Social Science

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[220] viXra:1604.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-16 10:00:04

The Smart House

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes
Comments: 1 Page.

As known, Egypt faces many grand challenges such as saving energy, Water and air Pollution, poverty and housing problem. In our capstone's project, we have tried to find a solution for over-population by exploiting Egypt's vast areas of deserts to build integrated houses that are refurbishing for air, eco-friendly, self-cleaning and cheap. The project's design requirements are to make the temperature suitable for residents in deserts and make the house resistant to the natural disasters. We made a prototype for our original design by using foam instead of rammed earth. We prove that the design has met our design requirements through the test plan. And the results were fantastic and unexpected. We have chosen North Plateau in The western desert to apply the Project where underground water and fertile soil found. We use wastes as a key to generate biogas and electricity. In addition, we use a hydrogen fuel cell technology as a second source. We are supposed to use rammed earth and palm fronds materials in building as they are found in that area
Category: Social Science

[219] viXra:1604.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-16 06:49:59

Quantum Energetic Evolution

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A critical pathway towards economic sustainability is explained, in physical terms.
Category: Social Science

[218] viXra:1604.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 04:51:56

Cititorind. Frânturi de Decepție în Literatură și Viață. α-Lecturi Instante

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 84 Pages.

A șaptea plachetă din seria smarandacheană de cititoriri (lecturi instante) abordează universul decepției din două perspective: o dată, prin ochii unor scriitori ilustrativi (Virginia Woolf, Franz Kafka, René Char, Emil Cioran, Constantin Țoiu, Ileana Vulpescu, Mihai Sin – așezați în ordine cronologică), iar apoi, prin surprinderea introspectivă, autobiografică a unei perioade deceptive (anul 1980 în România comunistă, cu gânduri împărtășite doar hârtiei, cu revolte și resemnări, cu zbateri nesfârșite pentru a publica).
Category: Social Science

[217] viXra:1604.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-06 07:41:19

Global Dynamic Efficiency

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 6 Pages.

Global Dynamic Efficiency is explained in terms of geo-and thermo-economics.
Category: Social Science

[216] viXra:1604.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-05 20:26:57

Migrations et Environnement: étiologie Des Débats et Participations Sociologiques

Authors: KAMANA Pouwisawè, Roger Tamasse DANIOUẺ, Kouami KOKOU
Comments: 34 Pages.

In recent years, the entrance on the scene of sociopolitical climate issues has opened the debate on a new type of migrants including that of environmental migrants. Today, even if the relationship between the environment and migration make gradually its way in international circles, it remains largely unknown to the general public and arouses a little of scientific researchers. If scientists know the phenomenon since the 1970s, it is only in recent years that it has truly become a social issue, political, environmental and a subject of public debate. The objective of this article is to make a place of state of knowledge of the phenomenon through an etiology of debates of different actors. The results reveal that there are a multitude of terms and definitions customary in the different actors who addressed the topic. Different work on environmental migration is subject suffering from a terminological point of view. The classificatory issue addressed by the authors, is multiple and sometimes complementary. Faced with the growing status of the phenomenon and its victims throughout the world in varying degrees, it is urgent to put an end to unnecessary and unfruitful definitional misunderstanding because an action is worth a thousand intentions.
Category: Social Science

[215] viXra:1604.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-05 20:32:57

The External Migration and Its Effects in Romania

Authors: Alexandra DEACONU
Comments: 09 Pages.

Migration or territorial mobility of the population is not limited to travel in space, but is a more complex process that brings into the equation multiple items and irrespective of the mechanisms that set in motion or influencing their manifestation, generates a broad spectrum of effects. The changes are visible in the economic life political, social, cultural, religious. They manifest both in the place of origin, from where potential migrants will go, and in the destination.
Category: Social Science

[214] viXra:1604.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-05 20:37:28

Las Devociones Sincréticas en América Del Sur: la Fiesta de San Benito en Venezuela Como Expresión de Contrapoder

Authors: Vanessa A. Casanova
Comments: 42 Pages.

The oil city of Cabimas, in western Venezuela, is the heterogeneous and complex space where various groups worship San Benito de Palermo, one of the most widespread, plural and multiethnic Catholic expressions of the region. The devotion to this deity, as a mestizo expression of local identities, gets away from the conceptions and rites of the Church, for whom the relationship with the saint should be limited to the spaces and times that it has defined, particularly during the cycle of fiesta. Cabimas is a place of concurrence and tension between believers and institutions, which are united by a common element: the saint, but which sometimes also get into conflict. How can this worship lead to this ambivalence? How can it represent, at the same time, an expression of power and counterpower? In this work we propose to discuss the relationship between the sacred, collective identities and power in the cult of Saint Benedict, with the help of the ethnographic method and the interpretative analysis of significances of the anthropology of religion. In their relationship with the saint, people, the Church, leaders and public forces altogether overwhelm the system of doctrines and rituals, to participate in a phenomenon that no longer seems "religious" nor "political" or "family", but becomes instead –using Maussian terms– a total social fact.
Category: Social Science

[213] viXra:1603.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-21 14:37:17

The Great Economic Calculation Paradox

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 2 Pages.

Transformative Management/Next Society/Just Third Way
Category: Social Science

[212] viXra:1603.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 15:18:37

Anarcho-syndicalism and Social Ecology in a World Set Free: New Keynesian Thought and the Scientific Order

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 14 Pages.

Thoughts on the Scientific State.
Category: Social Science

[211] viXra:1603.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 10:34:21

Problems Encountered by Physical Education Teachers in Physical Education Classes And Their Professional Life in Turkey

Authors: Meric ERASLAN, Burhanettin HACICAFEROGLU
Comments: 11 Pages.

This research aims to evaluate the problems encountered by physical education teachers in physical education classes and their professional life in Turkey. Method of researching was compilation, which is being used widely in research literature. In this context, authentic articles and post-graduate thesises on this subject have been evaluated first. As a result of the literature research conducted, it has been understood that most of the studies on this field were post-graduate thesis papers and there were a limited number of authentic articles on the subject. As a result of this research, it has been understood that among other problems encountered by physical education teachers in physical education classes, having inadequate/insufficient equipment for sports, parents not being able to communicate with physical education teachers, low level of interest shown by parents to physical education classes, low level of interest shown by students due to easy pass/fail regulations, parent considering children attendance to physical education events are unnecessary, other branch teachers not caring about physical education courses of children, school administration not caring about physical education courses of children, physical education classes in first, second and third grade not being administered by physical education teachers, insufficient/inadequate sports facilities and dressing rooms, unproductive application of course plans due to high number of students in classes, unproductive departmental works, easy pass/fail regulations, students not paying enough attention to physical education classes due to spending time in private courses for the preparation process to central placement exams were the major problems.
Category: Social Science

[210] viXra:1603.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 10:35:24

The Recreation Methods of Turkish Youth: A Literature Review

Authors: Berrin GUNER
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is observed that the researches are getting greater and greater in number about the youth problems comparing to the previous years recently. In literature it is seen that the recreation methods of the youth are also handled next to the problems of youth . It is a well known fact that in what kind of activities youth do in their leisure time is significant for both their mental and physical healthes. Because of that it has importance to take necessary precautions for youth effectively about the methods of leisure time activities. For youth’s having fruitful activities; their leisure time preferences, the factors effecting them while paticipating in the activity are to be well known. It is aimed in this paper to find out answers to these questions.
Category: Social Science

[209] viXra:1603.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 10:36:24

Social Progress Inadequacies in The Handicapped: Benefits of Sport in Socialısing Process

Authors: Ahmet SAHIN
Comments: 9 Pages.

The handicapped are individuals who are often encountered in society, have development disabilities in various areas, and cannot benefit from many rights utilised by people with normal development due to their disabilities in question. This situation causes certain problems in handicapped individuals’ daily and social life. Social development disabilities are the main one among aforesaid problems. In many researches in body of literature, it is found that the handicapped experiences certain social problems depending on their handicap and level of disability. Various activities and therapy methods are used in supporting social development of handicapped individuals. One of these activities is sports. As known, participation in sport activities enhances people’s health quality and contributes protection of their physical and spiritual health. Sport activities are considered as a socialising means for handicapped individuals. In this research, it is aimed to evaluate effects of participation of sport activities on handicapped individuals’ socialising.
Category: Social Science

[208] viXra:1603.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 10:37:26

Examining of Middle School Students Leisure Choice According to Gender

Authors: Mehmet TOKGOZ, Burhan DEMIROGLU, Yucel ASLAN
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this research is to examine the free time preference according to their gender of middle school students. Total 151 middle school students participated in the study Tarsus district. Free time choice questionnaire, developed by Tel (2007), was used to determine the free time of the students. Frequency and chi-square analysis was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained at SPSS 22.0 software. At the end of the study, it was found that some free time preferences wasn’t significant difference statistically by gender such as “Dealing with nothing, rest”, “Books, newspapers, magazines read”, “Listening to music or playing a musical instrument”, “TV, video monitoring”, “Going to the cinema or the theater”, “To participate in social and cultural activities”, “Spend time with family”, “Go to neighbors or relatives”, “Chatting with friends”, “Go to the cafeteria or coffee shop”, “Deal with Hobbies” (p>0.05). Whereas, it was found that some free time preferences was significant difference statistically by gender such as “Visit bazaar or shopping”, “Sports do or watch sports competitions”, “Spending time on the internet (for chat, game or hobby)” and “Go hunting (hunting land and water)” (p<0.05).
Category: Social Science

[207] viXra:1603.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 10:38:23

To Investigate of Attitude Towards The Physical Education in Secondary Students According to Class And Gender Variables

Authors: Vedat ULUISIK
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this study, we aimed to investigate high school students' attitudes towards physical education classes. Attitudes of students were compared by sex and the class level in the study Total 150 high school students, consist of 91 women and 59 men, participated in this study. To determine the students physical education attitudes was used “Physical Education Attitude Scale” developed by Gullu & Guclu (2009). The frequency analysis, independent t test and One Way ANOVA analysis used in SPSS 22.0 data analysis software. At the end of the study, there is no significant difference in woman and men students physical education attitudes (p>0.05). Similarly, there is no statistically difference physical education attitudes according to students grade level (p>0.05). According to the results obtained, it can be said students gener status and grade level are not a significant determinant to physical education attitudes.
Category: Social Science

[206] viXra:1602.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 13:38:58

Forming Identity via Conflict

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 3 references

To form identity requires that people experience conflict so that their boundaries and ideas can be significantly clarified. The beginnings of forming identity via conflict are with the mother/father to child roles during the child’s upbringing. Adolescence marks the beginning for forming identity. As the child grows into their new identity, they begin to form their own interests based on this identity. So it begins with conflict styles, then forms identity, then forms interests and desires on this newly created identity. This has enormous impact on what specific professions a person will undertake as well, as their identities must match their profession so they can streamline who they are with what their goals will be. As well, many conflicts in the professional world are not as reliant on interests and scarce resources as they are perceived to be, but are based almost entirely on individuals’ and groups’ collective identities.
Category: Social Science

[205] viXra:1602.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-25 01:21:46

Progress in Science is Driven by Ethics, Cerativity and Trust

Authors: Wilfried Wunderlich
Comments: 9 Pages.

Keeping the balance between two extremes in social dilemmas is essential for maintaining the progress of any society. While severe quality management and mistrust have destroyed grown overcapacities but also necessary resources in many research institutions in the last two decades, now the call for humanity and ethical principles are gaining popularity, such as work-life-balance, clear long-term perspectives for researchers, and society-driven ethical research and development. In this study the factors for creativity in science are discussed by studying the biography of physic Nobel laureates. The conclusion is that the income plays a minor role for engaged scientist, which main driving force is social acceptance.
Category: Social Science

[204] viXra:1602.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 07:36:01

The Components of Economic Record and the Research Object of Accounting

Authors: Aurelia Trăistaru
Comments: 6 Pages.

This study approaches issues of economic evidence and radiographs the three concepts through which can be defined the accounting object: juridical conception, economic conception, financial conception. At the same time, it researches the principles and specific procedures accounting method, ascertaining that besides specific procedures only accounting also it is appealed to general procedures for all disciplines, as well common procedures also other economic disciplines. The used method for this research is a metaanalytic one. The conclusion is that, for increasing the confidence in unalterable image (registered data in time, concrete and complete information, accounting according with juridical base, applying with honest-minded of the economic-accounting rules and procedures), has to work according with principles and procedures.
Category: Social Science

[203] viXra:1602.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 07:37:46

A Look on Green Marketing Management

Authors: Aurelia Trăistaru
Comments: 4 Pages.

First of all, the study radiographs Marketing status of 1980s and ascertains at that moment appeared Green Marketing through a real spiritual – material revolution. To clarify the revolutionary leap of Green Marketing is appealed to theoretic circumstance of emergence. The phenomenon through which from the elements of a low level are woken a composite of an inexplicable high level is called emergence. Through descriptive reconstruction of economical, financial, politics and technological factors evolution of 1970s is configured the idea that Green Marketing constitutes an emergence phenomenon. Second, it is catagraphied the acceptance, promotion and developing of Green Marketing in Romania. At the same time, is ascertained practically that Romanian are sensible and responsible regarding to integration in intercessions that impose by Green Marketing.
Category: Social Science

[202] viXra:1602.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 07:40:12

Systems of Environmental Management

Authors: Elena Antoanela Cotoc, Aurelia Trăistaru, Adriana Stoica
Comments: 10 Pages.

The advantages of adopting a system of environmental management imply that through its implementation a perfect monitoring of the environmental legislation can be achieved, having a higher juridical certainty and supplying proofs of following the laws and regulations in force. The most important advantages of an environmental system are: an appropriate care for the clients, responsibility and diligence in managing environmental issues; saving raw materials and energy; the effect of the environmental certification which does not necessarily lead to a growth in sales but which contributes anyway to the improvement of the image. Therefore the aim of the EMAS rule is promoting the continuous improvement of the environmental performances through: · development and implementation of the environmental management system, · evaluation of the environmental performances through audit, · giving to the customers the information related to the environmental performances.
Category: Social Science

[201] viXra:1602.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-17 07:05:41

The Sisyphean Economy

Authors: StephenJehucal@web.de
Comments: 10 Pages.

A remedy for the Sisyphean economy is introduced.
Category: Social Science

[200] viXra:1602.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-13 13:31:28

Choices

Authors: Sergej Plotkin
Comments: 3 Pages.

We prove that a person has no any free choice as one might think. Everything what a person does at the moment is a consequence of a person past deeds and thoughts.
Category: Social Science

[199] viXra:1602.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 06:42:34

Sociological Explanation of Fear of Crime in Public Spaces Case Study Mashhad

Authors: Mahdie Rezvani
Comments: 30 Pages.

Fear of crime in public places is a social issue that reduces access to the public places and limits the interactions with these places. Fear has significantly affected the city appearance, civil design and spatial distribution of the residences. The conception of security in urban spaces is on one hand related to the crime and on the other hand to the concept of facing the crime (victimization) and fear of crime encountering. The research method is surveying and the information collection technique is through questionnaire. Probable span sampling (PPS) method is used. Sample population was 200 household which were selected randomly in five categorical clusters from Mashhad city. In addition to investigating structural factors, the purpose of the research is studying reactive components affecting fear of crime among people in public places inside and outside the neighborhood. Independent variable of the research includes two general classes of reactive and structural factors and the interaction between them which reactive factors consist of: Vulnerability, victimization, gender ratio of the place, age ratio of the place, mental image of the place, activity in the place, cumulative effectiveness, and residency duration in the place and perceiving the risk of the crime. Structural factors include: visual penetration of the place, variation of place usage, non-defensed areas and place rank. The interaction between subjective and structural factors is considered as independent variable which includes: disorder and effectiveness, gender ratio and vulnerability, age ratio and vulnerability, place rank and vulnerability. Place rank among all other structural factors has the greatest effect on the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood. It means that by increasing place's rank of people residential area their fear of crime is decreased. The presence of non-defended areas (as one of the structural characteristics of the place), the sense of the place (one of the mental images of the people from the place) and activity and participation of the individuals in the place are three basic factors forming the concept of a place which have significant effect on the fear of crime within the neighborhoods. The effect of social capital (trust and support) as another effective structural factor on fear of crime in public area within the neighborhoods is approved. Victimization experience is also recognized as a predictor of fear of crime in multi variable analysis of public places inside and outside the neighborhood. Spatial factor's effects on fear of crime in public places inside and outside the neighborhoods show that structural and spatial characteristics of the residence area also affect fear of crime significantly. There is a relation between fear of crime and spatial view and fear of crime is also affected by spatial configuration. Variable of spatial legibility has reductive effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood. Visual accessibility and public place lighting for the people also reduce fear of crime among the people within the neighborhoods. The relation between the movement and the presence of people in the place with the fear of crime outside the neighborhoods is approved. Among social factors, economic-social position of the people has reverse relation with fear of crime. Among reactive factors, the more is the understanding of the people from the crime occurrence in their neighborhoods, the more is the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood. Variables of victimization, local legibility, social capital of the neighborhood, informal social control and gender ratio of the place among other reactive factors and variables of usage variation of the place, visual penetration of the place among other structural factors in the model of fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood have significant relation with fear of cri, in public places within the neighborhoods. Also the interaction between variables of vulnerability and gender ration of the place, of disorder and informal social control and of disorder and social capital of the neighborhood has no effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhoods. Finally, those variables of structural and reactive classes which are effective and significant are supported to reduce fear of crime.
Category: Social Science

[198] viXra:1601.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-28 13:23:26

Explanation Why “when One Takes Money he Becomes a Slave” Using Automata Theory and Van Der Pol Equation

Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using automata theory and Van Der Pol equation theory we explain why “when one takes money he becomes a slave” (this formula is universal and there is no one who can escape this law): when one takes money he inevitably makes more complexity into his life, by this his way of thinking becomes a cycle (he does not see the reality anymore), and therefore he has no really new ideas never, he falls into complete illusion that he achieves something. This article describes the meaning of the following Buddha’s story: Prince Gautama who had become Buddha saw one of his followers meditating under a tree at the edge of the Ganges river. pon inquiring why he was meditating, his follower stated he was attempting to become so enlightened he could cross the river unaided. Buddha gave him a few pennies and said: "Why don't you seek passage with that boatman. It is much easier." As one can see the modern civilization result is actually “three pennies” because this civilization is in the cycle for several thousands years.
Category: Social Science

[197] viXra:1601.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-26 10:08:06

Superpowers, Soft Power and Smart Analytics

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.

As a testimony to this growth of the ‘soft power’ culture fueled by progress in information technology, the present work presented Google Search Trend Results of three countries – Russia, China and India, all three member of the BRICS and often visualized as the past, present and future superpowers respectively. The time period of 2012-2016 was chosen for the analysis, and search trend data from 13 other countries (USA, UK, Brazil, France, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mexico, Vietnam and Turkey) are chosen, owing to various factors such as internet penetration, representative of American, Latin American, European, Australian, West, South, East and Southeast Asian perceptions, and population among the world’s top 20. On comparing Russia, India and China among global search trends between 2004 and 2016, it is seen that India clearly leads the other two nations by a significant amount, possessing a steadily increasing trend over the years. Overall, it is clearly evident that India leads by example in establishing the “Soft Power” Culture on the global platform. Apart from its own population of 1.2 billion, clearly a lot of expectant eyes and hearts are set to welcome India as the next Superpower, in the dawn of an era characterized by culture, soft power, fueled by rapid advancement and progress of information technology, with reduced violence and muddled borders, and advancing human civilization to the next level. Jai Hind!
Category: Social Science

[196] viXra:1601.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-21 12:46:56

He Views of The Teachers Related To The Newly Constructed 3rd Grade Social Studies And Science Classes

Authors: Murat CALISOGLU, Tolga TORTUM, Fatih ERISMIS, Derya KOCYIGIT
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this study, it was aimed to determine the teachers’s views related to the science class curriculum which was separated from social studies class in 2014-2015 academic years with the change of the education system of Turkey. The study has been conducted with the teachers who gave 3rd grade social studies class before and with the 3rd grade teachers who currently gives the social studies class. To analyse the data, descriptive analysis was used in this correlational survey. 5 open-ended questions developed by the researchers were asked to the teachers and the answers were recorded with a recorder and the interviews were put in writing. As a result of the study, it was determined that the views of the teachers related to the renewed science class curriculum are generally positive. However, it was also determined that the teachers talk about shortcomings such as decreasing the weekly course hours and the number of acquisitions, adding a workbook and lack of material. Keywords: Science, views of the teachers, social studies
Category: Social Science

[195] viXra:1601.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-21 12:48:24

Investigation As Some Variables of Assertiveness Levels at Deaf Athletes

Authors: Meric ERASLAN, Murat OZMADEN, Mehmet BAYANSALDUZ, Mehmet GOKTEPE, Ibrahim Ilhami KOC
Comments: 8 Pages.

The aim of this research is to examine the assertiveness levels of the hearing impaired sports persons according to the gender, the year of making sports and the sports branch. Among the people who make sports regularly and have hearing impairment, totally 173 hearing impaired sports persons participated in the research who were invited to the national team camp. In the determination of the sports persons’ assertiveness levels, the Rathus Assertiveness Inventory was used. In the statistical analysis of the data which were obtained, the Frequency, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H analyses were used. At the end of the research, it was fixed that the assertiveness levels of the sports persons with hear impairment were low. It was determined that the assertiveness levels of the sports persons revealed no significant difference statistically according to their genders. Besides this, it was concluded that the assertiveness levels of these sports persons revealed no significance difference statistically according to their years of making sports and the sports branch they were interested in. (p>0.05). As a result, it was concluded that the demographic variables which were discussed in the research, are not important determinants on the assertiveness levels of the hearing impaired individuals. Keywords: Hearing impaired individuals, sports, assertiveness
Category: Social Science

[194] viXra:1601.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-21 12:49:47

Computer Assisted Learning Methods’ Effects On Students Success During Science Courses - A Literature Search

Authors: Huseyin Talha GULSOY, Rasim ONDER
Comments: 13 Pages.

Education is an important and indispensable part of community life. There is a linear relationship between the development levels of society and the level of education they receive.Therefore, the quality of education services offered to people in the provision of social development is very important. Technological elements which entered into every part of human life in recent years has been used in the training of education department as well . In particular, it is seen that the increasingly widespread use of computer-assisted instructional materials in training education. In some of the researches of literature ıt has been found out that the use of the computer support field research courses increase the academic achievement of students in an educational environment, improve their motivation and attitudes towards the course which is determined to increase the retention of learned information. Also computer-aided instructional materials used commonly in science teaching. As in other courses in science courses ıt is also noted that there is the positive impact of computer use on student achievement. Findings located in the literature research also support this view. In this research ıt is aimed to evaluate the effects on student achievements of science courses in computer-aided instructional materials. Keywords: Computer-assisted education, science education, student achievement
Category: Social Science

[193] viXra:1601.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-21 12:51:00

The Choice of Free Time Activity of Secondary School Students According to Gender Variable Examination (Example of Tarsus)

Authors: Mehmet TOKGOZ, Mehmet SEYRAN, Sahika YILDIRIM, Burhan DEMIROGLU
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this study, secondary school students according to gender variable was to investigate recreational preferences. In this study 105 women and 48 men enrolled at Tarsus Ayhan Bozpınar Anatolian high school Research a total of 153 secondary school students who participated. Students have the choice of free time activity in the determination of Tel (2007) were used in the survey was developed by leisure. Statical analysis of the results was accomplished using frequency and chi-square analysis with SPSS 15.0 program. At the end of the study, the students most frequently in their preferred leisure-time activities listening to music or playing a musical instrument, spending time with family, chatting with friends, leisurely activities and hobbies to spend time on the internet deal with and it was determined that came. Students at a low level to their preferred leisure-time activities for the rest of the cinema or Theatre, go to the bazaar and Sunday sightseeing, shopping, going to visit neighbors or relatives, it was determined that activities such as it came. Female students who participated in the research also viewing TV and video, books, newspapers and magazines (p<0.05), male students more often preferred leisure activities such as reading, sport and sport competitions, monitoring, participation in social and cultural activities, go to the cafeteria or the coffee shop, a bar, a casino and activities such as going on a hunt or go to the pub when compared with female students, male students more often it has been found that it is preferred (p<0.05). Keywords: Secondary education, recreation, gender
Category: Social Science

[192] viXra:1601.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-21 12:52:09

Importance of Sports in Preventing Aggressive Behavior Among Young People

Authors: Tonguc VARDAR
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is known that aggressive behavior among youth has increased in recent years. There are many factors that contribute to the increasein aggressive behavior among youth. Primary factors among these are environmental factors, social structure, domestic factors, harmful habits, substance abuse, social circle, negative effects of technologic developments and some psychological problems. Due to the increase in aggressive behavior among youth, it has become necessary to take some measures in order to minimalize aggressive behavior. One of the effective factors in decreasing aggressive behavior in youth is sports. Conducted research shows that participation in sports activities supports decreasing aggressive behavior in youth. This research focuses on the advantages of sports in preventing aggressive behavior in youth. Findings of research conducted in the light of relevant literature are evaluated within the scope of this research. Keywords: Youth, aggressive behavior, sports
Category: Social Science

[191] viXra:1601.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-18 15:13:54

Four Theories with Potential for Success Within the Relation Practice with the Touristic Products Consumer

Authors: Aurelia Dumitru, Marioara Avram, Marian Siminică
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study explores the main theories with incidence in describing, explaining and predicting behavior of touristic services consumer’s. The research method is of meta-analysis type. Our study assumes that consumers’ perceptions and beliefs play an important role in the decision to become a beneficiary of a tourist service offered by a travel company or by a touristic services intermediary. The literature retains several models that explain the relationship between consumers’ behavior and information promotion of touristic product. There are four theories underlying the action of implementing these models subsequent to the idea of consumer’s behavior: Selective Attention Theory, Congruity Principle Balance Theory, Cognitive Dissonance Theory. After exploring the potential of these theories in order to generate a competitive advantage for tourism service providers it is concluded that the convergent use of these four theories of planning, organizing, implementing, managing and controlling the marketing touristic activities is the method with the most significant impact on the behavior of travel services consumer.
Category: Social Science

[190] viXra:1601.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-18 15:16:40

About the Name of Actually Communication Studying Discipline

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study explores the literature on the name of discipline which seeks communication. It notes that there are various names designating this subject: Communication Theory, Communication Science, Sciences de l'Information et of Communication (SIC), Communicology, Communication studies. It appears, then, that the discipline dealing with the phenomena of communication is (along with Psychology, Anthropology and Sociology) a social science. There is that, although seem to refer to one and the same phenomenon of communication, referred disciplines not examine the communication as a whole, but focuses on different areas; ie they are fragmented. Starting from the origin and connection (Lat. "Communis" + the Gr. Word "logos" "speech, thought, study") and making use of the analogy of Sociology (Latin word "Socius" + Gr. "Logos" ) and Anthropology (Gr. "anthropos" + "logos") is seeking a convergence of names. It is estimated that it should reach convergence in respect of at least two criteria: the study of communication as a whole and understanding communication as a multi-structured universe. Such criteria somehow it would comply with a title like "Strong Communication Science Communicology". Yet the question persists and therefore the future must be sought arguments to name a possible unitary communication science.
Category: Social Science

[189] viXra:1601.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-18 15:18:54

The Liminality as Means of Mass Media for Transform of a Daily Event in Ritual

Authors: Bianca Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Bușu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The aim of this study is to underline the effective used of liminality by mass media for transform in ritual a daily event. Theoretical backgound is constituted by concept of liminality which was launched by Arnold Van Gennep and was developed by Victor Turner (who has named the concept of the liminality – liminoid). In this framework, the study proves that in contemporary society, mass media are commited as responsible for mediatization of rituals in distinctive ceremonials: social, political, religious, and other. When people are watching television, they are introduced, by the media, in a liminal space, where they get to be members in the act of rites of passage. From the moment when their attention is enthralled by what is on television, people are induced in an ambiguous state; they are separated from reality. The media creates for each important ritualised ceremonial, the necessary time, in order to create a subjection of the public. In the contemporary society our basic activities are, in fact, rituals.
Category: Social Science

[188] viXra:1601.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-18 15:20:57

Functions of Communication: an Organizational Communication Case

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study aims to clarify the core functions of human communication. The method used is complex and consists of critical analysis and synthesis of the views expressed by leading specialists in settling elements of convergence and divergence and configure a wide set of admissible functions and practices observed. On compatible functions and apply practices observed in the second stage, a set of procedures for corroboration, collation and confrontation with communication phenomenology. Finally, are retained as general functions of communication: relationship (networking) function, and “communization” (sharing) function. We check viability and generality of these functions on an example of organizational communication.
Category: Social Science

[187] viXra:1601.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 18:28:57

Karma, the Past and the History

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Using mathematical methods we show that two solutions of Maxwell's equations correspond to two time directions. One comes as an echo from a Divine word that marks all the thoughts and deads as bad or good by this forming Karma that also Richard Feynman was speaking about. Everything in the Universe is built as a Wave - some solution of corresponding equations such as Schrodinger equations with some Hamiltonian (see eg. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schr%C3%B6dinger_equation#/media/File:StationaryStatesAnimation.gif). So, the Universe is actually some Hilbert space of such waves, in other words information, or Turing Machine that created and creates that space and all its elements (people, animals, plants and so on). The surrounding world is only a mirror - "Big TV" - that shows everything and teaches people. Due to people decided not to look into the mirror there is a gap or duality in the human conscience called Karma. The same as well-known duality in Quantum Physics. The article shows that there is no duality and that there is always the Watcher who sees All.
Category: Social Science

[186] viXra:1601.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 18:40:25

Information Society

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

using well-known method of "Fire triangle" we show that in “Building Information Society” process people loose Freedom. Also, the average prosperity level goes to zero. As a result they become robots. The final result is a Universal Automaton (UA) that just produces copies of itself.
Category: Social Science

[185] viXra:1601.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 18:54:06

Systems and Turing Machine

Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 3 Pages.

Using methods of Computational theory we show the possibilities in the society development.
Category: Social Science

[184] viXra:1601.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 12:48:17

Technology, Innovation and Culture

Authors: Bo Mann
Comments: 86 Pages.

We show how to distinguish illusiion and reality. We use method up-and-down with a small number of samples due to limited availability of those. In the study we compare actual and expected results.
Category: Social Science

[183] viXra:1601.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 02:28:12

Real Assets.Real Bubbles.Real Cycles.

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 10 Pages.

The real asset approach towards bubbles and cycles as consequently crisis is explained by the monetary mechanism of economic rent from the land value of natural resources and locational value of buildings, i.e. further capital formation is inhibited by this kind of value extraction from the working body economic in physical patterns of cyclical crises.
Category: Social Science

[182] viXra:1601.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-11 13:45:07

Aristotelian Opening Way and Actual Argumentation and Demonstration’s Profile

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Janusz Grabara, Sebastian Kot
Comments: 13 Pages.

This study reveals Aristotle's modeling contribution to the establishment of a recognizable figure of argumentation and demonstration. These two ways of imposing an idea configure similarly: from the premises, relying on principles and with the help of some rules of inference arguments are presented which induce, inevitably or within the truth limits, a conclusion. Aristotle introduces the concept of topos, and a canon of argumentation and a canon demonstration are delineated. For stated figures of argumentation and demonstration, the Aristotelian canons constitute the first opening look.
Category: Social Science

[181] viXra:1601.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-10 08:52:42

Chaos Theory, Society and Law: A New Paradigm

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present work presents an insight into how complexity, chaos and nonlinear dynamics play a crucial role in determining the co-evolution of the society-and-law system. The paradigm shift obtained from a reductionist dominant to a holistic dynamical systems approach entails reversing a “reductionist funnel” to ensure better balance and coordination among the freedom, rights and regulations attractors, driving socio-legal principles in the context of human free will. Also, the significance of freedom-right-regulation balance in socio-legal design in the context of various Indian philosophy schools are understood.
Category: Social Science

[180] viXra:1601.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:26:20

Lost in Translation or Psychoanalysis of Egoism

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.

We prove that current world people conscience leaves in duality.
Category: Social Science

[179] viXra:1601.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:30:28

Exponential Growth of Garbage of World Economics

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.

We prove that World economics development results in exponental growth of garbage.
Category: Social Science

[178] viXra:1601.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 07:53:38

Proof that Work Cost is Illusion

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.

How much does the work of a sanitary worker cost? In new European union countries it costs 100 eur for two days work to reinstall the water pipes in bath and kitchen, and in old European country to suck sewage from the ground sewer costs 300 eur for 10 min, and sanitary hourly work is about 70 eur. One can ask why is so huge difference? The materials are the same, the technology is the same. What makes that difference? Is the cost of work just an illusion as Karl Marx wrote in Capital that capitalists manipulate so well. In this article, we show that there is a Law that proves that Work Cost is Illusion. The work cost is proprotional to the number of rules of the underlied economical system.
Category: Social Science

[177] viXra:1601.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-05 20:56:52

Cultural Advantage as a Postcolonial Resistance

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 5 Pages. This is draft version, noit submitted yet to any journal

In accordance with Edward Said’s Culture and Imperialism, it has become more obvious that culture is a vehicle of imperialism all over the world through globalization. Or, in the context of postcolonial studies, there are dominance and resistance movement around everything in this world’s history. Similarly, there are cultural dominance and cultural resistance. In this paper, I argue that the term of Cultural Advantage which I and Prof. Florentin Smarandache coined back in 2008, can be a postcolonial resistance, i.e. a method which can be used by developing and under-developing countries (especially in Asia) to resist the globalization of culture brought by the First World Countries. In this paper, I first discuss why Postcolonialism matters.
Category: Social Science

[176] viXra:1601.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-05 12:11:28

Economic Rent in Pakistan

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 7 Pages.

The economic problem of rent in Pakistan is being explored, with reference to South Asian development.
Category: Social Science

[175] viXra:1601.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-04 06:33:20

Sociology, Information and Language Games

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 6 Pages.

using mathematical methods we prove that technological process leads to Chaos. Moreover, we prove that anything that is built upon arithemtic leads to Chaos.
Category: Social Science

[174] viXra:1601.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-04 06:35:52

The Future of Craftmanship

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Using methods of Thermodynamics we show that Egoism of one leads to poverty and suffer of others. We show that if the number of personal contacts decreases the society becomes the least effective society that produces no value.
Category: Social Science

[173] viXra:1512.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-29 08:23:31

Functions and Forms of Managerial Communication

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Ilie Budică, Aurelia Dumitru, Georgiana Camelia Stănescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the domain of organizational communication and it is located within the specific field of managerial communication. It aims to clarify the purpose, functions and forms of managerial communication. The central approach is one of clarification and classification; in this respect, the approach is one of ontology of managerial communication (ontology includes vocabulary, terminology, classifications and typologies of a knowledge field). The research method that is used is complex and consists of a mix of meta-analytic procedures, procedures for collation, corroboration and synthesis procedures. Specialty literature is subject to a radiographic view in order to delineate ideas, opinions and theses related to the topic. Finally, our contribution consists of a) revealing, that managerial communication fulfills seven functions (information, decision transmission, influence, instruction, image, motivation, promotion) and c) in emphasizing that managerial communication is presented under seven forms (internal, external, vertical, horizontal, diagonal, linear, bipolar, and network communication).
Category: Social Science

[172] viXra:1512.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-21 09:15:35

Liminality and Neutrosophy

Authors: Bianca Teodorescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

This study is an application of Neutrosophy in the sphere of liminality. First, the aim of this study is to underline the importance of the concept of Neutrosophy that was intro-duced by the professor Florentin Smarandache correlated with the concept of the liminality. According to Arnold Van Gennep and Victor Turner, in the liminality, the rituals are conducted to put the people in an ambiguous state where everything there is not true or neither false and meaning that the threshold state is neutral. Rituals, myths or rites are representing indeed a form of communication, but on an unclear level, determined by the uncertainty. Liminality has a part which is working under the uncer-tainty’s rules of Neutrosophy: when a person is participat-ing in the rituals, he is searching a truth and risk a false. This means that the threshold state is improving the per-ception of the people from the moment when starts a ritu-al. But the threshold state can be generated also by the media. Rituals of the mass media are created in order to change the society’s perception, persuading the idea of what is true and false.
Category: Social Science

[171] viXra:1512.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-14 17:36:29

Paraphysical Jurisprudent Massacre Mediation

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 16 Pages.

It is possible and thereby feasible to develop and implement a pragmatic methodology for a preemptive evidentiary system of ‘Paraphysical Jurisprudence’ for mediating the occurrence of massacres. A required comprehensive completion and formalizing of the tools of epistemology (theory of knowledge) already exists and has been tested both ecumenically and scientifically. The evolution of epistemology has followed the historical progression from myth and superstition to logic and reason to empiricism and now finally to the utility of ‘transcendence’ as a tool in knowledge acquisition. An inspiring example from popular culture is illustrated in the 2002 Hollywood film noir “Minority Report” designed by its director to present a ‘plausible future world’ for the year 2054 wherein an elaborate ‘Precrime Unit’ is tested to prevent murder by utilizing a trio of ‘precogs’ bathed in a ‘photonic milk’ able to presciently predetermine impending occurrences of homicide for which the Precrime Police Unit then intervenes to prevent. Disdain for a putative so-called scientific metaphysics by natural philosophers is deeply rooted in modern pragmatic societies; perhaps rightly so as consistency, credibility and lack of a comprehensive theory has been heretofore emphatically lacking. In addition to the major problem of repeatability is the perceived distinction between domains of the physical and so-called ‘spiritual’ as mutually exclusive. In this work a strong case is made for the rigorous viability and near term putative implementation of a system of paraphysical jurisprudence drawing on the utility of a panoply of concepts. The remaining question is when does feasible become practical in the face of a steady increase in the heinous massacre of innocents?
Category: Social Science

[170] viXra:1512.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 22:51:10

Danger of Big Discovery

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 1 Page.

How nice is to make a small discovery. Journals are happy to publish your papers. Respect and friendliness surround you, grants are coming to you...a Paradise! Not so, if you make a big discovery. Everybody suspects that you are impudent, cheat or crazy. Journals reject your papers without review. No respect, no support...a Hell!
Category: Social Science

[169] viXra:1511.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 21:26:08

The True Riches of Japan: High Tech and Natural Energy Can Secure Japan's Peace and Prosperity, and Give a New Sustainable Peace and Prosperity Dimension to Its Overseas Development Aid

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 3 Pages. Peace Reports of the International Christian University Peace Research Institute, Vol. 10, No. 2, Oct. 2015, pp. 9-11, 1 figure.

Japan has a worldwide reputation as high technology nation. This is especially true for sustainable energy technology. Sustainable and renewable energy is carbon-neutral, climate protecting, the actual fuel is either cost-free (essentially forms of solar energy and geothermal energy) or substantially cheaper than fossil fuel and unlimited in supply. Only investments into facilities for converting renewable energy to electricity and heat and their maintenance are required. Regarding geothermal energy, Japan is located on the edges of four tectonic plates and is ranked third world wide in volcanic activity. Its underground is very hot. Regarding wind power, a Japan Wind Power Association (industry) study of May 2014 [11] states that by 2050 Japan may develop up to 75 GW of wind power capacity from currently only 2.789 GW. Moreover, the development of sufficient sustainable domestic renewable energy sources, has the undeniable potential to ease international relations, calm tensions, and eliminate a key motivation for armed conflict in the 21st century. The choice is between an ever more expensive import of fossil fuel or that we begin today to invest into our own energy potentials, building a new supply infrastructure, thereby permanently reducing energy import dependence. Finally, as much as Renewable Energy can secure the peace of Japan, renewable energy related Overseas Development Aid can also contribute to economic stability and peace in developing countries.
Category: Social Science

[168] viXra:1511.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:27:56

To Investigate Psychological Well Being According To Age, Gender And Sport Make Sitution Physical Education And Sports Department Students

Authors: Meric ERASLAN
Comments: 8 Pages.

The aim of this study to investigate the level of psychological well being in Physical education and sport department student. Total 306 students joined who Gazi University School of Physical Education and Sports College students in this study. For researches data collection Psychological Well-Being Scale were used. The data obtained by the SPSS 17.0 software for statistical analysis, frequency analysis, independent t test and One Way ANOVA was used. At the end of the study, were found that women's psychological well-being is significantly more higher than the male participants to be significantly (p <0.05). It found that participants psychological well being levels do not statistically significant as licensed sport make sitution (p> 0.05). In addition to psychological state of the participants according to age groups it was found that no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05). Keywords: Sports, psychological well being, age, gender
Category: Social Science

[167] viXra:1511.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:29:31

The Evaluation of The Problems Releated To The Women’s Not Being Able To Participate in Recreation Activities

Authors: Berrin GÜNER
Comments: 8 Pages.

The term ‘‘Recreation’’ is defined as people’s participating in some kind of activities in their free time of their own accords to gain their body and soul health which are destroyed in time because of some reasons ( Koçyiğit& Yıldız 2014). And there is an increase in free time duration out of work so people can participate in recreation activities more and more. There creation activities which are originally free time activities affect the lives of people positively. Recreation activities which are mostly physical body activities affect the human health positively from many aspects. However there are many factors which prevent people participating in recreation activities. Especially women have trouble when they want to take part in recreationactivities .Theycan’ttakepart in recreationactivities as theywishcomfortably in this social structure. In this paper it is aimed to evaluate the problems of women releated to not being able to participate in recreation activities. Keywords: Woman, freetime, recreation
Category: Social Science

[166] viXra:1511.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:30:45

Investigation of Warm Up And Cooling Habits And Knowledge Levels in Boxing Sport Athletes

Authors: Mesut HEKİM
Comments: 12 Pages.

Boxing athletes warming and information on habits determination, besides aimed to investigate on heating and cooling habits sports in this research. A total of 49 male boxers participated in the study. Consisting of 19 questions questionnaire was used as data collection. SPSS 22.0 software was used for data analysis. Frequency and chi-square analyzes were used. At the end of the study it was determined that warm-up high levels before training and competition in boxer. Similarly, the athletes have been found often make cool exercise. The knowledge about the heating and cooling operation is determined to be high in athletes. Only sport-specific warm-up and stretching exercises / stretching has been found to have low level. In addition, determined that the warming habits not influence the year to deal with sports in athletes. Keywords: Sport, sports warm-up, cooling down
Category: Social Science

[165] viXra:1511.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:32:18

To Evaluation Dimensions of Turkish Football Fan Violence And Factors Affecting Fans Violent

Authors: Servet REYHAN
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of this study to evaluate the size of violent football fans in Turkey, the factors influencing the severity fans as well. It has been reached on the issue as priority in the survey research. According to the relevant literature, football violence, the size of the crowd violence, factors affecting crowd violence, some topics have been created in the form of research on the subject. When the research findings assessment, it found that the media, the attitude of the referees, the club manager attitudes and discourses, rival supporters, team's poor play and a variety of socio-demographic factors influencing the football fans violence in Turkey. The aggressive behavior of their fans were found to be verbal aggressive behavior commonly. It was determined that a high level of involvement in the crime fans. Keywords: Sports, football, fan violence
Category: Social Science

[164] viXra:1511.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:34:08

Evaluation of The Sportmanship Behaviors of The Secondary School Students in Terms of Different Variables

Authors: Umut SEZER, Arıkan EKTİRİCİ, Ayşe Feray ÖZBAL, Kadir ATLI
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study is to investigate sportsmanship behaviors of secondary school students in terms of different variables. The study was conducted on 424 female, 429 male total 853 secondary school students. “Sportspersonship Behavior Scale in Physical Education Course” which is developed by Koç (2015) is used as data collection tool. T-test and ANOVA were used in the data analyses. As a result of the analysis significant difference was found between groups according to gender, grade level, mother’s education level, father’s education level, academic achievement level, physical education and sports teacher’s gender, the occasion of viewing the sports competition from the bleacher variables (p<.05). Keywords: Fair-Play, Sportsmanship, Behavior, Physical Education, Sports
Category: Social Science

[163] viXra:1511.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 13:35:41

Investigation of Stress And Aggression Level of High School Students In Terms of Some Variables

Authors: Vedat ULUIŞIK, Kadir PEPE
Comments: 13 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine stress and aggression levels of high school students in sport making sitution. Totally 365 students, taking education at different education institution in Burdur city center, participated to study. “Stress at Working Life” scale developed by Odabaşı (2006) was used to identify students’ stress levels. “Aggression Scale” developed by Buss and Perry (1992) was used to identify students’ aggression levels. SPSS 22.0 for Windows program was used in statistical analysis of data obtained from research. In the end of research, it was established that students’ aggression level is represented significant difference as their, participation type of sport and interested sport type (p<0,05). It was established that students’ stress level is represented significant difference as their, interested sport type (p<0,05). It was found that participation type of sport does not affect students’ stress level (p>0,05). As a result, it may be said that participation to sport in high school students have affects on stress and aggression level. Keywords: High school students, sport, stress, aggression
Category: Social Science

[162] viXra:1511.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 20:14:18

Emotions, Self-Interest and Self-Worth in Minimal Bargaining Interactions

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid
Comments: 40 Pages.

Studies on the ultimatum game explain the rejection of low offers as costly punishment imposed by responders on unfair proposers. It is also argued that negative emotions serve as the proximate mechanism for such behavior. This article reports two experimental studies demonstrating that the rejection of low offers is also driven by a desire to maintain a sense of self-worth and that negative emotions alone are poor predictors of responders’ rejections. For this purpose we used a novel variant of the ultimatum game, in which rejecting an offer results in the proposer keeping the entire amount, thus eliminating the possibility of punishment and replacing it with a possible positive reinforcement. Although rejections entail rewarding the proposers instead of punishing them, a sizable percentage of the responders rejected low offers. Accepting low offers was found to be associated with the desire for profit maximization, while rejecting similarly low offers was associated with the desire to maintain self-worth. The evolutionary puzzle of rejecting low offers, even at a cost of rewarding unfair proposers, is resolved by adopting a wider framework of human interactions; one which accounts not only for the bearing of an interaction on the players' material capital, but also on their symbolic capital. Within such a framework, the rejection of low offers in the investigated game, as in many significant real-life situations, is explained as costly signals aimed at protecting attributes of symbolic capital, such as self-worth, status and prestige.
Category: Social Science

[161] viXra:1511.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 09:23:51

Minimal Being as Implosion of Communication

Authors: Dan Valeriu Voinea, Elena Rodica Opran, Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study examines the poetry specific of one of greatest contemporary Romanian poets, Ioan Es. Pop. It follows that the Ioan Es. Popřs senses lyrics becomes a lyric of subsenses, of blunt senses. This lyric is one of the minimal being in continuous contraction, retreat, under an increasingly pressing fatigue. Its voice is modulated by the direct effects of phenomena that affect the senses: fatigue, drink, sleepiness, reverie, aging, anesthesia. In poetical and generating order the major Ioan Es. Popřs contribution is concept introducing of Ŗeidosŗ minimal being.
Category: Social Science

[160] viXra:1511.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-08 12:03:06

Communicative Message as Nuclear Thinking of an Aspirational Desire

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 16 Pages.

The paper is positioned in the Fundamentals of Communication Science zone. The approach is message-meanings centered and assumes that, at meta-analytic level, the message is the nucleus of communication. The first axiomatic finding is that, on semantic dimension, the message is an edifice of meanings. A second axiomatic finding is that, on operational dimension, the message is common construction of communicators. A third axiomatic finding is that, on ontological dimension, the message has no independent existance; as volatile as the meaning, the message takes the concrete form of discourse. A fourth axiomatic finding is that, on the pragmatic dimension, efficient and effective message is given that speech with which it is trained is planned and prepared in advance. Finally, fifth axiomatic finding is that the message is articulated threefold: cognitive, affective and volitional, ie communicative message is nuclear thinking of an aspirational desire.
Category: Social Science

[159] viXra:1511.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-08 12:05:00

A Battle with Uncertainty 1 of Communication as an Academic Discipline: Title Uncertainty

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study falls within the basic research component of General Communication Science and deals with one of the major ontological uncertainty of communication as an academic discipline: uncertainty about the title. It is considered a meta-analysis of denominative options. First, it appears that, in fact, there are four communication uncertainties: uncertainty regarding title, uncertainty about status, uncertainty of place and uncertainty of unificationfragmentation. Then in a constructive-cognitive-cogitative approach of titles under which communication is studied (“Communication”, “Communication theory”, “Communicology”, “Communication study”, “Communication studies”, “Communication science”, "Sciences de l' information et de la communication"); it highlights the uncertainty on the title. Our meta-analytic approach is to remove a few nuclei of certainty from the mass of uncertainty. From these ideational formations of certainty crystallized by meta-analysis General Communication Science results a possible, rigorous, robust, flexible and convergent title, consisting of Fundamental Communication Science, Applied Communication Research and "Grounded Practical" Communication Application. The war with the uncertainties must continue: the other three are to be studied.
Category: Social Science

[158] viXra:1511.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 11:50:43

Există O Lume Mai Bună, Dar Este Foarte Scumpă. Folclor Umoristic Internetist (Xiii),

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 652 Pages.

Prezentul volum este al treisprezecelea volum din seria de folclor umoristic internetist. Materialele prezentate sunt, pe de o parte, oferite spre divertisment personal, pe de altă parte, sunt doar o bucată a unei cercetări sistematice a fenomenului umoristic la români (aşa cum se exprimă acesta prin bancuri). Textele şi fotografiile din seria antologiilor de folclor umoristic au fost primite de la cunoscuţi şi necunoscuţi prin e-mail sau culese din reţele de socializare.
Category: Social Science

[157] viXra:1510.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 07:59:49

Creativity in Social Sciences

Authors: C. M. Bunăiaşu, E. R. Opran, D. V. Voinea
Comments: 366 Pages.

CLAUDIU MARIAN BUN Ă IA Ș U ELENA RODICA OPRAN DAN VALERIU VOINEA (EDITORS) CREATIVITY IN SOCIAL SCIENCES [The Proceedings of CIL 2015: Second Edition of International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language , Craiova, Romania, 15-16 May 2015 (www.cilconference.ro)]
Category: Social Science

[156] viXra:1510.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:27:13

Exploring Nonlinear Analysis in Cartography and Vexillology

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis techniques have accelerated and enhanced man’s understanding of underlying system dynamics, evolution and patterns. The present work pertains to the unprecedented exploration of nonlinear analysis in two geography-oriented disciplines – cartography and vexillology. Specifically, the tools of fractal dimension and entropy are used to characterize the outline of around 200 countries, following which entropy for the red, green and blue color distributions of the corresponding flags are computed. Key inferences are listed, one of which is the remarkable correlation observed in all cases between the three entropies. Finally, it is hoped that the analysis techniques discussed and explored in the present work forms a preliminary step in applying the time tested successful techniques of nonlinear analysis to geography oriented disciplines.
Category: Social Science

[155] viXra:1510.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:28:50

Tracing the Origins of Human Civilization – a Study Backed by Archaeology, Linguistics, Cymatics and Genographics

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 20 Pages.

The pre-history of ancient India seems to be shrouded in mystery. Today, a secular country and the home of some of the most important religions, little can be said with concrete evidence about its past, especially before the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). This has thus become a hot topic of debate and controversy among archaeologists and historians alike, and with the uncovering of artifacts and evidences from Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Mythology alike, a lot of light is being shed on this mystery, and what seems to emerge are some shocking facts about this land. This work tries in the first place to consolidate such data collected by various fields, and also by experiments and inferences made by the author. It also takes into account various theories proposed till date, and with all this information, tries to consolidate and come up with one single theory/hypothesis that details the evolution and cultural and linguistic development of India and the effects it had on the rest of the world. Much focus is placed on the linguistic aspects at the initial stage and going forward,Genographic studies, Archaeology and mythology are also explored. As many linguists have pointed out, the earliest languages in India seem to be two, and these two are the early versions of Sanskrit and Tamil. The various inferences and the contributions made by the author together are summed up in a Core Hypothesis.
Category: Social Science

[154] viXra:1510.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:28:26

Smart Analytics of Social Networking Trends

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 20 Pages.

The current era of Information Technology has enabled one to access a wealth of information regarding public opinion and market trends through web search behaviour exploring tools such as Google Trends. As a testimony to this fact, the present work purports to encouraging the use of such “Smart Analytics” techniques by presenting Trend Search based inferences and discussion of interest in the four social networking sites Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Snapchat in 30 different countries around the world. The results provide valuable insights into group trends such as the rise, saturation and decline in the interests of such services and their dependence on various factors such as internet connection speeds and penetration rates, while also exploring exceptional cases and other individual aspects of social networking trends. While from a managerial perspective, such results can be used to assess market trends and demands, the inferences also provide useful information to administrators and governments, as well as the common man to understand the current trends and plan investments of time and money accordingly.
Category: Social Science

[153] viXra:1510.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 16:07:41

Literary Communication and Existential Formula in Epic Addressing

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The study is circumscribed to theory of literary communication and highlights the fact that there are different dedicated formulas of epic addressing. The existential formula joints in epic addressing are examined. As an example, we use Gabriel Chifuřs novel, "Story of my Death". First, it appears that this novel belongs to a thematic topology whose axes are are also found in books by Lev Tolstoy, AP Chekhov, J. L. Borges or F. Kafka. Later it is made visible that the differentiating contribution of Gabriel Chifuřs epic work lies in making clear from death an event of life and to show that, whenever it occurs, death captures as the ultimate existential event, catching the man, however, unprepared. Existential formula in epic addressing consists of understanding that the stake of death is the assumed life as unique experience.
Category: Social Science

[152] viXra:1510.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-22 06:24:48

Self-Education Through Web-Searching an Exploratory Study

Authors: Răzvan-Alexandru Călin
Comments: 12 Pages.

The 21st century is marked by the extensive and easy access to information through the virtual environment. Do we find in today’s Romanian school the presence of a formative space - on the one hand, facilitator for a maximal exploitation of opportunities, and on the other hand, a “sensor” for new risks, characteristic to the information era? Is the “digital generation” (Mark Prensky) of the beginning of century in Romania ready from these perspectives? The present paper outlines the results of a comparative exploratory study regarding the ordinary methods used by youngsters - from 5th and 6th grades, as well as 11th and 12th grades, from six different schools, high-schools and colleges from Dolj county – to find information about different topics/homework. The results offer the premises for hypothesis regarding this phenomenon at national level. The conclusions indicate as the main method of obtaining information the web-searching. They emphasize the absence of an initial specific educational training in this domain and allow the delineation of a suggestive image regarding possible future methods of action.
Category: Social Science

[151] viXra:1510.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 10:30:06

EVOLUÇÃO Urbana do MUNICÍPIO DE Lajeado: um Estudo Configuracional

Authors: Aline Cristiane Scheibe, Livia Teresinha Salomão Piccinini, Andrea da Costa Braga
Comments: 21 Pages.

A região denominada Vale do Taquari abrange 36 municípios da região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, polarizada pelo município de Lajeado e, colonizada por imigrantes de origem alemã, italiana e açoriana. O aparecimento de indústrias e o desenvolvimento do comércio e do setor de serviços provocaram um crescimento urbano regional significativo nos últimos 40 anos. Em 1970, 74,27% da população vivia no meio rural e, passadas quatro décadas, o quadro praticamente se inverteu: hoje 73,84% vive na zona urbana (IBGE, 2010). Tendo em vista tal crescimento urbano, o presente trabalho analisa o processo de evolução urbana do território do município de Lajeado através do levantamento de dados históricos e configuracionais do núcleo urbano de 1898 (ano de fundação) até os dias atuais. Trabalha-se com a hipótese de que a inserção da rodovia BR 386 alterou os padrões espaciais através dos quais se efetiva a expansão urbana modificando a estrutura de integração da configuração espacial. O enfoque adotado é o da análise configuracional, onde a estrutura da malha urbana é analisada em termos de acessibilidade e centralidade, a partir das medidas sintáticas de integração local e global e, ainda, a medida de escolha (choice).O estudo tem como objetivo principal mostrar a evolução da malha urbana ao longo do crescimento da cidade, analisando a inserção da rodovia e sua influência na rede urbana.
Category: Social Science

[150] viXra:1510.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 10:38:58

Cidades DE Pequeno Porte em Santa Catarina: Uma Reflexão Sobre Planejamento Territorial

Authors: Cláudia Maté, Talita Micheleti, Alina Gonçalves Santiago
Comments: 20 Pages.

Apesar de serem maioria no território nacional e também no estado de Santa Catarina, as cidades de pequeno porte são as que menos possuem ferramentas de planejamento adequadas à sua realidade. A partir de 2001, o Estatuto da Cidade prevê a obrigatoriedade de elaboração de Plano Diretor nas cidades com população superior a 20.000 habitantes. Contudo, além de não atender uma significativa parcela dos municípios brasileiros, 69,15%, esta Lei também se mostra insuficiente em estabelecer diretrizes adequadas à realidade das pequenas cidades, bem como para o planejamento do seu espaço rural. Com base nesta problemática, este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a predominância dos municípios de pequeno porte no estado de Santa Catarina. A metodologia inicialmente consiste em uma breve revisão bibliográfica sobre a temática tratada, em seguida é realizada a coleta e processamento de dados do IBGE e órgãos municipais. Como resultado, têm-se mapeamentos temáticos do estado que ilustram sua dinâmica demográfica, a ligação existente entre o espaço urbano e rural, e correlacionando-os à existência de Plano Diretor nos municípios catarinenses.
Category: Social Science

[149] viXra:1510.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 10:58:38

Espacialidade do Medo e INSEGURANÇA PÚBLICA: Ensaio Sobre os Efeitos da Uhe Belo Monte na Cidade de Altamira no Pará

Authors: José Antônio Herrera, Rodolfo Pragana Moreira
Comments: 16 Pages.

As discussões sobre as espacialidades do medo e a insegurança pública na geografia, configuram-se incipiente na produção do pensamento geográfico. O mote neste artigo está em compreender as desigualdades sócio-espaciais consolidadas com a construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Belo Monte (UHE Belo Monte) na Microrregião de Altamira. Para isso, analisaram-se dados secundários de organizações públicas e websites que tratam das problemáticas estruturadas no texto, mormente acerca da expansão do medo e da insegurança social na cidade, variáveis consolidadas pelas dinâmicas sócio-espaciais no bojo da construção da hidrelétrica. Sobre o contexto, percebeu-se existir um avanço exponencial nas representações sociais do medo e na materialização de desigualdades face a construção de um projeto que tem como discurso o desenvolvimento socialmente correto e ambientalmente sustentável.
Category: Social Science

[148] viXra:1510.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:00:04

La GESTIÓN DE la POLÍTICA PÚBLICA DE Vivienda en la REGIÓN Litoral Norte Del Uruguay

Authors: Natalia Bisio, Natalie Robaina
Comments: 11 Pages.

El trabajo que se presenta es producto de los avances realizados en el marco de un proyecto de investigación en curso, retomando elementos presentados en instancias tales como el VII Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencia Política y la X Bienal del Coloquio Transformaciones Territoriales. El mismo pretende dar cuenta de los aspectos políticos y sociales que sustentan el diseño e implementación de la política social de vivienda entendida como una forma de construcción del espacio público. Para ello se toman como referencia algunos programas sociales de vivienda desarrollados durante el período 2005 – 2012, dirigidos a atender la demanda habitacional de sectores que no pueden acceder a ella en el mercado, poniendo énfasis en las respuestas brindadas a aquéllos con mayores dificultades socioeconómicas. La discusión que se presenta en el documento da cuenta de la complejidad que implica concebir a la vivienda no sólo como espacio privado sino sobre todo como constructora del espacio público, poniendo de manifiesto la necesidad de repensar la política social de vivienda intrínsecamente relacionada con la estructura económica, sociopolítica y cultural de cada territorio.
Category: Social Science

[147] viXra:1510.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:02:01

Las ÁREAS Centrales en Las Ciudades Intermedias Del Uruguay: Valores Locales en Tiempos DE Transformaciones Globales. el Análisis de la Ciudad de Salto

Authors: Juan Ferrer Pamparato
Comments: 13 Pages.

El trabajo propone el estudio de áreas centrales para las ciudades intermedias del Uruguay intentando revelar las correlaciones que se establecen entre las tensiones provocadas por el desarrollo económico y la reducción de la calidad ambiental del espacio urbano más significativo en estas localidades. Es precisamente la identificación de esta categoría de ciudades y una inquietud común por la renovación de sus áreas centrales, lo que entendemos, asigna pertinencia a este enfoque. Si bien el análisis se centra en el caso de la ciudad de Salto, la existencia de situaciones similares permite aplicar en otros contextos, los conceptos que aquí se consideran para este caso particular. La reflexión que se presenta gira en torno al concepto de centralidad entendida como entidad urbana de convergencia social y ámbito de referencia para la vida colectiva, con el objetivo de sistematizar información, a efectos de aportar algunas pautas para la revisión de las políticas públicas relativas a la planificación urbana y la gestión del espacio público y mejorar finalmente la calidad de vida de las poblaciones. Así entendido, el análisis intenta ser aplicable a los centros reconocidos históricamente, así como a centralidades secundarias de carácter barrial o zonal, que comparten un valor común: el sentido social que asume la idea de centro en los procesos de construcción de ciudadanía.
Category: Social Science

[146] viXra:1510.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:03:38

POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS e Adolescentes em Conflito Com a Lei: Revisão Sistemática da Literatura Nacional

Authors: Lisiane Ligia Mella, Jéssica Limberger, Ilana Andretta
Comments: 12 Pages.

Políticas públicas voltadas ao adolescente em conflito com a lei têm sido amplamente destacadas ao longo da história brasileira, principalmente após o processo de redemocratização do país, que culminou na promulgação da Constituição Federal de 1988 e o posterior Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA) em 1990. A presente revisão bibliográfica objetiva descrever estudos brasileiros de 2005 a 2015 acerca das políticas públicas dos adolescentes em conflito com a lei, analisando se tais estudos abordam a temática no contexto das pequenas e médias cidades. As bases de dados consultadas foram: Lilacs; Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnicocientíficos e HISA - História da Saúde. Os artigos analisados evidenciam que a temática tem sido pouco abordada dentro do recorte temporal estabelecido. Todavia, alguns temas centrais aparecem, como: a necessidade de articulação das políticas públicas de cada cidade no atendimento ao adolescente em conflito com a lei; carência na integração das políticas para o efetivo funcionamento em rede; e a importância do trabalho interdisciplinar nas políticas públicas de cidades tanto pequenas e médias como em cidades grandes.
Category: Social Science

[145] viXra:1510.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:04:54

EDUCACÃO Ambiental e IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS: a Experiência em Araranguá/SC

Authors: Maria Ángeles Lobo Recio, Kátia Cilene Rodrigues Madruga, Thayane Bilésimo, Catherine da Rosa Rossi, Ana Raquel Bernardy e Rafaela Mussi
Comments: 20 Pages.

A gestão de resíduos sólidos e o tratamento de esgotos urbanos estão associados a questões ambientais, sociais, culturais, econômicas, políticas e de saúde pública. Este trabalho de carácter qualitativo descritivo visa colaborar para as discussões sobre o papel da educação ambiental na implantação de políticas públicas de saneamento, a partir da experiência numa cidade de pequeno porte. Para tratar do tema é relatada a experiência com dois projetos de extensão elaborados e executados pelo grupo de Educação Ambiental e Sustentabilidade da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina na cidade de Araranguá. As atividades de educação ambiental foram efetuadas junto a alunos da quarta e quinta séries de ensino fundamental e do terceiro ano do ensino médio de escolas públicas e em diversos condomínios da cidade de Araranguá-SC. Entre as conclusões, destaca-se a relevância do papel da educação ambiental e da universidade na implantação de políticas públicas e na construção da cidadania.
Category: Social Science

[144] viXra:1510.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:06:50

SEGREGAÇÃO Socioespacial na REGIÃO Metropolitana DE Belo Horizonte: O Estigma de Ribeirão Das Neves/mg

Authors: Osmar Henrique Ribeiro da Silva, Ítalo Itamar Caixeiro Stephan
Comments: 17 Pages.

O crescimento urbano de Belo Horizonte é um processo de expansão populacional e territorial para além dos limites do município. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar o processo de segregação socioespacial que se expressa na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH) e investigar o processo de expansão periférica em direção ao Município de Ribeirão das Neves. A análise do processo tem como referência a formação do município de Neves baseada na implantação das penitenciárias e dos loteamentos populares, exemplificando a lógica da estruturação centro-periferia. Para a pesquisa foi realizado o levantamento documental e bibliográfico sobre o tema em artigos, revistas e demais dados do IBGE e da Fundação João Pinheiro. Através da pesquisa teórica foi observado um crescimento rápido e expressivo da malha urbana da RMBH, evidenciando um fenômeno de desigualdade socioespacial nesse espaço intrametropolitano. Constatou-se que a segregação socioespacial representa uma das dimensões mais expressivas desse fenômeno, encontrando principalmente nos municípios periféricos metropolitanos sua máxima, no caso em questão Ribeirão das Neves. Nesse município observou-se a implantação de loteamentos irregulares, juntamente com a implantação de unidades prisionais, favorecendo um cenário atual de um baixo grau de desenvolvimento destinado à população de baixa renda e de uma paisagem homogênea onde é notável a ausência de infraestrutura adequada.
Category: Social Science

[143] viXra:1510.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:08:02

A Pesquisa Urbana Nas Cidades AMAZÔNICAS

Authors: José Antônio Herrera
Comments: 6 Pages.

A PESQUISA URBANA NAS CIDADES AMAZÔNICAS
Category: Social Science

[142] viXra:1510.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 11:09:20

A CONTRIBUIÇÃO da Academia Para Mobilidade Urbana SUSTENTÁVEL Por Meio do Programa DE EXTENSÃO UNIVERSITÁRIA da Ufpr – Ciclovida

Authors: Silvana Nakamori, José Carlos Assunção Belotto, Moisés Francisco Farah Junior, Antônio Gonçalves Oliveira
Comments: 19 Pages.

Congestionamentos, acidentes de trânsito e poluição são alguns problemas resultantes de uma cultura de mobilidade que prioriza o transporte individual por meio do automóvel e o resultado dessa prioridade é a deteriorização da qualidade de vida urbana. A fim de tentar reverter esse panorama surge na UFPR o Programa de Extensão Universitária Ciclovida, acreditando que a Academia tem a obrigação de estar na vanguarda das transformações que a sociedade necessita, pois através da pesquisa, ensino e extensão visa-se à formação de uma cultura de mobilidade urbana saudável e sustentável, pelo do uso da bicicleta como um dos meios de transporte. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar as contribuições da academia para a mobilidade urbana sustentável focando no Programa Ciclovida e a metodologia utilizada foi à pesquisa documental, sendo também uma pesquisa aplicada, qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva e bibliográfica. Dentre os resultados está à descrição do Programa e o Desafio Intermodal (anos de 2007 a 2013), demonstrando que a Academia pode sim contribuir com a mobilidade urbana.
Category: Social Science

[141] viXra:1510.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-13 15:41:17

Contabilidade Aplicada ao Setor Público e Austeridade Fiscal: a Armadilha de Liquidez e O Perigo da Condenação do Endividamento Público

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 33 Pages.

O edifício contábil público brasileiro em funcionamento, com a existência da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, estabeleceu metas de gestão fiscal rígidas ao gestor público, como, por exemplo, limites ao endividamento e tetos para despesas de caráter continuado. Tal regramento impede que o governante tenha muita discricionariedade no desempenho de suas funções referentes ao gasto público. O presente estudo busca mostrar, através de metodologia bibliográfica, que este engessamento do administrador público perante uma situação econômica de “Armadilha de Liquidez” é problemático, sendo este o resultado que se acredita ter obtido como conclusão do trabalho. O que se faz é um exercício em possibilidade, levando o leitor a refletir problemas que poderiam ocorrer se o Brasil, futuramente, viesse a enfrentar, com o regramento contábil público atual, a situação econômica denominada “Armadilha de Liquidez.”
Category: Social Science

[140] viXra:1510.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-11 15:28:59

Suicide by Democracy-a Review of Ann Coulter's Adios America-the Left's Plan to Turn America Into a Third World Hell-Hole

Authors: Richard Wilson
Comments: 17 Pages.

Coulter outlines the recent history of immigration and how it is rapidly turning America into another Mexico. From the broader perspective I take, this book presents the American chapter of the sad story of the inexorable destruction of the world by unrestrained motherhood. Forty-seven years ago 396 politicians voted to embrace the destruction of America by the 3rd world. Without the changes they and William Brennan’s court made (along with failure to enforce our immigration laws), we would have about 80 million fewer people now and at least 150 million fewer in 2100,along with trillions of dollars in savings. We would have a chance to deal with the immense problems we and the world face. But, burdened with a fatally fragmented (i.e., ‘diverse’) population about twice the size we might have had, half of which will not contribute to the solution, but rather constitute the problem, it is impossible. What we see is that democracy as practiced here and now guarantees a fatally inept government. Peace and prosperity worldwide will vanish and military coups, terrorism and warlords will become routine, probably by the end of this century, certainly during the next. I discuss some possible solutions.
Category: Social Science

[139] viXra:1510.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-06 03:02:20

Revista Romania Azi

Authors: Editura Cadrelor Didactice
Comments: 19 Pages.

Revista Educația Azi este o publicație științifica a Editurii Cadrelor Didactice, care apare în fiecare lună în format exclusiv online. Domeniul de interes este „EDUCAȚIA” în cel mai larg sens atribuit acestui cuvânt. Nu avem o tematică anume, considerând că orice articol bine scris și documentat trebuie să fie cunoscut de un public cât mai larg. În acest sens, urmărim ca în cel mai scurt timp cu putință să fim cea mai cunoscuta revistă din mediul online care se ocupă de domeniul Educației. Orice articol de-al dumneavoastră nu face decât să ne apropie tot mai mult de acest obiectiv. Ca o mulțumire pentru ajutorul pe care ni-l oferiți, după publicarea a 3 articole/autor, va adresăm invitația de a deveni colaborator permanent și să figurați în căsuța tehnică a prezentei publicații. Pentru mai multe precizări în legătură cu publicarea articolelor, tehnoredactarea acestora și posibilele teme de abordat, accesati rubrica Apel articole de pe pagina de start a publicației. Pentru orice alte detalii, vă rugăm să ne scrieți pe e-mail: edituracadrelordidactice@yahoo.com . REVISTA EDUCATIA AZI ESTE SINGURA REVISTĂ EDITATĂ INTEGRAL IN LIMBA ROMÂNĂ INDEXATA ÎN BAZE DE DATE INTERNATIONALE!!!
Category: Social Science

[138] viXra:1509.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 08:44:06

Interpretating and Expanding Laozi’s Governing A Large Country Is Like Cooking A Small Fish with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on interpreting and expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through neutrosophic tetrad, this paper discusses interpretating and expanding Laozi’s governing a large country is like cooking a small fish with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. There are many different ways for interpretating and expanding, and come to different conclusions. This paper emphasizes the results that besides governing a large country is like cooking a small fish, we should also consider that governing a large Chinese style country is like cooking a small Chinese style fish, governing a large American style country is like cooking a small American style fish, and the like; as well as governing a large country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a large country is like cooking a big fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a small fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a big fish, governing a small country is like cooking a small fish, governing a small country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a small country is like cooking a big fish, and the like; governing a large country covers cooking a small fish, governing a large country is not like cooking a small fish, and the like. Finally, according to neutrosophic tetrad, this famous remark can be expanded as follows, simultaneously consider governing a large country, a medium country, and a small country are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; as well as governing a large province, a medium province, and a small province are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; governing a big city, a medium city, and a small city are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; governing a big ministry, a medium ministry, and a small ministry are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; and the like. Of course, "cooking various fishes" can also be replaced by "cooking various fishes and foods", because "Food is the paramount necessity of the people". Key words: Neutrosophy, quad-stage method, interpretation, expansion, governing a large country is like cooking a small fish, neutrosophic tetrad
Category: Social Science

[137] viXra:1509.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 05:16:07

Standards Are Good for Clearing Science

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 4 Pages.

The fashion is wrongly called ``Standards of beauty''. Because the Standards, as the name says, are never changing. Therefore, let us build our character on the Uniting Standards.
Category: Social Science

[136] viXra:1508.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-19 01:45:27

Where is my Strength? The Bela Guttmann Playmaking: Goal for a Life

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 6 Pages.

The empirical life history of soccer player and coach Bela Guttmann is explored, concerning critical life events. This is a humanistic portray that teaches us how to go from strength to strength and to score our goal for a life.
Category: Social Science

[135] viXra:1508.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 10:03:07

Determinants of Hiv Infection in Nigeria: a Synthesis of the Literature

Authors: Olatunji Joshua Awoleye, Chris Thron
Comments: 19 Pages.

Background: Nigeria has an estimated 3.5 million HIV positive individuals, ranking third worldwide. This study analyzed the determinants of HIV infection to improve HIV programming in Nigeria and developing countries. Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of grey and electronic databases of reviewed journals, and application of Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) determinants of health model. A total of 45 publications (21 reports and 24 articles were reviewed). Results: New infections are emerging at increasing rates among individuals engaging in sexual relationships such as men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex work (FSW). The level of political commitment to HIV control is extremely low: currently, the government of Nigeria provides less than 10 percent of the funding for HIV control efforts in Nigeria, the rest coming from foreign sources and private sectors. Political, work environment, gender, healthcare service and lifestyle determinants are predominant over others. Conclusion: HIV control in Nigeria is financially over-dependent on foreign interventions. Political actions are required to address sexual orientations. Most-at-risk populations require education, legal requirements, and healthcare services in order to minimize new infection.
Category: Social Science

[134] viXra:1508.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 10:05:11

Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State Nigeria: an Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

Authors: Olatunji Joshua Awoleye, Chris Thron
Comments: 19 Pages.

Background: Nigeria has an estimated 3.5 million HIV positive individuals, ranking third worldwide. This study analyzed the determinants of HIV infection to improve HIV programming in Nigeria and developing countries. Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of grey and electronic databases of reviewed journals, and application of Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) determinants of health model. A total of 45 publications (21 reports and 24 articles were reviewed). Results: New infections are emerging at increasing rates among individuals engaging in sexual relationships such as men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex work (FSW). The level of political commitment to HIV control is extremely low: currently, the government of Nigeria provides less than 10 percent of the funding for HIV control efforts in Nigeria, the rest coming from foreign sources and private sectors. Political, work environment, gender, healthcare service and lifestyle determinants are predominant over others. Conclusion: HIV control in Nigeria is financially over-dependent on foreign interventions. Political actions are required to address sexual orientations. Most-at-risk populations require education, legal requirements, and healthcare services in order to minimize new infection.
Category: Social Science

[133] viXra:1508.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-03 10:26:42

Impact of Torsion Fields on Our Health. Notes of a Practicing Dowser

Authors: V.E. Prigozhin
Comments: 5 Pages.

The author narrates (in Russian) about influence of CW (right) and CCW (left) Torsion Fields, TF, on human health. All the considered fields are produced by the environment of human dwellings, such as furniture, landscapes and their geometry as well as a lot of subjects of our everyday living. Even the geometry of dentistry works can influence a health of the patient. The author states that CW fields are mostly auspicious, while the CCW are inauspicious for human health. A 30 year experience of the author in this practice results in developing special simple means to mitigate and neutralize negative natural sources of unwanted TF.
Category: Social Science

[132] viXra:1507.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-24 06:21:02

Should Google use Ad Tracking or Targeting?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 8 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.
Category: Social Science

[131] viXra:1507.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-23 14:07:38

Peter Drucker und die Heilsarmee

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 4 Pages.

This text in the German tongue introduces social workers and volunteers into the essentials of non-profit management.
Category: Social Science

[130] viXra:1506.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-28 04:48:50

Understanding Social-Force Model in Psychological Principles of Collective Behaviors

Authors: Peng Wang
Comments: 3 Pages.

To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by most social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.
Category: Social Science

[129] viXra:1506.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-07 04:17:28

Histo-Physics: Social Systems & Human Narratives

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 2 Pages.

This brief paper explores the physical theory of human history and the deep interplay of social systems evolution & human narratives, i.e. history as the psychophysical record of human development via free choice vs. all forms of 'slavery'.
Category: Social Science

[128] viXra:1505.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 09:53:06

Examination of The Effect Some Motoric And Coordinative Aspects On Football Technical Skıll in Universıty Male Football Tam Players

Authors: Mehmet Tokgoz, Oguzhan Dalkiran
Comments: 20 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine the affect of some motoric aspects on shot, pass the ball and dribbling performances at football players. 26 male football players playing different amateur football clubs in Burdur City center and having 19,65±3,452 mean age participated to study. 30m sprint, anaerobic power, log strength, flexibility, balance and coordination tests were used in measurement of some motoric aspects that football players had. Pearson Correlation, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), Simple Multiple Regression, Simple Regression analyses in SPSS 22.0 for Windows package program were used in analysis of data obtained. In the end of research, it was established that there were significant relationship among only anaerobic power, leg strength, balance, speed and flexibility performances with shot, pass the ball and dribbling performances when they were handled independently each other (p<0,05). It was established that there was no significant relationship among shot and pass the ball with coordination level (p>0,05), on the other hand, there was significant relationship between coordination level and dribbling performance (p<0,05).When the affects of motoric aspects, that football players had, on pass the ball, shot, and dribbling performances were evaluated, it was established that anaerobic power, flexibility, balance and speed performances did not affect pass the ball, shot and dribbling performances at significant level (p>0,05). Similarly, it was established that both leg strength and coordination level did not affect pass the ball and shot performances at significant level (p>0,05). Notwithstanding, it was identified that leg strength and coordination level were factors affecting dribbling performance (p<0,05). When motoric aspects were handled completely in research content, their affects on pass the ball, shot and dribbling performances were examined. As obtained results, it was established that speed, leg strength, balance, anaerobic power and coordination level as a whole affected dribbling level significantly (p<0,05). Notwithstanding, it was established that speed, leg strength, balance, anaerobic power and coordination level as a whole did not affect pass the ball and shot performances significantly (p>0,05). As a result, it may be said that handling motoric aspects independently each other did not affect technical skill in football. So, it may be said that handling motoric aspects as a whole is required while technical skills are evaluated in football players, more then one motoric aspects should be developed at certain levels to enhance technical skills in football players. Keywords: Football, motoric aspects, technical skill
Category: Social Science

[127] viXra:1505.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 09:55:23

W.A. Mozart, Clarinet Concert, Stadler And Basset-Horn

Authors: Halil Emrah Ozturk
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) generally composed instrumental concerto for the specific players. In the case of his bassoon concerto, he had written for bassoon player Freiherr Thaddäus von Dürnrtz, and his oboe concerto for Giuseppe Ferlendis. Mozart did not have any other occasion to compose any other bassoon concerto because he befriended only with one bassoon player. After he first heard the basset-horn, he used this instrument in many of his symphonies and he composed works for this instrument in chamber music genre. Mozart dedicated his Clarinet Concerto (K.622) to Anton Stadler (1753-1812) who was an important clarinet player of his time and Mozart’s good friend. Also, his ‘Clarnet Trio’ (K.498), ‘Clarnet Quintet’ (K.581) and ‘Quintet for Piano and Winds ’ (K. 452) are dedicated to Stadler. Therefore, Stadler first performed the A major Clarinet Concerto on October 16, 1791 in Prague. Key Words: Mozart, clarnet, stadler, basset-horn
Category: Social Science

[126] viXra:1505.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 09:58:35

The Relatıon Between Rhythm And Music Education in The Improvement of Basic Movement Skills Of Primary School Students of 1-4th Grades

Authors: Zeynel Turan, Fisun Kose, Hatice Camliyer
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between rhythm and music education in the improvement of basic movement skills of primary school students of 1-4th grades. In this study combing method has been applied and the importance of music and rhythm education for students of these grades has been addressed. Articles on the importance of basic movement education for these children have been studied and a reasonable synthesis has been tried to be attained. When compared with the density of such an education for pre-school period, the number of studies signifying the importance of music and rhythm education during primary school period is rather insignificant, thus making such a study valuable. The importance of music and rhythm education for primary school students has been emphasized both through applied and observational studies, yet studies concerning basic movement have not sufficiently been referred to. In our combing-method study, the importance of the link between rhythm and movement has been emphasized. In the meantime, it can be regarded as a useful study as it may shed light on applied studies to be carried out and it may as well be helpful to researchers in the field. Keywords: Child, Basic Movement, Music, Rhythm
Category: Social Science

[125] viXra:1505.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 10:07:13

Investigatıon of Self-Esteem of Physical Education And Sport High School Students in Terms of Age, Gender And Doing Sport Situation

Authors: Meric Eraslan, Gokhan Caliskan, Mustafa Bas
Comments: 7 Pages.

Nowadays, sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits, some environmental factors, genetic factors and various unhealthy lifestyle behaviors lead to the some diseases. Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and psychological disorders are among some of these diseases. The cancer diseases prevalence is know that continuously increasing in this diseases. This sitution has prepared the ground for the development of new treatments against cancer of the country. Despite cancer is still high prevalence. Cancer disease in children is reported to increase the incidence compared to previous years as in adults. Therefore, to protect children from cancer, cancer support children's treatment process, removal of some importance to improve the quality of children's health has become an important condition after the treatment process. To fight childhood cancer in the literature are also sport and physical activity participation on research findings that give useful results. However, our country was found to be limited research on this subject. İn this context the study was carried out, the prevention of cancer in childhood, in the treatment of cancer, treatment is focused on completion of the children of the benefits of sport participation in the healing process. Keywords: Childhood, cancer and sports, cancer and rehabilitation
Category: Social Science

[124] viXra:1504.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-22 04:41:40

A Bill for Regulating Acceptance of Finances from Donors

Authors: Centre For Democracy And Development
Comments: 4 Pages.

An act to regulate the acceptance and utilization of financial/material contribution of donor agencies to voluntary organisations.
Category: Social Science

[123] viXra:1504.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-22 04:48:45

Matters Arising from the Voting Phase During the Nigeria 2015 Governorship and State House of Assembly Elections

Authors: Centre For Democracy And Development
Comments: 4 Pages.

matters arising from the voting phase during the Nigeria 2015 Governorship and State House of Assembly Elections
Category: Social Science

[122] viXra:1504.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-22 05:54:02

Understanding Women, Youth and Other Marginalized Groups in Political Party Activities in Nigeria

Authors: Centre For Democracy And Development
Comments: 17 Pages.

understanding women, youth and other marginalised groups in political party activities in Nigeria.
Category: Social Science

[121] viXra:1504.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-10 01:27:42

Literary History Goes Further

Authors: Ştefan VLĂDUȚESCU
Comments: 5 Pages.

The study investigates the current status of literary history; it focuses on the possibility, the status and the development potential of the literary history. This is seen, on the one hand, as discursive practice of aesthetic evaluation and as decoding speech, interpretation, hermeneutics decryption. On the other hand, the literary history is retained as fundamental concept of the theory of literature. It starts from the axioms of some of the fixed stars of the domain (George Călinescu, Rene Wellek, Augustin Warren), taking into account the positions already accredited of some distinguished contemporary literary critic (Nicolae Manolescu, Eugen Simion, Eugen Negrici), taking into account the assertions of some critics, historians and committed literary theorists (Mircea A. Diaconu, Iulian Boldea, Al. Cistelecan, Gheorghe Crăciun) and also are considered the opinions expressed by personalities in the making of the investigated field (Nicoleta Ifrim, Gabriel Coșoveanu, Ion Buzera, Ioana Andreea Mircea, Cătălin Ghiță, Sorina Sorescu). To clarify the issue, it proceeds to a triangulation, it appeals to a research methodology consists of three methods convergent used: the meta-analytic method, the historical method and the comparative method. The reached conclusion is that literary history is an actuality domain with great evolution perspectives. There are four arguments in the support of the conclusion, and therewith constitute factors that ensures the continuity and development potential of literary history: 1) the infinity of human aesthetic sense, 2) irrepressible improving of the critical spirit, 3) optimizing of reading standards and 4) functioning need and the canon reviewing.
Category: Social Science

[120] viXra:1504.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 13:50:43

Indicadores Para Evaluar la Sostenibilidad Del Metabolismo Urbano

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 48 Pages.

Extracto del texto "Un modelo y una metodología para incrementar la sostenibilidad en los procesos habituales de transformación urbana", que detalla los indicadores para evaluar la sostenibilidad del metabolismo urbano como indicador indirecto del impacto de un área urbana sobre el medio ambiente natural.
Category: Social Science

[119] viXra:1504.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 02:37:46

Communication in Negative Journalism

Authors: Stefan VlĂduȚescu, Ion Cucui, Delia Mioara Popescu, Marius Petrescu, Ion Stegaroiu, Anisoara Duica
Comments: 5 Pages.

The starting assumption is that the man is an accessible being, permeable to persuasion and to negative journalism. From the point of view of social influence, the communication submits two methods: the convictive method (the conviction) and the persuasive method (the persuasion). The approach of convictive influence is the approach of demonstration, of the intense arguments, the approach of the strictly and compelling logical inferences. But the man is not an entirely rational being. The individuals do not communicate in order to demonstrate. They communicate to share an experience, to agree on some values, on some actions etc. Demonstrations focus on the necessary things. But people’s life is not exhausted by the necessary things. The human has emotions, feelings, passions, needs, wishes. The conviction approach does not cover all that is human. The persuasion governs the emotion and the passion field. As a main form of persuasion it is individualized the negative journalism, understood as an informative intervention dragged along by an interest external to the direct, accurate, honest and balanced information. There can be detached four coordinates of the negative journalism, of the journalism determined by dishonest commandments: the lie, the seduction, the fiction and the myth. We can see them clearly articulated in journalistic operations of intoxication, misinformation, propaganda and manipulation.
Category: Social Science

[118] viXra:1503.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 16:38:45

Effects of Physical Education and Participation to Sports On Social Development in Children

Authors: Ozkan Keskin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The effects of participation to sports on general health have been well known. Through various studies in literature, it has been revealed that participation to sports has positive effects on physical, metabolic, psychological and spiritual health. In addition to benefits in terms of health, participation to sports provides some benefits in terms of social development as well. In this respect, in order to provide societies with socially developed individuals, physical education and participation to sports can be said to have an utmost effect. Especially children at younger ages are thought to be easy going and harmonious individuals in terms of social life provided that they are participated in sports activities at early ages. Having reviewed the literature in the field, it was seen that the number of studies focusing on the relationship between sports and socialization were plentiful, however, as to the number of studies investigating how much physical education and participation to sports activities effected social development in children, it was quite limited. In this framework, this study aimed to find out the effects of physical education and participation to sports on social development in children. Keywords: Physical education and sports, kids, socialization
Category: Social Science

[117] viXra:1503.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 16:45:25

Perceived Conflict Management Styles of Primary School Principals and Stress Level it Caused on Teachers: Gaziantep Sahinbey County Sample

Authors: Kerim Yıldız
Comments: 15 Pages.

The aim of this study was to find out the effects of conflict management styles used by primary school administrators on stress levels of teachers. Participants of the study were 470 primary school teachers, 228 of whom were female and 242 male, working in ahinbey County of Gaziantep province. Data were collected through Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II - ROCI II, and they were analyzed by using SPSS 15.0 package program for Windows. Results of the study revealed that school principals used integration, appeasement, avoidance and negotiation styles at moderate level according to the perceptions of teachers. As for ruling styles, they used it at below-moderate level. Integration style used by principals was observed to cause more stress on teachers compared to other styles. Perceptions of female teachers on the usage of appeasement and negotiation styles were found to be statistically lower than male teachers (p<0,05). However, conflict management styles that were used by principals did not reveal any statistically significant difference in terms of gender (P>0.05). In addition, perceived conflict management styles and stress level stemmed from conflict management styles did not reveal any significant difference in terms of age groups and education level of teachers (p>0.05). The correlation analysis between used conflict management and the stress level it caused on teachers showed that there was a significant relationship between used conflict management and stress level it caused on teachers. It can be derived from those findings that ruling style used by administrators in conflict management increased stress level of teachers at a statistically significant degree (p>0.05), as to the other conflict management styles, they decreased stress level of teachers. Key Words: Conflict, Conflict management, stress
Category: Social Science

[116] viXra:1503.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 16:47:49

The Problems and Resolutıon Advisory Related the Sports Parks Built by the Local Goverment (Mersin Example)

Authors: Cansın Kulekci Tatli, Mehmet Gundogdu
Comments: 11 Pages.

Aim of this study is to identify the problems related to sports parks built by local authorities in Mersin province and suggest solutions related to those problems. 166 participants who regularly used the sports parks built by local authorities in Mersin province participated in the study. A questionnaire that consisted of 28 questions 6 of which were demographic and 22 were close-ended questions was applied to the participants. Frequency analyses were used at SPSS 11.0 program to analyze the data of the study. Results of the study revealed that the users of these parks were women at middle or above-middle age, and as for their professional characteristics, housewives were the most frequent job group that used sports parks. The main reasons for using sports parks were pursuing a healthy life and weight control. It was also found out that the main reason for people to prefer sports parks was doing sports in open air and their being free of charge. Furthermore, some other findings on exercise types in these parks, their being sufficient in terms of health, and the rate of people benefitting from these parks were also obtained. Key words: Local authorities, sports, sports parks
Category: Social Science

[115] viXra:1503.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 16:50:03

The Effect of Leadership Styles of School Principals on Organizational Citizenshıp Behaviours of Teachers

Authors: Bayram Ali Yıldırım, Ahmet Cezmi Savas
Comments: 13 Pages.

The aim of this study was to find out the effect of leadership styles of school principals on organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers. Participants of the study were 125 preschool, class and branch teachers who were randomly selected. Data of the study were collected through “Multifactor Leadership Scale” and “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Scale”. In order to find out the relationship among variables, multiple regression analysis was applied through SPSS 20 program. According to the results of this analysis, there was a positive relationship between overall average of leadership styles of school principals and organizational citizenship behaviors sub-dimensions and membership morality dimensions. Key words: Leadership, leadership styles, organizational citizenship behavior.
Category: Social Science

[114] viXra:1503.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-04 11:20:47

Quantum Economic Science/essentials

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 1 Page.

The essentials of quantum economic science are explained, in simple English.
Category: Social Science

[113] viXra:1503.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-02 07:01:54

Advancing Georgist Thought

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 10 Pages.

The eco-energetic role of the land value Monopoly in the modern monetary production economy is elaborated.
Category: Social Science

[112] viXra:1502.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 21:13:20

How Change Happens: a Theory of Philosophy of History, Social Change and Cultural Evolution

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 143 Pages.

How Change Happens puts the study of social and cultural history and social change and cultural evolution on a scientific basis capable of rational analysis and understanding. It shows how social and cultural change happens and explains the sequence of events in social and cultural history. It shows how social and cultural history followed a necessary path that can be analysed and rationally understood and explained. Most books on history describe how one thing followed another. How Change Happens describes why one thing followed another.
Category: Social Science

[111] viXra:1502.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 12:56:18

The Issue of Statistical Power for Overall Model Fit in Evaluating Structural Equation Models: Examples from Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research

Authors: Richard Hermida, Joseph N. Luchman, Vias Nicolaides, Cristina Wilcox
Comments: 52 Pages.

Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the power of a structural equation model (SEM) is rare in practice. This article provides an accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs. Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.
Category: Social Science

[110] viXra:1501.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-24 12:17:28

The Economics of American Independence

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 9 Pages. Liberty; ethics; revolution; economics;The Bible

The economics of American Independence is analyzed; a deep explanation of historical events is given,from the viewpoint of political Hebraism and economic thought.
Category: Social Science

[109] viXra:1501.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-20 02:52:14

Social Sciences and Education Research Review 1/2014

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea
Comments: 78 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN 2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.
Category: Social Science

[108] viXra:1501.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-20 02:54:28

Social Sciences and Education Research Review 2/2014

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea
Comments: 79 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN 2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.
Category: Social Science

[107] viXra:1501.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-17 09:32:29

Managing Some Uncertainties of Communication as Academic Discipline in the Spanish and Italian Virtual Environment

Authors: Alina Țenescu, Nicușor Minculete
Comments: 25 Pages.

The premise from which we begin our study is that nowadays we are faced with several uncertainties of communication as academic discipline, amongst which the most evident are: the uncertainty related to the denomination or title of the discipline, the uncertainty concerning its status as theory of communication or as science of communication and the uncertainty regarding the inclusion of communication within one or other of the following domains: social sciences, natural sciences or humanities. Applying the comparative citation analysis on a corpus of study constituted by thirty-two titles of publications representative for the domain of science of information and communication (published in the last twenty years) in two different cultural and scientific areas (Italian and Spanish), we will examine the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citation of these publications in six electronic bookshops. We will also carry out a comparative statistical analysis of the categories and scientific domains these publications are included and comprised in on the virtual platforms so as to reveal the above mentioned uncertainties and to find a solution by proposing a model for the standardization of domain categories and tags of the same title on several bookshop sites.
Category: Social Science

[106] viXra:1501.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 12:00:35

Usl Proposals to the Governments of the South Asian and Sub-Saharan African Countries, and the African Union (Draft 1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 10 Pages.

USL1 proposals to the governments of the South Asian and African countries, and the African Union as a part of larger program called 5UE for 5 regions or continents proposal (to governments & the UN) will operate under the principle of 5UEs. The key idea of us is to trigger peaceful global revolution using the established human capital boost factors of USL (which literally will trigger the educational revolution in very short time). As the sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia overall are the least economically developed regions in the world, the economic boosts on these regions based on USL1 will be much larger than the rest of the world. Over the next 60-80 years of time frame, USL1 can literally boost the economy 100 times of the current GDPs of these regions. Using that potential, we are trying to establish an UN-led international treaty and create URF (Unified Redistribution Fund), which is designed to boost the globally sustainable prosperity in the following sequence: Unified 5 Es (Education –> Economy –> Energy –> Environment –> Empowerment). As of now, we are planning to use a simple version of USL1 called UBN1 (Universal Basic Numeracy) the projections of the economic growths, narrowing economic gaps are included at the end.
Category: Social Science

[105] viXra:1501.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 08:12:40

Creativity, Imaginary, Language

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea, Alina Țenescu
Comments: 284 Pages.

Volumul cuprinde lucrările prezentate în cadrul CIL 2014: The International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language, Craiova, 16-17 May 2014 (www.cilconference.ro)
Category: Social Science

[104] viXra:1501.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:07:01

Os Riscos e a SUBPOLÍTICA da Coleta Seletiva no Rio DE Janeiro

Authors: Ms. Vinícius Ferreira
Comments: 23 Pages.

This work addresses generally the problem of municipal solid waste and selective collection in Viçosa-MG in a context of the National Policy on Solid Waste. The main goal is to analyze the spatial distribution of VDPs (Voluntary Delivery Points), also known as Ecopoints. Are places where the population moves to allocate those recyclables. For it was used Geoprocessing tools and field observations. The results show that where social mobilization was performed regarding the selective collection, showed better indices of usability of VDPs. Also showed that the spatial analysis are critical in urban planning, especially in solid waste management.
Category: Social Science

[103] viXra:1501.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:08:25

Gerenciamento DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS Urbanos: Uma Análise da Distribuição Espacial Dos Pontos de Entrega Voluntária de Material Reciclável em Viçosa/MG

Authors: Ms. Júlio Campos
Comments: 23 Pages.

This work addresses generally the problem of municipal solid waste and selective collection in Viçosa-MG in a context of the National Policy on Solid Waste. The main goal is to analyze the spatial distribution of VDPs (Voluntary Delivery Points), also known as Ecopoints. Are places where the population moves to allocate those recyclables. For it was used Geoprocessing tools and field observations. The results show that where social mobilization was performed regarding the selective collection, showed better indices of usability of VDPs. Also showed that the spatial analysis are critical in urban planning, especially in solid waste management.
Category: Social Science

[102] viXra:1501.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:11:21

Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida: a Percepção Dos Beneficiários Como Instrumento Para Avaliação

Authors: inicius de Souza Moreira, Suely de Fátima Ramos Silveira, Francimar Natália Silva Cruz Reis
Comments: 22 Pages.

The "Minha Casa, Minha Vida" (MCMV), launched in 2009, is now the main program of the Federal Government to tackle the country's housing deficit. To pay attention to the figure of the beneficiaries, it is noted that the target audience of the programs rarely participate in the evaluation process. In this sense, the study aimed to evaluate the perception of families benefited from the program, in a new development located in Viçosa (MG), in three areas: Housing Unit, Enterprise and Surrounding Areas. Data were analyzed from the Descriptive Statistics, Cronbach's Alpha, the KolmogorovSmirnov (KS) and the Student t test. Thus, the results showed that the evaluation of the perception of the beneficiaries is figured as an important performance measure of MCMV, since in considering the opinion of those who really enjoy the products delivered by the intervention is possible to incorporate citizen participation and be closer to the reality lived in the projects.
Category: Social Science

[101] viXra:1501.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:13:10

OLÍTICA Habitacional e Pequenos MUNICÍPIOS no PARÁ: Reflexões Sobre Capacidade Administrativa e Implementação do Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida Oferta Pública

Authors: Anna Carolina Gomes Holanda, Joana Valente Santana
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper discusses the recent housing policy in Brazil. It examines the Program “My House My Life”, a government program providing funds to small municipalities and specifically how this has been applied in the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. Based on research of books and documents, the issue of housing and urban struggles are considered. The results of this research show that these small municipalities have a limited administrative capacity for the implementation of this program.
Category: Social Science

[100] viXra:1501.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:14:53

O Conflito Entre Movimento Dos Pobladores e Estado no Chile: Quem Gere, Planeja e Controla O Território?

Authors: Mestranda Nathalie Drumond
Comments: 23 Pages.

This study discusses the formation of territoriality of social movements, from the concrete experience in Chile of the pobladores’s movement. Until the establishment of the military regime in this country, the pobladores developed a model of self-government in their districts. From the 1973 coup, state and housing market began to regulate these territories. With the analysis of this historical example, it was sought to extend the concept of territory for geography including social movement as subject of production of space. At the same time, it was avoided to make an analysis that separates the movements of their context, not taking into account the limits that the processes at larger scales impose on the struggle of social movements. To build this theoretical review of the territory‟s concept, was analyzed the territorial characteristics of two steps of the pobladores’s movement, the embryonic experience of self-government (1967-73) and its decline from the success of the neoliberal project in Chile. It was found that the social movement can be the "architect" of your own neighborhood, so it is necessary to rethink the concept of territory, considering the social movement as an active subject of its construction.
Category: Social Science

[99] viXra:1501.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:16:41

Plano Rio Sem MISÉRIA: Reflexões Sobre a Estratégia Para a Redução da Pobreza e da Desigualdade no Estado do RJ

Authors: Mestranda Angélica Cristina Nagel Hullen, Márcio Eduardo Brotto
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper is a partial product based on the research on the Rio Plan without Poverty - PRSM, a strategy aimed at overcoming poverty in the state of Rio de Janeiro. It aims to perform a systematic description of PRSM, analyzing it in the light of social welfare policy, and to present initial outcomes of the state strategy. Studies like these are of importance as they discuss the role of social assistance in solving human needs. Not all the specific needs for overcoming poverty are included in the social welfare policy. They are integrated in several policies and must be understood through different perspectives in order to enhance the impacts of such strategy plans.
Category: Social Science

[98] viXra:1501.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:17:57

O SERVIÇO Social na MEDIAÇÃO DE Conflitos: a Atuação do Assistente Social Nos Casos de Conflitos Familiares Mediados na Seccional Urbana do Bairro da Sacramenta em Belém–PA

Authors: Nathalia Kamila Nunes Aquino, Rosália do Socorro da Silva Corrêa
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper presents the practice of Social Work in mediating family disputes, the major causes of this conflicts, from the cases treated in a Civil Police unit (Sectional neighborhood of Sacramenta) in Belém, PA. Governed by the Policy for Public Safety of the State, the social worker acts in a preventive manner, avoiding that conflict situations reach the world of crime. The study was conducted through the following techniques: approach, observation, semi structured interviews, and documentary research that contributed with significant data for the study. The research showed that the social worker’s service of conflict mediation in that Sectional is promoting conflict resolution that could evolve into criminal practices, if there was not this type of intervention; in addition to promoting social harmony and harmonious balance between the parties, preventing violence and crime
Category: Social Science

[97] viXra:1501.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:19:41

Políticas Públicas de Atendimento a Mulheres Vítimas de Violência: a Lei Maria da Penha e Sua APLICAÇÃO no Contexto da PRÁTICA

Authors: Aline Nandi, Rosane Maria Kaspary, Raquel Caetano, Dorneles Sita Fagundes
Comments: 27 Pages.

The analysis of the Public Policy for coping with women victims of violence and the applicability of Law 1,340/2006 "Maria da Penha" whose objective of this study, seeks to identify and understand the elaboration of this Public Policy, the demands of action and other public policies from the consolidation of the Maria da Penha Law and its impact on municipalities of Taquara and Rolante/RS. For a more critical approach and with a specific focus on the theme, it was identified and mapped the applicability ways of the Maria da Penha Law in the municipalities selected for this research, its application by the bodies responsible for the assistance to the women in violence situation. For this, we raised the number of domestic violence against women recorded at the civil police station in the two towns, since the elaboration of Maria da Pena Law until the first semester of 2014. It confirmed the importance of this study as the ground for future researches which, focusing different areas of knowledge may deepen the thematic addressed here.
Category: Social Science

[96] viXra:1501.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:21:11

Planejamento e Mercados: O Caso da Suinocultura Catarinense Frente à Crise Russo-Ucraniana

Authors: Dra. Glaucia Padrão e Ms. Reney Dorow
Comments: 17 Pages.

The insert of the production chain of pork from Santa Catarina in the international market makes it potentially vulnerable to the instability in major markets in the world, being able to influence the planning of production in the State. The latest refers to the Russian-Ukrainian crisis, which began in November 2013, with local reflexes in the pork chain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the scale of the crisis in the pork sector of Santa Catarina, as well as its consequences on the corn market, since corn is the main raw material in the production of pigs. To assess this situation, we used the market reference and cooperation within the BRICS. The results show that, due to the cancellation of Ukrainian imports of pig meat originating in Santa Catarina, there was an increase in exports to the BRICs, mainly to Russia, which prevented the occurrence of more harmful effects on local production planning. This demonstrated the strength of Brazil's foreign policy alignment within the framework of cooperation with the BRICs in the definition and realignment of markets.
Category: Social Science

[95] viXra:1501.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:22:24

POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS: Interpretações Com O Foco no Capital Social

Authors: Mestranda Valéria Fontoura Nunes, Jovino Pizzi
Comments: 20 Pages.

The public policies are topics to be discussed in several meetings, seminars, academic work and on daily-basis debates. Its multidisciplinary nature highlights the multiple point of view, as well as interpretation. The controversies are not limited to the analysis itself, but also on the consequences and reflections derived from public policies. For that reason, the contributions coming from sociology, economy and philosophy, among other areas, so that plausible justifications might be taken for their validity and problem identification as well as habits connected to it. Besides public policies cycles and its dynamical process, they take part in the agenda definition, alternative identification, evaluation and options taken, implementation and evaluation etc. It is certain that such matters are guided by a variety of interests. As a result, the goal of this paper is talk about public policies taking into account the social capital category analytic potential in Putnam. It is not merely discussing Putnam’s theoretical aspects, but mainly exposes the initiatives developed in the Latin America and in Brazil. In fact, it is aimed at highlighting that the social capital category might be an index of human coexistence. In this sense, the synergy among states, demographic institutions and community are interested in the community welfare. For that reason, the establishment of indexes such as commitment, cooperation, engagement and social participation are essential to constitute public policies committed to the distributive rules.
Category: Social Science

[94] viXra:1501.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:23:58

A Aplicação da Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental na Modalidade de Educação de Jovens e Adultos do Ifba

Authors: Ms. Bruno Britto de Miranda
Comments: 27 Pages.

Environmental education in the school context aims to open spaces for the construction of knowledge and the articulation of knowledge, enabling the formation of individuals who are participants in building a sustainable, socially just and ecologically balanced. In this sense, educate environmentally subjects requires the involvement of a range of social actors and organizational forms that include alternative actions to the hegemonic model of development, with an emphasis on environmental sustainability. In this context we decided to investigate the course of Informatics of PROEJA of Victoria Campus da Conquista - BA and analyze whether it is meeting plausibly the PNEA. Characterized as a descriptive qualitative approach, waiting to see how the result as the PNEA and PROEJA are in line and how everyday attitudes of teachers can accomplish this peculiar public which is the type of youth and adult education.
Category: Social Science

[93] viXra:1501.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 15:44:33

Transdisciplinarity and Communicative Action. a Postmodern Perspective (Editorial)

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

Transdisciplinarity and communicative action are the current fluid and irradiative concepts; are the concepts which support the moving of postmodernity toward transmodernity. The first concept is consecrated by Basarab Nicolescu and the second one is imposed by Jurgen Habermas. We emphasize that in the contemporary change of paradigm appear new forms of communicative action that complement the old ones, and that through transdisciplinarity and new communicative actions more and more the postmodernism becomes transmodernism.
Category: Social Science

[92] viXra:1501.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:19:04

Communicative Universal Convertibility Matter Energy Information

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Ștefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 19 Pages.

The research aims to reveal and prove the thesis of the neutral and convertibility relationship between constituent constructive elements of the universe: matter, energy and information. The approach perspective is a computationally-communicative-neutrosop hic one. We configure a coherent and cohesive ideation line. Matter, energy and information are fundamental elements of the world. Among them, there is an inextricable multiple, elastic and evolutionary connection. The elements are defined by the connections between them. Our hypothesis is that the relationship between matter, energy and information is a neutral one. This relationship is not required by the evidence. At this level, it does not give up in front of the evidence intelligibility. Neutral relationship is revealed as a law connection. First, the premise that matter, energy and information never come into contradiction is taken as strong evidence. Theirlaw-like- reciprocal obligations are non contradictory. Being beyond the contrary,matter, energy and information maintain a neutral relationship. Therefore, on the basis of the establishment and functioning of the universe or multi-verse, there is neutrality. Matter, energy and information are primary-founder neutralities. Matter, energy and informat ion are neutral because they are related to inexorable legitimate. They are neutral because they are perfectly bound to one another. Regularity and uniformity are the primary forms of neutrality. The study further radiographies the relational connections, and it highlights and renders visible the attributes and characteristics of the elements (attributes are essential features of elements and characteristics are their specific features). It explains the bilateral relationships matter-energy, information-matter and energy-information. Florentin Smarandache,Ștefan Vlăduțescu Communicative universal convertibility Matter -Energy-Information 45 Extension method of Cai Wen (1999) is utilized to clarify relationships between Matter, Energy and Information. It finally results that reality is an ongoing and complex process of bilateral and multi- lateral convertibility. Thus, it is formulated the neutrosophic principle of Interconvertibility Matter-Energy-Information (NPI_MEI)
Category: Social Science

[91] viXra:1501.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:22:10

A Demographic Portrait of Romanian Immigrants in California

Authors: Dan Valeriu Voinea
Comments: 8 Pages.

The most numerous Romanian community in the United States of America is in the “Golden State”, California – a state that is a traditional immigration state since the beginning of the gold rush. Officially, there are currently over 60.000 people of Romanian origin established in California, although that number might be much higher because of two factors: undocumented migration and the loss of gradual loss of identity through each generation. Starting from as little as 15 - 16 famili es back in 1912 (Alecse, n.d.), Romanians established in California make up 14.5% of the 449,928 immigrants of Romanian origin living in the the United States of America (Voinea, 2014, 62). The aim of this paper is to analyze the current demographic portra it of Romanian immigrants in California, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey.
Category: Social Science

[90] viXra:1501.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:27:12

Book Review. Sandu Frunz ă :Comunicare Simbolic ă și Seduc ț ie (2014)

Authors: Elena Rodica Opran
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the book "Comunicare simbolică și seducție",published atTritonic Publishing House by Professor Sandu Frunză, the life of an individual living in the postmodern society is based on communication, and symbolic communication plays a major role in his life. We reckon that the author seeks to demonstrate the way in which communication and mass media build reality in a postmodern context.
Category: Social Science

[89] viXra:1501.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:30:48

Book Review: Rolf Arnold - Assisted Learning: A Workbook, Landau: Bildungstransfer Verlag (2010)

Authors: Alexandru Constantin Strungă
Comments: 2 Pages.

The current review aims to make a short overview of Professor Rolf Arnold’s book on assisted learning highlighting the notions that are at the core of author’s enabling didactics: self- determination and self-control in learning, educational leadership and emotional co mpetences, in the context of postmodern pedagogy.
Category: Social Science

[88] viXra:1501.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:35:11

Teacher’s Asserting Premises and Possibilities of Efficient Managerial Styles

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The issue of teacher’s managerial styles is unitary approached along with educational styles issue and institutional management styles issue, and is part of the class’ managerial dimension. Comparative, educational and managerial styles (of the school mana ger) have a theoretical history and benefit from validated techniques and tools, whereas teacher’s managerial styles issue are about to gain consistency as part of the pedagogical literature, and present researches emphasize their roles in efficientizing d idactic activity. The article Teacher’s asserting premises and possibilities of efficient managerial styles is based on multiple specific sub-themes: a) analysis of the key- concepts outlining theme’s theoretical framework; b) teacher’s managerial styles ty pology; c) conditions and modalities in order to efficientize managerial styles. Premises of the topic speech consist in: situationally approach the educational process, the relation between teacher’s educational and managerial styles, references to a pers onal research regarding the outline of the constructive teacher’s managerial styles. Based on these key-concepts and in accordance with the multidimensional approach (conditions, factors, modalities in order to outline and assert styles), possibilities and modalities are being analyzed in order to efficientize teacher’s managerial styles.
Category: Social Science

[87] viXra:1501.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:38:27

Logistics Costs Estimation in Case of Industrial Waste Management

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Mariana Man
Comments: 11 Pages.

Out of concern for environmental protection is an increasingly common practice. Companies thus have an additional task which is the correct organization of the industrial waste management. This is achieved through the use of logistics processes in industrial waste management, mainly such as warehousing, transport, storage and recovery. These processes involve the formation of logistics costs resulting from waste management. The paper presents a mathematical model for cost of logistics management of industrial waste resulting from the above- mentioned processes. It also shows the interpretation of these costs and the relations between them. The model can increase cost- efficiency in companies managing industrial waste, while increasing attention to the environment.
Category: Social Science

[86] viXra:1501.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:42:01

Osgood’s Semantic Differential: a Review of the Romanian Social Sciences Literature

Authors: Alexandru Constantin Strungă
Comments: 7 Pages.

Starting from 1957, with the seminal book of Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum ’s ‘Measurement of Meaning’, the semantic differential rapidly developed as a complex and subtle research instrument used for measuring social sentiments and attitudes with profound consequences for the social sciences research methodology. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the semantic differential was defined and presented in the Romanian social sciences literature and how it was progressively adopted by the Romanian methodologists from a variety of fields: psychology, sociology and education sciences.
Category: Social Science

[85] viXra:1501.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:47:46

Five Computational Actions in Information Processing

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Ștefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 16 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double: a) to define the concept of action of information computational processing and b) to design a taxonomy of actions of information computational processing. Our thesis is that any information processing is a computational processing. First, the investigation trays to demonstrate that the computational actions of information processing or the informational actions are computational - investigative configurations for structuring information: clusters of highly - aggregated operations which are carried out in a unitary manner operate convergent and behave like a unique computational device. From a methodological point of view, they are comprised within the category of analytical instruments for the informational processing of raw material, of data, of vague, confused, unstructured informational elements. As internal articulation, the actions are patterns for the integrated carrying out of operations of informational in vestigation. Secondly, we propose an inventory and a description of five basic informational computational actions: exploring, grouping, anticipation, schematization, inferential structuring. R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull (2014) speak about “four information processing”. We would like to continue with further and future investigation of the relationship between operations, actions, strategies and mechanisms of informational processing.
Category: Social Science

[84] viXra:1501.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:50:27

Credibility - an Honest Claim in the Current Romanian Press

Authors: Xenia Negrea
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article we analysed a series of discursive processes used by some Romanian journalists to give credibility to their texts. As a case study we chose the most visited news portal in Romania since the parliamentary elections in 2012. We analysed the few hundred materials written on this temp and managed to establish a writing grid so as to raise the level of reliability of the data.
Category: Social Science

[83] viXra:1501.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:54:38

Hermeneutics Can Make Beauty and Ugly as Neutral (As Neutrosophic)

Authors: Mihaela-Gabriela Păun, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The study aims to be an application of the neutral-neutrosophic theory of Florentin Smarandache on the fundamental nucleus of Aesthetics: Beauty-Ugly. If a history of Beauty may resort to a long series of theoretical proofs (of which one can deduce the taste of a certain age), a history of Ugliness can at most to look its documents through visual or verbal representations of certain things or beings perceived somehow as "ugly". But if from a point of view one is Beauty and subsequently in time and space this is Ugly, then we can say that we are in a neutrosophical situation. In all ages, “philosophers and artists have proposed definitions of Beauty; thanks to their testimonies can thus reconstruct a history of aesthetic ideas over the time. But other things were with the idea of Ugly. Most often, Ugly was defined in opposition to the Beauty, but almost never have been dedicated ample studies, but some hints in parenthesis or some marginal notes” as U. Eco asserts (Eco, 2005).
Category: Social Science

[82] viXra:1501.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 16:00:45

The Organicist Animist Metaphor in Italian Wine Media Discourse

Authors: Alina Țenescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper 1 is to analyze the main aspects of the organicist - animist metaphor in Italian wine tasting discourse and to identify its main characteristics in the specialized media discourse. Commencing from an approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metapho r theory, we will analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the organicist - animist metaphor related to wine and wine tasting. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of Italian me dia discourse. Tackling the issue of perception and description of wine in Italian media discourse allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of winespeak: the recognition of essential aspects of wine imaginary, with a focus on the organicist- animist metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in winespeak. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of wine tasting notes into a main category– the organicist-animist metaphor–, following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson ( Metaphors we live by, 1980) .
Category: Social Science

[81] viXra:1501.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 16:08:52

Book Review. Antonio Sandu: Elemente de Sociologie (2014)

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Appreciated specialist in the social sciences domain and of the socio-human sciences, Professor Antonio Sandu posted at Tritonic Publishing a remarkable book, "Elements of sociology" (Bucharest, Tritonic Publishing, 2014) (Antonio Sandu (2014). Elemente de sociologie. București: Editura Tritonic). Thisrepresents an introduction to the theory of social phe nomena. What performs first of all the value and originality of the research in question is shown to be: a) the comprehension and interpretation of the social, i.e. socialhermeneutics, and b) the novelty of the postmodern and transmodern perspective of methodological, transdisciplinary and constructivist approach.
Category: Social Science

[80] viXra:1501.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 14:55:14

Early Education Strategic Field of the Educational Reform

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nowadays, early education represents the educational area that benefits from a multitude of researches and theoretical and practical contributions, pursuant to acknowledging the necessity in order to holistically approach pre - scool pupil’s development and to report to education’s European dimension. The managerial approach of the early education implies strategic decisions regarding the: a) plan, organization and implementation of the school curriculum, by referring to legi slative documents and in the spirit of focusing activities on pre - school pupil’s global development ; b) institutional development of pre - school educational units, regarding all functional fields and managerial activity’s efficiency, for reasons related to optimal organization of the pre - school pupils’ learning and development conditions. The article approaches early education issues from multiple perspectives : a) theoretical, legislative and conceptual premises ; b) strategic orientations and finalities of t he curriculum for early education; c) educational management as part of the early education area . The above mentioned premises, strategies and directions represent elements that supply new reflections and points of view as part of future studies and backgrounds of some empiric researches we foresee as part of early education field.
Category: Social Science

[79] viXra:1501.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 14:58:25

Semantic Equivalences in Romanian Medical Terminology

Authors: Corina Lungu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the acces sibility needs in scientific communication.
Category: Social Science

[78] viXra:1501.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:01:55

Logistics Model for Industrial Waste Treatment Processes

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Dima Ioan Constantin
Comments: 11 Pages.

Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it i s important to take measures to correctly dealing with industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allow s for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management.
Category: Social Science

[77] viXra:1501.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:08:24

Objectivity Between I Llusions and P Rofessional S Tandards in T Oday’s J Ournalism

Authors: Xenia Negrea
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we approached the problem of objectivity in Romanian press. We presented the newest and also the most pertinent definitions of the subject and we have found that the researchers` opinions are divergent. As a case study we chose a newspaper kn own in the Romanian media market as having a very high level of subjectivity and partisanship. We analyzed this publication during the parliamentary election in 2012 and we identified the manners in which the journalists express their subjectivity.
Category: Social Science

[76] viXra:1501.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:11:21

Football and Spanish Cultural Life; Some Contemporary Perspectives and Observations

Authors: Jim O’Brien
Comments: 8 Pages.

How can the cultural life and identity of a nation state be articul ated and expressed when the existence of that nation state is contested and challenged? If history has any capacity to repeat itself, current cultural and political issues in Spanish society provide much evidence for the continued presence of the struggles between centre and region, unity and division which have permeated constructions and representations of Spain since medieval times.
Category: Social Science

[75] viXra:1412.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-19 07:14:35

Communicative Action, Deliberative and Restorative Justice. a Review

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

“Communicative Action, Deliberative and Restorative Justice – Socio-juridical perspective on mediational averment” by Antonio Sandu and Elena Unguru, published by TRITONIC in 2014, is a high level transdisciplinary lesson about transactional justice, restorative justice and deliberative alternative to classical (retributive and distributive). Antonio Sandu is Professor at the University "Ştefan cel Mare" from Suceava, and researcher at the Centre for Socio-Human Research Lumen in Iasi (Romania). The main interest of the author include ethics, bioethics, social assistance, social philosophy. He is the author of five books in Social Philosophy and Applied Ethics, more than 8 articles in scientific journals indexed by Thomson Reuters and over 20 other scientific articles. Elena Unguru is researcher in the fields of law, social work, sociology, communication, appreciative inquiry in Socio-Human Research Center Lumen from Iasi- Romania. We are led, naturally and professionally, on the sinuously road from conflict to communication also denoted by the establishment of the public sphere as social reality born of meeting and acceptance of the otherness, of individuality asserting in public space, postulating the universality of human nature as human rights. Starting from the Habermas’ idea of communication power as a form of expression in contemporary society, the author believes that communicative action codes a power strategy based on consensus. Power is soft, seductive, and inter-mediate linguistic and cultural relations. The chosen theme by the authors analyze the communication mediation model based on the values of social justice, equity and charity, assuming an exercise of the integration of the otherness, of perceiving the other as partner.
Category: Social Science

[74] viXra:1411.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 15:09:23

The Frustration Effect: Behavioral and Emotional Reactions to Unanswered Voice

Authors: Liraz Margalit, Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid
Comments: 18 Pages.

The frustration effect refers to situations in which, despite an individual’s option to express an opinion, the decision maker does not take that opinion into consideration. Theories of justice predict that, compared with having no voice, an unanswered voice will result in more frustration, dissatisfaction, and negative evaluations of outcome and procedural fairness. We tested these predictions experimentally, using an ultimatum and dictator games in which all participants played the role of recipients, while the allocators were fictitious players, who ostensibly offered them low shares. We found strong support to the frustration-effect hypothesis. Relative to recipients in the no-voice condition, in the unanswered-voice condition recipients in the two games perceived the situation as less fair and expressed more frustration and dissatisfaction from their low outcomes. Moreover, compared with the dictator condition, in the ultimatum game a significantly higher percentage of the recipients rejected the low offers under the unanswered-voice condition than under the no-voice condition. The results also revealed an interesting gender difference in the participants' responses to unanswered voice. Compared to women, men reported higher frustration levels, and rejected low offers with a significantly higher rate when their voice was ignored.
Category: Social Science

[73] viXra:1411.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 10:16:42

A Curva de Kuznets e o "Milagre" Brasileiro

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 4 Pages.

O presente trabalho entrelaça a Curva de Kuznets – a observação empírica que a desigualdade de renda tende a seguir um padrão de curva e diminuir em determinado período na evolução de economias – com as marchas e contramarchas da economia brasileira no século XX, hipotetizando uma relação desta “curva” com o forte crescimento pós-deslocamento do centro dinâmico da economia brasileira nas décadas seguintes. O período que se brevemente analisa é o da economia agroexportadora (até 1930), passando pela industrialização substituidora de importações (1930-1960), e o que acreditamos ser consequência do “voltar-se para dentro” – o período do milagre econômico (1968-73). É nesse período, pós-deslocamento do centro dinâmico da economia, que as maiores taxas de crescimento se situam, e nossa hipótese e objetivo geral é afirmar, através de metodologia bibliográfica, que tal não é por acaso, mas vem como causa do efeito “voltar-se para dentro” da economia brasileira, malgrado esse resultado ser apenas uma hipótese, pois que, dada a complexidade do assunto, a conclusão é que torna-se apenas possível hipotetizar.
Category: Social Science

[72] viXra:1411.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 10:39:55

Persistent Organic Pollutants and Other Hazardous Wastes from Titanium Processing Industry the Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan
Comments: 10 Pages.

It has been known since 1998 that the processing of titanium via chloride route generates persistent organic pollutants like dioxin, furan, poly chlorinated biphenyls etc. The inventory of toixins also includes heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, most of which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Costly remedial measures have been implemented by the industry in Europe, North America and Japan during the last decade. Prices of titanium products more than doubled due to this. However, it has been business as usual in the Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd, a public sector undertaking and the only producer of titanium dioxide pigment via chloride routein India. With about half a million tons of solid waste containing highly hazardous substances, which will stay in the eco-system, the biosphere and the breast milk for hundreds of years into the future, the industry is neck deep in crisis.
Category: Social Science

[71] viXra:1411.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-12 17:00:17

Science, the Virtual and the Actual : A Real Stand-off

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 11 Pages.

The World Wide Web is a source of social encounter occurring over undefined distances. If physical parameters of social encounter are considered uncontrollable for studies in a natural setting, the internet world, when dissected philosophically with respect to physical witnessibility of engaged identities, provides a model in which distance is absent. Upon comparison of meaning in science method and theory as it is necessarily rooted to common perceptional experience, it is proposed that established criteria of virtual, real, and actual employed for description in internet communication studies not only constitute 'world', but 'universe' in which the gap between the actual and virtual has a physical meaning. Philosophical analogy is made from a proposed universal model to theory proposed by Albert Einstein, Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn and applied in an attempt to bridge conceptually the social and natural sciences . A release of identity-funding inhibition to the extension of the range of witness beyond the immediate environment, associated with cognitive generalization of phenomenon involving a null hypothesis, seen universally to singularly account for cognitive and behavioral trends towards modern times, is proposed to be the consequence of physical factors that are external to cultures. Discussion relating ‘paradox’ as ‘paradox of the injuring concept’ is rendered in terms of a physical divide between the virtual and the actual.
Category: Social Science

[70] viXra:1411.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 17:29:42

Anthropology and Parallelism :The Individual as a Universal

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is difficult to define perspective within sets that are self belonging. For example in the study of mankind, anthropology, both men and their studies fall into the same category that contains the topic outline. This situation entails a universal quality of uniqueness, an instance of it, to the topic of anthropology that may be viewed in parallel with the topic of nature as the set of unique particulars. Yet one might assent to the notion in the inclusive study of man, anthropology, that nothing in its’ content should conceivably be construed to exceed it, though in approaches to the topic, reference to the topic of nature, unavoided, refer to the scientific topic of nature in which contemporary notions, when contrasted, exceed the perceptual experience of nature. In this presentation problems in approaches and in the application of available tools for analysis to the study of man will be discussed. Framed with respect to a concept of parallelism, notions and stimuli are introduced to augment and reorient towards a more creative perspective with respect to the organization of first perspective considerations in studies. The theories of relativity, the idea of mathematical relations for simultaneous events, the presence of artifactual paradoxes as they are reflected in thinking and the scientific tools applied towards investigations are discussed and hopefully highlighted so that they may hopefully be perceived distinctly form realities involved in the pursuit of studies.
Category: Social Science

[69] viXra:1411.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 15:50:14

Explicit and Implicit Evaluation of Pain Experienced by Ingroup and Outgroup Members: the Case of the Jewish-Arab Conflict

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Reem Yahya, Jean Decety, Simone Shamay-Tsoory
Comments: 16 Pages.

Despite the automaticity of empathy for pain of others, recent research highlights the important role of top-down components and of social categorization factors in determining peoples’ empathy to pain. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members’ pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed perceived pain when Jewish and Arab participants viewed a series of visual stimuli, depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or subliminally implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that when the targets’ categories are primed implicitly, Jews and Palestinian-Arabs showed no ingroup or ougroup bias. In contrast, pain ratings in the explicit priming provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy to pain is higher for ingroup, than for outgroup members.
Category: Social Science

[68] viXra:1410.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-03 16:22:12

The Sharing Dilemma: Joining Cooperative Groups and Sharing Resources as a Means of Coping with Environmental Risk

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Efrat Aharonov-Majar, Pini Luzon
Comments: 26 Pages.

The "social insurance" hypothesis posits that individuals join cooperative groups and share resources in order to reduce environmental risk. Despite its significance for explaining cooperative groups’ formation, in small-scale and in developing societies, the hypothesis has been subjected to little experimental testing. The present research is designed to examine the relative weight of the motivation for social insurance compared to other psychological motivations for sharing risk. We conducted two studies to test the tendency to share risk under different risk conditions and for groups of different sizes. A third experiment extends the risk sharing research to situations involving losses instead of gains. The findings of the first two studies lend strong support to the risk-sharing hypothesis in the gain domain. For the loss domain, the results of the third experiment demonstrate an intriguing shift from strong reluctance to join groups under lower risk, to ubiquitous readiness to join groups under higher risk. We discuss these results in light of prospect theory and decisions from experience.
Category: Social Science

[67] viXra:1409.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-30 18:12:36

Sleeping on the Enemy's Couch: Psychotherapy Across Ethnic Boundaries in Israel

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Yifat Agat-Galili
Comments: 23 Pages. The paper is forthcoming in Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology

This paper discusses the impact of the Jewish-Arab conflict on overt and covert layers of therapeutic encounters that take place across boundaries between the two nationalities. We refer mainly to the prevalent case of Arab patients treated by Jewish therapists. We discuss the implications of intergroup tension, cultural differences, and status disparities on the therapeutic dynamics. Our focus is on the effect of these variables on the processes of transference and counter-transference, on perceptions and interpretations of behaviors, on sources of resistance, and on the inability of therapists to take the patients’ perspective. Side by side with the psychoanalytical approach, the article utilizes various social-psychological theories, mainly social identity theory, in deriving insights regarding tensions between the interpersonal/therapeutic dimension and the intergroup dimension. Recommendations for improving therapies in the discussed case are suggested.
Category: Social Science

[66] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-11 11:36:06

What is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to the employee, the employer, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a "minimal" two-person game, in which an allocator (e.g., an employer) divides a monetary amount (e.g., a workplace net profit), between herself and a recipient (e.g., an employee). Assuming rational, self-interested players, I propose a level of aspiration model, according to which players' pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs, relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players' levels of pay satisfaction, yields two possible "harmony" points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspiration. Under the assumption that recipients aspire to receive 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3), for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming that the recipient aspires to be treated equally, i.e., to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ ≈ 0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio, known for its important role in human aesthetics, and in many fields of science and technology. For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈ 33% to ≈ 38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing. Tests of the proposed model using field data on attitudinal pay fairness, actual pay, and allocation behavior in experimental ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the validity of proposed solution.
Category: Social Science

[65] viXra:1407.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 22:04:50

Is it Possible to Apply Richardson's Model for Solving Conflicts?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

This article summarizes a discussion via researchgate.net. It is known that Lewis Fry Richardson has studied mathematical model for conflict resolution. For instance: http://www.math.purdue.edu/~smw/m303/resources/war.pdf My question is: Considering prolonged conflicts between Ukraine-Russia and also between Israel-Palestine, then is it possible to apply that Richardson's model to help solving those conflicts? Perhaps that model will be useful for policy makers and peaceful efforts.
Category: Social Science

[64] viXra:1407.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 16:01:13

”The EUHeritage-Tour” - Network for European Cultural Heritage Tourism

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, M. Ioannides, M. Mazzi Boém, M. De Baerdemaeker, J. Portugal, E. Perez Babo, J. Santos, G. Ablasser, M. Socratous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The proponents of this paper are currently the members of the “Consortium for the European Network for Cultural Heritage Tourism”, coordin- ated by X23 Ltd., co-financed by the European Union, DG Industry&Enterprise — 44/G/ENT/PPA/12/6460. Th e initiative is achieving a considerable success, given its particular combination of cultural aspects, development of the principles of European “Unity” and “Identity”, the efficient business modelling, a strong use of local resources and capabilities, the acute “short-clustering” capabilities through areas heretofore un- correlated, the extension of a consistent Network of networks, and the use of disruptive technological innovation. The Steering Committee is com- p!osed of members of ICOMOS (prof. M. Ioannides, membership number CYP 6853).
Category: Social Science

[63] viXra:1407.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 16:05:39

“Differences and Commonalities". the Definitive Identity of a Pan-European Cultural Touristic Project. Setting-up the Itineraries

Authors: José Portugal, Elisa Perez Babo, Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Federica Marano
Comments: 21 Pages.

Our objective is to create a trans-national tourism route, linking together the different — but also — common features of UNESCO WH sites, enhancing distinctions and commonalities under the paradigm of “the beauty of multiplicity”. It is in the history and nature of Europe itself to be considered as a melting pot, and therefore a space for dialogue. We are pretty well aware of the resulting catastrophes in Europe, when people wanted to assert and enforce the opposite. European territories are based on shared cultures and common stories, but what it is becoming increasingly valuable to share is the pervasive search for intercultural relations, and to build networks based on affinities of various kinds. The Intercultural Dialogue is an ongoing challenge for all European citizens, and starts with the recognition that our well-being and wealth come from our willingness to cultural exchanges.
Category: Social Science

[62] viXra:1407.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 16:09:09

“Differences and Commonalities" — Intrinsic Values of the Euheritage Tour Cultural Route

Authors: José Portugal, Elisa Perez Babo, Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Federica Marano
Comments: 8 Pages.

An innovative idea, to be plugged in the general framework of the EUheritage Tour cultural route, could be the introduction of mechanisms for self education according to gamification criteria. Each stops along the itinerary could be considered as a mile- stone in an in-progress self-education course, linked to topics such as history, archaeology, heritage management, heritage tourism and providing a set of certification criteria.
Category: Social Science

[61] viXra:1407.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 16:11:18

The EUHeritage TOUR — Network for European Cultural Heritage Tourism — Executive Strategic Criteria — Pt. #1

Authors: Marika Mazzi Boém, Giuseppe Laquidara, Margaret Colombani
Comments: 23 Pages.

This document represents a first syllabus, to be later on the intrinsic part of the forthcoming transnational strategy. The aim is to analyse each national conditions on cultural heritage and related tourism based on actual national studies, determining a strategic overview as to cover in a single line, executable and efficient, all the diversities of each national situation, including a SWAT analysis.
Category: Social Science

[60] viXra:1407.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 16:14:09

The EUHeritage TOUR — Network for European Cultural Heritage Tourism — Concept Presentation

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Isabel Lopez Briones, Federica Marano
Comments: 35 Pages.

The overall objective of this project is to increase the competitiveness of European tourism by creating an innovative transnational tourism product that capitalises the shared value of European UNESCO cultural heritage sites and complements national, regional and local policies. UNESCO cultural world heritage sites provide an important narrative for historical development in Europe and they can serve as foundations for a contemporary European identity. At the same time domestic and international visits to the sites have grown rapidly over the past years representing both a challenge and opportunity. Considering that the tourism sector involves both public and private stakeholders, the European Commission’s 2010 Communication on tourism (COM (2010)352 final), its rolling implementation plan and the Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism (COM (2007)621 final) underline that national, regional, local public authorities as well as public and private tourism stakeholders have to be involved in order to create a new successful framework for action. In order to be able to maintain Europe’s leadership in the world tourism, EUheritageTOUR will contribute to developing a new innovative tourism product that can compete in times of the economic crisis.
Category: Social Science

[59] viXra:1405.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-24 08:23:38

H. G. Barnett’s book, Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change (McGraw-Hill, 1953)

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 15 Pages.

H. G. Barnett was Professor of Anthropology at Oregon University when he issued Innovation: the Basis of Cultural Change (McGraw-Hill publishers, 1953). We review the book in great detail from the perspective of innovation in science.
Category: Social Science

[58] viXra:1405.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:22:34

A New Approach of Developing a Deconverter for Bangla Language

Authors: Aloke Kumar Saha, Muhammad F. Mridha, Kamal Kanti Biswas, Jugal Krishna Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Universal Networking Language (UNL) is a worldwide generalizes form human interactive in machine independent digital platform for defining, representing, storing and dissipating knowledge or information among people of different nations. The theoretical and practical research associated with these interdisciplinary endeavour facilities in a number of practical applications in most domains of human activities such as creating globalization trends of market or geopolitical independence among nations. In this paper we will discusses the interlingua approach to machine translation. Here Universal Networking Language (UNL) has been used as the intermediate representation. In this thesis work, we have dealt with the language independent deconverter for the Bangla language it takes as input a UNL (Universal Networking language) expression. The system takes a set of UNL expression as input and with the help of language independent algorithm and language dependent data generates corresponding Bangla sentence. The process of deconversion involves syntax planning and morphology phase. The syntax planning phase is aimed at generation of proper sequence of words for the target sentence.
Category: Social Science

[57] viXra:1404.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-12 21:46:23

Inconsistency of Biography of Tsien Hsue-Shen

Authors: Jian-zhong Zhao
Comments: 16 Pages. Key words: Tsien Hsue-Shen, biography, inconsistency, philosophy, rocketry, Marxism, Anti-Duhring, Dialectics of Nature, Capital, puzzles

Tsien Hsue-Shen, an expert of mechanics, the “King of Rocketry ” of China, lived in US for twenty years long. Iris Chang (by a book in 1995) and Judith R. Goodstein (by a report of a conversation with Lee Alvin DuBridge in 2003) gave accounts of Tsien ’s biography. In 2013, “Exhibition of Achievements of People ’s Scientist Tsien Hsue-Shen ” toured to universities in Shanghai and Chinese cities of Beijing, Kunming, Chengdu, Wuhan, Lanzhou and Huhehaote, displaying a different version of Tsien ’s activities in US and declaring that Tsien read and studied, with great concentration, the philosophy of Marxism during his stay in US. In the present article, the Marxism reading is questioned, interpreting that Tsien ’s success stems from the technology that he learned in US rather than the philosophy of Marxism. Tsien left behind puzzles, as well as rockets, missiles and satellites, as his legacy. His legend remains mysterious and inconsistent even today.
Category: Social Science

[56] viXra:1404.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-08 02:58:38

SuperNova Precession Period of Peace

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 28 Pages.

The 24,925 year period beginning with the Shock Wave of the Geminga SuperNova 36,525 years ago and ending with the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago corresponds roughly to one 26,000 year Earth Precession Period. No written historical record has been found for that SuperNova Precession Period during which Humans had migrated out of Africa to populate much of the Earth continuing the African IFA divination system, producing Cave Art, developing Sanskrit and the Rig Veda and the Meru Prastara, and building the Great Pyramid complex at Giza. Human Civilization during much of that SuperNova Precession Period seems to have been Peaceful, living in Harmony with Nature and with Each Other, so Manetho characterized it as the time of the Rule of Gods, Demigods and Spirits and I would call it the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace. However, after the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago Human Civilization entered the Present Precession Period, Manetho’s time of the Rule of Mortal Humans characterized by (to paraphrase Terence McKenna) scarcity, preservation of privilege, and ever-more-sophisticated use of technology and ideology to control people. This paper is an attempt to describe the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace and to explore possible future paths of the Present Precession Period, including possible Global Nuclear War and possible Global Reconciliation and Peace. SuperNova Precession Period of Peace ... pages 2-10, IFA ... page 4, Rig Veda ... page 4, Cave Art ... page 6, Meru Prastara ... page 7, Great Pyramid ... page 9, Present Precession Period ... pages 11-12, Appendix I: Lullian Art ... pages 13-19, Appendix II: Gods, Demigods, Spirits ... pages 20-28.
Category: Social Science

[55] viXra:1403.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 20:23:48

Four Years and 2500 Sakai Portfolios

Authors: S. J. Nettleton
Comments: 15 Pages. A presentation at auSakai 2010.

Four years experience in the use of Type 3 student eportfolios for assessment in undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Category: Social Science

[54] viXra:1403.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-06 06:29:46

Deep State USA/UK

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 5 Pages.

What is the Deep State of the USA/UK and how will it deal with a Hedge Fund Casino Financial Crisis on the scale of Hundreds of Trillions of Dollars ?
Category: Social Science

[53] viXra:1402.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-26 23:29:07

How Should Humanity Steer the Future? an Interview with Einstein in Heaven

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages. Fun easy read about a serious subject, with 2 colorful illustrations by the author.

How Should Humanity Steer the Future? An interview with Einstein in Heaven. (Originally submitted to the FQXI 2014 Essay Contest which asked the question in the essay's title.)
Category: Social Science

[52] viXra:1401.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-16 10:24:35

Mormon Mafia & the JFK Assassination

Authors: John F. Sweeney
Comments: 44 Pages. 3 photos

The Mormon Mafia and Howard Hughes conspired to kill president John F. Kennedy in November 1963. Hughes reaped billions by doing secret business with the CIA, and Bennett served as the go – between for such deals. Hughes leased a Bahaman island to train Kennedy's CIA assassins, and Bennett provided instructions to some of the teams which appeared on Dealey Plaza. Bennett later hired E. Howard Hunt to work at his public relations firm at the time of the Watergate Scandal, and rumor has it that Bennett was the real “Deep Throat” of the Watergate Scandal, which was actually about Richard M. Nixon's participation in the Kennedy Assassination.
Category: Social Science

[51] viXra:1309.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-28 19:21:08

Memoirs of Soviet Political Prisoner

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 62 Pages.

A. Bolonkin was born in (Russia). When he was young, he had National and World records in aviation modelling and was awarded with gold and silver medals. He graduated with awards from Aviation Collage, Faculty of Aviation Engines, (B.S.)(USSR); Kazan Aviation Institute, Faculty of Aircraft Design, (M.S.); Kiev University, Faculty of Mathematics, (M.S.); Moscow Aviation Institute, Rocket Department, dissertation "Optimal Trajectories of Multistate Rockets" (Ph.D., Dr.Sci.); Leningrad Politechnic University, Aerospace Enginering Department, dissertation "New Methods of Optimization and their Applications" (Post-Doctoral Degree in the former USSR). He worked in Soviet aviation, rocket and Space industries and lectured in main Soviet University about 15 years. In particularty, in Kiev Aircraft State Design Bureau headed by O. Antonov, Bolonkin took part in design of aircraft AN-8 through AN-225 (Enginer-Senior Engineer-Chairman of Department); in Rocket engine Construction Bureau headed by Academician V.P.Glushko, Bolonkin was Chairman of Reliability Department and took part in design of rocket engines for main strategic rockets of the USSR; in TsAGI (central Aero-Hydrodynamic Research Institute) A. Bolonkin was a scientific researcher. He lectured as a professor and worked as a Project Director in Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow Aviation Technological Institute, Bauman Highest Technical University, Technological Institute, He contacted with Construction Bureaus of Tupolev, Yakovlev, Mikoyan, Ilushin, Sykhoy, with all main aviation, rocket and space research and design Centers of the USSR. He had many awards in the Soviet Union. In 1972 professor Bolonkin was arrested the Soviet Secret Police (KGB) because he read forbidden political literature about freedom and democracy and listen in "Voice of America". More 15 years KGB tortures him into special prisons, concentration camps, and exile in Siberia. This period his life is described in this book. In 1988, Alexander Bolonkin arrived as a political refuge in the USA and became American citizen in 1994. He worked as a mathematician in Sherson Lehman Hutton (American Express), N.Y., (Research, computation, programming, Optimal portfolio of securities), a Senior Researcher in Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University; two years as a Senior Research Associate in Wright Laboratory, Flight Dynamic Directorate (Dayton, Ohio), (it is the main Laboratory of the USA Air Force with over 20,000 scientists); as a professor in New Jersey Institute of Technology, Computer and Information Department. He worked as an expert of Association Engineers and Scientists in N.Y.C. (Estimation of new ideas, projects, patents. Consulting). He worked two years as a Senior Research Associate in the NASA (Dryden Flight Research Center) in California, Edwards and two years as Senior Researcher in Eglin USA Air Force Base (Florida). Now Dr. Bolonkin lectures in New Jersey Institute of Technology. For last four years alone, A. Bolonkin published more 35 scientific articles and books in the USA and a lot of articles in Russia-American press about scientific problems. He took part in three World Space Congress (1992, 1994, 1996), in World Aviation Congress (Los-Angeles, 1998, 1999) and more tens National Scientific Conferences in the USA. In particularly, he published monograph "Development of Soviet pocket engines for Strategic Missiles", Delphic Ass., USA, 1991, 133 p., and large Chapter "Aviation, motor, and Space Designs" in book "Development Technology in the Soviet Union", pp.32-80, Delphic Ass., USA, 1990; book “Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight”, by A. Bolonkin, Elsevier, 2006, 488 ps.; chapters: Space Towers, Cable Anti-Gravitator, Electrostatic Levitation and Artificial Gravity in collection “Macro Engineering: A Challenge for the Future”, edited by V. Badesky, R.B. Cathcart and R.D. Schuilling, Springer, 2006; book “New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace and Technology”, by A. Bolonkin, Nova, 2007; book "Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization", Lulu, 3-rd Edition, “Macro-Projects: Environment and Technologies”, NOVA, 2008 and others. Alexander Bolonkin is the author of more 170 scientific articles and books and 17 inventions. B. Kruglyak, Ph.D.
Category: Social Science

[50] viXra:1309.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:00:47

ThePrimate® HPW and NNs Ecosystem Based on DDC+ Classification Oriented to Singularities' Peculiarities

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém
Comments: 9 Pages.

ThePrimate® is an HPW [High Power Web] platform which allows dynamic classification of digital resources from european databases - including those coming from Europeana - the easy retrieval of data, reuse of items and methods based on enhanced tools, a deeper layer of attached information. The platform is strictly connected to Filamento®, an original IoT [Internet of Things] framework, determining a lattice of precisely identifiable talking objects in the real environment, related as digital items in a Network of networks (NNs). The structure of graph is founded on the keys of “affinity” and “proximity”, it is modifiable according to singular needs and reusable to many different issues. The circulation of resources among the users is reinforced by an original economic paradigm based on a virtual currency, determining self- sustaining.
Category: Social Science

[49] viXra:1309.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:06:36

Initial Study for an Urban Agriculture Installation, Modeled on the "Vertical Farm" Typology, Surrounded by Horizontal not Extensive Agricultural Lands

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém
Comments: 9 Pages.

Tillage is an urban district plantation located inside the city for growing high-quality fruits and vegetables through the use of modern technology (hydroponics, aeroponic, aquaponic, using LED or infrared lamps). Tillage is not a traditional agricultural plantation placed on the outskirts of the city or in the countryside: in TillAge®, the process of cultivation takes place according to the model of the so-called "vertical farm", ie. takes place according to the model of the so-called "vertical farm", ie. using/building structures traditionally used for residential, commercial or business scopes. Depending on the case uses, TillAge® modules (TillA-Module®) can be placed on the roofs of buildings, such as shopping centers or supermarkets. A TillAge® plantation can be realized in ad hoc "buildings" (plant- scrapers), or through the recovery of abandoned buildings TillAge® is the concrete and responsible solution to a dangerously growing trend: the inability, in the short term, to supply of food and water the entire world population.
Category: Social Science

[48] viXra:1309.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:11:20

Aurosphere Number ZerØ, a Theoretical Semi-Serious Approach to a Socio-Political Constitution of a New "Community", Increased with Genetic Principles of Systematic Ethics

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Jovenal J.
Comments: 6 Pages.

[DRAFT #Ø]. The present theoretical discussion for the establishment of a so called "New Community in a New Town” was architectural prototyped on the political writings published between 24~25 May and 13 June 20051. Among the others, bio-ethical principles are used. They transfer the typical elements of biological ecosystems, the exaptation phenomena, and biological-genetic evolutionary mechanisms and strategies, to the scope of new social networks and human organizations. In today’s review, the original expression of "Communism" has been replaced by the new word "Community”. Although the new "Community" concept yet includes the principle of fairness, this theoretical paper sets out only general rules and laws, without identifying practical requirements, to be dealt with in a separate document.
Category: Social Science

[47] viXra:1309.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:14:44

Æurosphere Ecological. How Science of Networks, Information Dynamics and Connectivism Could Help Politics to be More Inclusive, Transparent, Equitable for People, Incorporating Culture and Different Disciplines in the Progressive Stages of Decision Making

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Jovenal J.
Comments: 29 Pages.

A partire dai nostri studi denominati “ThePrimate® - HPW and NNs Ecosystem based on DDC+ classi- fication oriented to singularities” [DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.689881, (2012)], e “An approach to Filamento” [DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.714984, (2012)], e da “Æurosphere number zerØ” [J. Jove- nal, DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.722894, (2005, r.2013)], siamo pervenuti ad un progetto eseguibile per l’adempimento del modello originale della Æurosphere (2005), denominato Æurosphere Ecological, una struttura partecipativa complessa, altamente accessibile, inserita nel tessuto della società civile per raccoglierne le istanze sulla base dei criteri del cd. connectivism, praticabile in tempi rapidi e a costi contenuti, capace di ridurre il distacco tra le organizzazioni governative, politiche ed istituzionali ed i cittadini, ed in grado di aumentare esponenzialmente e in modo variabile/dinamico il reperimento di istanze cd. “marginali” o “invisibili”. Tali istanze [bisogni, necessità, proposte, petizioni, recall, etx.] vengono fatte emergere accrescendone il grado fattoriale di moltiplicazione e adesione da parte di una massa critica di individui e organizzazioni. Il sistema Æurosphere Ecological garantisce un elevato tasso creativo da parte dei membri di una cosiddetta e.democracy, attraverso l’invito alla creazione di modelli- soluzioni originali, immediatamente applicabili alle politiche e alle attività legislative dei governi e dei partiti politici, secondo processi di modeling e analisi quantitativa che rendono le proposte e le leggi che ne scaturiscono altamente leggibili, comprensibili, quantificabili anche in termini comparativi tra distret- ti geografici e geopolitici distanti, e su periodicità long-run.
Category: Social Science

[46] viXra:1309.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-15 14:26:20

Perception Features of TV Advertising

Authors: Rushchak Ekaterina
Comments: 2 Pages. The article published in PsyNews magazine of Saint Petersburg State University

This article shows differet aspects about perception TV advs between men and women in age since 18 till 25.
Category: Social Science

[45] viXra:1308.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-19 08:45:37

Against All Odds: Post World War II Liberal Arts in Germany and Its Comparison in Indonesia

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 4 Pages. 'LPM Edukasi' humanistic journal of pedagogic faculty of Wali Songo Islamic State Institute, Semarang, Indonesia

Liberal-arts is very important for giving studium generale towards every students from different background. This paper is elaborating comparison between German and Indonesian teaching on liberal-arts. The essential pillars of German liberal-arts are humanism, ethics, and holocaust commemoration. It should be keep in mind, that nurturing pattern between Germany and Indonesia are very different, because it has a different cultural background. Applying German liberal-arts into our curriculum definitely need a comprehension toward our own culture.
Category: Social Science

[44] viXra:1306.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-18 21:14:58

Evolutionary Thinking and Changes of the Time Scale in Representations of the World

Authors: Mark Burgin
Comments: 29 Pages.

In this work, emergence of evolutionary thinking is analyzed in the context of the existential triad and system theory of time. This approach shows that emergence of evolutionary thinking is a transition from one type of temporal scale in the mental world representation to another temporal scale. To explain and ground this transition, elements of the system theory of time, which is a far-reaching development of the special relativity theory, are described. One of the main principles of the special relativity theory is that two physical systems that are moving relative to each other have different time and it is necessary to use a correspondence between clocks in these systems to coordinate their time. In accordance with the basic principles of the system theory of time, each system has its own time and sometimes even not a single one. Thus, it is it is necessary to use various techniques to match time in different systems.
Category: Social Science

[43] viXra:1305.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-30 20:22:39

Safety Management Systems in Aviation Maintenance (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

McDonald et al analyzed the safety management systems of four aircraft maintenance organizations (AMOs) in 1997. This article presents newly re-worked descriptive results about that research.
Category: Social Science

[42] viXra:1305.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-30 10:03:03

Freud's Mother and Father Complex Confirmed

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sigmund Freud devised his theories about the Mother and Father Complex after reading Oedipus Rex, a Greek tragedy of which at least two versions have come down to us. Chinese metaphysics posits eight trigrams, the first, Qian, represents the father archetype, the second, Kun, represents the mother concept. In the ancient Chinese form of divination known as Qi Men Dun Jia, the Mother and Father Complexes appear in the form of "diseased" symbols for Qian and Kun, and may indicate overly powerful libido, if not bisexuality or homosexuality. In this way, the ancient Chinese concept provides a mathematical basis for a putative Greek concept that probably originated in extremely ancient Egypt, to affirm the correctness of Freud's theory.
Category: Social Science

[41] viXra:1304.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 11:00:38

A Complete Guide to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to Dr.Abraham Maslow, all humans have certain needs. He demonstrates this in a pyramid that represents the most needed needs on the bottom and the least needed needs on the top. In my opinion an person would have needs in this same order. However, some people have different needs or different order. For example, if you were to put my needs from least to greatest. My least need would be belonging needs, my next least needs would be Self-actualization, my third least need would be Esteem Needs, and my fourth least needs would be safety needs, then my most needed needs would be physical needs because my body needs to maintain a certain homeostasis in order to survive.
Category: Social Science

[40] viXra:1304.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 10:46:05

Economics as a Social Science

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

Economics is a social science in which you analyze the growing globalization and product marketing that leads to profit in the economy. Economics helps provide insight on things such as profit margins and risk factors when investing in a product.
Category: Social Science

[39] viXra:1303.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-31 23:27:08

Problems with the "Oil Curse" Hypothesis and Its Generalization

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 11 Pages.

The concept of an "oil curse" has been widely debated in the literature. Two clear camps have emerged: (1) those that favor the basic hypothesis or a modified version thereof, and (2) those that find little generalizable empirical evidence for the negative impacts of oil and gas development on the political, socio-economic, and/or environmental trajectories of oil and gas producing nations relative to their non-oil and gas producing counterparts. Overall, we find no significant evidence to support a generalizable concept of an oil curse. In general, our results do not seek to dismiss concerns regarding the potential impacts of oil and gas development on some regions, but rather to illustrate that any such impacts do not appear to be universal in either their direction or magnitude. Similar to what other groups have found, we see evidence that - in some cases - increased oil and gas development appears to correlate with improved socio-economic indicators. In other cases, the evidence is ambiguous at best in light of the large numbers of confounding variables that are effectively impossible to rigorously account for in order to obtain clear and unequivocal negative causal mechanisms between oil and gas development and the status of a society.
Category: Social Science

[38] viXra:1303.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-29 10:42:24

Fuzzy Analysis of School Dropouts and Their Life After

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Amal, K. Kandasamy
Comments: 146 Pages.

School dropouts in Indian scenario is ever increasing among the rural poor. It is due to poverty and lack of steady income. We analyzed the problem using newly constructed fuzzy models.
Category: Social Science

[37] viXra:1303.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-26 05:09:09

A Pragmatic Approach Towards Sociology.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose guidelines to construct workable and calculable models of society in which essential features are disentangled from gratuite desires emanating from the personal morality of its author. This is not to say that the model at hand should not contain a moral aspect, but that the specific form of the latter is a necessary byproduct bounded in time.
Category: Social Science

[36] viXra:1303.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-24 22:59:30

The Non-Generalizability of The First Law of Petropolitics

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 16 Pages.

In 2006, Friedman wrote an influential and widely cited article in Foreign Policy magazine [May/June (2006) 28-36] stating The First Law of Petropolitics. This law held that the quality of governance in oil-rich petrolist states is inversely correlated with a causative relationship from increasing oil prices. In contrast, we find no generally consistent governance patterns among oil-rich petrolist states related to the price of oil that support any claims for a First Law of Petropolitics.
Category: Social Science

[35] viXra:1302.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-12 09:50:21

Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 7 Pages. small presentation

World play is often a method of constrained writing. It can be used in rhetoric or often sarcastic remarks that can toil with one's emotions and change the method of persuasion. This paper explains the facts and methods of persuasion through an ethical standard.
Category: Social Science

[34] viXra:1301.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-31 10:16:28

The Definitions of Peer-Review and Refereed Journal

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Scientific definitions for peer-review and refereed journal are given so that the reader can clarify the real meaning of these terms and their real purposes.
Category: Social Science

[33] viXra:1301.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-12 15:15:01

Low Post-Secondary Tuitions in Canada Are not a Wealth Transfer from the Poor to the Rich

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 3 Pages.

Between 2007/2008 and 2012/2013, inflation adjusted undergraduate tuition fees for full-time Canadian students increased significantly in all disciplines. All disciplines except dentistry also exhibited substantial increases in inflation adjusted graduate tuition fees for full-time Canadian students over this period. In contrast to prior claims in the literature, we show that low tuition rates in the Canadian post-secondary system do not redistribute wealth from the poor to the rich. For each dollar of taxpayer derived financial support going into the Canadian college and university system, the wealthiest families paid almost the entire amount. Consequently, it appears that regardless of current or proposed tuition rates, the Canadian post-secondary system is a wealth transfer from the rich to the poor.
Category: Social Science

[32] viXra:1301.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-05 19:49:08

Shifting the Balance of Global Economic Power: the Sinosphere in Ascension Towards Dominance

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Sinosphere is in ascension towards global economic dominance on both total and per capita bases, marking a fundamental shift in the balance of global economic and military power that is taking place absent any robust structural democratic and human rights reforms in this region. In contrast to comparisons during the 1980s of Japan potentially overtaking the United States as the world's largest economy, both purchasing power parity (PPP) and current United States dollar GDP metrics consistently project that China's gross domestic product (GDP) will exceed that of the United States sometime between 2015 and 2020. The Sinosphere's GDP-PPP passed that of The Commonwealth (including India) in 2011, The Commonwealth (excluding India) in 2005, the Francosphere member states in 2003, the Francosphere member and observer states in 2009 - subsequently widening the gap in all cases - and is predicted to surpass that of the Anglosphere by the early 2020s. China's military spending now exceeds that of all other nations bordering the East and South China Seas combined and the gap is widening rapidly. At current rates of increase, China's military expenditures may surpass those of the United States within the next decade. On a per capita basis, China's GDP-PPP is expected to overtake that of the United States and Canada by the early to mid-2030s, whereas Russia and the EU are projected to be surpassed by China in per capita GDP-PPP by the late 2020s.
Category: Social Science

[31] viXra:1212.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-11 15:26:26

Ergonomization Needs in General Aviation (Introduction)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez, Kam HP Yiu
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez, Gilbey & Diaz Vilela (2010) examined the need for new technologies by single pilot operators in the general aviation industry on a global scale. This was achieved by using an online survey requesting participants to rank the importance of various flight management features. These were 22 technological features in total, grouped into five distinctive categories. Overall, results showed that cost factors were regarded as the most important feature by the group of general aviation pilots, followed by flight support. The results also indicated that instructors valued new flight technologies the most, while female pilots were less concerned with new flight technologies.
Category: Social Science

[30] viXra:1211.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-20 22:00:56

Prediction of Skytrax Airline Rankings, Short Formula (2011) (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 10 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez continued a previous study by Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010), attempting to predict Skytrax's 2011 Official World Airline Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airlines, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable, the average 'Customer review scoring', which is a cumulative average of past ratings, including those given during 2011.
Category: Social Science

[29] viXra:1211.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-19 14:47:16

Prediction of Skytrax Airport Rankings, Short Formula (2011) (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez continued a previous study by Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010), attempting to predict Skytrax's 2011 Official World Airport Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airports, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable, the average 'Customer review scoring', which is a cumulative average of past ratings, including those given during 2011.
Category: Social Science

[28] viXra:1211.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-18 17:24:14

Misinterpretation of 'p' (2000) (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Haller and Krauss (2000) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of tests of significance among German psychology students and academics, which partly replicates one done by Oakes (19863). Haller and Krauss found that most participants held at least one misinterpretation out of six presented. They also found that, overall, 100% of psychology students held one or more misinterpretations (mean=2.5), almost 90% of psychology researchers also held one or more misinterpretations (mean=2), and 80% of instructors of statistics in psychology also held one or more misinterpretations (mean=1.9). The authors thought worrisome the high percentage of instructors with misinterpretations, as these may pass those misinterpretations down to students. Another interesting result, one not highlighted by the authors, though, is the high percentage of researchers (including instructors when carrying out and publishing research) with misinterpretations, as these would perpetuate those when publishing, peer-reviewing others' publications, and making research-informed decisions (such as chairing committees, granting funding, etc).
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1211.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-15 21:37:28

Misinterpretation of 'p' (1995) (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]
Comments: 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Falk and Greenbaum (1995) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of the logic of tests of significance among Israeli psychology students, which partly replicates one by Oakes (1986). Typically, most of these misinterpretations confuse p-values (ie, the probability of the data when assuming that the null hypothesis is true) and, especially, statistical significance, with the probability of proving or disproving hypotheses (be this the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis). Falk and Greenbaum found that almost 87% of the students held at least one misinterpretation out of the four presented. Most of the students misinterpreted p-values as the probability of the null hypothesis being true.
Category: Social Science

[26] viXra:1211.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-14 18:56:30

Misinterpretation of 'p' (1986) (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Oakes (1986) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of the logic of tests of significance among British psychology academics. Typically, most of these misinterpretations confuse p-values (ie, the probability of the data when assuming that the null hypothesis is true) and, especially, statistical significance, with the probability of proving or disproving hypotheses (be this the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis). Another misinterpretation is the so-called "replication fallacy", which occurs when the p-value is assumed to represent the probability of finding similar results if the research were to be repeated.
Category: Social Science

[25] viXra:1211.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-11 16:29:35

Prediction of Skytrax Airline Rankings, Short Formula (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 6 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010) obtained a regression formula for predicting Skytrax's 2010 airline rankings from customer reviews. The research behind the study attempted to predict Skytrax Global Airline Ranking from average ratings that passengers had given to those airlines, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable (the average 'Customer review scoring').
Category: Social Science

[24] viXra:1211.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-08 21:44:55

Prediction of Skytrax Airport Rankings, Short Formula (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez & Gilbey (2010a) obtained a regression formula for predicting Skytrax's 2010 airport rankings from customer reviews. The research behind the study attempted to predict Skytrax's Official World Airport Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airports, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable (the average 'Customer review scoring'), which is a simpler formula to calculate.
Category: Social Science

[23] viXra:1210.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-17 10:26:56

Extension Communication for Solving the Ontological Contradiction Between Communication and Information

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 14 Pages.

The study lies in the interdisciplinary area between the information theory and extenics, as the science of solving the contradictions. This space addresses the central issue of the ontology information, the contradictory relationship between communication and information. The research core is the reality that the scientific research of communication-information relationship has reached a dead end. The bivalent relationship communication-information, informationcommunication has come to be contradictory, and the two concepts to block each other. With the Extenics as a science of solving the conflicting issues, "extenics procedures" will be used to solve the contradiction.
Category: Social Science

[22] viXra:1206.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-11 22:58:31

Aventuri Chineze (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 93 Pages.

„Aventuri chineze” este o carte despre o conferinţă ştiinţifică din Taiwan (în oraşul sudic Kaohsiung), între 4-11 noiembrie 2011, plus un tur ştiintific desfăşurat în perioada 11 decembrie 2011 – 6 ianuarie 2012 în patru oraşe din China: Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, şi Hangzhou. Stilul lapidar, fotografic (la propriu şi la figurat) din celelalte jurnale şi memorii turistice se menţine.
Category: Social Science

[21] viXra:1206.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 04:43:27

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralelele (Note de Calatorii), Vol. I

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 167 Pages.

Author’s traveling memories to various international scientific conferences.
Category: Social Science

[20] viXra:1206.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 04:45:30

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralelele (Vol. II) [brother of Meridians and Parallels, Vol. Ii]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 170 Pages.

Author's tourist traveling and attendance of various scientific international conferences and seminars as invited speaker: at University of Berkeley, University of Texas at Austin, Pima Community College, NASA Langley Research Center, Fusion international conferences, etc.
Category: Social Science

[19] viXra:1206.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 04:47:10

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralelele (Vol. III) [brother of Meridians and Parallels, Vol. Iii]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 190 Pages.

Author's attendance of various scientific international conferences and seminars as invited speaker: at NATO Advance Study Institute in Albena (Bulgaria), Fusion 2005 International Conference in Philadelphia (USA), Marcus Evans European Conference on Sensors’ Fusion in Barcelona (Spain), and tourist visiting and documenting about Aztec and Maya pyramids near Ciudad de Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula.
Category: Social Science

[18] viXra:1206.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 04:49:54

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralelele [brother with the Meridians and the Parallels], Vol. 4

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 260 Pages.

Traveling memories and author’s participation to some international conferences of applied mathematics to USA, Brazil, Italy, Greece, Peru, Bolivia.
Category: Social Science

[17] viXra:1206.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 05:03:12

Frate cu Meridianele şi Paralelele [brother with the Meridians and Parallels], Vol. 6

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 221 Pages.

This volume, in a series of six volumes, includes author’s traveling memories from various international conferences of applied mathematics where he presented papers or from many institutions where he was invited speaker about his scientific research, such as the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton (Ohio), Air Force Research Lab in Rome – New York State, Paris (COGIS International Conference, 2009), as well as cultural visits to Stanwix Fort, Niagara Falls, Alaska, Yellowstone, New Mexico, his native town Bălceşti (Romania), and Jamaica.
Category: Social Science

[16] viXra:1206.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 05:05:45

Mama Vitrega Rusia [step Mother Russia]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 124 Pages.

This is a memory book by the author who was as invited speaker at Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics from Pushchino near Moscow, where he talked about neutrosophic logic/set/probability (which are generalizations of fuzzy logic/set and respectively imprecise probability) and their applications. He met many Russian scientists such as Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova, Boris Levin, Victor Pantcheliouga, Simon Shnoll, Valeri Kolombet, Tatiana Zencenko, Victor Morozov, etc. and doctoral students. Besides his scientific activity the author visited and wrote about Russian museums, culture, history and politics, palaces and exhibitions of arts in Moscow and Sankt Petersburg.
Category: Social Science

[15] viXra:1206.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 05:08:32

Exotica si Cutremuratoarea Indonezie [exotic and Trembling Indonesia]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 122 Pages.

The author describes his traveling to Indonesia as invited speaker at STIKI University in Malang and at Kristen Satya Wacana University in Salatiga on Neutrosophic Logic/Set (generalizations of fuzzy logic and respectively fuzzy set) and their applications to finance, business, situation analysis, economics, and also on Dezert-Smarandache Theory applied to medicine, military, robotics. The book contains photos and descriptions of museums, churches, Hindu and Buddhist temples, mosques and cathedrals that the author visited.
Category: Social Science

[14] viXra:1206.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 05:12:15

India Magica [Magic India]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 89 Pages.

This book describes author's travel to India at Jadavpur University in Kolkata as invited speaker on neutrosophic logic/set (generalizations of fuzzy logic and respectively fuzzy set) and their applications to finance, business, situation analysis, economics. Also the book contains descriptions of museums, Hindu and Sikh temples, mosques, cathedrals, meetings with Indian University Professors and researchers in Delhi, Agra and Kolkata.
Category: Social Science

[13] viXra:1206.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-09 05:23:03

Belfer in Africa (Jurnal Marocan) [professor in Africa (Moroccan Journal)]

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 94 Pages.

Author’s experience as professor of mathematics, teaching in French language, at the Sidi El Hassan Lyoussi College in Sefrou, Morocco, between 1982-1984. His traveling around and relationships with other professors from various nationalities, together with his involvement in training and selecting the Moroccan student team for the 1983 International Olympiad of Mathematics held in Paris, France.
Category: Social Science

[12] viXra:1206.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-08 06:03:52

Pura Vida (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 102 Pages.

De ce fotojurnal? Fiindcă suprafaţa pozelor se-ntinde aproape la jumătate sau mai mult din întreg volumul! Răsfoitorii acestei cărţi măcar vor privi ilustraţiile colorate din CentroAmerica, iar pe lȃngă imagini vor citi cel puţin cȃteva rȃnduri edificatoare... Fiindcă nimeni astăzi nu mai are timp! De ce instantaneu? Pentru că jurnalul e scris la primă mȃnă, pe locul vizitat, cu idei scurte ca nişte blitz-uri, cu economie de cuvinte – în această lume în care vremea trece rapid. Memorialistică fără retuşări. Viaţă brută. Fraze scurte şi simple, fără multe verbe… Vizitez din mers... Fotografiez din mers... Mănânc din mers... Trăiesc din mers... Grăbit, instantaneu, mereu nemulţumit, mereu căutând... Pura Vida (am întȃlnit şi sintagma Vida Pura) înseamnă viaţă pură în societătile hispanice, iar iar popular expresia semnifică: ‚traiul foarte bun’.
Category: Social Science

[11] viXra:1111.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2 Nov 2011

Is the Self-Destruction of Mankind Inevitable?

Authors: Mark Sverdlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

It has been shown that men cannot objectively percept and cognize the world but are organically connected with it, feel its total unity. This unity includes living - unloving synthesis. Mankind - world uncorrelation during civilization epoch prevents from feeling this and from forming of common human unity, leading to confrontation between peoples, to destruction of nature. Escalation of these processes led mankind to the verge of self-destruction. Science is directed to objective cognizing of the world which is inaccessible for men because of subjectivity of their perception and thinking. That is why science cannot help to understand the present situation. New science is necessary, taking into account the nature of human perception and thinking. It is shown that men can restore their natural feeling of the world and form united mankind, organically connected with it, on this foundation.
Category: Social Science

[10] viXra:1111.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2 Nov 2011

United Humanity ... Is It Possible?

Authors: Mark Sverdlov
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown that the human perception of the world was divided into two principally different representations - Eastern and Western. The Eastern school of thought was attempting to deepen its perception and viewed its knowledge in this context. The Western school of thought was based on subjectively logical modeling of the information obtained from the perception. It assumed that this way it was learning about the world. It is shown that the Western understanding was the basis of the human being created its own world during the time of civilization. This was not taken place not from the federative structure which is natural for the makeup of the world, but rather based on the system of monogovernments, which was built on the repression of weak people by the strong ones, as well as the exhostion by the human being of the natural resources. It was shown that the development of humanity in this way has led to almost complete extinction of the natural resources, and has put the humanity on the border of self distraction. It was shown that many-centuries-long development of humanity in this way did not ruin the initially representative of the human nature, basis for the world, federative structures. It was shown in the formation of federative governments as well as international market system in the 19-th and 20-th centuries. It is assumed to be possible, in case of appropriate, fundamental, qualified efforts, the formation on the federative basis the unified all-humanity-system, which is correlated with the makeup of the world and, because of this, retaining the ability to live.
Category: Social Science

[9] viXra:1107.0059 [pdf] submitted on 29 Jul 2011

The Modern African

Authors: Garreth H. Gothaven
Comments: 8 pages

The problem as it exists today is one of identity. What do I, as an African youth have to offer the world in terms of culture worthy of respect. What do we as Africans offer our children, that which they can be proud of and be willing to hand down to their own children, without any generation obtaining the familiar attitude of it being backward? A possible solution to the mindset shift that has left continental Africans branded as paddlers of H.I.V. Exploring some sources of the masochistic attitude, that many have toward their own cultural identity.
Category: Social Science

[8] viXra:1103.0118 [pdf] submitted on 31 Mar 2011

Competition-Trapping the Concept of Power

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 6 pages.

Defining the concept of power in an uncontroversial manner has proven to be difficult. Considering it is a significant concept for all of the social sciences, finding an uncontroversial way of conceptualizing it is necessary. This work proposes that a manner of conceptualizing power can be obtained through trapping the concept inside a competition, which allows us to conceptualize based on the competition. Concepts of power proposed in different fields of social sciences are discussed in the light of competition-trapping, which lead us to the conclusion that the ways power has been defined in the fields relate with important competitions to them, supporting the idea that power seems to be best understood as a competition-dependent concept. This model also allows us to understand the concept without considering any definition used for it as being incorrect.
Category: Social Science

[7] viXra:1008.0068 [pdf] submitted on 13 Mar 2010

Vedic Mathematics 'vedic' or 'mathematics': a Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 220 pages

Religious extremism has been the root cause of most of the world problems since time immemorial. It has decided the fates of men and nations. In a vast nation like India, the imposition of religious dogma and discrimination upon the people has taken place after the upsurge of Hindu rightwing forces in the political arena. As a consequence of their political ascendancy in the northern states of India, they started to rewrite school textbooks in an extremely biased manner that was fundamentalist and revivalist. Not only did they meddle with subjects like history (which was their main area of operation), but they also imposed their religious agenda on the science subjects. There was a plan to introduce Vedic Astrology in the school syllabus across the nation, which was dropped after a major hue and cry from secular intellectuals.
Category: Social Science

[6] viXra:1007.0028 [pdf] submitted on 13 Mar 2010

Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Amal
Comments: 280 pages

The concept of supermatrix for social scientists was first introduced by Paul Horst. The main purpose of his book was to introduce this concept to social scientists, students, teachers and research workers who lacked mathematical training. He wanted them to be equipped in a branch of mathematics that was increasingly valuable for the analysis of scientific data.
Category: Social Science

[5] viXra:1005.0057 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Analysis of Periyar's Views on Untouchability

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy
Comments: 385 pages

K.R.Narayanan was a lauded hero and a distinguished victim of his Dalit background. Even in an international platform when he was on an official visit to Paris, the media headlines blazed, 'An Untouchable at Elysee'. He was visibly upset and it proved that a Dalit who rose up to such heights was never spared from the pangs of outcaste-ness and untouchability, which is based on birth. Thus, if the erstwhile first citizen of India faces such humiliation, what will be the plight of the last man who is a Dalit? As one of the world's largest socio-economically oppressed, culturally subjugated and politically marginalized group of people, the 138 million Dalits in India suffer not only from the excesses of the traditional oppressor castes, but also from State Oppression - which includes, but is not limited to, authoritarianism, police brutality, economic embargo, criminalization of activists, electoral violence, repressive laws that aim to curb fundamental rights, and the non-implementation of laws that safeguard Dalit rights. The Dalits were considered untouchable for thousands of years by the Hindu society until the Constitution of India officially abolished the practice of untouchability in 1950.
Category: Social Science

[4] viXra:1005.0055 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central Government Institutions Like Iits, Iims and Aiims a Study of the Role of Media Using Fuzzy Super FRM Models

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy
Comments: 16 pages

The new notions of super column FRM model, super row FRM model and mixed super FRM model are introduced in this book. These three models are introduced specially to analyze the biased role of the print media on 27 percent reservation for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in educational institutions run by the Indian Central Government. This book has four chapters. In chapter one the authors introduce the three types of super FRM models. Chapter two uses these three new super fuzzy models to study the role of media which feverishly argued against 27 percent reservation for OBCs in Central Government-run institutions in India. The experts we consulted were divided into 19 groups depending on their profession. These groups of experts gave their opinion and comments on the news-items that appeared about reservations in dailies and weekly magazines, and the gist of these lengthy discussions form the third chapter of this book. The fourth chapter gives the conclusions based on our study. Our study was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007, at which point of time the Supreme Court of India stayed the 27 percent reservation for OBCs in the IITs, IIMs and AIIMS. After the aforesaid injunction from the Supreme Court, the experts did not wish to give their opinion since the matter was sub-judice. The authors deeply acknowledge the service of each and every expert who contributed their opinion and thus made this book a possibility. We have analyzed the data using the opinion of the experts who formed a heterogeneous group consisting of administrators, lawyers, OBC/SC/ST students, upper caste students and Brahmin students, educationalists, university vice-chancellors, directors, professors, teachers, retired Judges, principals of colleges, parents, journalists, members of the public, politicians, doctors, engineers, NGOs and government staff.
Category: Social Science

[3] viXra:1004.0055 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State

Authors: Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, District level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all the districts of the state though the contribution in urbanization by the migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive though in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution in urbanization is on the rising over the decades. In this paper district level migration in the Rajasthan state is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.
Category: Social Science

[2] viXra:1003.0248 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Graph Distance, Optimal Communication and Group Stability: A Preliminary Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 4 pages

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the literature which discusses new phenomenon associated to social network. One of the well-known phenomenon in this regards is known as 'six degrees of separation' [1], which implies that one can always keep a communication with each other anywhere within a six-step. A number of experiments has verified this hypothesis, either in the context of offline communication (postal mail), or online communication (email, etc.). In this article, we argue that by introducing this known 'six degrees of separation' into the context of group instability problem, one can find a new type of wisdom in organization. Therefore, we offer a new conjecture, which may be called 'Group stability conjectures based on Graph/Network distance." To our knowledge this conjecture has not been discussed elsewhere, and therefore may be useful for further research, in particular in the area of organization development and group stability studies. The purpose of this article was of course not to draw a conclusive theory, but to suggest further study of this proposed conjecture.
Category: Social Science

[1] viXra:1003.0182 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Structural Dynamics of Various Causes of Migration in Jaipur

Authors: Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 22 pages

Jaipur urban area has grown tremendously in last three decades. Composition of People migrating due to various reasons has display a meticulous trend. Dominance of people moving due to marriages is getting sturdy whereas Jaipur city is losing its luster in attracting persons for education and business. Short duration migration from Jaipur district to urban area has gone down to a very low level. Flow of migrants from Rural areas to Jaipur outpaced the migrants from urban areas and its composition from various in terms long and short distances migration has substantially changed over two consecutive decades. Movements of males and females were differ on many criterion as male moving faster than females for employment & education and females move faster than male for marriages and moving along family was found evident in short, medium and long distances migration. Gender gap in people migration from different reasons was observed and a gender specific trend was seen favour. Short duration migration and migration due to education & employment is not as prominence as it was two decade back
Category: Social Science

Replacements of recent Submissions

[31] viXra:1601.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-20 06:20:05

About the Name of Actually Communication Studying Discipline

Authors: Ştefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study explores the literature on the name of discipline which seeks communication. It notes that there are various names designating this subject: Communication Theory, Communication Science, Sciences de l'Information et of Communication (SIC), Communicology, Communication studies. It appears, then, that the discipline dealing with the phenomena of communication is (along with Psychology, Anthropology and Sociology) a social science. There is that, although seem to refe r to one and the same phenomenon of communication,referred disciplines not examine the communication as a whole, but focuses on different areas; ie they are fragmented. Starting from the origin and connection (Lat. "Communis" + the Gr. Word "logos" "speech , thought, study") and making use of the analogy of Sociology (Latin word "Socius" + Gr. "Logos" ) and Anthropology (Gr. "anthropos" + "logos") is seeking a convergence of names. It is estimated that it should reach convergence in respect of at least two c riteria: the study of communication as a whole and understanding communication as a multi - structured universe. Such criteria somehow it would comply with a title like "Strong Communication Science Communicology". Yet the question persists and therefore the future must be sought arguments to name a possible unitary communication science.
Category: Social Science

[30] viXra:1509.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-25 14:19:42

Standards Are Good for Clearing Science

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 7 Pages.

The fashion is wrongly called ``Standards of beauty''. Because the Standards, as the name says, are never changing. Therefore, let us build our character on the Uniting Standards.
Category: Social Science

[29] viXra:1509.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-23 04:51:21

Standards Are Good for Clearing Science

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 5 Pages.

The fashion is wrongly called ``Standards of beauty''. Because the Standards, as the name says, are never changing. Therefore, let us build our character on the Uniting Standards.
Category: Social Science

[28] viXra:1507.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-30 08:17:43

Should Google use Ad Tracking or Targeting?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 12 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1507.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-29 12:53:57

Should Google use Ad Tracking or Targeting?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 12 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.
Category: Social Science

[26] viXra:1507.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-29 09:14:03

Should Google use Ad Tracking or Targeting?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 10 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.
Category: Social Science

[25] viXra:1507.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-28 15:00:05

Should Google use Ad Tracking or Targeting?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 9 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.
Category: Social Science

[24] viXra:1504.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-14 04:52:18

Communication in Negative Journalism

Authors: Ștefan VLĂDUȚESCU, Ion CUCUI, Delia Mioara POPESCU, Marius PETRESCU, Ion STEGAROIU, Anisoara DUICA
Comments: 5 Pages.

The starting assumption is that the man is an accessible being, permeable to persuasion and to negative journalism. From the point of view of social influence, the communication submits two methods: the convictive method (the conviction) and the persuasive method (the persuasion). The approach of convictive influence is the approach of demonstration, of the intense arguments, the approach of the strictly and compelling logical inferences. But the man is not an entirely rational being. The individuals do not communicate in order to demonstrate. They communicate to share an experience, to agree on some values, on some actions etc. Demonstrations focus on the necessary things. But people’s life is not exhausted by the necessary things. The human has emotions, feelings, passions, needs, wishes. The conviction approach does not cover all that is human. The persuasion governs the emotion and the passion field. As a main form of persuasion it is individualized the negative journalism, understood as an informative intervention dragged along by an interest external to the direct, accurate, honest and balanced information. There can be detached four coordinates of the negative journalism, of the journalism determined by dishonest commandments: the lie, the seduction, the fiction and the myth. We can see them clearly articulated in journalistic operations of intoxication, misinformation, propaganda and manipulation.
Category: Social Science

[23] viXra:1504.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-06 10:48:49

Communication in Negative Journalism

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu, Ion Cucui, Delia Mioara Popescu, Marius Petrescu, Ion Stegaroiu, Anisoara Duica
Comments: 5 Pages.

The starting assumption is that the man is an accessible being, permeable to persuasion and to negative journalism. From the point of view of social influence, the communication submits two methods: the convictive method (the conviction) and the persuasive method (the persuasion). The approach of convictive influence is the approach of demonstration, of the intense arguments, the approach of the strictly and compelling logical inferences. But the man is not an entirely rational being. The individuals do not communicate in order to demonstrate. They communicate to share an experience, to agree on some values, on some actions etc. Demonstrations focus on the necessary things. But people’s life is not exhausted by the necessary things. The human has emotions, feelings, passions, needs, wishes. The conviction approach does not cover all that is human. The persuasion governs the emotion and the passion field. As a main form of persuasion it is individualized the negative journalism, understood as an informative intervention dragged along by an interest external to the direct, accurate, honest and balanced information. There can be detached four coordinates of the negative journalism, of the journalism determined by dishonest commandments: the lie, the seduction, the fiction and the myth. We can see them clearly articulated in journalistic operations of intoxication, misinformation, propaganda and manipulation.
Category: Social Science

[22] viXra:1501.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 11:32:46

Book Review. Sandu Frunză :Comunicare Simbolică și Seducție (2014)

Authors: Elena Rodica Opran
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the book "Comunicare simbolică și seducție", published at Tritonic Publishing House by Professor Sandu Frunz ă,the life of an individual living in the postmodern society is based on communication, and symbolic communication plays a major role in his life. We reckon that the author seeks to demonstrate the way in which communication and mass media build reality in a postmodern context.
Category: Social Science

[21] viXra:1501.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 13:40:35

Assessment of Logistic Outlays in Industrial Solid Waste Management

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Mariana Man
Comments: 11 Pages.

Out of concern for environmental protection is an increasingly common practice. Companies thus have an additional task which is the correct organization of the industrial waste management. This is achieved through the use of logistics processes in industrial waste management, mainly such as warehousing, transport, storage and recovery. These processes involve the formation of logistics costs resulting from waste management. The paper presents a mathematical model for cost of logistics management of industrial waste resulting from the above-mentioned processes. It also shows the interpretation of these costs and the relations between them. The model can increase costefficiency in companies managing industrial waste, while increasing attention to the environment.
Category: Social Science

[20] viXra:1501.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 11:51:31

Five Computational Actions in Information Processing

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 16 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double: a)to define the concept of action of information computational processing and b)to design a taxonomy of actions of information computational processing. Our thesis is that any information processing is a computational processing. First, the investigation trays to demonstrate that the computational actions of information processing or the informational actions are computational - investigative configurations for structuring information: clusters of highly - aggregated operations which are carried out in a unitary manner operate convergent and behave like a unique computational device. From a methodological point of view, they are comprised within the category of analytical instruments for the informational processing of raw material, of data, of vague, confused, unstructured informational elements. As internal articulation, the actions are patterns for the integrated carrying out of operations of informational in vestigation. Secondly, we propose an inventory and a description of five basic informational computational actions: exploring, grouping, anticipation, schematization, inferential structuring. R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull (2014) speak about “four information processing”. We would like to continue with further and future investigation of the relationship between operations, actions, strategies and mechanisms of informational processing.
Category: Social Science

[19] viXra:1501.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 10:57:47

Hermeneutics Can Make Beauty and Ugly as Neutral (As Neutrosophic)

Authors: Mihaela-Gabriela Păun, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The study aims to be an application of the neutral-neutrosophic theory of Florentin Smarandache on the fundamental nucleus of Aesthetics: Beauty-Ugly. If a history of Beauty may resort to a long series of theoretical proofs (of which one can deduce the taste of a certain age), a history of Ugliness can at most to look its documents through visual or verbal representations of certain things or beings perceived somehow as "ugly". But if from a point of view one is Beauty and subsequently in time and space this is Ugly, then we can say that we are in a neutrosophical situation. In all ages, “philosophers and artists have proposed definitions of Beauty; thanks to their testimonies can thus reconstruct a history of aesthetic ideas over the time. But other things were with the idea of Ugly. Most often, Ugly was defined in opposition to the Beauty, but almost never have been dedicated ample studies, but some hints in parenthesis or some marginal notes” as U. Eco asserts (Eco, 2005).
Category: Social Science

[18] viXra:1501.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-05 21:25:09

Hermeneutics Can Make Beauty and Ugly as Neutral (As Neutrosophic)

Authors: Mihaela-Gabriela Paun, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The study aims to be an application of the neutral - neutrosophic theory of Florentin Smarandache on the fundamental nucleus of Aesthetics : Beauty - Ugly. If a history of Beauty may resort to a long series of theoretical proofs (of which one can deduce the taste of a certain age), a history of Ugliness can at most to look its documents through visual or verbal representations of certain things or beings perceived somehow as "ugly". But if from a point of view one is Beauty and subsequently in time and space this is Ugly, then we can say that we are in a neutrosophical situation. In all ages, “philosophers and artists have proposed definitions o f Beauty; thanks to their testimonies can thus reconstruct a history of aesthetic ideas over the time. But other things were with the idea of Ugly. Most often, Ugly was defined in opposition to the Beauty, but almost never have been dedicated ample studies , but some hints in parenthesis or some marginal notes” as U. Eco asserts (Eco, 2005).
Category: Social Science

[17] viXra:1501.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 13:45:56

Logistic Paradigm for Industrial Solid Waste Treatment Processes

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Ioan Constantin Dima
Comments: 11 Pages.

Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing with industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management.
Category: Social Science

[16] viXra:1501.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-07 15:49:11

Objectivity Between Illusions and Professional Standards in Today’s Journalism

Authors: Xenia Negrea
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we approached the problem of objectivity in Romanian press. We presented the newest and also the most pertinent definitions of the subject and we have found that the researchers` opinions are divergent. As a case study we chose a newspaper known in the Romanian media market as having a very high level of subjectivity and partisanship. We analyzed this publication during the parliamentary election in 2012 and we identified the manners in which the journalists express their subjectivity.
Category: Social Science

[15] viXra:1412.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 15:49:59

Drainage of Some Areas of Uncertainty in the Field of Communicative Instance Concept

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The study finds, supports and explores some of the uncertainties surrounding the core of the concept of communicative instance. Examine joints concept and try articulating it as a useful tool in understanding, describing and explaining the phenomenon of communication. Method is one meta-analytical. The main conclusion that emerges from draining and dropping the halo of doubt and uncertainty is the principle of communicative instance: within each communicative event occurs and remain an instance of communication, understood as a mutual computational and decisional human device of co-building, co-organization, co-implementation and co-management of communication processes.
Category: Social Science

[14] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-25 14:37:06

What is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 34 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to employees, employers, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here, I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a two-person game in which an allocator (an employer) divides a monetary amount (a workplace net profit) between herself and a recipient (an employee). Assuming self-interested players, I propose a level-of-aspiration model, according to which players’ pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players’ levels of pay satisfaction, yields two “harmony” points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspirations. Assuming that the recipient aspires for 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3) for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming that the recipient aspires to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ≈0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio. For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈33% to ≈38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing. Tests using field data on attitudinal pay fairness, actual pay data, and allocation behavior in experimental ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the proposed model.
Category: Social Science

[13] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-27 18:15:30

What Is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 33 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to employees, employers, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here, I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a two-person game in which an allocator (an employer) divides a monetary amount (a workplace net profit) between herself and a recipient (an employee). Assuming self-interested players, I propose a level-of-aspiration model, according to which players’ pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players’ levels of pay satisfaction, yields two “harmony” points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspirations. Assuming that the recipient aspires for 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3) for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming that the recipient aspires to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ≈0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio. For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈33% to ≈38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing. Tests using field data on attitudinal pay fairness, actual pay data, and allocation behavior in experimental ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the proposed model.
Category: Social Science

[12] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-23 17:34:39

What Is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 31 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to employees, employers, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here, I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a “minimal” two-person game in which an allocator (e.g., an employer) divides a monetary amount (e.g., a workplace net profit) between herself and a recipient (e.g., an employee). Assuming rational, self-interested players, I propose a level-of-aspiration model, according to which players’ pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players’ levels of pay satisfaction, yields two possible “harmony” points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspiration levels. Under the assumption that the recipient aspires to receive 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3) for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming the recipient aspires to be treated equally, that is, to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ ≈ 0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio, known for its important role in human aesthetics, and in many fields of science and technology. For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈ 33% to ≈ 38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing.
Category: Social Science

[11] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-23 06:10:27

What is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 31 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to employees, employers, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here, I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a “minimal” two-person game in which an allocator (e.g., an employer) divides a monetary amount (e.g., a workplace net profit) between herself and a recipient (e.g., an employee). Assuming rational, self-interested players, I propose a level-of-aspiration model, according to which players’ pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs, relative to the payoffs to which they aspired. Solving for the points of equality between the players’ levels of pay satisfaction yields two possible “harmony” points, depending on the assumption about the recipient’s aspiration. Assumption that recipients aspire to receive 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3) for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming the recipient aspires to be treated equally, that is, to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ ≈ 0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio, known for its important role in human aesthetics and in many fields of science and technology. If the employee satisfaction is of primary interest, then the model prescribes that the employer should opt for the higher ratio of ≈ 38% of the net profit, which in addition to yielding higher pay satisfaction is also more aesthetically pleasing. Tests of the proposed model using data from a previous study on attitudinal pay fairness, from a new study on actual salaries, and from previous and new experimental studies on behavior in ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the validity of the proposed model.
Category: Social Science

[10] viXra:1409.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-13 20:27:42

What is a Fair Salary?

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 21 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to the employee, the employer, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a "minimal" two-person game, in which an allocator (e.g., an employer) divides a monetary amount (e.g., a workplace net profit), between herself and a recipient (e.g., an employee). Assuming rational, self-interested players, I propose a level of aspiration model, according to which players' pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs, relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players' levels of pay satisfaction, yields two possible "harmony" points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspiration. Under the assumption that recipients aspire to receive 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3), for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming that the recipient aspires to be treated equally, i.e., to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ ≈ 0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio, known for its important role in human aesthetics, and in many fields of science and technology. For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈ 33% to ≈ 38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing. Tests of the proposed model using field data on attitudinal pay fairness, actual pay data, and allocation behavior in experimental ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the validity of proposed solution.
Category: Social Science

[9] viXra:1405.0301 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-04 07:59:02

Innovation: the Basis of Cultural Change

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 18 Pages.

H. G. Barnett was Professor of Anthropology at Oregon University when he issued Innovation: the Basis of Cultural Change (McGraw-Hill publishers, 1953). We review the book from the perspective of innovation in science. (Revised and expanded version, 4 June 2014.)
Category: Social Science

[8] viXra:1404.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-02 22:57:06

SuperNova Precession Period of Peace

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 38 Pages.

The 24,925 year period beginning with the Shock Wave of the Geminga SuperNova 36,525 years ago and ending with the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago corresponds roughly to one 26,000 year Earth Precession Period. No written historical record has been found for that SuperNova Precession Period during which Humans had migrated out of Africa to populate much of the Earth continuing the African IFA divination system, producing Cave Art, developing Sanskrit and the Rig Veda and the Meru Prastara, and building the Great Pyramid complex at Giza. Human Civilization during much of that SuperNova Precession Period seems to have been Peaceful, living in Harmony with Nature and with Each Other, so Manetho characterized it as the time of the Rule of Gods, Demigods and Spirits and I would call it the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace. However, after the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago Human Civilization entered the Present Precession Period, Manetho’s time of the Rule of Mortal Humans characterized by (to paraphrase Terence McKenna) scarcity, preservation of privilege, and ever-more-sophisticated use of technology and ideology to control people. This paper is an attempt to describe the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace and to explore possible future paths of the Present Precession Period, including possible Global Nuclear War and possible Global Reconciliation and Peace. SuperNova Precession Period of Peace ... pages 2-10, IFA ... page 4, Rig Veda ... page 4, Cave Art ... page 6, Meru Prastara ... page 7, Great Pyramid ... page 9, Present Precession Period ... pages 11-12, Appendix I: Lullian Art ... pages 13-19, Appendix II: Gods, Demigods, Spirits ... pages 20-28, Appendix III: Geminga and Toba ... pages 29-31. V2 has some corrections and adds Appendix III. V3 adds Vico, Joyce and Finnegans Wake to Appendix II V4 adds more about Finnegans Wake
Category: Social Science

[7] viXra:1404.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-16 14:36:33

SuperNova Precession Period of Peace

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 37 Pages.

The 24,925 year period beginning with the Shock Wave of the Geminga SuperNova 36,525 years ago and ending with the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago corresponds roughly to one 26,000 year Earth Precession Period. No written historical record has been found for that SuperNova Precession Period during which Humans had migrated out of Africa to populate much of the Earth continuing the African IFA divination system, producing Cave Art, developing Sanskrit and the Rig Veda and the Meru Prastara, and building the Great Pyramid complex at Giza. Human Civilization during much of that SuperNova Precession Period seems to have been Peaceful, living in Harmony with Nature and with Each Other, so Manetho characterized it as the time of the Rule of Gods, Demigods and Spirits and I would call it the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace. However, after the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago Human Civilization entered the Present Precession Period, Manetho’s time of the Rule of Mortal Humans characterized by (to paraphrase Terence McKenna) scarcity, preservation of privilege, and ever-more-sophisticated use of technology and ideology to control people. This paper is an attempt to describe the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace and to explore possible future paths of the Present Precession Period, including possible Global Nuclear War and possible Global Reconciliation and Peace. SuperNova Precession Period of Peace ... pages 2-10, IFA ... page 4, Rig Veda ... page 4, Cave Art ... page 6, Meru Prastara ... page 7, Great Pyramid ... page 9, Present Precession Period ... pages 11-12, Appendix I: Lullian Art ... pages 13-19, Appendix II: Gods, Demigods, Spirits ... pages 20-28, Appendix III: Geminga and Toba ... pages 29-31. V2 has some corrections and adds Appendix III. V3 adds Vico, Joyce and Finnegans Wake to Appendix II
Category: Social Science

[6] viXra:1404.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 10:17:21

SuperNova Precession Period of Peace

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 31 Pages.

The 24,925 year period beginning with the Shock Wave of the Geminga SuperNova 36,525 years ago and ending with the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago corresponds roughly to one 26,000 year Earth Precession Period. No written historical record has been found for that SuperNova Precession Period during which Humans had migrated out of Africa to populate much of the Earth continuing the African IFA divination system, producing Cave Art, developing Sanskrit and the Rig Veda and the Meru Prastara, and building the Great Pyramid complex at Giza. Human Civilization during much of that SuperNova Precession Period seems to have been Peaceful, living in Harmony with Nature and with Each Other, so Manetho characterized it as the time of the Rule of Gods, Demigods and Spirits and I would call it the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace. However, after the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago Human Civilization entered the Present Precession Period, Manetho’s time of the Rule of Mortal Humans characterized by (to paraphrase Terence McKenna) scarcity, preservation of privilege, and ever-more-sophisticated use of technology and ideology to control people. This paper is an attempt to describe the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace and to explore possible future paths of the Present Precession Period, including possible Global Nuclear War and possible Global Reconciliation and Peace. SuperNova Precession Period of Peace ... pages 2-10, IFA ... page 4, Rig Veda ... page 4, Cave Art ... page 6, Meru Prastara ... page 7, Great Pyramid ... page 9, Present Precession Period ... pages 11-12, Appendix I: Lullian Art ... pages 13-19, Appendix II: Gods, Demigods, Spirits ... pages 20-28, Appendix III: Geminga and Toba ... pages 29-31. V2 has some corrections and adds Appendix III.
Category: Social Science

[5] viXra:1308.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-19 10:05:56

Against All Odds: Post World War II Liberal Arts in Germany and Its Comparison in Indonesia

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 4 Pages. 'LPM Edukasi' humanistic journal of pedagogic faculty of Wali Songo Islamic State Institute, Semarang, Indonesia

Liberal-arts is very important for giving studium generale towards every students from different background. This paper is elaborating comparison between German and Indonesian teaching on liberal-arts. The essential pillars of German liberal-arts are humanism, ethics, and holocaust commemoration. It should be keep in mind, that nurturing pattern between Germany and Indonesia are very different, because it has a different cultural background. Applying German liberal-arts into our curriculum definitely need a comprehension toward our own culture.
Category: Social Science

[4] viXra:1303.0197 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-01 10:13:18

A Pragmatic Approach Towards Sociology.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose guidelines to construct workable and calculable models of society in which essential features are disentangled from gratuite desires emanating from the personal morality of its author. This is not to say that the model at hand should not contain a moral aspect, but that the specific form of the latter is a necessary byproduct bounded in time.
Category: Social Science

[3] viXra:1206.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2012-06-12 01:17:43

Aventuri Chineze (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 93 Pages.

„Aventuri chineze” este o carte despre o conferinţă ştiinţifică din Taiwan (în oraşul sudic Kaohsiung), între 4-11 noiembrie 2011, plus un tur ştiintific desfăşurat în perioada 11 decembrie 2011 – 6 ianuarie 2012 în patru oraşe din China: Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, şi Hangzhou. Stilul lapidar, fotografic (la propriu şi la figurat) din celelalte jurnale şi memorii turistice se menţine.
Category: Social Science

[2] viXra:1103.0118 [pdf] replaced on 18 Jun 2011

Competition-Trapping the Concept of Power

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 6 pages

Defining the concept of power in an uncontroversial manner has proven to be difficult. Considering it is a significant concept for all of the social sciences, finding an uncontroversial way of conceptualizing it is necessary. This work proposes that a manner of conceptualizing power can be obtained through trapping the concept inside a competition, which allows us to conceptualize based on the competition. Concepts of power proposed in different fields of social sciences are discussed in the light of competition-trapping, which lead us to the conclusion that the ways power has been defined in the fields relate with important competitions to them, supporting the idea that power seems to be best understood as a competition-dependent concept. This model also allows us to understand the concept without considering any definition used for it as being incorrect.
Category: Social Science

[1] viXra:1103.0118 [pdf] replaced on 20 May 2011

Competition-Trapping the Concept of Power

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 6 pages

Defining the concept of power in an uncontroversial manner has proven to be difficult. Considering it is a significant concept for all of the social sciences, finding an uncontroversial way of conceptualizing it is necessary. This work proposes that a manner of conceptualizing power can be obtained through trapping the concept inside a competition, which allows us to conceptualize based on the competition. Concepts of power proposed in different fields of social sciences are discussed in the light of competition-trapping, which lead us to the conclusion that the ways power has been defined in the fields relate with important competitions to them, supporting the idea that power seems to be best understood as a competition-dependent concept. This model also allows us to understand the concept without considering any definition used for it as being incorrect.
Category: Social Science