Social Science

1411 Submissions

[5] viXra:1411.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 15:09:23

The Frustration Effect: Behavioral and Emotional Reactions to Unanswered Voice

Authors: Liraz Margalit, Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid
Comments: 18 Pages.

The frustration effect refers to situations in which, despite an individual’s option to express an opinion, the decision maker does not take that opinion into consideration. Theories of justice predict that, compared with having no voice, an unanswered voice will result in more frustration, dissatisfaction, and negative evaluations of outcome and procedural fairness. We tested these predictions experimentally, using an ultimatum and dictator games in which all participants played the role of recipients, while the allocators were fictitious players, who ostensibly offered them low shares. We found strong support to the frustration-effect hypothesis. Relative to recipients in the no-voice condition, in the unanswered-voice condition recipients in the two games perceived the situation as less fair and expressed more frustration and dissatisfaction from their low outcomes. Moreover, compared with the dictator condition, in the ultimatum game a significantly higher percentage of the recipients rejected the low offers under the unanswered-voice condition than under the no-voice condition. The results also revealed an interesting gender difference in the participants' responses to unanswered voice. Compared to women, men reported higher frustration levels, and rejected low offers with a significantly higher rate when their voice was ignored.
Category: Social Science

[4] viXra:1411.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 10:39:55

Persistent Organic Pollutants and Other Hazardous Wastes from Titanium Processing Industry the Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan
Comments: 10 Pages.

It has been known since 1998 that the processing of titanium via chloride route generates persistent organic pollutants like dioxin, furan, poly chlorinated biphenyls etc. The inventory of toixins also includes heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, most of which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Costly remedial measures have been implemented by the industry in Europe, North America and Japan during the last decade. Prices of titanium products more than doubled due to this. However, it has been business as usual in the Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd, a public sector undertaking and the only producer of titanium dioxide pigment via chloride routein India. With about half a million tons of solid waste containing highly hazardous substances, which will stay in the eco-system, the biosphere and the breast milk for hundreds of years into the future, the industry is neck deep in crisis.
Category: Social Science

[3] viXra:1411.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-12 17:00:17

Science, the Virtual and the Actual : A Real Stand-off

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 11 Pages.

The World Wide Web is a source of social encounter occurring over undefined distances. If physical parameters of social encounter are considered uncontrollable for studies in a natural setting, the internet world, when dissected philosophically with respect to physical witnessibility of engaged identities, provides a model in which distance is absent. Upon comparison of meaning in science method and theory as it is necessarily rooted to common perceptional experience, it is proposed that established criteria of virtual, real, and actual employed for description in internet communication studies not only constitute 'world', but 'universe' in which the gap between the actual and virtual has a physical meaning. Philosophical analogy is made from a proposed universal model to theory proposed by Albert Einstein, Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn and applied in an attempt to bridge conceptually the social and natural sciences . A release of identity-funding inhibition to the extension of the range of witness beyond the immediate environment, associated with cognitive generalization of phenomenon involving a null hypothesis, seen universally to singularly account for cognitive and behavioral trends towards modern times, is proposed to be the consequence of physical factors that are external to cultures. Discussion relating ‘paradox’ as ‘paradox of the injuring concept’ is rendered in terms of a physical divide between the virtual and the actual.
Category: Social Science

[2] viXra:1411.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 17:29:42

Anthropology and Parallelism :The Individual as a Universal

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is difficult to define perspective within sets that are self belonging. For example in the study of mankind, anthropology, both men and their studies fall into the same category that contains the topic outline. This situation entails a universal quality of uniqueness, an instance of it, to the topic of anthropology that may be viewed in parallel with the topic of nature as the set of unique particulars. Yet one might assent to the notion in the inclusive study of man, anthropology, that nothing in its’ content should conceivably be construed to exceed it, though in approaches to the topic, reference to the topic of nature, unavoided, refer to the scientific topic of nature in which contemporary notions, when contrasted, exceed the perceptual experience of nature. In this presentation problems in approaches and in the application of available tools for analysis to the study of man will be discussed. Framed with respect to a concept of parallelism, notions and stimuli are introduced to augment and reorient towards a more creative perspective with respect to the organization of first perspective considerations in studies. The theories of relativity, the idea of mathematical relations for simultaneous events, the presence of artifactual paradoxes as they are reflected in thinking and the scientific tools applied towards investigations are discussed and hopefully highlighted so that they may hopefully be perceived distinctly form realities involved in the pursuit of studies.
Category: Social Science

[1] viXra:1411.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 15:50:14

Explicit and Implicit Evaluation of Pain Experienced by Ingroup and Outgroup Members: the Case of the Jewish-Arab Conflict

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Reem Yahya, Jean Decety, Simone Shamay-Tsoory
Comments: 16 Pages.

Despite the automaticity of empathy for pain of others, recent research highlights the important role of top-down components and of social categorization factors in determining peoples’ empathy to pain. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members’ pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed perceived pain when Jewish and Arab participants viewed a series of visual stimuli, depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or subliminally implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that when the targets’ categories are primed implicitly, Jews and Palestinian-Arabs showed no ingroup or ougroup bias. In contrast, pain ratings in the explicit priming provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy to pain is higher for ingroup, than for outgroup members.
Category: Social Science