Astrophysics

1909 Submissions

[51] viXra:1909.0661 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 18:09:54

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (Ii) (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 41 Pages.

Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Paper Main Question Why Does Uranus Orbital Distance = Saturn Orbital Diameter? (Why does Saturn orbital distance = Saturn Uranus distance?) Space Definition and Features -Solar Planets are theater of puppets connecting by one trajectory of energy. -Space is Energy and created as a result of light motion -Uranus Orbital Distance is the solar system first distance created as a result of light motion for 1 second (1 second of light motion is equivalent to 1 solar day of planet motion – 3rd hypothesis) -Saturn Orbital Distance is a defined distance by the solar system motion per a solar day -Uranus and Saturn orbital distances are produced by one motion done in the same period of time by Earth Moon Effect. -Earth Moon has no this great energy to effect on Saturn and Uranus orbital distances, but Earth Moon is the solar system general energy indicator and he defines where the energy will pass –that shows his effect secret.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1909.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 21:04:02

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 33 Pages.

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (II) Abstract Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Paper Main Question Why Does Uranus Orbital Distance = Saturn Orbital Diameter? Space Definition and Features -Solar Planets is a theater of puppets connecting together by one trajectory of energy through Space -Space Is Energy -Space is a medium can't be independent from the moving physical point in it – that means – Space Nature can be effected by a moving particle through it -Uranus Orbital Distance is created based on light motion for 1 second.
Category: Astrophysics

[49] viXra:1909.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 01:20:41

Gravitation With Zero Mass - The Curve Ball

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Gravitation without mass? Yes, it is the "curve ball" a new celestial object.

It has all of the same properties as a black hole but it is made from pure spacetime curvature - so it is made from nothing.
That means intense gravity with zero mass.
This is a representation of a star surrounded by curved spacetime...

1 3 5 ● 5 3 1

The amount of curve is represented by numbers.
Closer to the star equals more curve, a higher number, for instance 5.
As you move away from the star the amount of curve will of course diminish: 5, 3, 1, 0

If there are 2 stars in a binary system orbiting each other:

1 3 5 ● 5 3 1 1 3 5 ● 5 3 1

Their curves will overlap - the curve will of course add together: 1 + 1 = 2

1 3 5 ● 5 3 2 3 5 ● 5 3 1

With one billion stars in a galaxy the curve ball number would be one billion.

1 3 5 ● 5 3 (one billion) 3 5 ● 5 3 1

The massive gravity will be misinterpreted as something with mass, but there is nothing there.

That means there can be an enormous amount of gravity with zero mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[48] viXra:1909.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 06:56:53

Perihelion Advance Formula Inference from Newton Gravity Law Relative-Velocity Dependence Completed

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages.

While the original Newton’s law of gravitation does not lead to the formula in question, the same law relative-velocity dependence completed does, briefly, with no hypothesis. Keywords: perihelion advance; interactions relative-velocity dependence.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1909.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 09:45:52

Can We Predict?

Authors: L. Jetsu
Comments: 3 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS 28.9.2019 (arXiv moderation: Telegrams, notes, and circulars do not ...)

We simulate artificial data for a sinusoid having a period P=1. Then we show that this period can be detected from a short Delta T = 0.3 slice of data. We proceed to show that the slice length is irrelevant for high quality measurements. The frustrating frequency resolution limit f_0=1/\Delta T of the power spectrum methods is pulverized. It is possible to predict the behaviour of non-linear periodic models.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1909.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 09:49:43

Heating Solar Corona

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The hot outer layer of the sun, the corona, has a temperature of over a million degrees Kelvin, much more than the surface temperature of the Sun which is only about 5500 degrees Kelvin. [44] For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[45] viXra:1909.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 12:24:58

Focus: “Quantum Foam” Scrubs Away Gigantic Cosmic Energy (in Russian)

Authors: David Lindley
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russia

Theory suggests that empty space is filled with enormous energy, but according to a new proposal this energy may be hidden because its effects cancel at the tiniest scales.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-01 04:56:14

A D.M. Formula for Milky Way and M31 Halo Got by Buckingham Theorem –V5

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 31 Pages. There is anew expression for DM density and Mass called Reduced formulas.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. Also it has been introduced a new expression for DM density and mass called reduced formulas because the previous formulas has been rewritten by a dimensionless variable similarly to NFW or Burkert formulas. Furthermore thanks these new expression is more easy to calculate the exact values of density and masses. In tenth chapter are calculated some different type of DM masses in M31 to be compared with DM calculated by Sofue. There is a good agreement between both results. In the eleventh chapter through the Hubble law it is demonstrated that galaxies in the ancient universe were smaller than at present and as a consequence it is got that proportion of DM versus baryonic matter was lower in the ancient universe. Results got are in agreement with current observational evidences. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied DM theory by gravitational field to calculate the DM contained inside the halo at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this chapter is based on the fact that the parameters of M31 has been used to do the calculus in Milky Way. These results back strongly the fact that DM generated by field theory is a general theory to explain DM nature. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo and thanks to this concept the total mass calculated of Milky Way and M31 is equal to 4*10 ^12 Msun , which is 10 ^12 Msun heavier than total mass with standard halos, so there is only a lack of 10 ^12 Msun to get the dynamical mass of Local Group instead of 2*10 ^12 Msun.
Category: Astrophysics

[43] viXra:1909.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 11:44:08

Predictions About Interstellar Comet 2i/borisov (C/2019 Q4) Appearance from 1i/`oumuamua Features

Authors: José J. Astorkia
Comments: 2 Pages.

The first unduobtable interstellar minor body observed in inner Solar System showed several unexpected features can be explained by a long journey along Solar System immersed in an abrasive medium. The recently observed second unduobjetable interstellar origin comet 2I Borisov is travelling similar journey. Thus we can predict changes in comet appearance.
Category: Astrophysics

[42] viXra:1909.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 06:47:13

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. This is my first and old hypothesis – the solar group is one body and each planet is member of this same body – so solar planets aren't similar but complementary to each other Any way – the basic point depends on the motion definition – that means – if the solar system is a theater of puppets – as I suggest- where one thread connects all puppets together and push them to move according to each puppet geometrical structure – based on this description- may we have a way to prove this hypothesis Now we have no escape to avoid the space definition – for that- this paper provides a deep discussion to see the data real direction more than to dictate any conclusions…
Category: Astrophysics

[41] viXra:1909.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 22:55:53

On Three Possible Applications of Neutrosophic Logic in Applied Sciences

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to NSS journal. Comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether and matter creation from the perspective of Neutrosophic Logic. We also discuss two other possible applications of Neutrosophic Logic.
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1909.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 11:05:52

Black Holes from Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Hooman Davoudiasl, a theoretical physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, has recently introduced a new theory suggesting that the black holes observed by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration originate from a first order quark confinement phase transition. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[39] viXra:1909.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 22:53:33

Why the Moon is Turned One Side to the Earth.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 1 Page.

The moon does not have its own rotation, the moon moves like a normal satellite, so it is always turned one side towards the earth. And therefore, in one revolution around the Earth, the Moon makes one revolution around its axis.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1909.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 05:16:28

Galactic Rotation Curves and Spiral Form

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages. The two problems in the title are listed as unsolved problems in physics.

The two problems in the title, concerning massive core galaxies, unexplained by the original gravity law of Newton, are normal features according to the same law Relative-Velocity Dependence completed,thus—among other hypotheses—the dark matter is no longer necessary. Keywords: spiral galaxy; rotation curve; dark matter; interactions relative-velocity dependence; gravitational refractive index; black captor/hole; atom radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[37] viXra:1909.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 20:35:35

Whole Star Magnetochronology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is presented a seminal paper on magnetochronology to begin the process of dating stars based on their total magnetic fields as they evolve, total meaning whole body, i.e. thermosphere, to surface to core. All portions of the star evolve and the magnetosphere changes as these features evolve on the star. This is to include all stars in all stages of evolution from white dwarf, to blue giant, to Sun-like stars, red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, Jupiters, greys, Neptunes, post-Neptunes, ocean worlds, Earths and even dead mostly solid stars such as Venus, Mercury and Mars. It is important to establish a beginning paper to build on this concept, as the idea of Sun-like stars with whole body features evolving to becoming Earth-like stars with life is rich with work to be done. In fact, it could be argued that figuring out the ages of stars by their magnetic features can lead to a more well-rounded method for determining how much life is out there. In short, a star’s magnetic field, coupled with isotopic data, gyrochronology, atmospheric composition, mass, orbital parameters around a host, and other factors can lead us to understand why the Earth has such strange surface magnetic features.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1909.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 10:47:55

Plasma Flow Explain Sunspots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1909.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:17:28

My Research Hypotheses

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

During 2013-2019 I have studied the solar system geometry. Based on this study I have formed the following 5 basic hypotheses: Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Hypothesis No.2 Solar System moves as a train. i.e. A train moves with all its carriages together, similar to that – Solar Planets move together as one train in one unified motion (i.e. No Planet moves individually or independently from other planets motions) Hypothesis No.3 Planet motion for 1 solar day depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period – that means – Planet moves following light motion – i.e. – Planet motion shows double motions – (1st) Light Motion (2nd) Its Follower Planet Motion Hypothesis No.4 Solar System Unified Motion depends On Solar Day Period Hypothesis No.5 Matter Creation process depends on solar day period of time – that means – Matter creation process depends on the time as one of its main components In this paper I try to explain these 5 hypotheses and provide short proves for them
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1909.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:49:34

Remarks on Newtonian Dynamics, Aether, Cosmic Core and Quantized Redshift Phenomen

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a physics journal. Your comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether, Newtonian dynamics, galactic core and plasma double layers. It is hoped that we can sketch an argument for the origin of Tifft’s quantized redshift phenomena, a known puzzle for astronomers.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1909.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:22:30

Explore Dark Matter with Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

"If we can detect axions and say for sure they are dark matter, it would be a truly exciting event indeed. It's what physicists like us dream for." [32] A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1909.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 09:09:21

Effect on Black Holes of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A RUDN University physicist has developed a formula for evaluation of the effect of dark matter on the size of the shadow of a black hole. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1909.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:49

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) Solar System pushes all planets to move together one unified motion– this motion is similar to train motion, so I call it "Train Motion Concept" – and as the train moves with all carriages one general motion- the solar system pushes all planets to move in one general unified motion.. (Planets Different Velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept") Hypothesis No. (2) Solar System Motion depends on Solar Day Period as its main unit of time Hypothesis No. (3) Matter depends on Solar Day Period To Be Created
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1909.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:32:47

Laser Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have announced a prototype for a laser at the heart of the first space-based gravitational wave observatory, known as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1909.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 02:50:52

Black Holes Clues to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1909.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:12:30

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows, Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept". (4) Space is NOT nothingness but a geometrical player in the solar system geometry (5) Space & Matter are created relative (and complementary) to each other
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1909.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:38:22

Solar Fuel Generation in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Hoping to break this barrier, scientists at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a Department of Energy Innovation Hub based partly at Berkeley Lab, have invented a cell that is specially designed to allow for unobtrusive observation of an isolated, operating catalyst. [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1909.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 11:40:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Does Gas Accretion Occur in the Vacuum to Form Gas Giants, K2-18b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 diagrams, one of lift, one of stellar metamorphosis

It is pointed out that astronomers do not understand the principles of pressure and gas in the vacuum of outer space, nor do they understand planetary evolution. Some clarifying statements are made to fix the issue, and fully replace the outdated dogma. In short, astronomers claim that gas accretes onto a solid body "like a vacuum cleaner" to form a gas giant. An archive link and screen shot are provided to show how wrong this is, and a replacement theory is offered. The link is here: http://archive.is/2xg6L
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1909.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 01:25:25

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows that Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows that, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "the rain motion concept" because Planets motions are complementary to each other to enable the general unified motion to be performed which necessities the difference of velocities.
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1909.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 17:26:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: Accretion Friction Braking, Part Two, 25143 Itokawa

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper calculations are done to determine the kinetic energy in joules of an impact at 3 different velocities of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. More calculations are done in a graph, and some explanation is given as to what will happen to Itokawa in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Essentially any impact velocity of Itokawa due to its large mass will cause enormous destruction, leading to the realization that it must have formed from an even larger destructive event.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1909.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:19:19

Definition Of Motion (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar System Motion 1-Light travels before any other motion – because by this light motion energy the solar system moves. 2-Solar planets motions are followers the leading light motion 3-Light Motion is One and Planets Motions is One i.e. 4-Solar Planets cooperate together to produce one unified motion 5-Planets Data proves that solar system moves one unified motion by all planets – as a train moves with all carriages together- (Planet = A Train Carriage) Also Solar System has relativistic effects which prove the one motion claim Because (1) All distances are contracted by the same rate which means there's One Unified Motion Behind (2) the contraction rate is transported from point to another which proves the energy transportation through the solar system, makes it as one Trajectory of Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1909.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 12:57:23

The Thrust of Rockets in Space.

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

Rockets in the vacuum keep there velocity by inertia,but there acceleration stays null which means that they can't be thrusted at all.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1909.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:09:43

Definition Of Motion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses -Solar system motion consists of light & planets motions. Both are geometrical players in the solar system geometrical structure -In all solar system motions – light motion leads planets motions -Solar system motion main features are (I) 2 Motions (Light And Planet) (II) both motions pass the same distance (III) the same distance passing by different rates Of Time. -Inner planets orbital circumferences are motions done by inner planets and light beams -Inner planets orbital circumferences are produced depending on Jupiter energy -Inner planets orbital circumferences work as bridge to transport the energy from Jupiter to the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1909.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:40:00

How Fast Universe Expanding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have known for decades that the universe is expanding, but research in the past few years has shaken up calculations on the speed of growth-raising tricky questions about theories of the cosmos. [20] If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1909.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:48:54

Differential Equations for Conic Section

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theoretical mechanics shows that the motion along a curve is possible only when a body has an acceleration. It follows from the second Neeton’s law that a force has to be applied to a body so as to make it accelirate. All forces applied to the body can be summed up and replaced by one summarized force. “To solve the mass point motion problem we need differential equations for the motion. The way we derive these equations doesn’t matter”: [1,§11,п.3]. In this paper the equation for conic section is derived by the investigation of movement of a body along an elipse under the influance of a summarized force.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1909.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:32:04

Astronomers Believe in Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1909.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:11:10

Sunqm-3s10: Using {N,n} QM’s Eigen N to Constitute Asteroid/kuiper Belts, and Solar {N=1..4,n} Region’s Mass Density R-Distribution and Evolution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 22 Pages.

Asteroid belt is explained as the leftover “ring stain” of the once out-flying ice-rock mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of the ice-evap-line). The cold-KBO of Kuiper belt is explained as the “ring stain” of the current out-flying methane-ice mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of methane-evap-line, or the solar wind stop line). Using the normalized radial probability function r^2 * |R(n,l=n-1)|^2 = [r/rn * exp(1 - r/rn)]^(2*n), we calculated out that (at the normalized probability ≥ 0.1), Asteroid belt at {1,8//6} = {0,48//6} has a probability peak at n = 48, with the peak range = 2.7 ±0.6 AU, and Kuiper belt at {3,1//6} = {0,192//6} has a probability peak at n = 192, with the peak range = 43 ±5 AU. Using θ-dimension probability formula [sin(θ)]^[2(n-1)] ≥ 0.01, we calculated out that the n=48 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 17.8 degree, and b=192 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 8.9 degree. These calculated results fit to the Asteroid belt’s and the cold-KBO’s experimental data perfectly. Then we proposed a new concept: “Eigen quantum number n’ ” is the maximum n’ that can describe one orbit space’s > 90% mass in a single |nLL> = |n’,n’-1,n’-1> QM state. So n=48 and n=192 are the Eigen description for Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO. Using the Eigen n, the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5//6} belts (if they did not form planets) ’s r ± Δr and Δθ’ ranges are also predicted. Using the Eigen n, the Solar {N=1..4,n//6} region’s r-dimensional mass distribution was described by r^2*|R(n,l)|^2 either at each n shell level, or at each N super-shell level, or at the level of treating all N super-shells as a single entity. The evolution of r-dimensional mass distribution in Solar system (driven by the expansion of rock-evap-line and ice-evap-line) is discussed. The result suggested that any sub-Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a low resolution and more broad description, and any above Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a high resolution but needs many linearly combined QM states.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1909.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 00:13:12

Definition Of Motion (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 25 Pages.

Definition Of Motion (I) Paper Hypotheses 1-Planets data are created relative to each other 2-Mercury & Pluto Motions define the distance between them 3-Mercury & Pluto Motions define Saturn Orbital Distance 4-Solar System is one building and each planet is a point in it 5-Solar system moves one unified motion as a train moves with all carriages
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1909.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 07:25:15

Graphene Astronomy Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated a detector made from graphene that could revolutionize the sensors used in next-generation space telescopes. [31] "Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1909.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 05:41:29

Black Hole Ringing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Now, physicists from MIT and elsewhere have "heard" the ringing of an infant black hole for the first time, and found that the pattern of this ringing does, in fact, predict the black hole's mass and spin—more evidence that Einstein was right all along. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1909.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 23:17:38

Solar System Motion Analysis (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Mercury Motion causes to connect and bind all solar planets motions to produce one unified motion
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1909.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:27:08

Atoms Race Toward Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

According to the team, their study is the first unambiguous confirmation that quasar emissions fuelled by interstellar material trapped in the sphere of influence of supermassive black holes. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1909.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:48:51

Solution to Solar Model Problems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

"Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1909.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 13:43:26

First Stars in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Astronomers are closing in on a signal that has been travelling across the Universe for 12 billion years, bringing them nearer to understanding the life and death of the very earliest stars. [47] Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1909.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 12:31:10

Using Total Axial Angular Momentum to Determine the Age of Exoplanets, or Why Do Planets Spin at Different Energies?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

: Some ideas are presented to try and fit total axial angular momentum into the picture of gyro-chrono-logy, or "spin", "age", "study". The total axial angular momentums are calculated for specific bodies and made into a dimensionless number called William's Number. The William's number cutoff is arbitrarily set at 1 * 10^3. Graphs with explanations are provided, along with a chart with the predicted ages of the old stars in our system and others. The purpose of this paper is to finally give reason as to why some objects in our solar system have more spin energy (a calculated abstraction) than others, and to explain why they spin in the first place. Dimensionless number is total axial angular momentum divided by 1 * 10^31, with the kg *m^2*s^-1 removed. This paper is subject to revision as the new field of gyrochronology is developed.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1909.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 20:02:20

Solar System Motion Analysis (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 38 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) "Solar System has One Unified Motion- i.e. All Planets Move Together In One Unified Motion" This motion is similar to a train motion –as the train moves with all carriages together The Solar System moves With All Planets Together One Unified General Motion. Although the Planets Velocities are different from each other – that can't disprove the hypothesis – where we see simply in any machine of gears how the gears move with different velocities but all gears together produce one general cooperative motion. Hypothesis No. (2) Energy is transported Through the Solar system Resulting of Solar System Energy Transportation (1)Planets data is created (2)Planets Motions became one unified motion
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1909.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 08:08:46

Black Hole Movies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

By the time an international group of scientists stunned the world with the first ever image of a black hole, they were already planning a sequel: a movie showing how massive clouds of gas are forever sucked into the void. [22] We now understand that massive stars and black holes typically segregate into a disk," said Ákos Szölgyén of Eötvös University, Hungary, who led the study that has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1909.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 12:02:18

Solar Planets Move Together In One Unified Motion (As A Train Motion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 25 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar Planets Move In One General Motion (As A Train Motion) The Hypothesis Explanation -Solar Group Is Similar to One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Building (or solar group is similar to one machine and each planet is a gear in it) -Planets Motions is done As One Unified Motion -As a train moves with all its carriages – similar to that – solar group moves one unified motion with all planets together -Although Planets Velocities Are Different from each other – that – can't disprove this theory –because – as in any machine of gears – the different velocities of gears consist together the machine one general motion This paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1909.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-05 14:01:38

Why Does Earth Moon Orbit Regress? (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Earth Moon Orbit Regression Is A Solar System General Motion General Motion Definition It's a motion done by all planets together- as a train motion done by all carriages– so if we see carriage no. 3 moves, that doesn't mean this carriage moves individually – on the contrary – all carriages move together but we observe only carriage no. 3 (i.e. A conclusion depends on incorrect observational results) This hypothesis can explain the following data Data Metonic Cycle Period 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (Sidereal Days) = 235 x 29.53 days (Lunar Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (Nodal Year) Saros Cycle Period 6585.321 days = 241 x 27.32 days (Lunar Sidereal Month) = 19 x 346.6 days (Nodal Year) = 223 x 29.53 days (Lunar Synodic Month) Why Earth & Moon Motions are in harmony with the Moon orbit regression? Based on what reason these three cycles are in harmony perfectly as the data shows? Because these three cycles are found from ONE MOTION – i.e. Earth & Moon motions with the moon orbit regression all these cycles are created from ONE MOTION only
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1909.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 16:46:12

Why Does Earth Moon Orbit Regress?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 23 Pages.

Why does Earth Moon Orbit regress? Earth Moon regresses yearly 19 degrees which means 1.44 degrees per month (Lunar nodes are moving west by about 19° per year) Paper Hypotheses 1.Moon Orbit Regression proves that "Energy is Transported from Point to another through the solar system" 2.Moon Orbit Regression Energy is transported from Pluto to Uranus to Mercury to Earth Moon Orbit 3.Moon Orbit Regression is A Solar Group General Motion. i.e. -Solar Group is one building and each planet is a part of it. or Solar Group is one machine and each planet is a gear of it. -Based on that – Solar Planet Motion is not individual or independent motion – on the contrary – all solar planets move together as a train moves with all its carriages (although solar planets move by different velocities from each other – but they together consist one general motion) The paper tries to prove these facts
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1909.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 15:50:05

Mass Is Distributed Through Solar System

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis 1-Planet Mass Is Not A Planet Property But Distributed Based On Solar System Geometrical Rules 2-Mass Distribution Proves That Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building- And The Energy Is Transported Through The Solar Group To Create The Planet Matter And Orbital Distance. 3-Saturn Is Solar System Central Point (i.e. Saturn Is Solar System Motor) 4-Mass Distribution aims To create Different Rates Of Time Between The Solar Planets Motions.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1909.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 18:16:59

The Proposed Age of Beta Pictoris b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: two handwritten pages of calculations/printouts

Beta Pictoris b is proposed to be ~250 million years old according to its total axial angular momentum with reference to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. Its host Beta Pictoris is okay at ~12 million years old as currently believed by astronomers, but this can change if it does not match observations. Unfortunately for the status quo it means one star is ~20.8 times more evolved than the other, so they could not have formed at the same time or in the same vicinity of each other. Explanation is provided with calculations and a graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1909.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 05:47:01

Predictions for Elementary Particles and Explanations for Data About Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxy Formation

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 60 pages

We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy formation. Our mathematics-based modeling, descriptions, and explanations embrace and augment traditional physics theory modeling.
Category: Astrophysics