Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(1)
2009 - 0907(3) - 0908(7) - 0910(1)
2010 - 1001(1) - 1002(1) - 1003(1) - 1004(1) - 1007(1)
2011 - 1102(1) - 1103(2) - 1104(2) - 1105(1) - 1106(2) - 1107(1) - 1108(1) - 1109(5) - 1111(4) - 1112(3)
2012 - 1201(3) - 1202(1) - 1203(5) - 1204(2) - 1205(1) - 1207(4) - 1208(3) - 1209(2) - 1210(2) - 1212(2)
2013 - 1301(3) - 1302(4) - 1303(4) - 1304(3) - 1305(6) - 1306(5) - 1307(1) - 1308(6) - 1309(11) - 1310(12) - 1311(4) - 1312(7)
2014 - 1401(5) - 1402(1) - 1403(13) - 1404(11) - 1405(9) - 1406(4) - 1407(2) - 1408(5) - 1409(4) - 1410(4) - 1411(10) - 1412(14)
2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(4) - 1503(7) - 1504(7) - 1505(5) - 1506(1) - 1507(4) - 1508(7) - 1509(4) - 1510(2) - 1511(6) - 1512(3)
2016 - 1601(3) - 1602(8) - 1603(6) - 1604(4) - 1605(5) - 1606(8) - 1607(6) - 1608(20) - 1609(8) - 1610(8) - 1611(4) - 1612(2)
2017 - 1701(6) - 1702(3) - 1703(5) - 1704(6) - 1705(7) - 1706(6) - 1707(10) - 1708(2) - 1709(4) - 1710(4) - 1711(3) - 1712(31)
2018 - 1801(7) - 1802(5) - 1803(4) - 1804(7) - 1805(8) - 1806(3) - 1807(10) - 1808(7) - 1809(7) - 1810(8) - 1811(13) - 1812(3)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[526] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 20:40:20

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[525] viXra:1812.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:04:59

Microworld_52. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 12

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

EmDrive, “Antigravity engine”, photon engine – outbreak of a new power engineering era in the contemporary earth civilization.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[524] viXra:1812.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 14:40:10

Low Inductive and Resistance Energy Capacitor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper considers the design of a powerful electric capacitor with a very small induction and resistance. Such capacitors are necessary in many branches of technology, when all the energy of a capacitor must be given out for millionths (10-6) of a second to an object with low electrical resistance. The proposed capacitor allows you to reduce the installation of energy supply to a nuclear reactor and its cost a thousand times. Key words: Low Inductive Capacitor, Low Resistance Capacitor, Energy Capacitor, Capacitor for Fusion Reactor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[523] viXra:1811.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:03:40

ANovel Approach to Reduce Toxicities and to Improve Bioavailabilities of DNA/RNAof Human Cancer Cells–Containing Cocaine (Coke), Lysergide (Lysergic AcidDiethyl Amide or LSD), Δ9–Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [(–)–trans–Δ⁹–Tetrahydrocannabinol],Theobromine (

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato.
Comments: 17 Pages. https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/2018/v-4-n-6-august-2018 , Alireza Heidari and Ricardo Gobato. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.6, (1-17), August 9, 2018.

The aim of the present study was to reduce toxicities and to improve bioavailabilities of DNA/RNA of human cancer cells–containing Cocaine (Coke), Lysergide (Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide or LSD), Δ9–Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [(–)–trans–Δ⁹–Tetrahydrocannabinol], Theobromine (Xantheose), Caffeine, Aspartame (APM) (NutraSweet) and Zidovudine (ZDV) [Azidothymidine (AZT)] as anti–cancer Nano drugs by coassembly of dual anti–cancer Nano drugs to inhibit DNA/RNA of human cancer cells drug resistance.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[522] viXra:1811.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 05:34:45

Microworld_51. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 11

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Сauses of Half-Century Failures in the Thermonuclear Problem. “Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” fusion. The article describes possible fusion reactions of instantly self-disintegrating nuclei of 5Li and 8Ве. There has been a preliminary estimate of the efficiency of such reactions for building controllable light nuclei power reactors considered. In the early two thousands, EmDrive (R.Shawyer) and Antigravity Engine (V. Leonov) were invented which operation principles were known neither to the inventors nor to the contemporary science. Studies based on the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations found that those devices were flow-through engines wherein jets are made of ether and the magnetic field acts as a compressor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[521] viXra:1811.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 09:07:17

Atomic Parity Violation Milestone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have recently succeeded in observing parity violation in ytterbium atoms with different numbers of neutrons. [35] Exploring the mystery of molecular handedness in nature, scientists have proposed a new experimental scheme to create custom-made mirror molecules for analysis. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[520] viXra:1811.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 03:33:17

Microworld_50. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 10

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology. The article describes a mechanism of external influence on behavior of photons. The variability of microobject mass. The flow of energy of matter in motion. Mass-energy equivalence. Collapse. Annihilation. Mass defect.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[519] viXra:1811.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 03:47:07

Microworld_49. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 9

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 30 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[518] viXra:1811.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 03:40:49

Microworld_48. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 8

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 27 Pages. English and russian texts

Despite of the known successes by the physical theory, it has been long haunted by principal problems incapable in solutions. The article describes how these problems are solved by the theory of non-linear oscillations (TNO). The material world objects are infinitely divisible. The material world structure consists of an infinite set of matter organization levels. Primary objects of all levels are similar to each other in their properties but significantly differ in size. Various matter organization levels are built according to the same pattern but microworld and macroworld.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[517] viXra:1811.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 02:46:04

Microworld_47. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 7

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 31 Pages. English and russian texts

The contemporary physics believes that proton is, alongside with electron, an elementary microobject, while neutron is a composite proton-electron microobject. It believes that neutron is an unstable object capable of spontaneously disintegrating into proton and electron. At the same time, it believes that neutron is not a simple symbiosis of proton and electron. The hypothesis of neutrino existence is wrong. The article reports that the contemporary physical information on the material world parameters called “world constants” is incomplete or false. There are proposed some methods for studying the possibilities for building of a macroscopic ethereal “perpetual” engine.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[516] viXra:1811.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 03:09:37

Microworld_46. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 6

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The article offers mechanisms of electromagnetic emissions by radiators unknown to the contemporary physics, discovered by TNO.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[515] viXra:1811.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 08:06:00

Microworld_45. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 5

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 29 Pages. English and russian texts

Magnetism almost unnoticeable in the contemporary microworld theory fulfils an essential constructive function in the real material world as it generates an enormous variety of objects and properties thereof. At extremely low temperatures liquid helium contains atoms in which electron and nucleus are arranged on the same straight line and both electrons are from the same side of the nucleus. The existence of such atoms allows for gaining a simple, eye-minded understanding of all amazing properties of superfluid helium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[514] viXra:1811.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 07:59:06

Microworld_44. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 4

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron. Diamagnetism prevails in the microworld. We have described mechanisms of macroscopic paramagnetism and macroscopic diamagnetism occurrence from microscopic diamagnetism. This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[513] viXra:1811.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 08:41:47

Microworld_43. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 3

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

The mechanism of electromagnetic atomic radiation frequency spectrum has been described.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[512] viXra:1811.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 09:28:13

Microworld_42. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 2

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper offers solutions to a number of outstanding physical problems found with the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations (TNO). Nuclei of stable atoms feature stable statically equilibrium configurations of their nucleons. A nucleus magnetic field consists of separate nucleonic magnetic clusters. A stable nucleus charge number Z is equal to the number of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus. Electrons of a stable non-excited atom are located on axial lines of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus and form a statically equilibrium system. “Electron shell” of a non-excited atom can take various forms depending on ambient temperature. There has been the structure of photon identified and the structure and form of stable existence of excited atom described. There have been causes for probabilistic description of an excited atom lifetime determined and the nature of cosmic radiation disclosed along with the reasons for the impossibility of identifying its sources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[511] viXra:1811.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 15:17:06

Aethereal Device of the World.

Authors: Akovantsev Pyotr Ivanovich
Comments: 172 Pages.

In article the description of a peace arrangement by means of one sushchnosti-Efira is explained. The ideas of structures of an electron and a proton allowing to explain an atom electroneutrality, to understand the nature of a charge, electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions are given. Ideas of the gravitation nature are given. The nature of emergence of centrifugal force is described. Descriptions of experiments which carrying out, will show existence of Air around us are given. Idea of formation of elements of the table of Mendeleyev is given, interactions at the level of atoms and molecules are shown. At the cosmological level stages of development of the Universe are shown. I operate not with symbols, but images and I don't attract mathematics to the proof of the conclusions. I attract an experiment and observations of astronomy and astrophysics to the proof. On my concepts the nature of force is put in driving of Air. Svetoefirodinamika is the cornerstone of all natural phenomena. In the Universe there is only one process of transition of Air TO THE PUBLIC. All phenomena in the Nature are intended for ensuring this process or are a consequence of this process. I have exact answers and the true beliefs concerning different things, and I am absolutely confident in it.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[510] viXra:1810.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 06:51:51

Microworld_41. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 1

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper identifies the substantial nature of microworld wave-corpuscle duality and sets out fundamental differences between the microworld and macroworld wave-corpuscle duality. It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[509] viXra:1810.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 15:02:10

Thomas Precession is the Basis for the Structure of Matter and Space

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 27 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity was incomplete as originally formulated since it did not include the rotational effect described twenty years later by Thomas, now referred to as Thomas precession. Though Thomas precession has been accepted for decades, its relationship to particle structure is a recent discovery, first described in an article titled "Electromagnetic effects and structure of particles due to special relativity". Thomas precession acts as a velocity dependent counter-rotation, so that at a rotation velocity of (Sqr(3)/2) c, precession is equal to rotation, resulting in an inertial frame of reference. During the last year and a half significant progress was made in determining further details of the role of Thomas precession in particle structure, fundamental constants, and the galactic rotation velocity. In this article, these discoveries are described and proofs are provided, with results matching experimentally determined values to between eight and thirteen significant digits. Among the discoveries described and proven herein are 1) the observed galactic rotation velocity and elementary particle spin interact due to Thomas precession, 2) the basis for Planck's constant and quantized energy levels is Thomas precession, 3) the fine structure constant is a function of galactic rotation velocity and the maximum value of rotation velocity minus precession velocity. Also discovered and proven is that, due to the inertial frame of reference resulting from Thomas precession, distance and time, with units meters and seconds, within three dimensional space are sufficient to describe the structure of particles and their interactions. Einstein showed that energy is dependent on frame of reference with his equation E =g mc2, and he formulated E = mc2 as rest energy. Proven herein is that particle mass and rest energy are functions of rotational velocity due to Thomas precession. These far reaching discoveries are all interrelated, and based in Thomas precession. The theory, models, and equations give results that match experimental data to very high precision.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[508] viXra:1810.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 14:59:39

Inertial Impulse Electric Thermonuclear Reactor and Method of It.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

The author offers the new small reactor and method for getting a nuclear energy. Main idea is getting a high temperature by new high intensity opposed electric field and two opposed collision jets. Reactor has many innovations and can easy to get the high ignition temperature up 30 keV (350 million K), has enough fuel density (~6×1028 1/m3) and conformation (10-6 sec) without the cryogenic, laser or magnetic systems. Author invited a new method for heating of plasma by a direct electric currency, not using laser and laser compressing or heating X-ray or particles beam, not using magnetic field for plasma conformation. No cryogenic temperature. Reactor has Lawson criterion in hundreds of times more than need. The fuel may be liquid, sold, chemical elements and their measures or a compressed gas into ampule. Reactor can work on cheap D+D nuclear fuel (1 gram of deuterium cost only 1$), is very cheap and has a small installation. Author offered the ideas how to easy convert nuclear energy into mechanical energy, electricity, rocket thrust and some chemical elements into the need elements. The main test (getting the thermonuclear reaction) costs only some ten thousand dollars. If test will be successful, we can immediately design the engines for ships, trains, submarines, electric stations, propulsions for rockets and so on. The method for getting thermonuclear energy comprising the following steps: using the reactor for getting energy; making the special fuel capsule; placing the capsule into said reactor camera with the automatic delivery system; connecting the capsule to said source energy; charging the energy source a need energy; switching the energy source to the capsule; quick heating said fuel capsule up an ignition thermo-nuclear temperature by direct electric currency the need voltage, power and ignition energy; producing thermonuclear energy; cooling the reactor to acceptable temperature by injecting a cooling agent; using of thermonuclear energy. The author has reached and developed the theory of such reactors, made a lot of computations. Invention has a lot of features. He recommends contacting him for details and computations, . 13 Claims, 5 Figures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[507] viXra:1810.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 03:16:12

Challenging the Orbital Model of the Atom

Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Comments: Pages.

The Conventional Science approach to atomic structure, as represented by the Standard Model and Quantum Physics, is based upon the orbital model for the atom: viz. a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons moving in ‘spdf’ orbitals as spinning particles and/or waves as embodied in Dirac’s wave equation. Although the orbital model has been transformed from Bohr model into its current stochastic quantum form, the orbital concept has not been seriously challenged since Thompson’s nebular and plum pudding models were put aside in deference to Rutherford’s nuclear model in the early 1900’s; and yet ever since it has underpinned the thrust of Physics research and theory. The approach taken by this paper has been to consider how concentrations of energy could combine to form quarks, nucleons and atoms. The resulting model strongly correlates the atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table to their physical and chemical characteristics. It also provides an explanation for different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries as well as for phenomena that the orbital model fails to explain such as beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral topics such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are also addressed (see the appendices) to add depth to the challenge. ‘Challenging the orbital model of the atom’ is not a critique of the orbital model, highlighting its discrepancies and problems: instead it explores the possibilities of an alternative model, which, due to its energy-centric emphasis, has been dubbed ‘Energy to Matter’ (or E2M). E2M provides pragmatic, logically consistent explanations of physical phenomena and challenges the unquestioning pursuit of a problematic, complex and possibly flawed orbital model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[506] viXra:1810.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 01:26:43

Head-On Colliding Hydrogen Plasma Fusion - A Proposed Workable Hydrogen Fusion Generator

Authors: Timothy J Walshaw
Comments: 16 Pages.

Abstract This paper describes a novel method of achieving practical hydrogen fusion. What is proposed is that two plasma streams of hydrogen having a high density and a large cross-section are fired at each other, head-on, at a high speed. At a certain point, nuclear fusion will occur. The design of this device allows extraction and utilisation of the heat produced. When protons collide at a sufficient velocity, with the required high plasma density and large plasma cross-section, some of the protons fuse into helium nuclei, generating heat. If the plasma density and cross-section are large enough, the required velocity can be relatively low and is technically feasible. The so-called Lawson Criterion describes this trade-off. The Maxwell-Boltzmann tail effect combined with the Quantum Mechanical tunnelling effect reduces the required velocity further to an achievable level. These plasma streams are accelerated to high relative velocities by a novel plasma acceleration device, also described in this article. This device also allows the stream of plasma to have a high enough density and cross-section, so that the required relative velocity of the plasma can be relatively low. The device consists of two plasma accelerators firing plasma at each other. Each of the accelerators consist of a tube surrounded by a large number of individual electro-magnetic coils, each connected to a power supply. The electro-magnetic field of each coil is varied so that a magnetic ‘pocket’ is created. Each pocket holds a packet of plasma. The magnetic fields of the coils are varied so that each pocket is accelerated up the tube to a high velocity, carrying the packet of plasma with it. These packets of plasma are ejected out of the tubes and fired head-on at each other. If these plasma packets are of sufficiently high relative velocity, density and cross-section, hydrogen fusion will occur. Plasma fusion can be generated continuously using this device. The heat generated can be utilised by injecting water into the location where fusion occurs, and the resultant steam generated can be used to generate electricity. A single plasma accelerator can be used to accelerate plasma to a high velocity, to be used by space ships or as a weapon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[505] viXra:1810.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 01:52:00

Electron Gun Reveal Atomic Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[504] viXra:1810.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-05 07:08:22

Neutron Scan Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[503] viXra:1810.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 07:53:04

Mercury Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An unprecedented combination of experimental nuclear physics and theoretical and computational modelling techniques has been brought together to reveal the full extent of the odd-even shape staggering of exotic mercury isotopes, and explain how it happens. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[502] viXra:1809.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 19:12:44

Angular Momentum Acquisition and Spiral Motion, a Requisite for Particle Creation. a Case Study, the Proton.

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Particle creation via angular momentum acquisition requires the existence of a charge carrier with initial momentum mivi and potential for initiating down-spiral motion, yet abiding by angular momentum quantization and conservation principles. Applied to the proton with a charge radius 0.8751 fm and momentum mv=moc=5.014x10-19 Kgm/s, a value of angular momentum quantum number n=4 was pinpointed for the proton radius. Surprisingly, a spin angular momentum S equal to ħ/2Φ (~0.309 ħ) was graphically determined, with Φ being the golden ratio. This result led to the conclusion that the proton might be constructed from two opposing spin angular momenta whose resultant is precisely ħ/2, namely ħ/2Φ and ħΦ/2. Further, an expression for the quantization of v2/c2 was derived, revealing that v2/c2 becomes pure imaginary around n=0. The mass gain during the spiral process was found to be only √2.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[501] viXra:1809.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 04:38:40

Plasma Thruster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[500] viXra:1809.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 09:05:02

Tracking Hydrogen Movement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Recently, researchers developed a system that can count muon events at a much faster rate, allowing an experiment to be completed in a suitable time frame. [35] The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[499] viXra:1809.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-23 09:08:02

Nuclear Binding Energy Fails (Is Mass Spectrometry Accurate?)

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mass spectrometry measures atomic masses giving precision of 10^{-10}, but its accuracy has not been verified - precision and accuracy are two independent aspects. The Lorentz force law underlying mass spectrometry has not been verified. In the 1920's, the atomic masses of some elements measured through the early mass spectrometers showed some discrepancies from the `whole-number-rule' of atomic weights. The physics community accepted the discrepancies from whole numbers to be correct; they proposed the concept of `mass defects'. This, together with the mass energy equivalence of E = mc^2 allowed Arthur Eddington to propose a new `sub-atomic' energy to account for the source of the energy of the sun to be in line with the 15 billion age of the sun in their theory. They never entertained the other simpler option - that their mass spectrometers were only approximately good. If the atomic masses of nuclides were to be just whole numbers equal to the mass number in atomic mass unit, it would be a confirmation of the law of mass conservation in the atomic and subatomic world. The key to decide the fate of nuclear physics is in sodium fluoride NaF. Sodium and fluorine occur in nature only as single stable isotopes. A chemical analysis of NaF with the current analytical balance to determine the relative atomic mass of Na/F would decide conclusively if mass spectrometry is accurate. The current relative atomic mass of Na/F is : 22.989769/18.998403 or 1.210089; the ratio of the mass number of Na/F is : 23/19 or 1.210526. The accuracy of mass spectrometry would be confirmed if the value is 1.210089 +- 0.000012. Otherwise, if the value is 1.210526 +- 0.000012, it would mean a confirmation of the law of conservation of mass. The implications of such a scenario is beyond imagination - the whole world of nuclear physics would collapse.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[498] viXra:1809.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 09:09:18

Electron Heating in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[497] viXra:1809.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 13:12:45

Suppressing Instabilities in Tokamaks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Fusion, the power that drives the sun and stars, produces massive amounts of energy. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[496] viXra:1809.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 11:22:36

Nuclear Structure Theory Confirmed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[495] viXra:1808.0656 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 03:23:39

Physics Predict Crowd Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally don't seem to have much in common, but researchers at Cornell are connecting the dots. [27] Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[494] viXra:1808.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 12:43:04

Searching Harmonics in Nuclei Gyromagnetic Ratios. Startling Emergence of Scaling, Pseudo Octaves, and the Fine-Structure Constant from a Seemingly Random Network.

Authors: Bruno R. Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A plot of the nuclei gyromagnetic ratios vs. corresponding mass numbers was intuitively fitted with classic damped sinusoids of the form [asin(bx+c)+d]exp(-kx) using the interactive QtiPlot software. The outcome was a 2D interlaced network from which unexpected scaling emerged. The sine waves frequencies in descending order were found to follow the intriguing correlation b/2π=0.0100+0.137exp(-N/1.306) with N=0,1,2... The amplitude value at 0.137 is interpreted as 10^-3/α with α being the fine-structure constant. The scaling factor exp(1/1.306) which is ≈2.15 is discussed in relation to stretched octaves and probable connection to the golden ratio. The sinusoids equivalent energy range is found at E= 7.29-107 MeV. The asymptotic energy value at 7.29 is interpreted as 10^3α, from which a nucleon mean radius at ≈0.85 fm is deduced.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[493] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 05:55:47

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[492] viXra:1808.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 04:09:51

Electron Carries "Hidden" 31,6 GW Field Energy Vortex

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 4 Pages. 4

An electron is enveloped by a "hidden" electromagnetic field-energy circulation vortex of $\approx 31,6$ GW passive power determined by the Poynting-vector field existing around an electron. The energy vortex is most intensive in the proximity of classical electron radius, with maximum in its equatorial plane.\\ A thoretical upper limit of such (non-usable) passive energy circulation is analytically determined by integration of the Poynting-vector field over a specific plane of reference. The result highlights a new singularity problem of classical electron theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[491] viXra:1808.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 03:03:42

The General Property of Matter Discloses Origin of Geopathic Radiations, Black Holes, Threat of LHC and Negative Impact of Radiations of the World Equipment on Health

Authors: V. Korniienko, N. Korniienko, M. Turkin
Comments: 9 Pages.

We have experimentally found out that matter has the quantum electromagnetic field (QEF) which forms interaction of energies of elementary particles of this matter. Therefore impact of any forces on matter causes indignation of her QEF in the form of quantum electromagnetic waves (S-radiations). Therefore under the influence of loadings to which all bodies of the Universe are subject their QEF generates space S-radiations that discloses origin of geopathic radiations. Besides, centrifugal forces which arise in a rotor of the generator of power plant, cause indignation of QEF of a rotor in the form of S-radiations. They induce in stator windings quantum currents which, together with electric current, come to the equipment. Owing to what permanent magnets and all world equipment generate S-radiations which have negative effect on health. For the same reason magnets of the Big hadron collider (LHC), create not only the electromagnetic, but also quantum field which has negative effect on purity of experiments in LHC and the environment. The analysis of space pictures in a range of S-radiations has shown that Black holes form streams of space S-radiations. Therefore, if the power of LHC exceeds admissible, then S-radiations from his quantum field will create the Black hole of such size that it is capable to absorb Earth. Therefore it is necessary to neutralize on the basis of standards quantum currents in the world equipment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[490] viXra:1808.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 03:40:49

Thorium-molten-salt Reactors, A Next Generation Design

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

a brief overview of 3 current designs of thorium-molten-salt reactors
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[489] viXra:1807.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 08:09:54

Charge Shared among Multiple Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Since the charge is shared among multiple atoms—the non-classical model—the molecule has more flexibility to undergo a diverse array of reactions, including those needed to break apart the strong bonds of alkanes. [33] New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[488] viXra:1807.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 17:18:23

Certificate of Authenticity and Technetium Extraction Procedure

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

14 year nuclear experiment and technetium extraction procedure
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[487] viXra:1807.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:18:34

Linearity Between Excited Electron Energy Vs. Lan Applied to na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns (Spanish Version)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 18 Pages.

Spanish version. Linearity between excited electron energy vs. LAN. This article includes: A) Summary of Introduction and First Part ([10,12] and [18]) of Second Block [10,20]. B) Theory application to several cases and more specifically to Na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns. C) Modification and optimization in P62 and relativistic effect.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[486] viXra:1807.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 02:56:19

Neutron Cluster Explain The Distribution of Dark Matter

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Atom passed by photon sphere can be lose all electrons and then its nucleus disintegrate into neutron cluster. It explains the distribution of dark matter and why positron exist in that area.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[485] viXra:1807.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 01:15:48

Looking to the Bohr’s Atomic Model

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bohr in 1913 introduced new atomic model based on quantum theory that explained the limitations of the previously existing Rutherford’s atomic model. Through this article we have tried to provide an outlook to the Bohr’s model and studies how it helped to describe the atomic structure of an atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[484] viXra:1807.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 03:20:27

Quark String of Elementary Particle

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper suggests quark combination of elementary particle based on AdS/CFT correspondence. Through this, we can define quark conservation law and majonara particle. Tension of closed string which diverge to infinity confine quarks as in color confinement of strong interaction.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[483] viXra:1807.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:45:04

Hydrogen Dissociation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[482] viXra:1807.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 09:10:20

New Nuclear Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[481] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 02:06:33

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[480] viXra:1807.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 09:57:45

Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Like other magnetic confinement devices, turbulence appears in the heated plasma that causes heat and particles to wander across these surfaces and ultimately come into contact with the first wall surrounding the plasma. [31] The new approach, known as a plasma q-plate, will revolutionize sources for generating optical vortices. The work will impact a broad range of applications. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[479] viXra:1806.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 06:21:14

A02 Bohr Model with Victoria Equation 3 Dimensions Orbital and Spin

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 18 Pages.

Bohr's atomic model presents problems such as loss of energy by rotating charge or absence of explanation for electron probability (electron cloud). Here we show resolution of these problems and optimization of Bohr's model with two electronic extremes that always maintaining initial energy. Electronic extreme behaviour is based on Victoria equation [1]. Debate between the current model and the one based on Bohr with Victoria equation is proposed. In this article, electron begins to show in three dimensions. First, by expanding its radial dimension to two dimensions with a circular orbit movement. Second, reaching three dimensions by raising and lowering these circular orbits with division variations (Swinging movement). In the previous sentence two electron movements have been included: orbital movement with circular movement in specific division and spin movement when moving between orbits changing division with swinging movement like a screw.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[478] viXra:1806.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 23:05:41

SRC Model for Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 13 Pages.

A new approach for the nuclear structure is suggested which is based upon the idea that the nucleons are not moving independently inside the nuclei, but are forming Short Range Correlated (SRC) quasi-particles. The existence of SRCs inside nuclei has been verified by many experiments [1-3] and is considered to be underlying reason behind the EMC effect [4]. Using few assumptions, a SRC based model for the nuclear structure is proposed. The model is equivalent to the liquid drop model for consideration of the nuclear binding energy and is equivalent to the shell model if the shell structure of SRC quasiparticles is considered. Equivalence of the present model to the cluster model for specific applications is also highlighted. Further, this model provides insights for the symmetric/asymmetric nature of spontaneous fission and Giant Resonances.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[477] viXra:1806.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 10:06:24

Magnetic Spin Controlling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

EPFL physicists have found a way to reverse electron spins using electric fields for the first time, paving the way for programmable spintronics technologies. [19] Manipulating light in a variety of ways—shrinking its wavelength and allowing it to travel freely in one direction while stopping it cold in another—hyperbolic metamaterials have wide application in optical communications and as nanoparticle sensors. [18] A new way of enhancing the interactions between light and matter, developed by researchers at MIT and Israel's Technion, could someday lead to more efficient solar cells that collect a wider range of light wavelengths, and new kinds of lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that could have fully tunable color emissions. [17] A team of researchers at the Center for Relativistic Laser Science, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have developed a method to measure the shape of laser pulses in ambient air. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[476] viXra:1805.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 05:40:46

Space Expension by Mass-Energy Conversion

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper presents solution of caculating dark-energy and its distribution.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[475] viXra:1805.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 08:08:59

Laser-Driven Implosion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel particle acceleration mechanism they describe as a micro-bubble implosion, in which super-high energy hydrogen ions (relativistic protons) are emitted at the moment when bubbles shrink to atomic size through the irradiation of hydrides with micron-sized spherical bubbles by ultraintense laser pulses [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[474] viXra:1805.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 15:27:59

Universal Pattern Leading to Proton Radius Puzzle Solved

Authors: J. Gielen
Comments: 14 Pages.

A unique pattern found in stockmarket graphs is found in all other graphs too. For instance at earthquake graphs, maybe able to predict earlier a break-out. Also leading to the proton, it's movement and even the solvent of the proton radius puzzle! Alpha, pi and proton get connected!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[473] viXra:1805.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-13 03:55:38

Outlines of Rutherford’s α-Particles Scattering Experiment

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Nikita Parajuli
Comments: 6 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Rutherford’s α-particles scattering experiment was one of the milestone for the physics community as it provided an insight to an atom thus discarding the previously prevailed Thomson’s model. Through this article we shall examine the theoretical formulation of Rutherford’s experiment and how it helped to shape the modern physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[472] viXra:1805.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 05:27:13

Photons and the Diverse Nature of Light

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can be produced by a range of large-scale events (nuclear reactions, galaxy collisions, the Big Bang etc.) or by smaller scale events such as the excitement of a gas or a chemical reaction. This short article focuses on the nature of photons and their transmission as ‘normal’ light, plane and circularly polarised light and transverse mode light.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[471] viXra:1805.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 02:00:57

Material-Aging Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

According to the researchers, aging originates at the atomic and molecular levels. [21] The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[470] viXra:1805.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 11:26:38

Magic Numbers of Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[469] viXra:1805.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 02:34:40

The Golden Section in Physics (in English)

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical constants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the electron/proton and electron/muon mass-ratios, the ratio of the gravitational/electromagnetic interaction, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: exponential relations between physical constants, Titius-Bode rule, new atomic mass formula.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[468] viXra:1804.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 05:45:18

Nuclear Accurate Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[467] viXra:1804.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 04:06:10

Relevance of Atomic Structure to the Physical Characteristics of Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: A 9 page paper containing 9 explanatory diagrams

Energy to Matter (E2M) proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table and their bonding characteristics. This short article and associated videos present some of the modelled atomic structures and shows how the structure of the nucleus relates to the observed physical and bonding characteristics of the elements involved.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[466] viXra:1804.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 09:09:59

The Golden Ratio in Atomic Theory

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 4 pages

It is now exactly fifteen years since the author sent a short article on the topic of the title to Nature, but it was not accepted. Two years later, a full paper was accepted in Molecular Physics, 103 (2005) 877, in the Special Issue in honor of Nicholas Handy and the author has published many papers over the years. The Golden ratio is an amazing number that is found to govern many natural spontaneous creations of Universe. The article to Nature, reproduced here, shows for the first time that it arises right in the core of the atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[465] viXra:1804.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 02:17:34

The Origin of the Mass of a Charged Particle and the Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Since the charge Q is the set of infinitesimal charge dQ, electric force is operated between infinitesimal charges and therefore, electrostatic self-energy exists due to the presence of charge Q itself. Electrostatic self-energy has a potential to explain substantial parts of elementary particle mass. Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[464] viXra:1804.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 01:49:53

Coulombic Energy Replaced by Electromagnetic Energy in Bohr’s Theory Makes Atomic Physics Simple and Sensible

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages

Over a century ago Bohr arrived at the conclusion that the ground state energy of hydrogen is half the Coulombic energy, which is negative. As hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe, it implies that the energy of the Universe is predominantly negative. Since this is strange, the author found that on replacing the Coulombic energy by electromagnetic energy, the energy is in fact positive. This modification of Bohr’s theory gave rise to many interesting results, showing that atomic physics is much simpler and more meaningful.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[463] viXra:1804.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 07:33:29

Nuclei Catch Up with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In an attosecond study of the H2 molecule, physicists at ETH Zurich found that for light atomic nuclei, as contained in most organic and biological molecules, the correlation between electronic and nuclear motions cannot be ignored. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[462] viXra:1804.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 09:07:54

Quantum Mechanics Solved with Simplified Orbital Mechanics

Authors: Enos Øye
Comments: 10 Pages.

We show that a simplified force between the electron and the nucleus solves Quantum Mechanics in the simplest way possible. We update and rewrite Bohr's postulates, we show the simple relation between the electric and magnetic force, we show how light is emitted, and find a new term for the fine structure constant which is the simplest term there is. Simplified Orbital Mechanics results in a new atomic model which allow mathematically the observed electron cloud. All calculations can be found in this google spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jE6hjJNPcY7h98DkkGVEJiO9x3LK-_ZK6553cd2b_M8/edit#gid=498321884
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[461] viXra:1803.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 22:21:05

Refutation of Six Weak Reactions in Nucleosynthesis © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services.com

We find the six weak forces in nucleosynthesis are not tautologous and hence suspicious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[460] viXra:1803.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:22:23

Interaction Between the Nucleons in the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Nesho Kolev Neshev
Comments: 5 Pages.

The work presented here considers the cause and character of the nuclear forces acting between the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. It postulates that the nuclear interaction is the result of resonance phenomena between the interacting nucleons. The presented model of the interaction is shown to match known experimental data with great accuracy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[459] viXra:1803.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 00:12:33

Gif Annihilation and Creation of a Pair of Elementary Particles.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian: http://universe100.narod.ru/ English: http://universe100.narod.ru/100-Oglavlenie.html http://universe100.narod.ru/210-Photon.html dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. Description of the processes of annihilation and pair production from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe. GIF annihilation: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq5J.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b15.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u210/image017.gif GIF- pair production: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq6G.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b16.gif
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[458] viXra:1803.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 03:56:19

Nucleus CT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[457] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 06:44:01

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[456] viXra:1802.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43

Electron. New Information on the Material World Structure - New Issues

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[455] viXra:1802.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59

Energy to Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity. The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts. E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter. It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[454] viXra:1802.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 13:59:40

Electrons Excite Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The NEEC effect occurs when a charged atom captures an electron, giving the atom's nucleus enough energy to jump to a higher excited state. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[453] viXra:1802.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 11:37:30

Why there Are no Black Holes. Deadlock Hypotheses of Modern Physics.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 9 Pages. 2005

The error of mathematical fantasies in the region of large densities inside stars is shown. The impossibility of infinite density growth is shown. An alternative description of the processes in the masses of massive stars is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[452] viXra:1801.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 10:03:25

Golden Section in Physics: an Interesting Number

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 11 Pages. in Hungarian

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical con-stants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the proton/electron mass-ratio, the cosmological constant of Einstein’s general relativity, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: physical constants, exponential relations between physical constants, Bode-Titius rule, mass formula of neutral-atoms, mass formula of leptons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[451] viXra:1801.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:21:43

Bose Condensation of Atomic Electrons. Experimental Regularities Discussion

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

The experimental data analysis overturns «modern scientific representation» of the atomic structure. In articles [1-3] is shown, that atomic electrons do not form stochastic orbitals «spread» in space, but «are condensed» in ring or spherical electron shells, and do not behave as independent particles, but demonstrate collective properties. Besides in atom the nonlinear nature of a microcosm becomes evident: the main quantum number of electron states, alongside with integer numbers, gets also fractional values - due to interactions on harmonic components. The weighty confirmation of microcosm nonlinearity was obtained at the analysis of a quantum Hall effect [4]. These discoveries have key value not only for physics development, but also for all natural sciences using in varying degree knowledge about substance structure. Therefore discussion of the experimental regularities showing an inconsistency of the atom theory, which almost century dominated in physics, is extremely important for acceleration of transition to new representations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[450] viXra:1801.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:30:53

Quantum Hall Effect and Superconductivity

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

Quantum Hall Effect and, in particular, fractional quantum Hall Effect have forced theorists to rack their brains over an explanation of these phenomena. However for past decades since the effect was opened theory has remained in an unsatisfactory state. Existing explanation of a quantum Hall Effect looks less convincing in connection with the fact that it is simultaneously accompanied by even more «strange and inexplicable» phenomenon - superconductivity. However, the study of these key problems of physics is important not only from the point of view of adequate theory formation, but also as a way to deepen our knowledge about fundamental bases of substance structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[449] viXra:1801.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 05:38:28

Microworld 39. EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” – Outbreak of a New Power Engineering Era in the Contemporary Earth Civilization

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The invention of flow-through magnetic ethereal jet engines EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” opens the potential of ether in a new power engineering development.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[448] viXra:1801.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 10:34:04

Color of Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[447] viXra:1801.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 01:11:59

On the Possibility of Self-Cleaning Plasma in Centrifugal Z-Pinch

Authors: Sergey Sevtsov
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article shows the possibility of self-cleaning of plasma in the variety of Z-pinch - centrifugal Z-pinch. This circumstance leads to a decrease in the heat loss due to bremsstrahlung from the plasma. As a result, there are prerequisites for increasing efficiency of plasma cumulating in a new device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[446] viXra:1801.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 13:39:04

A Novel Belt Model of the Atom, Compatible with Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Alexander Yurkin, James Peters, Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we provide a novel atomic, paraxial model in which a single belt of electrons surrounds the nucleus. The electronic belt is depicted in terms of broken lines and split wavy trajectories that intersect an axis, giving rise to small angles that can be accurately calculated. We demonstrate that the probabilistic electronic cloud of the atom described by quantum mechanics can be depicted in terms of an electronic belt, because its sizes closely match the descriptions given by de Broglie and Heisenberg. In touch with the claims of the two latter Authors, the wavy trajectories around the nucleus come back to a starting point, so that their orbits are stationary.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[445] viXra:1712.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-26 06:25:05

"Matter Structure"

Authors: Viktor S.Dolgikh
Comments: Pages.

This article is the continuation of the author's previous work <>, published earlier <> - 1701.0488[PDF]. In this work the structure of hydrogen, oxygen atoms and the water molecule is considered. It shows the general principle of the matter elements structure with the main types of its state : "gaseous" ; "liquid" ; "solid". To clarify the text I am sending the original.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[444] viXra:1712.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 02:59:25

„DIGITAL Neutrino Resonance (DNR) Like the Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics Analytical INSTRUMENT”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 4 Pages.

Already traditional researches like computer tomography (CT), positron–emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are nowdays older (archaical) and dramatically growth significance, from discovery (RND) of detection of resonance neutrinos digitally, conclusion of inovatives researches in chronoscopy and nuclear physics. Discovery of detection of neutrinos neuropatic’s (VAINR), small sub–atomic particles, which are systematically ignorating whatever laws of traditional physics by revolution in last knowledge about this theme, in order to be possible incorporated in one from the oldest wishes of man “have to time in both direction”, although only during searching of pathology of central neural system (CNS) involving the human brain functions imaging and Medulla spinalis from it entranced nervus spinalis and reflexes aferential and eferential. This Spinal Medicine helps human with brain or spinal injuries to give back to “normal life” by using of “cluster medicine”, our excellence of the Czech Republic in this medical branch is work of Prof. MUDr. Eva Syková, DrSc. This article is focused on goal spreading of the newest evolution this extraordinary technics and science supposed a creation of new medically discipline neuroradiology, respectively neutrinoradiology: expect diagnostics, therapeutic and pediatric neuroradiology also chronobiology. Wide field of application of RND will be have in Forensic Psychiatry – is a sub–speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[443] viXra:1712.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 15:10:42

MC Physics: Our Charged Universe- Matter Formation

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: Pages.

MC Physics finds that we live in a CHARGED UNIVERSE. Our Universe is charged because all matter is made of quantized charges, called “mono-charges”, and all forces result from interactions between those charges. It is not an ‘electric’ Universe as that is too narrow a charge strength definition to describe all known matter, their properties and behavior, and all forces. We now live in a (mostly) charge neutral Universe because those mono-charges were progressively ‘driven’ by attraction charge forces over time and a cooling Universe to become overall charge neutral. This paper describes HOW and WHY those mono-charges, charge forces and joining processes formed the matter we see around us today. MC Physics proposes that a set of earliest Universe Quantization and Kinetic Energy events (collectively called “Big Bang”?) first split basic neutral CHARGE into two equal charge types (positive and negative, by convention), then it caused an uneven (or statistically skewed) charge strength distribution of those two charge types, which formed all mono-charges. Those events then caused all mono-charges to be forcibly repelled at high velocity, causing a very high kinetic energy initial Universe. Those highly kinetic quantized mono-charges, each now with a singular charge strength of either charge type, caused all force interactions, applied forces and subsequent physical reactions in the Universe, as all forces are charge force derived between mono-charges. Those mono-charges used those charge forces to ultimately form all matter in the Universe using the processes described in this paper. The strongest evidence of mono-charge existence comes from MC Physics’ real physical model of the simplest physical entity in the Universe, a real elemental photon particle. No other real physical model is known to exist to explain all the properties of light/ radiation photons. Additional evidence of mono-charges comes from the continuity and repeatability of the ‘flipping/ rotating’ step to form alternating mono-charge type structures theorized for: mono-charges directly joining other mono-charges to form elemental particles; elemental quark particles directly joining other quarks to form composite protons; protons directly joining other protons to form nuclei; nuclei directly joining electron charges to form neutral atoms, and atoms directly joining other atoms to form molecules, etc. This paper describes MC Physics’ theory of matter formation using those mono-charges, charge forces and processes divided into chapters covering: 1. Mono-Charge Basics 2. Charge Force Laws and Rules 3. Properties of Existing Matter 4. F-SCoTt Process of Matter Formation 5. Initial Quantization & Kinetic Energy Events(s) 6. Universe Time Line of Matter Formation 7. New Standard Model of Matter
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[442] viXra:1712.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:27:41

Quest for an Elusive Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[441] viXra:1712.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:12:11

12 Excited Electrons. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy: Lan Lineality with Energy of Excited States.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 14 Pages.

This is 12th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Excited state energy is attracted towards Torrebotana Central Line [1] and this attraction is accentuated as n and l are increased. LAN allows Serelles Secondary Lines creation depending on non-excited and excited states. LAN vs. n curve shows soft plain that leads to straight line equation in excited state energy function. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy is this line equation and now, Li detailed study of 1s22s→1s2ns is extended to this jump in other atoms and other jump types. Initially, P50 Initial LAN value in jump from ns to ns is utilized with "Xorrador Approximation" that enables correct first estimate of excited state energies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[440] viXra:1712.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:24:50

16 Excited Electron. Spa III: Mc Flui Transform in Silpovgar III and IV

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 19 Pages.

This is 16th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns (Term=3S and J=1) and nss→ns is treated in [5] and [6] respectively. [6] is first and this is second of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Its second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that leads to confluence of Silpovgar IV.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[439] viXra:1712.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:28:13

10 Excited Electrons by Torrebotana Central Line: Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 10th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electron excited states are born referenced to central line denominated Torrebotana with origin always in the first Origin Electronic System (OES) of all atom: 1s [6,9]. This central line that defines energies and charges (z) for central excited states is given by Tete-Vic equation. Excited states are directed towards Torrebotana Central Line approaching when n and l of destination excited state increase. Fist, Torrebotana Central Line application is centred in Beryllium case for which excited state energy is approaching Torrebotana as indicated above. Subsequently, other atoms are studied to corroborate what is seen in Be case and to discover trends in terms of Atomic Number (Z) that serve to open new research lines
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[438] viXra:1712.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:32:27

Excited Electrons: Lan Plains for Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 11th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Torrebotana Central Energetic Line (EJ) [1] supplies energetic values for electron excited states very close to reference [2]. Excited states are grouped into curves that are destiny function, and consequently orbital quantum number plays major role, and attraction towards Torrebotana Central Energetic Line is greater when orbital quantum number increases (s<p<d) [1]. LAN factor is included in Tete-Vic Equation to give circulation to different routes divided by destination reason. Analogy is as follows: 1s Original electronic system (1s OES) creates main ideal line (Torrebotana Central Energetic Line) considering Born electronic system (BES) and simultaneously draws Serelles Secondary Lines in which energy of excited states runs according to destiny (within destiny has special importance orbital quantum number as indicated before, as well as J or Term). LAN plain is jump to Serelles Secondary Line with jumps in which LAN is practically constant throughout Serelles Secondary Line since LAN has small variation with energy. 1s22s as non-excited or initial state and 1s2ns as excited or final state are selected to show such LAN behaviour.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[437] viXra:1712.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:39:55

13 Relation of Fly Piep de Garberí: LAN-1 and Ionization Energy.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 13th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electon excited states arise around Torrebotana Central Line [1] by Tete-Vic equation which is attached in P47. Serelles Secondary Lines are originated from Torrebotana Central Line by LAN inclusion. Attraction towards Torrebotana Central Line is accentuated as n and l are increased [1,3]. Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí states linear behaviour between inverse of factor seen in Serelles Secondary Line, i.e. LAN, and zs (Start charge according to P46 non-excited electronic extreme charge). This relation is Z function (atomicity relation) and is connected to P44 Necessary NIN relationships [5] because includes LAN: charge and energy of BES and 1s OES. Ionization energy (IE) of higher atomic number is estimated from Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí and estimate deviation is grouped according to electron configuration.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[436] viXra:1712.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:43:07

14 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda: Lan Interatomicity with Energetic Relation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 14th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda differs from previous relations of Riquelme de Gozy and Flui Piep de Garberí. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Following case is treated in introductory way of this Relation: jump from 1s2 to 1sns (isoelectronics with He).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[435] viXra:1712.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:46:54

15 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda II: Jump from ns to Ns.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns with Term=3S and J=1 (isoelectronics with He) is treated in [5] and is now pursued with different jump and with higher non-excited or start n: nss→ns (with ns(start n)>1) Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Silpovgar relation is theory that searchs jump globalization [5] and is applied to nss→ns with enlargement dedicated to different isoelectronic series that present same jump.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[434] viXra:1712.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:54:40

17 Excited Electron: Spa IV: Silpovgar IV with Piepflui. Excess Relativistic: Influence in Lan and Spa

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 27 Pages.

This is 17th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is studied in [5,7] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. [6] and [7] are first and second and this is third and last of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that lead to confluence of Silpovgar IV. Third part closes with 5) Other electronic jumps and emphasizes in Silpovgar IV: on the one hand at X→np jump location and on the other with Piepflui or Constant spacing. Finally, 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) brings two main points: Primitive energetic correlation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA PEC) and First application of Relativistic effects.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[433] viXra:1712.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:57:44

18 Excited Electron: Feliz Theory of eo Vision Relativistic II: Influence in Riquelme de Gozy

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 18th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First application of Relativistic effects is made with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) where initial relativity postulates (from P61 to P64) are established [8]. This second part seeks to corroborate excess relativistic role in ideality deviation of Riquelme de Gozy whereas Relativistic effect has been seen with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in [8].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[432] viXra:1712.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:00:23

19 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire I: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 19th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. This article works preferably wit RG relation. First part is dedicated to linearity between LANn→∞ and LAN(P050) in RG representation, as well as asymptotic tendency to its corresponding limits as ns is increased. Second part serves as introduction to Pepliz LAN empire as region of first quadrant in LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P50) representation that is subdivided into zones. Electron jumps are located in one or other zones depending on jump type. External and internal limits of Pepliz LAN empire are postulated.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[431] viXra:1712.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:04:30

20 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire II: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 30 Pages.

This is 20th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. Pepliz LAN empire is LANn→∞ or LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P050) in RG relation as has been introduced in first part of Pepliz LAN empire [10]. This article has following main axes: 1) Deepen nsp^x→nsp^(x-1)ns that occupies empire zone between P69 and P72 limits 2) LAN amplitude: concept, behaviour and implications 3) Ionization energy obtained by Gozy method (IE Gozy method) 4) Annex or expansion with other empire zones and representation based on P69
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[430] viXra:1712.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:07:33

21 Electron Probability: Pub Cpep I (Probability Union Between Cpep) Necessary Nin Relationships

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 21st article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).In [9], P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge. This article is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75) From P76 to P78 is the section dedicated to CPEP of different BES that, considered correlatively, form groups and linear trends.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[429] viXra:1712.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:17:31

22 Electron Probability: PUB CPEP II in "Flui BAR" (Flui (BES A (Global Advance) Region)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 22nd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as a line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge [09]. [10] is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75). Second part in PUB CPEP presents two main lines related to NIN: * P79 establishes simple arithmetic equations between CPEP and elements related (CPEP-i, A and Ai) * P80 (A)→0 stays in Flui BAR where electron configurations reach Global Advance equal to 0 at specific Z intervals
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[428] viXra:1712.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:20:30

23 Orbital Capacity by Advancement of Numbers Electron Probability: Pub Cpep III: "Flui BAR" II and Cpep-I

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 23rd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).First part is centred on orbital capacity where advancement of numbers must be accomplished; simple trend that also allows predicting electrons can fit into future orbitals. Advancement of numbers is with orbitals present in each period and also in consecutive order [11] where all lower n orbitals are filled before proceeding with upper n. Base structure of electron with two electronic extremes governed by Victoria equation is right-angle triangle whose three sides are: Hi, ci and ri [1,2]. This geometric figure also appears in advancement of numbers because orbital capacity is conditioned by triangular number that can be recomposed in equilateral triangle an in turn in two equal right triangles. Already in field dedicated to NIN concept into electronic extremes [1,9], following parts conclude PUB CPEP introduction [10] and [11] with Flui BAR extension to find connection between different principal quantum numbers and first contact with CPEP-i and its corresponding Individual Advance (Ai).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[427] viXra:1712.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:23:19

24 Electron Probability: 1s Electron Birth: the Last Diligence to Poti Rock & Snow Hill Victoria

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is last article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).CPOTI-AL-d→∞ evolution with Z is carried out in this article where CPOTIAL-d→∞ is CPOTI anular limit when d→∞ and Z is atomic number. ain axis is CPOTI-ALd→∞ for 1s electron and relativistic relation existence that can justify its behaviour. Two final acts present so-called matter surprise and relation of remaining OES with initial OES for all: 1s OES. OES (origin electronic system) are all ns electrons and origin of all is 1s [1,12]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[426] viXra:1712.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 19:25:11

Proton/electron Mass Ratio and Gravitational Constant Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

Since relativistic length contraction occurs only in the direction of motion and not in the transverse direction, rotation results in an effect known as Thomas precession. Thomas precession acts as a counter rotation. Because precession increases non-linearly according to the Lorentz factor, rotation minus precession has a maximum value. The maximum value of rotation velocity minus precession velocity is termed the maximum difference velocity and is designated vm. We showed in previous work that this is the physical basis of charge structure, electromagnetic effects, and the fine structure constant. In this report the proton/electron mass ratio is formulated in terms of vm, the speed of light, and the electron mass. The proton mass calculated using the formula is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. The gravitational constant is formulated similarly, and the calculated result is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. These results build on the framework established in our previous reports.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[425] viXra:1712.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 23:58:43

Victoria Equation the Dark Side of the Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 21 Pages. This is first article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at document end).

Following postulates focus application on atomic electrons which, by balancing and swinging of electronic extremes around pivot or initial position, achieve electron cloud with specific positions and momentums and always maintaining initial energy with electronic extremes energy sum (equi-energetic state or ES). First Victoria Equation applications serve to make an initial approximation to atomic radius, to show 2 electronics extremes radial distribution from which velocities and momentums are derived, as well as to know nuclear radius distance and energy of both electronic extremes as function of parameter called birth wavelength division.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[424] viXra:1712.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 00:34:35

A02 Electronic Extremes: Orbital and Spin (Introduction)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 12 Pages.

Electron that is born in a pivot position and swings from this position with two electronic extremes (EE) is introduced in article dedicated to Victoria Equation [1]. These two electronic extremes always provide equi-energetic sum and their energetic distribution is radius (ri) or division (d) function. In this article, electron begins to show in three dimensions. First, by expanding its radial dimension to two dimensions with a circular orbit movement. Second, reaching three dimensions by raising and lowering these circular orbits with division variations (Swinging movement). In the previous sentence two electron movements have been included: orbital movement with circular movement in specific division and spin movement when moving between orbits changing division with swinging movement like a screw.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[423] viXra:1712.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:15:44

03 Relations Between Electronic Extremes: Rotation Time as Probability and Feliz I.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

To the absence of repulsion inter electronic by charge saturation (P04) [1], relation between electrons is added in this article. This relationship conditions ionization energies (birth energies or Eo). After several ideas, relation developed is based on coupling between electrons probability. Electron Probability is introduced based on electron orbital turn time. Firstly, electron probability is defined according to division and radial distance. Variable Compaction Factor or First Feliz Solution is included to correct rising probability with the distance. Finally, electron Probability with Variable Compaction Factor is compared to current orbital representation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[422] viXra:1712.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:50:08

04 Feliz II the Prudent: Probability Radial Closure with High Order Variable CF

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic extreme Probability (Pi) as orbital turn time [3] is obtained with its orbital circumference (ci) [2] divided by its velocity (vi) [1]. Regardless of PEP, whether 1 for 1s Hydrogen or 2 for rest, is verified that First Feliz Solution and its variable CF with first-order approximation changes monotonous PA increase when rA increases [3]. Probability radial closure objective is achieved by using Second Feliz Solution with high order variable CF (Theoretically to order infinite). Second Feliz Solution factors importance is studied and its relationship with d, division in which electronic extreme is found, is checked. As consequence, variable CF behaviour differs to division near 1, intermediate and high. This is 4th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[421] viXra:1712.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 02:20:04

05 Feliz III the King Major: Orbital Filled Keeping Probability Electronic Distribution.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 19 Pages.

Electronic Extreme Probability (Pi), defined in [3] as quotient between orbital circumference (ci) [2] and velocity (vi) [1], includes CF from being constant to variable. Initially, variable CF is 1-order [3] to become in high-order (theoretically up to order infinite) achieving probability radial closure [4]. If probability radial closure is achieved by Second Feliz Solution [4], now arrival at orbital geometric limit and orbital volume filling are acquired with CPOTI coefficient of Third Feliz Solution. These actions are performed by radial probability distribution curve that is kept constant. Finally, a method by trial and error is included to find orbital geometric limit. This is 5th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[420] viXra:1712.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:07:22

06 Feliz IV Planet Coupling: Probability Curves Nin Coupling from Origin Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 6th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Fourth Feliz Solution is exposed to justify electron lobes magnitudes (z, MON or CPOTI) that can be in n principal quantum number by means of NIN (negative in negative) concept extension. First electron that exists in a new n principal quantum number has origin role with respect to other electrons that are later incorporated (P34) in this NIN concept extension. This origin electron is defined by electronic system that gives rise to other electronic systems of this same n number (P35 and P36). Origin electron MON values are included in P37 and P38 with first relations between them and equation that allows to obtain MON for No Origin electrons is defined in P39. Probability coefficient that relates two electrons is released (P42) and, together with MON (P39), z (P41) and CPOTI (P43) couplings, serve to Probability curves coupling.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[419] viXra:1712.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:40:40

07 Nin Coupling Values in N=2 and Oxygen Electronic Density.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 7th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P34 NIN III: ns electron as origin of lobes in same n by curves coupling [6] is used to obtain z, CPOTI-AL and CPEP in n=2. These values are used in later studies and are applied here to estimate maximum Oxygen electron density with simple method. Estimate must corroborate Fluorine example that is in agreement with references [6]. By this method, Probability (Pi) calculations are directed to delimited ri (Electronic extremes-nucleus radial distance) differentials rather than divisions (d). Thanks to this change, Pi curves of different electrons can be added or calculation centred on concrete ri can be made.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[418] viXra:1712.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 04:24:01

08 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N=2.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 13 Pages.

This is 8th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). A and B Electronic Extremes Probability (Pi) curves with Geometric NIN Coupling (GNC) and Probabilistic NIN Coupling (PNC) are studied in n=2 quantum number. CPEP , CPOTI and z data [7] are used. Hi vs. ci is represented in GNC and Pi vs. ri in PNC. Maximum Pi is calculated with ri variation of 0,1 pm and compared with references. Finally, by way of example, Nitrogen outermost electron is represented both when reaches CPOTI angular limit (CPOTI-AL) and for lobe always growing (LAG) [5].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[417] viXra:1712.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 05:14:50

09 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N>2 and Necessary Nin Relationships.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 9th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First part continues electron density study [6,8] with atoms in Groups I, II and from XIII to XVIII (s and p blocks) whose n principal quantum number is higher than 2. Fundamental difference lies in Origin Electronic System MON (OES MON), which decreases as n increases (P37 [6]). Another factor that affects to lesser extent is Ionization Energy (IE) decrease when n increases. As in articles past, IE is given by [9] as Initial Energy (Eo) [1] and Maximum Probability radius to compare with contributed by NIN coupling is given by [10] and [11]. In the second part CPOTI-AL division and value are indicated and P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced as one line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[416] viXra:1712.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 03:09:57

The Shape of Water and the Tethered Proton

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

Tethered by a proton? How could that happen?
A mainstream proton is just a non-existent point.
The only way a proton could tether something is if it made from threads. And they do NOT know it yet but -- that is exactly what a proton is -- threads.
A free proton looks like this...

Neutron: ●~~~
Proton: ~~~●~~~
Electron: ~~~∗~~~
Hydrogen: ~~~∗~~~●~~~

Two hydrogen atoms can plug their electrons into the vacant corners of an oxygen cubic atom. That creates an H2O water molecule and leaves the hydrogen protons dangling on the outside of the thread mesh-type cage. That is why they claim the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. The hydrogen electrons gets fixed into the octet cube and leave the proton on the outside. That is also how it can tether another atom / molecule.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[415] viXra:1712.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 06:09:14

Microworld_ 38. EmDrive and Other Magnetic Ethereal Flow-Through Jet Engines

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 18 Pages. English and russian texts

In the early two thousands, EmDrive (R.Shawyer) and Antigravity Engine (V. Leonov) were invented which operation principles were known neither to the inventors nor to the contemporary science. Studies based on the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations found that those devices were flow-through engines wherein jets are made of ether and the magnetic field acts as a compressor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[414] viXra:1711.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-23 12:30:02

An Estimate of the Mass of Neutrinos from Nuclear Mass Defects

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 13 pages. Text: pp 1-7; pages 8-13 (please ignore the handwritten numbers): Table 1, legends for Figs. and 3 Figures; Paper presented at 216th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, Aug. 1998, short abstract no. 9.

During the synthesis of a deuteron nucleus from a neutron and a proton, an electron, positron pair and an antineutrino, neutrino pair are released. The electrostatic energy (order of MeV) of the former pair is released as gamma radiation and is equivalent to the mass defect. Based on the largest mass defect per nucleon (MDPN) as the criterion of nuclear stability, it. is estimated that, in general, for a nuclide X(Z,N) with a fractional mass defect f , the MDPN(nu) due to neutrinos/antineutrinos alone is equal to fk(n) (Z/(z+N)), where the proportionality constant k(n) = 0.7 micro atomic mass unit. Since f is of the order of 0.01, MDPN(nu) is in nano-atomic mass units, which is the right order of the mass of neutrinos. (This paper is reprinted with permission from Desktop publication (1998) by Arjun consultancy & publishing Inc.,Wayne N.J.(USA)) 
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[413] viXra:1711.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-16 18:36:24

The Charge Radius of Muonic-Deuterium

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 1 Page.

In the theory "The Proton Charge of Muonic-Hydrogen" (Vixra: 1711.0229, Author: Piscedda Giampaolo) it is proved that the mass of a particle in the space cause the rotation of a volume portion, along X4 axis, then the existence of ether is deduced, and the theory concludes explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. In theory (1711.0229) we get the formula for the decrease of the charge radius of the muonic-hydrogen. From this formula we get now the charge radius of muonic-deuterium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[412] viXra:1711.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-06 05:04:42

Quarks -- A Basic Fundamental Substance?

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 4 Pages.

QUARKS -- A BASIC FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE?

Something like a quark would be impossible. If there are 3 quarks in a proton and the quark is performing specific tasks -- that means the quark is NOT a fundamental basic thing.
And if a quark is not a basic thing that means it is also made from a group of smaller things -- that process would NOT be able to end. And it would keep getting more and more complex with more and more particles...

● 1 Proton
● 3 Quarks
● 9 Elfs
● 27 Dusters

More and more complex? Yes, the Elfs would have to do everything they do to keep themselves together plus everything the quarks are supposedly doing.
The quarks model turns into a nightmare immediately.
The only answer must be Quantum Thread Theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[411] viXra:1710.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-31 19:58:05

My Protons and Neutrons. Neutron Star.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google.

Continuing his discovery of positrino and electrino, postulating, as absolute symmetry, the tetrahedroncubic base of the world - [ASTC] - the representation of a proton and a neutron, a neutron star. The essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the human outlook on nature for humanity in the light of ASTC is exemplified in the abstract: the example of a proton and neutron device, a neutron star. An analogy is suggested, as a lyrical digression, by association with a vine with bunches of grapes, using the example of a quark device. Lyrical digressions in the illustration of the device of a neutron and a proton, quarks lead us to the ensembles of spaces of a certain number of electrino (E-1 \ 3) and spaces of a certain number of positrino (E + 1 \ 3) in their internal arrangement.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[410] viXra:1710.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 11:39:01

Simple Relation Between Proton Radius, Bohr Radius and Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Revised and abridged E-Letter (online: 10 October 2017) in http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6359/79/tab-e-letters

The radius of the proton has aroused a lot interest in recent years, since the reported values vary from 0.8751 fm to 0.8335 fm, where fm = 10-15m. Here the author shows that the former CODATA value obtained for hydrogen can be related to the ground state Bohr radius for hydrogen and the fine structure constant by a simple equation. The latter lower value obtained using muons could be due to the differences in the reduced masses of hydrogen and muon
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[409] viXra:1710.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 04:56:35

A Comment About Determining the Mass Ratio of Proton and Electron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

the reason for writing this review was a strange situation with data published in CODATA 2014 the result of determining the ratio of masses of proton and electron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[408] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 08:36:10

My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 3 Pages. In Russian

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[407] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:13:31

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body of Jesus at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts, and the purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science. We will also be able to explain much in this world that is mysterious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[406] viXra:1709.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:41:43

Microworld 37. Quantum Reveries of “METALLIC” Hydrogen

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The Internet reports Harvard University physicists for the first time ever have derived “metallic” hydrogen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[405] viXra:1709.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 03:06:55

The Lifetime of the Neutron: Experimental Aspect

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 2 Pages. Reference: Valery B. Smolensky “About the life time of a neutron” (http://ufn.ru/ru/tribune/)

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods, the assumption is made that the neutron has two different time of life and, as a consequence, the possibility of the existence in nature of related stable two-particle States: long-lived neutron-antineutron short-lived and long-lived antineutron-short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[404] viXra:1709.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 04:50:39

Theoretical Determination of the Weinberg Angle and the Mass Ratio of the W and Z Bosons

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide the international scientific community information on the possibility of theoretical determination of the Weinberg angle and the mass ratio of the W and Z bosons with a precision equal to the error to determine the relationship of experimental values of the masses of the neutron and proton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[202] viXra:1810.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-18 20:32:07

Head-On Colliding Plasma Fusion - A Proposed Workable Hydrogen Fusion Generator

Authors: Timothy J Walshaw
Comments: 16 Pages. I am just replacing the last words in the abstract '...or as a weapon.' These words will upset many people, and the device was not devized as a weapon.

Abstract This paper describes a novel method of achieving practical hydrogen fusion. What is proposed is that two plasma streams of hydrogen having a high density and a large cross-section are fired at each other, head-on, at a high speed. At a certain point, nuclear fusion will occur. The design of this device allows extraction and utilisation of the heat produced. When protons collide at a sufficient velocity, with the required high plasma density and large plasma cross-section, some of the protons fuse into helium nuclei, generating heat. If the plasma density and cross-section are large enough, the required velocity can be relatively low and is technically feasible. The so-called Lawson Criterion describes this trade-off. The Maxwell-Boltzmann tail effect combined with the Quantum Mechanical tunnelling effect reduces the required velocity further to an achievable level. These plasma streams are accelerated to high relative velocities by a novel plasma acceleration device, also described in this article. This device also allows the stream of plasma to have a high enough density and cross-section, so that the required relative velocity of the plasma can be relatively low. The device consists of two plasma accelerators firing plasma at each other. Each of the accelerators consist of a tube surrounded by a large number of individual electro-magnetic coils, each connected to a power supply. The electro-magnetic field of each coil is varied so that a magnetic ‘pocket’ is created. Each pocket holds a packet of plasma. The magnetic fields of the coils are varied so that each pocket is accelerated up the tube to a high velocity, carrying the packet of plasma with it. These packets of plasma are ejected out of the tubes and fired head-on at each other. If these plasma packets are of sufficiently high relative velocity, density and cross-section, hydrogen fusion will occur. Plasma fusion can be generated continuously using this device. The heat generated can be utilised by injecting water into the location where fusion occurs, and the resultant steam generated can be used to generate electricity. A single plasma accelerator can be used to accelerate plasma to a high velocity for a variety of purposes such as propelling a space ship.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[201] viXra:1809.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 16:53:13

Angular Momentum Acquisition and Spiral Motion, a Requisite for Particle Creation. a Case Study, the Proton.

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Particle creation via angular momentum acquisition requires the existence of a charge carrier with initial momentum mivi and potential for initiating down-spiral motion, yet abiding by angular momentum quantization and conservation principles. Applied to the proton with a charge radius 0.8751 fm and momentum mv=moc=5.014x10^-19 Kgms^-1, a value of angular momentum quantum number n=4 was pinpointed for the proton radius. Surprisingly, a spin angular momentum S equal to ħ/2Φ (~0.309 ħ) was graphically determined, with Φ being the golden ratio. This result led to the conclusion that the proton might be constructed from two opposing spin angular momenta whose resultant is precisely ħ/2, namely ħ/2Φ and ħΦ/2. Further, an expression for the quantization of v^2/c^2 was derived, revealing that v^2/c^2 becomes pure imaginary around n=0. The mass gain mR/mi during the spiral process was found to be only √2. Following the same reasoning, a neutron radius of 0.834 fm was found.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[200] viXra:1808.0605 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-29 09:51:51

Searching Harmonics in Nuclei Gyromagnetic Ratios. Startling Emergence of Scaling, Pseudo Octaves, and the Fine-Structure Constant from a Seemingly Random Network.

Authors: Bruno R. Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you

A plot of the nuclei gyromagnetic ratios vs. corresponding mass numbers was intuitively fitted with classic damped sinusoids of the form [asin(bx+c)+d]exp(-kx) using the interactive QtiPlot software. The outcome was a 2D interlaced network from which unexpected scaling emerged. The sine waves frequencies in descending order were found to follow the intriguing correlation b/2π=0.0100+0.137exp(-N/1.306) with N=0,1,2... The amplitude value at 0.137 is interpreted as 10^-3/α with α being the fine-structure constant. The scaling factor exp(1/1.306) which is ≈2.15 is discussed in relation to stretched octaves and probable connection to the golden ratio. The sinusoids equivalent energy range is found at E=7.29-107 MeV. The asymptotic energy value at 7.29 is interpreted as 10^3α, from which a nucleon mean radius at ≈0.85 fm is deduced.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[199] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-17 16:12:07

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard - v3

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[198] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 16:24:11

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard - v2

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[197] viXra:1808.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-08 01:09:33

Particle Physics and a Steady State Cosmos

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 21 Pages. CITE: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6934223.v3

Preprint Abstract - This article is a combination of two rejected essays I wrote for the journals “Nature Physics” and “Physics Essays” (the journal versions didn’t include this explanatory “Preprint Abstract”). Here’s a copy of the rejection letter from the editor of “Physics Essays” which I found very encouraging, except for his comment that “the speculative component of your paper is too predominant”. Dear Dr. Bartlett: I have concluded the examination of your paper and certainly enjoyed the imagination and conviction behind the concepts that you propose. Unfortunately, I had to conclude that the speculative component of your paper is too predominant, and the journal Physics Essays is not the best outlet for your ideas. I think that your paper should be exposed to the scrutiny and appreciation of a readership different from that of Physics Essays. I strongly encourage you to submit it to another journal, where surely it will be accepted. In any case, I am grateful that you submitted it first to Physics Essays. My best regards, Sincerely yours, Emilio Panarella My article must appear to be obviously incorrect. Not only is the graviton undiscovered, but there are decades of evidence stating that no relation exists between that graviton and the Higgs boson. There's nearly a century of science stating the bosons of the weak nuclear force are independent of the gravitons of gravitation and aren't formed by them ie the weak force can't be unified with gravity. And saying gravity is involved with matter's creation has been nonsense ever since Newton established the reverse. The odds against anyone writing a short article that correctly contradicts the above are tremendously great. But it's accepted that the graviton probably does exist and that it will be discovered eventually. In this age when many confidently pursue a Theory of Everything, does it make sense to cling to the idea that gravitons and Higgs bosons can have no relation? Einstein even published a paper in 1919 which he titled "Does gravitation play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" It can be argued that discovery of the nuclear forces invalidated that paper. However, Einstein's remarkable intuition might well have discerned that gravitons could play an essential role in the structure of the bosons of the nuclear forces. And instead of being purely mathematical in form, why couldn't the Theory of Everything use vector-tensor-scalar geometry to make gravitation play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles of matter? Science today seems to be overly dependent on observation and experiment. These are certainly extremely valuable but the search for knowledge of how the universe works must leave plenty of room for concepts developed by the mind. These mental constructs, while ideally capable of confirmation by experiments and observations, are not subject to the severe limitations and easy deceptions which the bodily senses are. All scientific detectors and instruments – no matter how grand – are enhancements of the senses, and are restricted to the technology of a particular era. The mind, though admittedly capable of great errors, is also able to see infinitely farther than the senses and far beyond present technology. It can see areas that are pure science fiction today, but might well be confirmed by a future civilization. For example, the claim near the end of this article that everything in the universe is infinite and eternal is the result of prior work with vector, tensor and scalar quantities in the fields of Higgs bosons, matter particles and bosons of the nuclear forces. It should not be dismissed merely because it contradicts present knowledge. Every advance contradicted accepted understanding at some stage. The same leeway deserves to be extended to the ideas that the universe is scientifically fine-tuned and neither contracts nor expands. Journal Abstract - It has been reported that astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gaia space observatory “have made the most precise measurement to date of the universe's expansion rate. The results further fuel the mismatch between measurements for the expansion rate of the nearby universe, and those of the distant, primeval universe -- before stars and galaxies even existed. This so-called ‘tension’ implies that there could be new physics underlying the foundations of the universe.” (1) Combining BITS (BInary digiTS) with topology and the vector-tensor-scalar relationship results in the tension referred to being resolved by expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. This lack of expansion or contraction overturns the Big Bang, cosmic inflation and Roger Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. Keywords - Cosmology, Electromagnetism, Gravitation, Higgs boson, Vector-tensor-scalar geometry, Cosmic non-expansion, Extra large-scale dimensions, Supersymmetry, Wick rotation, Topology, Weak-force bosons, Strong-force gluons, Matter, Quantum spin, Mass, Charge, Time, Block universe, Infinite and eternal Earth
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[196] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-17 02:52:30

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[195] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-12 08:21:13

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[194] viXra:1805.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 09:52:08

The Golden Section in Physics (in English)

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical constants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the electron/proton and electron/muon mass-ratios, the ratio of the gravitational/electromagnetic interaction, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: exponential relations between physical constants, Titius-Bode rule, new atomic mass formula.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[193] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-09 19:49:16

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[192] viXra:1712.0563 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 06:42:27

Digital Neutrino Resonance (DNR) Like the Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics Analytical Instrument

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 4 Pages.

Already traditional researches like computer tomography (CT), positron–emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are nowdays older (archaical) and dramatically growth significance, from discovery (RND) of detection of resonance neutrinos digitally, conclusion of inovatives researches in chronoscopy and nuclear physics. Discovery of detection of neutrinos neuropatic’s (VAINR), small sub–atomic particles, which are systematically ignorating whatever laws of traditional physics by revolution in last knowledge about this theme, in order to be possible incorporated in one from the oldest wishes of man “have to time in both direction”, although only during searching of pathology of central neural system (CNS) involving the human brain functions imaging and Medulla spinalis from it entranced nervus spinalis and reflexes aferential and eferential. This Spinal Medicine helps human with brain or spinal injuries to give back to “normal life” by using of “cluster medicine”, our excellence of the Czech Republic in this medical branch is work of Prof. MUDr. Eva Syková, DrSc. This article is focused on goal spreading of the newest evolution this extraordinary technics and science supposed a creation of new medically discipline neuroradiology, respectively neutrinoradiology: except diagnostics, therapeutic and pediatric neuroradiology also chronobiology. Wide field of application of RND will be have in Forensic Psychiatry is a sub–speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[191] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 16:48:19

My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[190] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 09:52:02

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[189] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 13:52:06

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[188] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 12:17:56

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics