 mkm to be seen as 1 mkm) But if Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves) (my previous paper) That means 1 Day On The Sun = 1 Year On Earth Example 10921 km (Moon Circumference) x 86400 seconds (Solar Day Period) = 940 mkm (Earth orbital circumference) (Moon = Earth Moon) What does this equation tell us? The equation tells that If Earth revolves around the sun one complete revolution in one solar day only – so the moon circumference will equal a distance passed by Earth Motion during 1 second period. So this equation refers to the possibility of existence more than one rate of time in the solar system – where T1= 1day and T2 = 365.265 days
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1910.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-15 14:08:33

“Fermi Bubbles Explained by the Intentions of the M 2–9 (Butterfly Wings – Planetary Nebulae) and Spin–orbital Interaction and Interaction of Milky Way Galaxy and M31 Galaxy Andromedae.“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fermi Bubbles or Galactic Bubbles are streams of High–Energy particles – electron, photon (gamma burst radioactivity), high energy neutrinos and gravitational and radio–waves below and above galactic Equator of Milky Way and probably in the Galaxy M31 Andromedae. This Galactic Bubble’s born like the evaporation of Central Massive Black Hole, which also caused rotation of Galaxy Milky Way and Galaxy Andromedae M31. This fact is connected with so called Fermi Surfaces and Fermi’s edge, also with accretion of a disc (cannibal galaxies), galactic core, galactic halo. The Bubbles are sources of ultraradio, gamma, electron and neutrino particle waves from the North and South Galactic Lobes (25 000 ly) of Fermi’s Bubbles. Spatial conformations of bubbles are like spin–orbital (particle electron clouds) interaction between electrons and core of atom, according The Periodical System (Table) of chemical elements (Mendelejev). The results of measurements of these events will be in the future have fundamental significance for knowledge of function of our and foreign galaxies, black holes, and stars and whole our Cosmos, which is built on 400 – 600 mld of these galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1910.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 07:37:00

Photochemistry of the Atmosphere

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

One such process has now been elucidated by a team led by Prof. Matthias Kling and Dr. Boris Bergues at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP), which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU) and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ). [30] Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a non-invasive hybrid imaging technique that excites biological tissues with light and detects the subsequently generated ultrasound to form images. [29] ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1910.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:48:00

Way to Hear Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The team found signatures of axion particles composed of Weyl-type electrons (Weyl fermions) in the correlated Weyl semimetal (TaSe4)2I. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1910.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 23:36:45

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses…. -The Moon Is A Light Beam (with known velocity 0.3 mkm) Sent From Uranus Carrying Energy To Earth -The moon orbit is created by 1 second motion of light beam (with supposed velocity 1.16 mkm/sec). -The moon passes through the moon orbit– which causes interaction or coherence between these 2 light beams (1.16mkm/sec – 0.3 mkm/sec) -Based on this interaction the moon who was a light beam will be a planet (Transformation From Light State Into Matter State) -The Moon Energy (As Light Beam) Is Stored. -The Moon seeks to transport its energy to Earth -Through Solar Eclipse Phenomena the moon transports the energy it carries from Uranus to Earth -Energy is transported based on quantized measurements -Solar eclipse cycles and calendars are so important because these periods tell when the energy quantum is ready to be used -Solar Eclipse Job (Conclusion) Solar eclipse phenomena transports the energy from the moon to Earth through the Solar Umbra –
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1910.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 00:05:22

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Moon orbital Motion Direction is defined based on the following factors: 1-Masses Gravity forces definition for the moon motion direction is correct. But 2-The moon principle motion is done similar to Earth motion – i.e. a motion on straight line inclining with 0.985 degrees per solar day 3-Because Earth motion =2.58 mkm and moon motion becomes 2.41 mkm –this difference in velocities causes the motion in straight line to be seen in parabola So – points 2 & 3 should be taken into consideration before using Masses gravity to define the moon orbital motion direction 4-Venus effect on the moon orbit causes its regression 19 degrees yearly and that effect on the moon orbital motion 5-Saturn and Uranus interaction effects on the moon orbital motion and defined the moon motion main points That means There are 5 factors effect on the moon orbital motion direction
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1910.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 07:13:37

Cesium Vapor Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

With their new technique, the scientists have now accessed a hitherto unexplored frequency range in which, as postulated in relaxion theory, the effects of certain forms of dark matter on the atomic properties of cesium should be relatively easy to spot. [22] Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1910.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 18:33:59

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Moon Motion Details -Earth Moon is The Solar Group Energy Indicator -Earth Moon moves with 2 different motions – they together create the moon motion distance =2.58 mkm = Earth motion daily -The Moon first Motion is (The Train Motion Concept) – Let's explain it in following -The Solar System is a theater of puppets – puppets move by outer force- which cause their motion -The solar planets move together in one unified motion as a train moves with all its carriages (a planet = a carriage) (The Train Motion Concept) -The Moon Second Motion is Masses Gravity Motion which causes the moon daily displacement (88000 km) -The solar system geometrical mechanism uses the moon motion (88000 km) (Moon Displacement daily) to produce the distance (2 x 88000 km) – where this distance is required to make the moon motion daily =2.58 mkm = Earth Motion daily
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1910.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 21:54:15

Why Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance? (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

-The Solar System moves one unified motion - as the train moves with its carriages the solar system moves with all planets together one unified motion. (2nd hypothesis) -Planets different velocities don't disprove that- where – a machine of gears has one motion but different velocities of its gears. -Based on that – the solar system (all planets together) moves during a solar day a distance = 1433.5 mkm = Saturn Orbital Distance. The solar system depends on the solar day as its period of time. -The distance 1433.5 mkm is energy – reflected at Saturn – to produce an equal distance 1433.5 mkm = Saturn Uranus Distance (note please – I suppose distance can behave as a light beam and by such way it can reflected where Space= Energy) -Earth Moon Motion effects greatly on Saturn energy reflection process and that's the reason behind the relationship between Earth Moon Motion and Saturn data .. -Shortly –Earth Moon interacts with Saturn and Uranus Distances which perform the energy reflection process and create the relationship between Saturn, Uranus and Earth Moon
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1910.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 05:56:07

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity (Iii) (Explanation)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper hypotheses -Light Motion For 1 Second causes Planet Motion For 1 Solar Day (research 5th hypothesis) -Planet Matter is created as a result of Planet motion -Solar system matter is created based on planet motion for 2 Solar Days -Saturn orbital distance is the required distance to be passed by the solar system unified motion during 1 solar day ("The Train Motion Concept") -Uranus orbital distance is the required distance to be passed by the solar system unified motion during 2 Solar Days -The previous description shows the theoretical reason behind Uranus and Saturn strong relationship.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1910.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 09:43:00

Astronomers/Astrophysicists Do Not Know how to Properly Apply Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A screenshot and some explanation is given to show why and how astronomers/astrophysicists got it all wrong. This is to prove beyond a reasonable doubt with written documentation that astronomers/astrophysicists have the tool called "gravitational collapse", but do not know how to properly use it. Some explanation is provided with examples.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1910.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 16:49:46

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity (Iii)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

-Earth Moon Motion proves "The Train Motion Concept" -"The Train Motion Concept" states that the solar planets move together as train carriages – i.e. – there's no solar planet moves individually or independently from others –instead –all solar planets move together (as train moves with its carriages together)- this concept is explained in 2nd hypothesis of my research. -Earth & Moon Motions show their cooperation with Saturn one. -Earth, Moon and Saturn Motions show a deep cooperation between 3 planets – which produce the following data:
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1910.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 19:43:33

Why Young Stars Shine and Then Stop Shining

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is an ignored feedback loop that makes young stars shine. No fusion is required. This is to introduce the possibility of simplicity in science, as anybody who has read a book on how stars are supposedly "powered" is sure to lose track of reality, with gigantic math equations that explain nothing, and imaginations that run wild into fantasy-land. In short, it is a simple feedback mechanism as observed in solar granulation. The plasma recombines to neutral gas, falls inwards, gains energy, gets ionized and then rises back up to recombine again. This is why stars shine. When that feedback loop is lost, the star loses its capacity to shine.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1910.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:40:59

How a Fuzzy Universe Looked

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Shortly after the Big Bang, particles of dark matter would have clumped together in gravitational "halos," pulling surrounding gas into their cores, which over time cooled and condensed into the first galaxies. [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1910.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 22:16:03

The Causes of Planetary Migration are Inherent & Unavoidable

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

ABSTRACT In the “evolution” of a gas & dust cloud (e.g, planetary or galactic size) the following effects will be occurring. The generalised view:- more “outside matter” moves mass outwards from the centre. The generalised view:- more accretion on the “outside” moves mass towards the centre. The generalised view:- more accretion “outside the central gravity shell” occurs on bodies orbiting nearer the central body & moves mass towards the centre. The generalised overview:- Planetary Migration is Inherent & Unavoidable
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1910.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:20:28

The Moon Indeed Moves By Gravity (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

-Masses Gravity Forces cause Earth Moon motion for its daily displacement (88000 km) -Without this motion – the moon should be separated from Earth during their motions course -Because Solar Planets Masses are created depending on each other – the masses forces which cause the moon daily displacement motion isn't Earth Mass -Instead – Mars Mass – in behalf of – the inner planets masses total – pushes Earth moon daily to move its displacement (88000 km). -The Moon Motion is a treasure through which many solar system geometrical concepts can be discovered among which:- o Solar System Relativistic Effects o Planets Masses Creation Dependency On Earth other o Mars motion interaction with Earth and Moon motions
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1910.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 06:32:10

Space and Time in the Universe

Authors: Belykh S.A.
Comments: 1 Page. Белых С.А., Планковская физика/ Рязань: «Зеленые острова», 2008 г., 2-е изд. – 89 с.: ISBN 5-85106-028-5

An approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave an outlet to a point with constant parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes, and the continuation of the geometric construction made it possible to determine the dimensionality of time and other physical quantities.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1910.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 09:05:07

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Moon indeed moves by Gravity Abstract In great pleasure we send the best greetings to the Great Scientist Isaac Newton – who enlightened the human knowledge by his perspicacious science Earth Moon Motion Features -The Solar System is a theater of puppets – puppets move by outer force- which cause their motion -The solar planets move together in one unified motion as a train moves with all its carriages (a planet = a carriage) (The Train Motion Concept) -The matter creation depends on relativistic effects found in the solar system -Earth moon moves daily a distance = 2.58 mkm= Earth Motion Distance Daily (otherwise they will be separated from each other) -The solar system relativistic effects causes the moon daily motion (2.58mkm) to be contracted (2.41 mkm) – and by such way the moon actual motion daily be shorter than Earth Daily Motion Distance which may cause their separation -Masses Gravity forces attract the moon to Earth forcing him to move daily 88000 km – as additional distance to his original one (2.58 mkm daily) which is contracted by relativistic contraction to be (2.41 mkm daily) -The solar system geometrical mechanism uses the moon motion (88000 km) (Moon Displacement daily) to produce the required distance (2 x 88000 km) -2.41 mkm + 2 x 88000 km = 2.58 mkm this is the moon final motion which keeps the moon moving with Earth.
Category: Astrophysics