Nuclear and Atomic Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[615] viXra:2001.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:22

Neutron Spectroscopy Data Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

"As far as we know, this is the first published work showing an application of super resolution to neutrons. We're at the forefront of an exciting new trend that will help other neutron scattering facilities improve their own data resolution as well," said Lin. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[614] viXra:2001.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 06:12:49

Microworld_59. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 19 Xxix. Binding Energies of Ethereal Vortex-Like Structures of Electron, Neutron, Proton and the Role of Magnetism

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The first approximate estimates of binding energies of ethereal vortex-like structures of electrons, neutrons and protons are obtained.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[613] viXra:2001.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 05:38:00

Pros and Cons of Livermorium Nanoparticles for Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Treatment under Synchrotron Radiation Using Mathematica 12.0

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt1, Maria Henderson, Elizabeth Besana, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 31 Pages. Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt, Maria Henderson, Elizabeth Besana and Ricardo Gobato. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.1, (1-31), January 11, 2020.

When Livermorium nanoparticles are subjected to descendent light, a part of light scattered (emission process) and the other part absorbed (non–emission process). The amount of energy dissipation in non–emission process mainly depends on material and volume of nanoparticles and it can be identified by absorption cross section. At the other hand, emission process which its characteristics are depend on volume, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles explains by scattering cross section. Sum of absorption and scattering processes which lead to light dissipation is called extinction cross section. In the current study, thermoplasmonic characteristics of Livermorium nanoparticles with spherical, core–shell and rod shapes are investigated. In order to investigate these characteristics, interaction of synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy and Livermorium nanoparticles were simulated using 3D finite element method. Firstly, absorption and extinction cross sections were calculated. Then, increases in temperature due to synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy absorption were calculated in Livermorium nanoparticles by solving heat equation. The obtained results show that Livermorium nanorods are more appropriate option for using in optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment method.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[612] viXra:1912.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-26 03:43:00

The Enigmatic Positron Confounds Atomic Theory

Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Comments: 6 Pages.

Positrons satisfy the Dirac wave equations as equally well as do electrons, but are enigmatic because they result from high energy particle/matter interactions and are not explained by current atomic theory. The question remains as to whether they are dynamically created or released from matter by such interactions. The latter option implies that free positrons exist within matter: thus positive holes, the functional equivalent of positrons, would no longer be required to explain electric current formation within semiconductors but would result in a major overhaul of the current conventional orbital atomic model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[611] viXra:1912.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 13:36:59

Il Neutrone e la Natura Pseudo-Vettoriale Della Massa

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 18 Pages.

L'articolo descrive un nuovo modello per il neutrone, basato sui fondamenti teorici profusi da alcuni ricercatori italiani. Il modello vede il neutrone costituito da due anelli di corrente giacenti su due piani paralleli,aventi diversi raggi, uno generato da una sferetta carica positivamente e l'altro da una sferetta carica negativamente che si muovono, in verso opposto l'una rispetto all'altra, alla velocità della luce.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[610] viXra:1912.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-23 06:03:02

Microworld_58. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 18 Xxviii. Comparison of Quantum and "CLASSICAL" Concepts of the Material World

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 33 Pages. English and russian texts

The "new physics" concepts of the material world structure - quantum theory and theory of relativity - are compared with the concepts of the theory of nonlinear oscillations operating in "classical" and Newton’s methods.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[609] viXra:1912.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 03:50:55

The Electron Magnetic Moment is Another Proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 471 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The electron magnetic moment is another proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “The electron has a magnetic field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent All the Scientists were not capable to explain what the electron is, what the electric charge is, what the “spin ħ/2" of the electron is… The electron magnetic moment is caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge. You learned at university that the electron is thought to be an elementary particle because has no known components or substructure. “The electron is not an elementary particle, because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron” Adrian Ferent “The Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles” Adrian Ferent “The electron equation: Adrian Ferent Where Ψ is the wave function of the electron. “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent For you the electric charge is an intrinsic property, because all Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors…were not able to explain the electric charge of the electron. “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent For you the spin is an intrinsic property, because all Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors…were not able to explain the "spin ħ/2" of the electron. I calculated the spin of the electron, the spin ħ/2: “The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron” Adrian Ferent “The circumference of the electron is λ / 2, half of photon wavelength” Adrian Ferent “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent What scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… did not understand? They did not understand Gravitation, Dark Matter, the electron… The problem is that the Universities do not payback the money to students for wrong theories like Einstein Gravitation theory, the Standard Model, Cold Dark Matter theory, String theory, Loop Quantum Gravity theory… “The Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge” Adrian Ferent “The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!” Adrian Ferent The magnetic moment µ, is used to measure the tendency of an object to interact with an external magnetic field. The electron magnetic moment or the electron magnetic dipole moment is the magnetic moment of the electron caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge. The electromagnetic waves are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields. In Ferent Quantum Gravity the spin and the electric charge are not intrinsic properties: “The electron has a magnetic field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent I calculated the charge created by the photon inside the electron, e, is the unit of elementary charge. A rotating electrically charged creates a magnetic dipole. “Inside the electron, the rotating electrically charged has the speed of light” Adrian Ferent For the electron as a charged particle with the angular momentum L, the magnetic dipole moment μ: The electron magnetic moment is created by a tiny current I traveling around the area A μ = IA = (qv/2πr)πr2 μ = qvr/2 = qL/2m where: q = - e m = me The classical result is corrected by multiplying it with a dimensionless correction factor g. The electron magnetic moment: The electron magnetic moment in terms of the Bohr magneton μB: Spin electron magnetic moment In quantum mechanics is another kind of angular momentum L, the spin angular momentum, represented by the spin operator S. The spin of the electron is ħ/2. This means: μ = - 9.2 × 10^(-24) J/T The z component of the electron magnetic moment Orbital magnetic dipole moment Total magnetic dipole moment μ is the total magnetic moment, from both orbital angular momentum and spin of an electron; J = L + S is its total angular momentum. “The electron magnetic moment is another proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent 285. I am the first who discovered that the electron magnetic moment is another proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity 286. I am the first who discovered that the electron has a magnetic field due to the photon inside the electron
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[608] viXra:1912.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:35:30

On the Nature of Atoms

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper postulates an advanced model of atoms under consideration of the research results from Marc Kießling by his paper entitled “ About the properties of energy”. There is a centered, approximately spherical area of energy. Around it there is/are approximately spherical energy value/values . The centered energy is of higher value as the surrounding spherical energy value/values. In the following the model is described with more than one outer spherical energy value. The motions of the energy values within the center and the outer energy values are synchronous. The motions of the centered energy influence the motions of the outer energy values in terms of their direction and velocity and vice versa. This occurs as a consequence of the energy values tending to the smallest amount of ∆W in their surroundings, which is on the specific ways of the synchronized motions. The motions of the centered energy area and the spherical energy values lead to an frequency pattern, which influences other energy values (particles) or other atoms. This leads to the observable effect of the wave character of energy values (particles) in double-slit experiments. Assumably under these conditions (double-slit), the frequency patterns of the atoms of the slit interfere with each other and generate a wave pattern. Therefore the energy values (particles) follow these generated patterns to the detector. Although the outer spherical energy values move on determined ways, they take variable ways within a generated space by the motions within the atom and influences from other atoms. Therefore chemical bindings are determined by the generated spaces, in which the outer energy values are located. But their specific motions within these spaces lead to another property of atoms, namely, assimilation and differentiation between atoms concerning their frequency pattern.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[607] viXra:1911.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 18:04:01

Il Vero Volto Dell'elettrone

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 16 Pages.

Il documento presenta un nuovo modello per l'elettrone; le proprietà distintive di questa importantissima particella si evincono direttamente dal modello stesso, in modo chiaro ed inequivocabile. Il modello da risposte convincenti e significative a domande a cui la scienza ufficiale non ha mai dato risposte convincenti. Dal modello emergono tutte le proprietà distintive come lo spin, l'origine della massa, la massa relativistica, senza che queste ultime siano assunte a priori "sic et simpliciter". Di seguito anche un link ad un video, realizzato dal sottoscritto, che spiega in modo chiaro le peculiarità del nuovo modello, mostrando anche delle animazioni in 3D. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtMJon49DPg&t=929s
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[606] viXra:1911.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 07:23:42

Dripline for Fluorine and Neon Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

An international team of physicists with the BigRIPS experiment taking place at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory in Japan has determined the dripline for fluorine and neon isotopes. [39] The precise determination of the neutron skin of lead (or how far the neutrons stick out from the protons in the nucleus) tells us about the equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[605] viXra:1911.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 11:49:48

Size of the Electron Speculated from Charge Formation Energy

Authors: Jozsef Garai
Comments: 10 Pages.

The classical radius of the electron can be calculated from first principles. The calculated value contradicts with experiments, which does not show any structure for the electron down to about 2 × 〖10〗^(-20) m. In order to be consistent with these experiments the energy required for the charge formation must exceed the rest mass energy of the electron. Based on energy equivalency it is concluded that the energy required for charge formation emerges from rotation, while the energy of mass formation emerges from translation. Assuming that the tangential velocity of the rotation is equivalent with the speed of light reproduces the classical radius of the electron. In order to comply with the known size limit of the electron the tangential velocity must exceed the speed of light. It is proposed that the ratio between the tangential and translation velocity of the electron is α-1, which gives the radius of the electron to 1.50059 × 〖10〗^(-19) m.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[604] viXra:1911.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 00:52:52

Logic About Forming Hydrogen Atom from Higgs Bosons

Authors: JianFei Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

New theories was introduced in this paper. With these theories, author deduced the forming process of electrons and protons in Higgs field\cite{higgs1}, and analyzed many relations, finally got the theoretical values. By comparing, All experimental data \cite{codata2014} are precisely consistent with the theoretical value. It confirms that hydrogen atom is a coordinating whole with strict logic as this paper. Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[603] viXra:1911.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 18:28:28

Electrostatic Gunnon

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 5 Pages.

The author proposes a new type of gun, in which the projectile is accelerated by an electrostatic field. It shows that a strong electrostatic field (high voltage pulse) can accelerate a small charge (shell) to huge speeds (up to 1000 km/s). If this micro-projectile (10-4 grams) consists of thermonuclear fuel, its explosion will destroy the target. This idea can be used to create thermonuclear engines and missiles, for conventional long-range artillery.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[602] viXra:1911.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 08:23:37

Neutron Scattering Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international team led by New Zealand food scientists at the Riddet Institute has used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structure of an oil-in-water emulsion commonly used in foods, such as milk, cream, salad dressings and sauces. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[601] viXra:1911.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 11:40:52

“AI” Physics – Atomic Structure – Part 2.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the first paper on Atomic Structure, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used to explore the structure of the atom by analyzing the results of established experiments on ionization energies and spectral emissions. In this paper, the findings of AI Physics - Energy Fields are used to further analyze the nature of sub-atomic particles. Analysis of radio-isotope decay leads to proposals on the structure of the atom, and Energy Field theory leads to alternative explanations for the structure of the nucleus, the nature of the crystal lattice, and the nature of molecular structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[600] viXra:1910.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 04:15:53

The Electron is not an Elementary Particle. the Standard Model is Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 446 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The electron is not an elementary particle. The Standard Model is wrong “The electron is not an elementary particle, because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron” Adrian Ferent “The Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles” Adrian Ferent “I explained Particle physics with Dark Matter from Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “I discovered what the electron is, because I discovered what Dark Matter is” Adrian Ferent “The electron equation:” Adrian Ferent You learned that the Standard Model is a theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces, but not the gravitational force, and classifies all known elementary particles. The electrons are elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. “I explained Particle physics with Dark Matter from Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “The electron equation:” Adrian Ferent Where Ψ is the wave function of the electron. “I discovered what the electron is, because I discovered what Dark Matter is” Adrian Ferent The Standard Model does not include Dark Matter particles. The Standard Model does not include particles beyond the Planck wall, like Dark Matter particles Dark Photons, Dark Electrons, Gravitons… “Two important walls: The Ferent wall: here at time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s were created Dark Matter, Dark Photons and Gravitons. The Planck wall: here at time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created Matter and Photons” Adrian Ferent All the scientists did not understand what the electron is, they did not understand what they did collide in particle accelerators. “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent What scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? They do not understand Gravitation, Dark Matter, the electron… The problem is that the Universities do not payback the money to students for wrong theories like Einstein Gravitation theory, the Standard Model, Cold Dark Matter theory, String theory, Loop Quantum Gravity theory… “The electron is not an elementary particle because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron” Adrian Ferent “The Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles” Adrian Ferent 267. I am the first who discovered that the electron is not an elementary particle because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron 268. I am the first who discovered that the Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles 269. I am the first who explained Particle physics with Dark Matter from Ferent Quantum Gravity 270. I am the first who discovered what the electron is, because I discovered what Dark Matter is 271. I am the first who discovered the electron equation
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[599] viXra:1910.0647 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 07:37:24

Measure Nuclear Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Researchers with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) designed and built an instrument called NAUTILUS to provide new measurement capabilities unlike those available at other laboratories to measure nuclear, cosmo/geo-chemical, and electronic materials. [42] In an attosecond study of the H2 molecule, physicists at ETH Zurich found that for light atomic nuclei, as contained in most organic and biological molecules, the correlation between electronic and nuclear motions cannot be ignored. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[598] viXra:1910.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 02:16:25

Fusion Reactor with Electrodynamic Confinement

Authors: Octavian Balaci
Comments: 23 Pages.

Abstract Thermonuclear plasma confinement can be significantly improved using the reaction of electrical conductors to the variable magnetic fields created by the plasma. In this way the magnetic fields can be confined in some well defined space and with it the plasma itself. Also many plasma instabilities are restricted in development by the dynamic of plasma and its fields.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[597] viXra:1910.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 08:45:44

Magic Number for Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international collaboration led by scientists from the University of Hong Kong, RIKEN (Japan), and CEA (France) have used the RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-base Science to show that 34 is a "magic number" for neutrons, meaning that atomic nuclei with 34 neutrons are more stable than would normally be expected. [18] Scientists using neutron scattering methods to look at the behavior of materials under stress or during phase changes and chemical reactions can view processes from new angles using event-based data. [17] The mineral sample was synthesized by Florida State University graduate student Lianyang Dong. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[596] viXra:1910.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 01:40:04

Finding Exotic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

These new subatomic particles could either be made of six heavy quarks (charm and bottom) or heavy and strange quarks. [27] Argonne scientists look to 3-D printing to ease separation anxiety, which paves the way to recycle more nuclear material. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[595] viXra:1910.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:28:59

Elementary About Experiments with " Delayed Choice"

Authors: V. A. Kasimov
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

Entanglement can always exist between identical objects by any proper quantum numbers as a manifestation of the fundamental principle of quantum mechanics - the principle of superposition. Consider the phenomenon of quantum entanglement and what are the prospects for its application to the theory of relativity can be a good example of "path-entangled" photon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[594] viXra:1910.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 03:44:17

DUNE Discoveries about Solar Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international research collaboration aimed at exploring topics related to neutrinos and proton decay, which should start collecting data around 2025. [37] This new measurement constitutes an interesting confirmation of the standard cosmological model which links the production of neutrinos one second after the Big Bang to the clustering of galaxies billions of years later. [36] The history of the universe is predicated on the idea that, compared to today, the universe was hotter and more symmetric in its early phase. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[593] viXra:1910.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 10:31:19

Magneto-Inertial Fusion Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Most fusion experiments employ either magnetic confinement, which relies on powerful magnetic fields to contain a fusion plasma, or inertial confinement, which uses heat and compression to create the conditions for fusion. [45] Fusion reactors operate by confining a "soup" of charged particles, known as a plasma, within powerful magnetic fields. [44] Without this detailed understanding, scientists cannot reliably predict how to effectively heat plasma, affecting the design of fusion facilities and potentially limiting fusion performance in tokamak fusion devices. [43] A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[592] viXra:1910.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 12:11:48

Compact Fusion Power Plants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in San Diego have demonstrated a new approach for injecting microwaves into a fusion plasma that doubles the efficiency of a critical technique that could have major implications for future fusion reactors. [46] Most fusion experiments employ either magnetic confinement, which relies on powerful magnetic fields to contain a fusion plasma, or inertial confinement, which uses heat and compression to create the conditions for fusion. [45] Fusion reactors operate by confining a "soup" of charged particles, known as a plasma, within powerful magnetic fields. [44] Without this detailed understanding, scientists cannot reliably predict how to effectively heat plasma, affecting the design of fusion facilities and potentially limiting fusion performance in tokamak fusion devices. [43] A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[591] viXra:1910.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 03:38:00

Nuclear Separation Degrees

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Argonne scientists look to 3-D printing to ease separation anxiety, which paves the way to recycle more nuclear material. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[590] viXra:1910.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 13:34:06

Atomic Model with a Single Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu
Comments: 5 Pages.

The atomic model described in this paper remains very simple and represents the synopsis of the logical sequence of the oscillation mechanism of a single moving particle. Reference: [..] Thanks to the principle of reiteration, the probability of finding after NP and NPN in the atomic nuclei is consequent. Which brings us, and in relation to the atomic signature, to the conclusion of a composition rich in Deuterium, Tritium and Helium 4-5-6
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[589] viXra:1910.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 11:55:00

Colour Charge and Electric Charge for Fermions

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

An observation on the dependence of lepton and quark electric charges on their colour charges.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[588] viXra:1909.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 15:12:46

Thermonuclear Micro-Projectile and Methods for its Use in Defensive Protection from Space Rockets, Peaceful Energy and Transport.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new type of thermonuclear micro - projectile (reactor) is proposed. The idea is to disperse the micro-capsule (10-4 g.) contained thermonuclear fuel to an energy in excess of 104 eV by collision with a solid material obstacle, thereby causing a micro-thermonuclear explosion. Ways of its use in protection against space rockets, in military science, peace power and transport are offered.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[587] viXra:1909.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 04:58:28

Kinetic Plasma Instabilities

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Plasmas are susceptible to kinetic instabilities when the velocity distribution of its constituent plasma electrons, ions or both becomes nonthermal. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[586] viXra:1909.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:16:00

Nuclear Clock Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Now, a research team led by physicist Peter Thirolf at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich with institutional collaborators has taken an important step toward such a clock. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[585] viXra:1909.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 04:25:15

Microworld_57. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 17 Xxvii. Hydrogen Superfluidity

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 21 Pages. English and russian texts

Internet reports that the Harvard University physicists derived "metal" hydrogen having superconducting properties. Below it is shown that they, in fact, experimentally discovered the existence of superfluid hydrogen rather than superconducting one.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[584] viXra:1909.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 05:18:02

Yield Estimation Formula of Plutonium 239 Nuclear Fission

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 1 Page.

The necessity of this note is to propose a theoretical formula to calculate the energy release in fissile plutonium 239 radioisotope or radionuclide in a nuclear fission reaction. This equation can approximately predict the yield of the fission energy of pu-239. The derivation may be kept classified.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[583] viXra:1908.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 15:15:47

There Is Only Charge!

Authors: Eshel Faraggi
Comments: 5 Pages. (c) 2019 Eshel Faraggi, All Rights Reserved.

A picture of the universe is presented where electromagnetic charge accounts for all observed phenomena. This picture is based on the Heisenberg relations of quantum mechanics. All the results obtained are consistent with EM charge being responsible for both what we classically identify as mass, and for the interactions required to keep intact the nucleons, and the nuclei of atoms. The approach is grounded in both quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[582] viXra:1908.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 09:56:53

The Modified Atomic Nucleus Model

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 1 Page.

The atomic nucleus should be made by neutrons and protons in one line alignment. They will be arranged as N-P-N-P-N-P or N-P-N-P-N to reduce the energy as low as it can. Neutrons and protons arrange in opposite magnetic field. Thus, protons can generate opposite magnetic field compared to neutrons. Thus, the two directions of the magnetic fields generated by protons and neutrons can let electrons to orbit the nucleus by forming two opposite directional standing waves.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[581] viXra:1908.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 07:28:35

Improved Approximation of the Fine Structure Constant as a Series Representation in e and pi

Authors: Michael J. Bucknum, Eduardo A. Castro
Comments: 7 Pages. corresponding email address: mjbucknum@yahoo.com

An improved approximation of the fine structure constant as a series in e and pi is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[580] viXra:1908.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 13:29:12

Nuclear Structure and Allotropes.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, we examined the basic principles for the interactions between energy fields, and analyzed the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. Here we apply those basic principles to nuclear physics and make further proposals. The results may provide an alternative explanation for the forces at the sub-atomic level, and an alternative explanation for the existence of allotropes - the different forms of an element.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[579] viXra:1908.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 00:52:35

Puzzling Radii of Calcium Isotopes: $^{40}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{44}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{48}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{52}{\rm Ca}$}, and Duality in the Structure of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ and $^{48}_{20}{\rm Ca}_{28}$

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Anisul Ain Usmni, Usuf Rahaman, Mohammad Ikram
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we study the issue of the puzzle of the radii of calcium isotopes. Despite an excess of eight neutrons, strangely $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ exhibits essentially the same charge radius as $^{40}{\rm Ca}$ does. A fundamental microscopic description of this is still lacking. Also strange is a peak in charge radius of calcium at N = 24. The $^{52}{\rm Ca}$ (N = 32) nucleus, well known to be doubly magical, amazingly has recently been found to have a very large charge radius. Also amazing is the property of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ which simultaneously appears to be both magical/spherical and strongly deformed as well. We use a Quantum Chromodynamics based model, which treats triton as elementary entity to make up $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$. We show here how this QCD based model is able to provide a consistent physical understanding of simultaneity of magicity/sphericity and strong deformation of a single nucleus. This brings in an essential duality in the structure of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ and subsequently also that of $^{48}_{20}{\rm Ca}_{28}$ We also provide consistent understanding of the puzzling radii of calcium isotopes. We predict that the radius of $^{54}{\rm Ca}$ should be even bigger than that of $^{52}{\rm Ca}$; and also that the radius of $^{60}{\rm Ca}$ should be the same as that of $^{40}{\rm Ca}$. In addiion we also show wherefrom arises the neutron E2 effective charge of $\frac{1}{2}$.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[578] viXra:1908.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 00:13:54

Einstein and Compton Were not Capable to Explain the Photoelectric Effect and the Compton Effect, Because They Did not Understand the Electron

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 389 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

"I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron" Adrian Ferent "Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrically charged particles like electrons when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The photoelectric effect was first observed in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for ‘his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.’ Einstein and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the photoelectric effect. Compton Effect is the increase in wavelength of X-rays that have been scattered by electrons. Compton explained by applying conservation of energy and conservation of momentum to the collision between the photon and the electron. Compton was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927 ‘for his discovery of the effect named after him.’ Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Compton effect. "The electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent "The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron" Adrian Ferent How I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect: "I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle" Adrian Ferent "Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron" Adrian Ferent "The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!" Adrian Ferent I explained the Compton effect: The Compton effect: individual photon collides with single electron that is free or quite loosely bound electron in the atom. The incident photon transfers the energy and momentum to the electron. The photon changes its direction and transfers a portion of its original energy to the electron from which it scattered producing an energetic recoil electron. The scattered photon must thus have less energy and momentum than the incoming photon. The fraction of the incident photon energy that is transferred depends on the scattering angle; if the photon is deflected only slightly, little energy is transferred to the electron. "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field" Adrian Ferent "The electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles" Adrian Ferent In the Compton scattering the transfer of maximum energy happens when the incident photon is backscattered from the electron and its original direction is reversed. In the photoelectric effect all the energy of the photon is transferred to the electron, because it is not a free electron. "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent 233. I am the first who explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron 234. I am the first who discovered that the energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV 235. I am the first who discovered that the energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron 236. I am the first who explained that Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron 237. I am the first who explained that the electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles 238. I am the first who discovered that the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV 239. I am the first who explained that the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[577] viXra:1908.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 11:04:11

Scattering Revisited

Authors: Ernesto López González
Comments: 32 pages (On spanish)

Background “Just waves�? is a new hypothesis that postulates that matter and energy could be formed by space-time waves in a six dimensional space with anisotropic curvature. Since this waves can be modified by the scattering procces I study the influence of these modifications in the form factor. Results According with the scattering energy particle-waves are just slightly deformed ( reducing their radius ), converted from spheres to plane disks ( so we change from a 3D Fourier transform to a 2D Fourier transform) and compressed by a geometric series of factor 2. These mechanisms depend not only on the energy exchanged, but also on the energy of the incident particles, as well as on the speed of the particle to be studied. After successfully applying these ideas to proton, neutron, pion and muon form factor it is concluded that there is an optimal range of energies for each particle (increasing it indefinitely only leads to the erroneous conclusion that they have no internal structure). Transverse charge density is recommended as the best method for their study. Existence of quarks is denied and an explanation is given to the discrepancy between residual strong nuclear force measurements and maximum binding energies per nucleon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[576] viXra:1908.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 05:31:21

Early Conclusion of Rubidium Autoradiograph

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

original planned duration of experiment was 6 months
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[575] viXra:1908.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 05:10:06

Can We Replicate Stellar Nucleosynthesis?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

It is argued that the genuine stellar nucleosynthesis cannot be replicated with the artificial conditions in stellarator-type fusion (Wendelstein 7-X in Germany) or tokamak fusion (ITER in France). We need quantum gravity to understand how quantum tunneling works in the presence of gravity, and then model quantum tunneling in plasma under strong gravity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[574] viXra:1907.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 14:23:10

The Size of the Electron.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 15 Pages.

The structure of the atom is analyzed using the results of established experiments on ionization energies and spectral emissions. Ionization energy levels - when electrons are energized to escape from the Potential Energy Well of the atom – show distinct patterns. The depth of the Potential Energy Well is directly proportional to the number of protons in the nucleus, but is not dependent on the number of neutrons. The ionization energies, and therefore the electron depths, are similar to those of a "multi-layered ball" of electrons, as if they simply fill the three-dimensional Potential Energy Well around the nucleus. The electrons appear to be loosely-packed for the lighter elements, and more tightly-packed for the heavier elements. The electrons appear to be much larger than we presently imagine.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[573] viXra:1907.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 09:39:31

Two-Proton Knockout Cross Section ${\sigma}_{-2p} (^{44}S \rightarrow ^{42}{si})$: Strong Evidence of Magicity and Sphericity of $^{42}_{14}si_{28}$

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 12 Pages.

The issue of whether $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$ is doubly magical or not has been a contentious one. Fridmann {\it et al.} (Nature 435 (2005) 922) through studies of two-proton knockout reaction $^{44}_{16}S_{28} \rightarrow ^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$, presented a strong empirical evidence in support of magicity and sphericity of $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$. However in complete conflict with this, Bastin {\it et al.} (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 022503) gave equally strong empirical evidences, to show that the N = 28 magicity had completely collapsed, and that $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$ was a well deformed nucleus. At present the popular consensus (Gade {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 222501) strongly supports the latter one and discards the former one. Here, while we accept the latter experiment as being fine and good, through a careful study of an RMF model calculation, we show that actually the experimental results of Fridmann are also independently good and consistent. As per the Fridmann experiment, the sphericity and magicity of $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$ is manifested only through proton number Z=14 being a strong magic number, while the neutron magic number N=28 disappears (or goes into hiding); and still this nucleus is spherical. This is a new and amazing property manifesting itself in this exotic nucleus $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$. In this paper we provide a consistent understanding of this novel reality within a QCD based model. This model, which has been successful in explanation of the halo phenomenon in exotic nuclei, comes forward to provide the physical reason as to why the Fridmann experiment is correct. This QCD based model shows that it is tritons, as elementary entity making up $^{42}_{14}Si_{28}$, which then provides consistency to the above amazing conclusions arising from the Fridmann experiment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[572] viXra:1907.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:51:30

Anticipated Nuclear Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

The precise determination of the neutron skin of lead (or how far the neutrons stick out from the protons in the nucleus) tells us about the equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[571] viXra:1906.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 16:30:51

Might Gravity be an Electromagnetic Phenomenon? Examining the “MYSTERY” of Monatomic Gold

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 5 Pages.

Speculation has long abounded that the Biblical Ark of the Covenant may have been an electrical device, perhaps a capacitor, given its construction as precisely described in the Bible. Its potential association as a container of monatomic gold, recently (re?)discovered accidentally as a potential superconducting powder with seemingly mystical properties, renders this as a possibility. Theories exist that equate gravity with electromagnetic phenomena, such that at least two confirmed observations associated with monatomic gold lend credibility to such theories.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[570] viXra:1906.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 11:12:46

Calculation of Energy Release in D-T Nuclear Fusion Reaction

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note can be very essential in studying the detailed properties of nuclear fusion reaction which is proposed to be our ultimate source of energy in near future. However we don’t know about future but here we will derive the alternate theoretical relation to compute the amount of energy release in deuterium- tritium fusion. The derivation may be kept confidential for security purpose
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[569] viXra:1906.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:58:50

Quantum Impedance Matching of Rabi Oscillations

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present a model of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions, the GWI model, that offers an alternative (perhaps equivalent) representation of QED, and use it to explore the quantized impedance structure governing energy flow in Rabi oscillations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[568] viXra:1906.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 01:37:26

Beta Decay Emits No Neutrino

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 1927 Ellis-Wooster calorimetry experiment was an attempt to resolve the controversy over the continuous energy distribution spectrum of beta decay. A Radium E source was placed within a calorimeter in order to capture and measure the heat generated by beta decay. If the beta decay energy is assumed to be quantized, the captured heat energy should match the maximum spectrum energy of 1.05 MeV if the calorimeter captured all the disintegration energy. The result of the experiment gave the captured average heat of beta decay to be 350,000 eV instead of the expected 1.05 MeV. The 350,000 eV was accepted to be a match to the average spectrum energy of 390,000 eV. The experiment indicated some energy escaped the Ellis-Wooster calorimeter - thus the notion of "missing energy". The thesis of this paper is that the conclusion of the Ellis-Wooster experiment depends on whether the heat of calorimetry is consistent with relativistic kinetic energy or with classical kinetic energy. The spectrum energy used by the experiment was based on relativistic energy. If the values are converted to classical energy, the the maximum spectrum energy would only be 230,000 eV and the average 120,000 eV. The captured heat was much greater than the average of 120,000 eV. This reinterpretation would dismiss the notion of any missing energy in the experiment. The question of whether there was any missing energy is related to whether physical reality is consistent with special relativity or with Newtonian mechanics. The basis upon which Wolfgang Pauli proposed his 1930 neutrino hypothesis was the conclusion of the 1927 Ellis-Wooster experiment which supposedly supported the idea of "missing energy". The neutrino and the current neutrino physics would remain if special relativity is found to be the correct mechanics representing the physical world. On the other hand, if Newtonian mechanics is found to be correct, then all of neutrino physics would have to be dismissed. The one experiment that could decide on the issue is to determine the maximum speed with which beta particles are ejected in beta decay using the direct time-of-flight method. If Newtonian mechanics is correct, then there would be beta particles found to go beyond the speed of light; otherwise, it would be experimental evidence supporting special relativity. The result of this experiment would settle unequivocally the question concerning the nature of physical reality. But to date, this experiment has not been carried out.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[567] viXra:1906.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 18:25:46

Preon Interaction Theory and Model of Universe (v.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 105 Pages.

Book contains researches six new ideas: new preon interaction theory of the micro World; relations between time, mass, space, charge and energy; possibility of creating the super-strong (in millions times) matter, having surprise properties; super-strong nuclear AB-needles, which allows to penetrate deep into the Earth and planets; the nuclear generator for converting of any matter into the energy and possibility of the artificial explosion of Sun.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[566] viXra:1906.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 04:47:04

Atom-Resolved Magnetic Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Newly developed magnetic objective-lens system provides a magnetic-field-free environment at the sample position. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[565] viXra:1906.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 09:29:22

Microworld_56. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 16 Xxvi. the Quantum Theory – a Genius Invention or or a Proof of Unsatisfactory Knowledge of the “Classic” Physics?

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

Due to the idea of atomism, there were discovered atoms, nucleons, and electrons. The atomic theory incorporated seeds of the idea of infinite divisibility of matter aimed at perceiving the structure of the entire material world. The next step in that perceiving should have been the recognition of ether discovered in Fizeau’s experiment. However, physicists did not recognize the discovery. The neglect of ether in physical theories resulted in physicists’ failure to use the methods of “classic”, Newtonian physics to gain a detailed understanding of atomic structure, and to build a “classic” microworld theory. As consequence, there emerged the quantum hypothesis that became a basis for the quantum physics of microworld. As the quantum hypothesis appeared to be in irreconcilable contradiction with the idea of infinite divisibility of matter, because of the neglect of ether, the quantum physics failed to understand the real structure of electrons and nucleons, even though all the necessary and ample experimental facts there had been obtained on microobject accelerators. Instead of objective ideas of the structure of electrons and nucleons or further development of knowledge regarding the structure of matter, there appeared fake concepts of quarks, myons, pions, bosons, etc., that do not exist in the real material world Experimental evidence as to the lack of indivisible quanta in nature [1] seemed to have fixed the intolerable situation but quantum physicists did not “notice” that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[564] viXra:1906.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 02:42:53

Microworld_55. UNSOLVED PROBLEMS OF PHYSICS_ 15 XXV. Experimental Verification of Ethereal Nature of Electron and Neutron Structures

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 17 Pages. English and russian texts

The theory of non-linear oscillations found that elementary microobjects – electrons and neutrons – consist of multiple ether elements and have vortex-like shapes [1]. Can this be verified in direct experiments? Diffraction methods fail here. At maximum juxtaposition of these microobjects, electrons and neutrons should “disperse” into ether elements. Such juxtaposition results in nature from enormous pressure inside a confined space (“black holes”), and at collision of high-energy microobjects – tetraelectronvolt cosmic rays. In the Earth environment, it is yet impossible to observe processes happening in confined spaces at super-high pressure. Tetraelectronvolt juxtaposition of two protons has recently become possible in LHC. We further discuss how such protons collide and what LHC detectors record in such cases.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[563] viXra:1906.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 12:58:07

Microworld_54. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 14 Xxiv. Big Neutrino Embarrassment of “New Physics”

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts

The theory of non-linear oscillations established the hypothesis that there exists an object called “neutrino” is a consequence of misinterpretation of a system of tracks that occur after neutron-to-proton transformation. The reason for such misinterpretation was bad knowledge of the basic “classic” physics and the lack of necessary “classic” physical intuition. This explains sixty years of failed neutrino experiments. Identification of structures of electrons, neutrons, protons, and photons allowed for a detailed “classic” understanding of neutron-to-proton transformation mechanism, and a detailed “classic” clarity of atomic nucleus structures at an imaginative level.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[562] viXra:1906.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 01:29:38

Studies on the Formation and the Nuclear Structure of an Atom

Authors: Nakyoung Seong
Comments: 19 Pages.

A new approach on the formation and the nuclear structure of an atom and its components are developed throughout the following paper. We provided more intuitive interpretations of the physical phenomena that can be found in the nature of the atom, which can be quite controversial with the orthodox view and the interpretations in modern physics. Readers can expect the original viewpoints and explanations on the atomic nuclei and its foundations from the three-dimensional nuclear structure of the atom and interpretations of phenomena. Most of the ideas provided in this paper can be seen as unconventional since the portions of bases are fairly the opposite of the established notions. However, the three-dimensional nuclear structure of an atom presents more plausible and practical interpretations on the physical phenomena compared to the current the field of physics can provides. Potential future applications and the necessary scientific proofs to strengthen the theories are discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[561] viXra:1906.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 00:26:36

The World is Different the Gam-Hypothesis

Authors: Hartmut Balke
Comments: 17 Pages. These idea can be verified by the fact, that everything can be explained with it.

I will show that matter does not exist in the classical sense. Matter is the representation by units originating in the Primordial Nothingness and made- up by a single force, which I name here Gam. Everything consists of Gam and their interactions. All processes of the universe can be explained without contradiction with the help of these findings. This essay contains only the most basic thoughts, which nevertheless allow us to find explanations for all questions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[560] viXra:1905.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 07:53:11

Boron's Complicated Dance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Work opens a path to precise calculations of the structure of other nuclei. [29] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[559] viXra:1905.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 01:25:15

A New Proton Structure Model

Authors: Tian Hansong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Proton is one of the most important particles. Though the precise values of the mass and the radius of proton have been figured out, the quark model of proton fails to connect these two values. However, we discover that a new proton structure model may realize this goal, which may help us know the internal structure of proton in a better way. The new model is different from the quark model which has been used to explain proton structure, it may have influence on the current particle standard model system.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[558] viXra:1905.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:21:01

28 Excited Electron by Lan Theory with Relativistic Effect Introduction with Corroborated Data and Detection of Errors in Bibliography

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 41 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Article is centred in Relation of Riquelme de Gozy that is part of relations fulfilled by electrons excited (LAN Theory). Article exposes a new concept of excitation lines based on orbital quantum number and, after relativistic effect inclusion, progressively increases sensitivity in energetic values of electronic jumps to be able to predict said values and discern possible errors included in the references.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[557] viXra:1905.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:18:00

27 Orbital Angular Momentum of All Orbitals L and Lz Fluyiep Explanation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 41 Pages.

Bohr atomic model is developed with electronic extremes of Victoria Theory. Toyi mechanism is focused on explaining orbital angular and spin movement of electronic extremes. This article summarizes first part of Toyi Mechanism and then proceeds with individualized explanation of angular momentum for all orbitals (named as Fluyiep Explanation). Finally, paper concludes with fundamental relations between angular momentum of all orbitals.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[556] viXra:1905.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:37:07

Orbital and Spin - Toyi Mechanism - Bohr model with Victoria Equation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 24 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Bohr model coupled with Victoria Theory proposes that electron is separated into electronic extremes, achieving currently accepted electronic cloud, geometry and probability. Toyi mechanism is centred on movements of electronic extremes (orbital and spin).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[555] viXra:1904.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 05:19:45

Energies of Atomic Electrons from Krypton to Fermium

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 33 Pages.

The electronic configuration of xenon regarding more external sub-levels (2+6),2 gives stability and inertia to xenon atom and it allows to understand the behaviour of subsequent chemical elements represented by transition elements including rare earths and actinides. The same thing happens for radon atom that has in external sub-levels the configuration (8+2),6. The prime difficulty in calculating energies of atomic electrons is no doubt the appraisal of effective shielding of internal electrons with regard to external electrons and it is important because that shielding reduces the size of nuclear charge that has to be considered in calculation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[554] viXra:1904.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 10:37:28

Analysis of the HRM Spectra in Plasma Glow Discharge

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 12 Pages. Plasma physics

The HRM effect (Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). In properly activated neutral plasma a discrete frequency spectrum is observed. The term heterodyne means that the process is activated in the kHz range, while the observed spectrum is in the MHz range. The clear spectrum has spatial features and could be observed only in a small volume at fast sweep time. The spectrum characteristics depend on the type of gas and conditions of the transient process. Hydrogen and inert gases are the most suitable for the HRM effect. According to analysis, the HRM spectrum is a signature of synchronized spin-flips of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. HRM effect involves quantum mechanical interactions in which the electrons access the zeropoint energy of the physical vacuum. It is predicted that the HRM effect takes place in the transient process of lightning. The signature of HRM effect in the lightning is a subject of another article. Keywords: neutral plasma, glow discharge spectrum, Rydberg matter, electron spin flip, zeropoint energy
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[553] viXra:1904.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 10:00:14

Atomic Particles Adhesion

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in the paper entitled unified field theory we have shown how electromagnetic waves attract each other to form bigger masses in this papet we will show how same sized masses and different sized masses work together same sized masses such as two protons are equaly competent for having space domains which is also equal to their equal strength to hold onto and fight for a space domain and so they stay together agglomerated at the distance separated by unneeded neutrons to fill the gap of electromagnetic waves forming the particles and then we have the unequal masses such as an electron and a proton these two have unequal competency to have space domains and they have unequal strength to hold onto and fight for a space domain and so the electron ends up going closer as much as possible to the proton
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[552] viXra:1904.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 07:49:22

Electric Charge and Electric Field of Elementary Particles.

Authors: Alexandr I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. The inaccuracy of the modern view of the electric charge and the electric field is shown. The whole theory of Maxwell, Coulomb and other giants of physics, is valid only for macroscopes, on the order of more than 100 sizes of elementary particles. In the microscale there are completely different laws. Including the field of a single charge does not have spherical symmetry and the Coulomb dependence is inverse to the radius.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[551] viXra:1904.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 07:54:09

Электрический заряд и электрическое поле элементарных частиц.

Authors: Александр Дубинянский и Павел Чурляев
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Абстракт. Показана неточность современного воззрения на электрический заряд и электрическое поле. Вся теория Максвелла, Кулона и других гигантов физики, справедлива только для макромасштабов, порядка более 100 размеров элементарных частиц. В микромасштабе действуют совсем другие законы. В том числе поле одиночного заряда не имеет сферической симметрии и кулоновской зависимости обратной от радиуса.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[550] viXra:1903.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 05:47:35

Fusion of Halo Nucleus 6he on 238u :Evidence for Tennis-Ball (Bubble) Structure of the Core of the Halo (Even the Giant-Halo) Nucleus

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a decade-and-a-half old experiment, Raabe et al.(Nature 431 (2004) 823), had studied fusion of an incoming beam of halo nucleus 6He with the target nucleus 238U . We extract a new interpretation of the experiment, different from the one that has been inferred so far. We show that their ex- periment is actually able to discriminate between the structures of the target nucleus (behaving as standard nucleus with density distribution described with canonical RMS radius r = r0 A1/3 with r0 = 1.2 fm), and the ”core” of the halo nucleus, which surprisingly, does not follow the standard density distribution with the above RMS radius. In fact the core has the structure of a tennis-ball (bubble) like nucleus, with a ”hole” at the centre of the den- sity distribution. This novel interpretation of the fusion experiment provides an unambigous support to an almost two decades old model (Abbas, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 16 (2001) 755), of the halo nuclei. This Quantum Chro- modyanamics based model, succeeds in identifyng all known halo nuclei and makes clear-cut and unique predictions for new and heavier halo nuclei. This model supports, the existence of tennis-ball (bubble) like core of even the giant-neutron halo nuclei. This should prove beneficial to the experimen- talists, to go forward more confidently, in their study of exotic nuclei.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[549] viXra:1903.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 08:07:15

Atlas of HRM Spectra (Volume 1)

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism (HRM) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). The HRM effect takes place in a transient process of plasma. Neutral plasma in self-oscillation mode with optical signature of glow discharge emits spectrum in MHz range. The spectrum is different from the atomic and molecular spectra. According to the BSM-SG models, the spectrum is caused by synchronised spin-flip of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. Most of the recorded spectra are from hydrogen and air at partial vacuum from 10 to 15 mbars and air at normal pressure. They were recorded at different periods from 2005 to 2007 in a laboratory of York University, Toronto, Canada. The details of experimental setup are given in the article “Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism in a transient process in plasma. Experimental study and spectra” (vixra.org).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[548] viXra:1903.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 08:38:28

Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism in a Transient Process in Plasma. Experimental Study and Spectra

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism (HRM) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). The HRM effect takes place in a transient process of plasma. Neutral plasma in self-oscillation mode with optical signature of glow discharge emits EM radiation in a broad spectral range. The spectrum is different from the atomic and molecular spectra. According to the BSM-SG models, the EM emission is caused by synchronised spin-flips of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. The ion-electron pairs are similar to some experimentally observed Rydberg matter, while possessing unknown so far features. The observed spectra are in the radiofrequency MHz range. The analysis leads to the conclusion that HRM takes please in the upper atmosphere of the earth and during the thunderstorms in lower atmosphere. This provides explanation for the strong EM waves emitted from lightning that cause disturbance in the sensitive electronic devices and radio communications. Further study on this issue by using the BSM-SG models may lead to technological recommendations for protection of sensitive electronics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[547] viXra:1903.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 06:45:38

Atomic Energies from Hydrogen to Krypton

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 42 Pages.

In the order of the Deterministic Quantum Model we calculate energies of electrons inside atoms of chemical elements from hydrogen to krypton. Calculation proves argon Ar (Z=18) has in the third level n=3 a configuration (6+2), composed of 6 electrons in the first sub-level s and of 2 electrons in the second sub-level p. This configuration is characterized by high stability and chemical inertia proven by the fact that argon belongs to the group of inert elements. The specific behaviour of argon biases and allows to explain the behaviour of subsequent chemical elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[546] viXra:1903.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 07:24:42

Beta-Decay Puzzle Solved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An international collaboration including scientists at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decays of free neutrons. [12] Analysis of data from the MINOS+ experiment reveals no evidence for oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter-a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos-particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe-could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[545] viXra:1903.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 11:39:19

System of Particles and Field in a Unified Field Theory

Authors: Jean Claude Dutailly
Comments: 142 Pages.

In previous contributions I have presented a unified theory of particles and field, in the Geometry of General Relativity, which accounts for all the known force fields, as well as the properties of elementary particles, without the need to invoke additional dimension or special physical phenomenon. In this paper the theory is fully detailed, and its focus is on models of systems of elementary particles interacting with the field. The equations are established for continuous systems and solutions, as well as methods to solve the usual cases are exposed in the model of 2 particles. It is then possible to build clear models of systems such as nuclei and atoms and study the conditions for their stability. It gives also another vision of the special behavior of the nuclear forces. Discontinuous processes involve discontinuities in the field and I show that they can be represented by particles-like objects, the bosons. Their interaction with particles is formalized in a rigorous but simple way.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[544] viXra:1903.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 14:34:40

Plasma Focus on Twists and Turns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Whether zipping through a star or a fusion device on Earth, the electrically charged particles that make up the fourth state of matter better known as plasma are bound to magnetic field lines like beads on a string. [41] Such plasmonic resonances have significant roles in biosensing with ability to improve the resolution and sensitivity required to detect particles at the scale of the single molecule. [40] A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of unique lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University. [39]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[543] viXra:1903.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 19:19:25

An Atom Model of Stationary Electrons

Authors: Cang Ye
Comments: 6 Pages. The atom model is back to what it should be

This paper presents a new microscopic extension to the Coulomb’s law --- a formula that describes how electron and nucleus interact each other within atom world. Based on this Coulomb’s law extension, a new atom model is proposed. Compared with current electron-cloud model and with old Bohr model, this model is most like atom’s real physical structure. Using this new model and basic integral calculation, the spectrum of hydrogen gas and the spectrum of ionized helium gas are successfully derived.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[542] viXra:1903.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 06:46:56

一种新的原子模型--电子静止模型

Authors: 叶苍
Comments: 6 Pages. 真实的原子世界没那么复杂,太复杂了是思维因为误入了歧途

本文给出了库仑定律在原子尺度上的扩展公式。 根据这个扩展,提出了电子静止的原子模型。 用简单的做功定义和积分运算,计算出了氢原子气体的全部光谱, 和氦原子气体的一半光谱。
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[541] viXra:1903.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 23:57:09

Quantum Chromodynamics Based Model: a New Perspective on Halo-Structure and New-Magicity in Exotic Nuclei

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 17 Pages.

A quite recent, ingenious experimental paper (Raabe et al., Nature 431 (2004) 823), studied fusion of an incoming beam of halo nucleus 6-He with the target nucleus 238-U . They managed to extract information which could make basic discrimination between the structures of the target nucleus (behaving as standard nucleus with density distribution described with canonical RMS radius r = r0 A 1/3 with r0 = 1.2 fm), and the ”core” of the halo nucleus, which surprisingly, does not follow the standard density distribution with the above RMS radius. This provides unambiguous and strong support for a Quantum Chromodyanamics based model structure, which shows as to how and why the halo structure arises. This model succeeds in identifyng all known halo nuclei and also makes clear-cut and unique predictions for new halo nuclei. It also provides a consistent and unified understanding of what is imlied for the emergence of new magic numbers in the study of exotic nuclei. It is triton clustering, as apparent from experimental data on neutron-rich nuclei, which guides us to this new model. It provides a new perspective, of how QCD leads to a consistent understanding of the nuclear phenomenon, both of the N ∼ Z nuclei, and of those which are far away from this limit.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[540] viXra:1903.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 08:48:36

Movies in Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at LMU and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics have developed a microscope that tracks the motion of electrons. [31] "There's a process in strongly interacting physics where fundamental particles, like electrons, can come together and behave as if they were a fraction of an electron," said Davis, a graduate student in Foster's research group. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[539] viXra:1902.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-26 08:13:39

Nuclear Orbital for Emc Effect

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to explain the European Muon Collaboration effect using nuclear orbital, equivalent to the molecular orbital theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[538] viXra:1902.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-22 08:31:27

Proton's Pressure Distribution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

For the first time, MIT physicists have calculated a proton's pressure distribution, and found that the particle contains a highly pressurized core that, at its most intense point, is generating greater pressures than are found inside a neutron star. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component—the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[537] viXra:1902.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-21 10:11:40

Alpha Particle Condensates in Oxygen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

When the nucleus gets nearly enough energy to disintegrate into alpha particles, the alpha particles can arrange themselves in the lowest possible quantum energy level, forming a Bose-Einstein condensate. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[536] viXra:1902.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 11:12:17

Power Transfer Mechanism Using Probes

Authors: Sumedha
Comments: 3 Pages. Space based power transfer

The failure of power systems in most of the satellite missions is the reason behind mission failure. Since the power transfer method using another satellite by the method of rendezvous and docking can be introduced considering the concept of the surrounding particle conditions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[535] viXra:1902.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 12:57:25

Correlated Nucleons Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component—the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[534] viXra:1902.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 02:39:53

Constant $ e \cdot C / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ Determines\\ Magnetic Flux Quantum in Charged Leptons

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 6 Pages.

The constant $ e \cdot c / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ is a common characteristic of charged leptons ($e, \mu, \tau $) resulting from their identical fraction $\hat{m}/\lambda_{C}$ of magnetons $\hat{m}$ to Compton-wavelengths $\lambda_{C}$, in spite of their largely differing $\hat{m}$ and $\lambda_{C}$. However the physical interpretation of this constant remained uncertain, but now clarified: It is proven that $ e \cdot c / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ is an alternative and equivalent definition of the magnetic flux quantum $ h/2 \hspace{2} e$ which makes up the dipole-fields of charged leptons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[533] viXra:1902.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-16 14:21:08

Cold Plasma Electric Compression Fusion

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

All experiments of fusion of hydrogen (except the LENR type) are done at high temperatures. The main models being the Tokamak magnetic confinement and the Inertial Confinement models. The new design proposed here is based on a novel idea not attempted before. It uses direct electric field compression of a cold deuterium plasma (which may even be near 0 K) to undergo direct nuclear fusion to Helium-4 which may not be accompanied with any production of neutrons or gamma rays. The design is simple and most research laboratories would have the resources and technology to experiment with this new design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[532] viXra:1901.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-23 08:02:49

Collision of Individual Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to new technology, it is possible to retain individual atoms, move them in a targeted manner or change their condition. [19] Using a new computational method, an international collaboration has succeeded for the first time in systematically investigating magnetic quantum effects in the well-known 3-D pyrochlore Heisenberg model. [18] Researchers in the US and Japan say they have observed spin superfluidity and very long distance spin transport in an antiferromagnetic insulator made from graphene for the first time. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[531] viXra:1901.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 16:20:46

Physical Model for Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Jozsef Garai
Comments: 18 Pages.

Atomic scale description of the electrochemically induced cold fusion is presented. The model consistent with the conditions required for successive experiments and offers physical explanation for the occurrence of nuclear fusion at low energies. Based on this atomic scale description, the vibrational frequency of the D2 molecules in vacancy is calculated. The fundamental frequency of the vibrating Deuterium molecule in a cavity is 21.65 THz, which is almost identical with the observed “sweet spot” in the two laser experiments at 20.8 THz, indicating that this previously unidentified peak represents the self frequency of the Deuterium molecule in vacancy. The fundamental frequencies in vacancies for HD and H2 molecules are also calculated. It is predicted that these frequencies in HD or H2 systems should also activate the reaction and that the fundamental frequencies in cavities should remain unchanged regardless of the hosting lattice.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[530] viXra:1901.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 08:08:56

Zirconium Isotope Capture Neutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The probability that a nucleus will absorb a neutron is important to many areas of nuclear science, including the production of elements in the cosmos, reactor performance, nuclear medicine and defense applications. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[529] viXra:1901.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 08:49:54

Electronegativity Rewrites Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Electronegativity is one of the most well-known models for explaining why chemical reactions occur. [30] Innovations in microscale electronics, medicine, combustion and scores of other technologies depend on understanding and predicting the behavior of electricity on the smallest of length scales. [29] New research from UBC's Okanagan campus, recently published in Nature Communications, may have uncovered the key to one of the darkest secrets of light. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[528] viXra:1901.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 15:43:03

The Production Of Helium In Cold Fusion Experiments

Authors: Melvin H. Miles
Comments: 15 Pages. Helium-4 Production in the Palladium-Deuterium System

It is now known that cold fusion effects are produced only by certain palladium materials made under special conditions. Most palladium materials will never produce any excess heat, and no helium production will be observed. The palladium used in our first six months of cold fusion experiments in 1989 at the China Lake Navy laboratory never produced any measurable cold fusion effects. Therefore, our first China Lake result were listed with CalTech, MIT, Harwell and other groups reporting no excess heat effects in the DOE-ERAB report issued in November 1989. However, later research using special palladium made by Johnson-Matthey produced excess heat in every China Lake D2O-LiOD electrolysis experiment. Further experiments showed a correlation of the excess heat with helium-4 production. Two additional sets of experiments over several years at China Lake verified these measurements. This correlation of excess heat and helium-4 production has now been verified by cold fusion studies at several other laboratories. Theoretical calculations show that the amounts of helium-4 appearing in the electrolysis gas stream are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range. The experimental amounts of helium-4 in our experiments show agreement with the theoretical amounts. The helium-4 detection limit of 1 ppm (1000 ppb) reported by CalTech and MIT was far too insensitive for such measurements. Very large excess powers leading to the boiling of the electrolyte would be required in electrochemical cold fusion experiments to even reach the CalTech or MIT helium-4 detection limit of 1000 ppb helium-4 in the electrolysis gas stream.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[527] viXra:1901.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 00:25:47

The Spiral Proton by Numbers: Composite Angular Momentum, Mass Discrimination, and G-Factor as 1

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Angular momentum acquisition and spiral motion seems to drive particle creation. This process requires an initial momentum mivi having the ability to initiate spiral motion via quantized circular orbitals, while abiding by momentum conservation principles. This approach led to the discovery at [Ref1] that the proton was constructed from 2 opposing angular momenta S=ħ/2Φ and L=ħΦ/2 resulting in precisely ±ħ/2 (Φ=golden ratio). It is now found that S is linked to the proton charge, magnetic moment, and 11% of the mass via a rotating charged hollow sphere of radius 0.875 fm. On the other hand, L is associated with 89% of the proton mass centered within 0.23 fm radius. The angular velocity related to L is found 3.5 times that of S. The proton charge-to-energy ratio calculation leads to a surprising equivalence Coulomb vs. Joule.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[526] viXra:1812.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 17:01:16

Voodoo Fusion Energy

Authors: Daniel L. Jassby
Comments: Pages: 8

During the last 15 years a host of fusion energy “startups” have declared that their systems will put net electrical power on the grid or serve as a portable electric power generator within a decade. But only 10% of these myriad ventures have given evidence of any fusion-neutron production whatever. This paper defines “voodoo fusion energy” as those plasma systems that have never produced any fusion neutrons, but whose promoters make the claim of near-term electric power generation. With representations analogous to those of the notorious Theranos blood-diagnosis sham, the voodoo-fusion practitioners have cast a spell over credulous journalists, investors and politicians.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[525] viXra:1812.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 08:01:15

Pear-Shaped Nuclear Fission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Nuclear fission is a process in which a heavy nucleus split into two. Most of the actinides nuclei (plutonium, uranium, curium, etc) fission asymmetrically with one big fragment and one small. [31] A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[524] viXra:1812.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:11:28

Microworld_53. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 13

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

THE THEORY OF NON-LINEAR OSCILLATIONS ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF WATER AND ABOUT THE NATURE OF “FLOATING WATER BRIDGE” The article offers information about the structure of water and the structure of “floating water bridge”. In natural conditions, water has multimolecular aggregates of branched hyper-skeletal structure, which composition and shape depend on temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[523] viXra:1812.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 07:05:05

Strongly-Correlated Proton-Neutron Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[522] viXra:1812.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:31:34

Weak Force Between Protons and Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[521] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 20:40:20

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[520] viXra:1812.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:04:59

Microworld_52. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 12

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

EmDrive, “Antigravity engine”, photon engine – outbreak of a new power engineering era in the contemporary earth civilization.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[220] viXra:1912.0461 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-27 22:36:21

The Enigmatic Positron Confounds Atomic Theory

Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Comments: 6 Pages. Minor corrections to Beta Decay included

Positrons satisfy the Dirac wave equations as equally well as do electrons, but remain enigmatic because they result from high energy particle/matter interactions and are not explained by current atomic theory. Specifically, the question remains as to whether they are dynamically created or pre-exist, and are thus released from matter by such interactions. The latter option implies that free positrons can exist within matter: at very least this would mean that positive holes, the functional equivalent of positrons, would no longer be required to explain electric current formation within semiconductors. However it would also mean that a major overhaul of the current conventional orbital atomic model would be required.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[219] viXra:1908.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-09 08:04:20

Scattering Revisited

Authors: Ernesto López González
Comments: 32 pages, in spanish

Background “Just waves” is a new hypothesis that postulates that matter and energy could be formed by space-time waves in a six dimensional space with anisotropic curvature. Since this waves can be modified by the scattering procces I study the influence of these modifications in the form factor. Results According with the scattering energy particle-waves are just slightly deformed ( reducing their radius ), converted from spheres to plane disks ( so we change from a 3D Fourier transform to a 2D Fourier transform) and compressed by a geometric series of factor 2. These mechanisms depend not only on the energy exchanged, but also on the energy of the incident particles, as well as on the speed of the particle to be studied. After successfully applying these ideas to proton, neutron, pion and muon form factor it is concluded that there is an optimal range of energies for each particle (increasing it indefinitely only leads to the erroneous conclusion that they have no internal structure). Transverse charge density is recommended as the best method for their study. Existence of quarks is denied and an explanation is given to the discrepancy between residual strong nuclear force measurements and maximum binding energies per nucleon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[218] viXra:1908.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-06 03:02:00

Can We Replicate Stellar Nucleosynthesis?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

It is argued that the genuine stellar nucleosynthesis cannot be replicated with the artificial conditions in stellarator-type fusion (Wendelstein 7-X in Germany) or tokamak fusion (ITER in France). We need quantum gravity to understand how quantum tunneling works in the presence of gravity, and model quantum tunneling in plasma under strong gravity. As of today, the task of generating energy by fusing atoms together is not scientifically feasible. Wendelstein 7-X and ITER will not work. They may only look "exciting", like Titanic.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[217] viXra:1908.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-03 09:06:58

Can We Replicate Stellar Nucleosynthesis?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. References added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

It is argued that the genuine stellar nucleosynthesis cannot be replicated with the artificial conditions in stellarator-type fusion (Wendelstein 7-X in Germany) or tokamak fusion (ITER in France). We need quantum gravity to understand how quantum tunneling works in the presence of gravity, and model quantum tunneling in plasma under strong gravity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[216] viXra:1906.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 20:11:00

Studies on the Formation and the Nuclear Structure of an Atom

Authors: Nakyoung Seong
Comments: 19 Pages.

A new approach on the formation and the nuclear structure of an atom and its components are developed throughout the following paper. We provided more intuitive interpretations of the physical phenomena that can be found in the nature of the atom, which can be quite controversial with the orthodox view and the interpretations in modern physics. Readers can expect the original viewpoints and explanations on the atomic nuclei and its foundations from the three-dimensional nuclear structure of the atom and interpretations of phenomena. Most of the ideas provided in this paper can be seen as unconventional since the portions of bases are fairly the opposite of the established notions. However, the three-dimensional nuclear structure of an atom presents more plausible and practical interpretations on the physical phenomena compared to the current the field of physics can provides. Potential future applications and the necessary scientific proofs to strengthen the theories are discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[215] viXra:1904.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 12:04:23

Analysis of the HRM Spectra in Plasma Glow Discharge

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 12 pages

The HRM effect (Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). In properly activated neutral plasma a discrete frequency spectrum in radiofrequency range is observed. The term heterodyne means that the process is activated in the kHz range, while the observed spectrum is in the MHz range. The spectrum is different from the vibrational rotational spectra of molecules. It has spatial and time duration limits and could be observed only in a small volume at fast sweep time. The spectrum characteristics depend on the type of gas and conditions of the transient process. Hydrogen and inert gases are the most suitable for the HRM effect. According to analysis, the HRM spectrum is a signature of synchronized spin-flips of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. HRM effect involves quantum mechanical interactions in which the electrons access the zeropoint energy of the physical vacuum. It is predicted that the HRM effect takes place in the transient process of lightning. The signature of HRM effect in the lightning is a subject of another article. Keywords: neutral plasma, glow discharge spectrum, Rydberg matter, electron spin flip, zeropoint energy
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[214] viXra:1903.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-13 08:59:33

Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism in a Transient Process in Plasma. Experimental Study and Spectra

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 11 Pages. neutral plasma, glow discharge spectrum, Rydberg matter

The Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism (HRM) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). The HRM effect takes place in a transient process of plasma. Neutral plasma in self-oscillation mode with optical signature of glow discharge emits EM radiation in a broad spectral range. The spectrum is comprised of discrete frequencies; however it is different from the atomic and molecular spectra. According to the BSM-SG models, the EM emission is caused by synchronised spin-flips of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. The ion-electron pairs are similar to some experimentally observed Rydberg matter, while possessing unknown so far features. The observed discrete spectra are in the radio-frequency MHz range. The analysis leads to the conclusion that HRM takes place in the lightning in the troposphere and in the ionosphere. This provides explanation for the strong EM radiation emitted from lightnings that causes disturbance in the sensitive electronic devices and radio communications. Further study on the HRM effect may lead to technological recommendations for protection of sensitive electronics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[213] viXra:1903.0493 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 04:19:25

Inertia and Critical Ionization Velocities

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 4 Pages.

Explanation for inertia and critical ionization velocities.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[212] viXra:1903.0493 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-11 07:14:21

Inertia and Critical Ionization Velocities

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Explanation for inertia and critical ionization velocities.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[211] viXra:1902.0284 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-20 10:25:59

Cold Plasma Electric Compression Fusion

Authors: chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

All experiments of fusion of hydrogen (except the LENR type) are done at high temperatures. The main models being the Tokamak magnetic confinement and the Inertial Confinement models. The new design proposed here is based on a novel idea not attempted before. It uses direct electric field compression of a cold deuterium plasma (which may even be near 0 K) to undergo nuclear fusion. At high temperatures, the only reaction possible is fusion to helium-3, a neutron and gamma-rays of a definite energy. A direct fusion of deuterium-deuterium to a lone helium-4 nucleus without the production of a neutron is possible provided the initial deuterium carries no kinetic energy; this means such a reaction may happen only near absolute zero temperatures. So far, this reaction at cold temperature has not been contemplated by the nuclear fusion community. This fusion design is simple and most research laboratories would have the resources and technology to experiment with this new design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[210] viXra:1901.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 14:41:17

Physical Model for Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Jozsef Garai
Comments: 28 Pages.

Atomic scale description of the electrochemically induced cold fusion is presented. The model consistent with the conditions required for successive experiments and offers physical explanation for the occurrence of nuclear fusion at low energies. Based on this atomic scale description, the vibrational frequency of the D2 molecules in vacancy is calculated. The fundamental frequency of the vibrating Deuterium molecule in a cavity is 21.65 THz, which is almost identical with the observed “sweet spot” in the two laser experiments at 20.8 THz, indicating that this previously unidentified peak represents the self frequency of the Deuterium molecule in vacancy. The fundamental frequencies in vacancies for HD and H2 molecules are also calculated. It is predicted that these frequencies in HD or H2 systems should also activate the reaction and that these fundamental frequencies in cavities should remain unchanged regardless of the hosting lattice.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[209] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-13 21:08:35

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 26 Pages. on Russian

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics