Social Science

1611 Submissions

[11] viXra:1611.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 18:25:17

History of Electricity

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the order of discovery of significant developments in the history of electricity. The history of electricity reveals a series of discoveries with the simplest discoveries being made first and more complex discoveries being made later. Some discoveries could not be made without certain prior discoveries having been made. The earliest forms of electricity to be experienced by people were those that occur naturally such as lightning and those resulting from simple activities like rubbing an object which causes electricity by means of friction. Systematic experimentation concerning electricity began after the scientific revolution with scientists constructing simple machines to create electricity and conducting simple experiments that showed electric charges could be positive or negative and that insulating material could stop an electric charge being lost from a charged object. Current electricity required the prior discovery of a battery such as the voltaic pile, and only when current electricity could be made, was it possible to discover the connection between electricity and magnetism. Once current electricity was produced, it was soon discovered that an electric current affected the behavior of a compass needle, leading to the invention of the electromagnet and eventually to Faraday’s invention of the electric motor and the electric generator. When practical electric generators and motors were invented, and the generation of electricity became economic, helped considerably by the invention of the electric light, the use of electricity began to spread throughout the first world and eventually the rest of the world. The order in which these discoveries were made was inevitable and given how valuable electricity is to human beings, it was also inevitable, that sooner or later in some society open to new ideas and technology, that electricity would be used to meet human needs. The order of discovery was inevitable and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[10] viXra:1611.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 19:56:37

The Discovery of Steam Power

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the conditions needed, and the order of the discoveries made, for the invention of the steam engine. There were a number of conditions necessary for the invention of the steam engine. A vital one was the presence of a need, initially that of how to get water out of mines and later how to drive the new machinery that was being produced as part of the industrial revolution. But needs are common and they are not always met. The reasons why those needs were met was due to the scientific progress that was going on in 16th and 17th century Europe concerning the knowledge of atmospheric pressure, how to create vacuums and of the properties of gases. Allied to this scientific progress was a belief in Europe at the time that progress could be made and problems could be solved. The inventors at the time applied scientific knowledge to solving the problems that existed and after long periods of trial and error, including the development of new and better materials, were able to produce a working steam engine. Crucial to the progress made by the inventors was the diffusion of scientific and engineering knowledge which enabled them to build on each other’s work. The earlier development of printing was important to the diffusion process and the role of organizations such as the Royal Society was also important.
Category: Social Science

[9] viXra:1611.0299 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 08:24:57

Universal Economic Plan Based Law Constitutions of Kingdom and Nations

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this work, touched on some social issues whatever the result, and a raising awareness was aimed by some new technological upgrades for vital infrastructures of states, social order and economic plan. The main aim is one world order which has no king and accepts nations as local governances as a requirement of hierarchical order. It is completely based on economic benefits of all nations as there is no alternative to establish a healthy economic order as economic management is directly related with laws. As the important is a law exists or not, or is just or not for justice, also it encourages to develop organic laws in state institutions as it recognizes any state institution as autonomous. This building is a building which is actually dependent of economy, counts states of the world as local governances as a requirement of one world order; does not stipulate working and military service; promises that no charge for houses, energy, education, judgment, security, health care, public transport, marriage; promises removing armies limited manner, removing nuclear weapons and establishing in space but the special conditions. Also there are many new technological upgrades for vital infrastructure of states.
Category: Social Science

[8] viXra:1611.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 22:59:30

An Introduction to Isaac's Laws

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 11 Pages.

A summary of a literary text.
Category: Social Science

[7] viXra:1611.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:44:39

Football Fans Can Win the Home Match—Collective Psychosis Has Physics

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to chaos theory (nonlinear dynamic), the single flap of a butterfly’s wings can lead to unexpectedly great consequences. This sentence does not stress the force of flap of a butterfly, its goal is to allow us to picture how a small input causes big changes in the output. But we may understand it in a more concrete form. We can measure the energy of the flap of a butterfly’s wing. This energy is about as great as the measurable energy of thought. The butterfly effect can manifest itself as a thought effect. Based on the chaos theory we may say: a small change of the input caused by thought force causes a disproportional change in the output of the system, if the system is a nonlinear system. This paper was meant as a short presentation of an given aspect of thought force; it's about the physics of collective psychosis.
Category: Social Science

[6] viXra:1611.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 19:12:33

The Discovery of Agriculture

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper is written to question the widespread belief among anthropologists that pre-historic hunter gatherers knew about agriculture long before agriculture began to be practiced. The paper suggests gradually accumulating human knowledge led to the development of agriculture rather than population pressure, favorable mutations or convenient climate, all of which would have occurred at various times long before agriculture was developed, without leading to the discovery of agriculture
Category: Social Science

[5] viXra:1611.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 16:46:27

The History of Medicine

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 35 Pages.

This paper was written to study the order of medical advances throughout history. It investigates changing human beliefs concerning the causes of diseases, how modern surgery developed and improved methods of diagnosis and the use of medical statistics. Human beliefs about the causes of disease followed a logical progression from supernatural causes, such as the wrath of the Gods, to natural causes, involving imbalances within the human body. The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of microorganisms which were eventually identified as the cause of infectious diseases. Identification of the particular microorganism causing a disease led to immunization against the disease. Modern surgery only developed after the ending of the taboo against human dissection and the discovery of modern anaesthesia and the discovery of the need for anti-septic practices. Modern diagnostic practices began with the discovery of x-rays and the invention of medical scanners. Improved mathematics, especially in probability theory, led to statistical studies which led to a much greater ability, to identify the causes of disease, and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. These discoveries all occurred in a necessary and inevitable order with the easiest discoveries being made first and the harder discoveries being made later. The order of discovery determined the course of the history of medicine and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[4] viXra:1611.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 17:54:21

The Discovery of the Atomic World and the Constituents of Matter

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 17 Pages.

The change from the traditional Western and Chinese view of the elements involving materials such as water, air, earth, wood, metal and fire, to the chemical elements making up the periodic table, to atoms, to particles such as protons, neutrons and electrons, and then to quarks was inevitable. The order of discovery of these ideas of the ultimate constituents of matter was necessary, in that they could not have been discovered in any other order. This was because nature has a particular structure and we have a particular place in nature. The traditional view of the elements could be obtained by naked eye observation, and the view of nature as being made up of the chemical elements in the periodic table was next discovered, as it involved the decomposition of traditional elements, such as air and water. This led to the idea there was a separate atom for each element which explained the differences between the elements. The sub atomic particles were discovered in a necessary order with the outer particles like the electron being discovered earlier, and inner particles such as quarks being discovered later. The order of discovery of particles is also affected by the properties of the particles. The charges of particles, their mass and ability to survive outside the particles they make up, and other properties will make a particle harder or easier to discover. The order of discover is inevitable and set by the structure of the universe. The structure of the universe includes the structure of the atom, and of the particles making up the atom, and the properties of the atom, and of the particles making up the atom.
Category: Social Science

[3] viXra:1611.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 14:39:59

Guttman Scale Analysis and Its Use to Explain Cultural Evolution and Social Change

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

Guttman scale analysis is a very useful tool to understand the evolution of societies. It shows the accumulation of cultural traits throughout history in various societies and that those cultural traits were usually accumulated in the same order. The results of studies, by Robert Carneiro and others, shows the accumulation of cultural traits is not random and indicates a universal pattern in cultural evolution. The universal pattern is caused by increasing human knowledge of the environment we live in. Human societies usually acquire this knowledge in the same order, with easier discoveries concerning the natural world being made earlier than more complex discoveries. This means human social and cultural history, usually follows a particular course, a course that is determined by the structure of the human environment.
Category: Social Science

[2] viXra:1611.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 21:47:38

The Development of Agriculture and Pastoralism

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment, including plants and animals, to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the plants and animals in their environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. The plants and animals in the human environment have particular properties, caused by their genetic make-up and these properties make some plants and animals more suitable for domestication than others. Humans learnt which were the best plants to domesticate, and how to cultivate them, in a particular order with the easiest crops to domesticate being domesticated first and with agricultural techniques improving over time as human knowledge increased. They also learnt which animals could be domesticated, and how to use and control them, in a particular order with the easiest to domesticate, being domesticated first, and the harder to domesticate being domesticated later. The knowledge of how to use and control domesticated animals, improved over time, with the simplest techniques being learnt first and more complicated techniques being learnt later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history as knowledge of new and more efficient means of meeting human needs, such as agriculture and pastoralism, results in the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, has to follow a particular course, a course that is determined by the properties of the materials, such as plants and animals, in the human environment.
Category: Social Science

[1] viXra:1611.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 23:50:57

The History of Metallurgy

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 7 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment, including fire and metals, to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of fire and metals enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. Fire and metals have particular properties and human knowledge of those properties increases over time in a particular order. Increasing human knowledge of how to create higher and higher temperatures enables the smelting and melting of a wider range of ores and metals. Those ores and metals that could be smelted and melted at lower temperatures were used before the ores and metals which had higher smelting and melting points. This meant that copper, and its alloy bronze, were used before iron and its alloy steel. Pure metals, like copper and iron, were used before alloys such as, bronze and steel, as the manufacture of alloys is more complicated than the manufacture of pure metals. The simplest knowledge is acquired first and more complex knowledge is acquired later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history, as knowledge of new and more efficient means of smelting ores and melting metals, results in new technology, which contributes to the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, had to follow a particular course, a course that was determined by the properties of the materials in the human environment.
Category: Social Science