Nuclear and Atomic Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[457] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 06:44:01

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[456] viXra:1802.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43

Electron. New Information on the Material World Structure - New Issues

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[455] viXra:1802.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59

Energy to Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity. The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts. E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter. It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[454] viXra:1802.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 13:59:40

Electrons Excite Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The NEEC effect occurs when a charged atom captures an electron, giving the atom's nucleus enough energy to jump to a higher excited state. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[453] viXra:1802.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 11:37:30

Why there Are no Black Holes. Deadlock Hypotheses of Modern Physics.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 9 Pages. 2005

The error of mathematical fantasies in the region of large densities inside stars is shown. The impossibility of infinite density growth is shown. An alternative description of the processes in the masses of massive stars is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[452] viXra:1801.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 10:03:25

Golden Section in Physics: an Interesting Number

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 11 Pages. in Hungarian

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical con-stants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the proton/electron mass-ratio, the cosmological constant of Einstein’s general relativity, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: physical constants, exponential relations between physical constants, Bode-Titius rule, mass formula of neutral-atoms, mass formula of leptons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[451] viXra:1801.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:21:43

Bose Condensation of Atomic Electrons. Experimental Regularities Discussion

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

The experimental data analysis overturns «modern scientific representation» of the atomic structure. In articles [1-3] is shown, that atomic electrons do not form stochastic orbitals «spread» in space, but «are condensed» in ring or spherical electron shells, and do not behave as independent particles, but demonstrate collective properties. Besides in atom the nonlinear nature of a microcosm becomes evident: the main quantum number of electron states, alongside with integer numbers, gets also fractional values - due to interactions on harmonic components. The weighty confirmation of microcosm nonlinearity was obtained at the analysis of a quantum Hall effect [4]. These discoveries have key value not only for physics development, but also for all natural sciences using in varying degree knowledge about substance structure. Therefore discussion of the experimental regularities showing an inconsistency of the atom theory, which almost century dominated in physics, is extremely important for acceleration of transition to new representations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[450] viXra:1801.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:30:53

Quantum Hall Effect and Superconductivity

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

Quantum Hall Effect and, in particular, fractional quantum Hall Effect have forced theorists to rack their brains over an explanation of these phenomena. However for past decades since the effect was opened theory has remained in an unsatisfactory state. Existing explanation of a quantum Hall Effect looks less convincing in connection with the fact that it is simultaneously accompanied by even more «strange and inexplicable» phenomenon - superconductivity. However, the study of these key problems of physics is important not only from the point of view of adequate theory formation, but also as a way to deepen our knowledge about fundamental bases of substance structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[449] viXra:1801.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 05:38:28

Microworld 39. EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” – Outbreak of a New Power Engineering Era in the Contemporary Earth Civilization

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The invention of flow-through magnetic ethereal jet engines EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” opens the potential of ether in a new power engineering development.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[448] viXra:1801.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 10:34:04

Color of Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[447] viXra:1801.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 01:11:59

On the Possibility of Self-Cleaning Plasma in Centrifugal Z-Pinch

Authors: Sergey Sevtsov
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article shows the possibility of self-cleaning of plasma in the variety of Z-pinch - centrifugal Z-pinch. This circumstance leads to a decrease in the heat loss due to bremsstrahlung from the plasma. As a result, there are prerequisites for increasing efficiency of plasma cumulating in a new device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[446] viXra:1801.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 13:39:04

A Novel Belt Model of the Atom, Compatible with Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Alexander Yurkin, James Peters, Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we provide a novel atomic, paraxial model in which a single belt of electrons surrounds the nucleus. The electronic belt is depicted in terms of broken lines and split wavy trajectories that intersect an axis, giving rise to small angles that can be accurately calculated. We demonstrate that the probabilistic electronic cloud of the atom described by quantum mechanics can be depicted in terms of an electronic belt, because its sizes closely match the descriptions given by de Broglie and Heisenberg. In touch with the claims of the two latter Authors, the wavy trajectories around the nucleus come back to a starting point, so that their orbits are stationary.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[445] viXra:1712.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-26 06:25:05

"Matter Structure"

Authors: Viktor S.Dolgikh
Comments: Pages.

This article is the continuation of the author's previous work <>, published earlier <> - 1701.0488[PDF]. In this work the structure of hydrogen, oxygen atoms and the water molecule is considered. It shows the general principle of the matter elements structure with the main types of its state : "gaseous" ; "liquid" ; "solid". To clarify the text I am sending the original.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[444] viXra:1712.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 02:59:25

„DIGITAL Neutrino Resonance (DNR) Like the Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics Analytical INSTRUMENT”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 4 Pages.

Already traditional researches like computer tomography (CT), positron–emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are nowdays older (archaical) and dramatically growth significance, from discovery (RND) of detection of resonance neutrinos digitally, conclusion of inovatives researches in chronoscopy and nuclear physics. Discovery of detection of neutrinos neuropatic’s (VAINR), small sub–atomic particles, which are systematically ignorating whatever laws of traditional physics by revolution in last knowledge about this theme, in order to be possible incorporated in one from the oldest wishes of man “have to time in both direction”, although only during searching of pathology of central neural system (CNS) involving the human brain functions imaging and Medulla spinalis from it entranced nervus spinalis and reflexes aferential and eferential. This Spinal Medicine helps human with brain or spinal injuries to give back to “normal life” by using of “cluster medicine”, our excellence of the Czech Republic in this medical branch is work of Prof. MUDr. Eva Syková, DrSc. This article is focused on goal spreading of the newest evolution this extraordinary technics and science supposed a creation of new medically discipline neuroradiology, respectively neutrinoradiology: expect diagnostics, therapeutic and pediatric neuroradiology also chronobiology. Wide field of application of RND will be have in Forensic Psychiatry – is a sub–speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[443] viXra:1712.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 15:10:42

MC Physics: Our Charged Universe- Matter Formation

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: Pages.

MC Physics finds that we live in a CHARGED UNIVERSE. Our Universe is charged because all matter is made of quantized charges, called “mono-charges”, and all forces result from interactions between those charges. It is not an ‘electric’ Universe as that is too narrow a charge strength definition to describe all known matter, their properties and behavior, and all forces. We now live in a (mostly) charge neutral Universe because those mono-charges were progressively ‘driven’ by attraction charge forces over time and a cooling Universe to become overall charge neutral. This paper describes HOW and WHY those mono-charges, charge forces and joining processes formed the matter we see around us today. MC Physics proposes that a set of earliest Universe Quantization and Kinetic Energy events (collectively called “Big Bang”?) first split basic neutral CHARGE into two equal charge types (positive and negative, by convention), then it caused an uneven (or statistically skewed) charge strength distribution of those two charge types, which formed all mono-charges. Those events then caused all mono-charges to be forcibly repelled at high velocity, causing a very high kinetic energy initial Universe. Those highly kinetic quantized mono-charges, each now with a singular charge strength of either charge type, caused all force interactions, applied forces and subsequent physical reactions in the Universe, as all forces are charge force derived between mono-charges. Those mono-charges used those charge forces to ultimately form all matter in the Universe using the processes described in this paper. The strongest evidence of mono-charge existence comes from MC Physics’ real physical model of the simplest physical entity in the Universe, a real elemental photon particle. No other real physical model is known to exist to explain all the properties of light/ radiation photons. Additional evidence of mono-charges comes from the continuity and repeatability of the ‘flipping/ rotating’ step to form alternating mono-charge type structures theorized for: mono-charges directly joining other mono-charges to form elemental particles; elemental quark particles directly joining other quarks to form composite protons; protons directly joining other protons to form nuclei; nuclei directly joining electron charges to form neutral atoms, and atoms directly joining other atoms to form molecules, etc. This paper describes MC Physics’ theory of matter formation using those mono-charges, charge forces and processes divided into chapters covering: 1. Mono-Charge Basics 2. Charge Force Laws and Rules 3. Properties of Existing Matter 4. F-SCoTt Process of Matter Formation 5. Initial Quantization & Kinetic Energy Events(s) 6. Universe Time Line of Matter Formation 7. New Standard Model of Matter
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[442] viXra:1712.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:27:41

Quest for an Elusive Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[441] viXra:1712.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:12:11

12 Excited Electrons. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy: Lan Lineality with Energy of Excited States.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 14 Pages.

This is 12th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Excited state energy is attracted towards Torrebotana Central Line [1] and this attraction is accentuated as n and l are increased. LAN allows Serelles Secondary Lines creation depending on non-excited and excited states. LAN vs. n curve shows soft plain that leads to straight line equation in excited state energy function. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy is this line equation and now, Li detailed study of 1s22s→1s2ns is extended to this jump in other atoms and other jump types. Initially, P50 Initial LAN value in jump from ns to ns is utilized with "Xorrador Approximation" that enables correct first estimate of excited state energies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[440] viXra:1712.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:24:50

16 Excited Electron. Spa III: Mc Flui Transform in Silpovgar III and IV

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 19 Pages.

This is 16th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns (Term=3S and J=1) and nss→ns is treated in [5] and [6] respectively. [6] is first and this is second of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Its second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that leads to confluence of Silpovgar IV.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[439] viXra:1712.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:28:13

10 Excited Electrons by Torrebotana Central Line: Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 10th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electron excited states are born referenced to central line denominated Torrebotana with origin always in the first Origin Electronic System (OES) of all atom: 1s [6,9]. This central line that defines energies and charges (z) for central excited states is given by Tete-Vic equation. Excited states are directed towards Torrebotana Central Line approaching when n and l of destination excited state increase. Fist, Torrebotana Central Line application is centred in Beryllium case for which excited state energy is approaching Torrebotana as indicated above. Subsequently, other atoms are studied to corroborate what is seen in Be case and to discover trends in terms of Atomic Number (Z) that serve to open new research lines
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[438] viXra:1712.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:32:27

Excited Electrons: Lan Plains for Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 11th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Torrebotana Central Energetic Line (EJ) [1] supplies energetic values for electron excited states very close to reference [2]. Excited states are grouped into curves that are destiny function, and consequently orbital quantum number plays major role, and attraction towards Torrebotana Central Energetic Line is greater when orbital quantum number increases (s<p<d) [1]. LAN factor is included in Tete-Vic Equation to give circulation to different routes divided by destination reason. Analogy is as follows: 1s Original electronic system (1s OES) creates main ideal line (Torrebotana Central Energetic Line) considering Born electronic system (BES) and simultaneously draws Serelles Secondary Lines in which energy of excited states runs according to destiny (within destiny has special importance orbital quantum number as indicated before, as well as J or Term). LAN plain is jump to Serelles Secondary Line with jumps in which LAN is practically constant throughout Serelles Secondary Line since LAN has small variation with energy. 1s22s as non-excited or initial state and 1s2ns as excited or final state are selected to show such LAN behaviour.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[437] viXra:1712.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:39:55

13 Relation of Fly Piep de Garberí: LAN-1 and Ionization Energy.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 13th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electon excited states arise around Torrebotana Central Line [1] by Tete-Vic equation which is attached in P47. Serelles Secondary Lines are originated from Torrebotana Central Line by LAN inclusion. Attraction towards Torrebotana Central Line is accentuated as n and l are increased [1,3]. Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí states linear behaviour between inverse of factor seen in Serelles Secondary Line, i.e. LAN, and zs (Start charge according to P46 non-excited electronic extreme charge). This relation is Z function (atomicity relation) and is connected to P44 Necessary NIN relationships [5] because includes LAN: charge and energy of BES and 1s OES. Ionization energy (IE) of higher atomic number is estimated from Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí and estimate deviation is grouped according to electron configuration.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[436] viXra:1712.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:43:07

14 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda: Lan Interatomicity with Energetic Relation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 14th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda differs from previous relations of Riquelme de Gozy and Flui Piep de Garberí. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Following case is treated in introductory way of this Relation: jump from 1s2 to 1sns (isoelectronics with He).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[435] viXra:1712.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:46:54

15 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda II: Jump from ns to Ns.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns with Term=3S and J=1 (isoelectronics with He) is treated in [5] and is now pursued with different jump and with higher non-excited or start n: nss→ns (with ns(start n)>1) Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Silpovgar relation is theory that searchs jump globalization [5] and is applied to nss→ns with enlargement dedicated to different isoelectronic series that present same jump.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[434] viXra:1712.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:54:40

17 Excited Electron: Spa IV: Silpovgar IV with Piepflui. Excess Relativistic: Influence in Lan and Spa

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 27 Pages.

This is 17th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is studied in [5,7] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. [6] and [7] are first and second and this is third and last of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that lead to confluence of Silpovgar IV. Third part closes with 5) Other electronic jumps and emphasizes in Silpovgar IV: on the one hand at X→np jump location and on the other with Piepflui or Constant spacing. Finally, 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) brings two main points: Primitive energetic correlation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA PEC) and First application of Relativistic effects.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[433] viXra:1712.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:57:44

18 Excited Electron: Feliz Theory of eo Vision Relativistic II: Influence in Riquelme de Gozy

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 18th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First application of Relativistic effects is made with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) where initial relativity postulates (from P61 to P64) are established [8]. This second part seeks to corroborate excess relativistic role in ideality deviation of Riquelme de Gozy whereas Relativistic effect has been seen with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in [8].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[432] viXra:1712.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:00:23

19 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire I: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 19th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. This article works preferably wit RG relation. First part is dedicated to linearity between LANn→∞ and LAN(P050) in RG representation, as well as asymptotic tendency to its corresponding limits as ns is increased. Second part serves as introduction to Pepliz LAN empire as region of first quadrant in LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P50) representation that is subdivided into zones. Electron jumps are located in one or other zones depending on jump type. External and internal limits of Pepliz LAN empire are postulated.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[431] viXra:1712.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:04:30

20 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire II: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 30 Pages.

This is 20th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. Pepliz LAN empire is LANn→∞ or LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P050) in RG relation as has been introduced in first part of Pepliz LAN empire [10]. This article has following main axes: 1) Deepen nsp^x→nsp^(x-1)ns that occupies empire zone between P69 and P72 limits 2) LAN amplitude: concept, behaviour and implications 3) Ionization energy obtained by Gozy method (IE Gozy method) 4) Annex or expansion with other empire zones and representation based on P69
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[430] viXra:1712.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:07:33

21 Electron Probability: Pub Cpep I (Probability Union Between Cpep) Necessary Nin Relationships

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 21st article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).In [9], P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge. This article is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75) From P76 to P78 is the section dedicated to CPEP of different BES that, considered correlatively, form groups and linear trends.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[429] viXra:1712.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:17:31

22 Electron Probability: PUB CPEP II in "Flui BAR" (Flui (BES A (Global Advance) Region)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 22nd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as a line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge [09]. [10] is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75). Second part in PUB CPEP presents two main lines related to NIN: * P79 establishes simple arithmetic equations between CPEP and elements related (CPEP-i, A and Ai) * P80 (A)→0 stays in Flui BAR where electron configurations reach Global Advance equal to 0 at specific Z intervals
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[428] viXra:1712.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:20:30

23 Orbital Capacity by Advancement of Numbers Electron Probability: Pub Cpep III: "Flui BAR" II and Cpep-I

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 23rd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).First part is centred on orbital capacity where advancement of numbers must be accomplished; simple trend that also allows predicting electrons can fit into future orbitals. Advancement of numbers is with orbitals present in each period and also in consecutive order [11] where all lower n orbitals are filled before proceeding with upper n. Base structure of electron with two electronic extremes governed by Victoria equation is right-angle triangle whose three sides are: Hi, ci and ri [1,2]. This geometric figure also appears in advancement of numbers because orbital capacity is conditioned by triangular number that can be recomposed in equilateral triangle an in turn in two equal right triangles. Already in field dedicated to NIN concept into electronic extremes [1,9], following parts conclude PUB CPEP introduction [10] and [11] with Flui BAR extension to find connection between different principal quantum numbers and first contact with CPEP-i and its corresponding Individual Advance (Ai).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[427] viXra:1712.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:23:19

24 Electron Probability: 1s Electron Birth: the Last Diligence to Poti Rock & Snow Hill Victoria

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is last article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).CPOTI-AL-d→∞ evolution with Z is carried out in this article where CPOTIAL-d→∞ is CPOTI anular limit when d→∞ and Z is atomic number. ain axis is CPOTI-ALd→∞ for 1s electron and relativistic relation existence that can justify its behaviour. Two final acts present so-called matter surprise and relation of remaining OES with initial OES for all: 1s OES. OES (origin electronic system) are all ns electrons and origin of all is 1s [1,12]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[426] viXra:1712.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 19:25:11

Proton/electron Mass Ratio and Gravitational Constant Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

Since relativistic length contraction occurs only in the direction of motion and not in the transverse direction, rotation results in an effect known as Thomas precession. Thomas precession acts as a counter rotation. Because precession increases non-linearly according to the Lorentz factor, rotation minus precession has a maximum value. The maximum value of rotation velocity minus precession velocity is termed the maximum difference velocity and is designated vm. We showed in previous work that this is the physical basis of charge structure, electromagnetic effects, and the fine structure constant. In this report the proton/electron mass ratio is formulated in terms of vm, the speed of light, and the electron mass. The proton mass calculated using the formula is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. The gravitational constant is formulated similarly, and the calculated result is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. These results build on the framework established in our previous reports.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[425] viXra:1712.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 23:58:43

Victoria Equation the Dark Side of the Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 21 Pages. This is first article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at document end).

Following postulates focus application on atomic electrons which, by balancing and swinging of electronic extremes around pivot or initial position, achieve electron cloud with specific positions and momentums and always maintaining initial energy with electronic extremes energy sum (equi-energetic state or ES). First Victoria Equation applications serve to make an initial approximation to atomic radius, to show 2 electronics extremes radial distribution from which velocities and momentums are derived, as well as to know nuclear radius distance and energy of both electronic extremes as function of parameter called birth wavelength division.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[424] viXra:1712.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 00:34:35

A02 Electronic Extremes: Orbital and Spin (Introduction)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 12 Pages.

Electron that is born in a pivot position and swings from this position with two electronic extremes (EE) is introduced in article dedicated to Victoria Equation [1]. These two electronic extremes always provide equi-energetic sum and their energetic distribution is radius (ri) or division (d) function. In this article, electron begins to show in three dimensions. First, by expanding its radial dimension to two dimensions with a circular orbit movement. Second, reaching three dimensions by raising and lowering these circular orbits with division variations (Swinging movement). In the previous sentence two electron movements have been included: orbital movement with circular movement in specific division and spin movement when moving between orbits changing division with swinging movement like a screw.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[423] viXra:1712.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:15:44

03 Relations Between Electronic Extremes: Rotation Time as Probability and Feliz I.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

To the absence of repulsion inter electronic by charge saturation (P04) [1], relation between electrons is added in this article. This relationship conditions ionization energies (birth energies or Eo). After several ideas, relation developed is based on coupling between electrons probability. Electron Probability is introduced based on electron orbital turn time. Firstly, electron probability is defined according to division and radial distance. Variable Compaction Factor or First Feliz Solution is included to correct rising probability with the distance. Finally, electron Probability with Variable Compaction Factor is compared to current orbital representation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[422] viXra:1712.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:50:08

04 Feliz II the Prudent: Probability Radial Closure with High Order Variable CF

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic extreme Probability (Pi) as orbital turn time [3] is obtained with its orbital circumference (ci) [2] divided by its velocity (vi) [1]. Regardless of PEP, whether 1 for 1s Hydrogen or 2 for rest, is verified that First Feliz Solution and its variable CF with first-order approximation changes monotonous PA increase when rA increases [3]. Probability radial closure objective is achieved by using Second Feliz Solution with high order variable CF (Theoretically to order infinite). Second Feliz Solution factors importance is studied and its relationship with d, division in which electronic extreme is found, is checked. As consequence, variable CF behaviour differs to division near 1, intermediate and high. This is 4th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[421] viXra:1712.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 02:20:04

05 Feliz III the King Major: Orbital Filled Keeping Probability Electronic Distribution.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 19 Pages.

Electronic Extreme Probability (Pi), defined in [3] as quotient between orbital circumference (ci) [2] and velocity (vi) [1], includes CF from being constant to variable. Initially, variable CF is 1-order [3] to become in high-order (theoretically up to order infinite) achieving probability radial closure [4]. If probability radial closure is achieved by Second Feliz Solution [4], now arrival at orbital geometric limit and orbital volume filling are acquired with CPOTI coefficient of Third Feliz Solution. These actions are performed by radial probability distribution curve that is kept constant. Finally, a method by trial and error is included to find orbital geometric limit. This is 5th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[420] viXra:1712.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:07:22

06 Feliz IV Planet Coupling: Probability Curves Nin Coupling from Origin Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 6th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Fourth Feliz Solution is exposed to justify electron lobes magnitudes (z, MON or CPOTI) that can be in n principal quantum number by means of NIN (negative in negative) concept extension. First electron that exists in a new n principal quantum number has origin role with respect to other electrons that are later incorporated (P34) in this NIN concept extension. This origin electron is defined by electronic system that gives rise to other electronic systems of this same n number (P35 and P36). Origin electron MON values are included in P37 and P38 with first relations between them and equation that allows to obtain MON for No Origin electrons is defined in P39. Probability coefficient that relates two electrons is released (P42) and, together with MON (P39), z (P41) and CPOTI (P43) couplings, serve to Probability curves coupling.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[419] viXra:1712.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:40:40

07 Nin Coupling Values in N=2 and Oxygen Electronic Density.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 7th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P34 NIN III: ns electron as origin of lobes in same n by curves coupling [6] is used to obtain z, CPOTI-AL and CPEP in n=2. These values are used in later studies and are applied here to estimate maximum Oxygen electron density with simple method. Estimate must corroborate Fluorine example that is in agreement with references [6]. By this method, Probability (Pi) calculations are directed to delimited ri (Electronic extremes-nucleus radial distance) differentials rather than divisions (d). Thanks to this change, Pi curves of different electrons can be added or calculation centred on concrete ri can be made.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[418] viXra:1712.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 04:24:01

08 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N=2.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 13 Pages.

This is 8th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). A and B Electronic Extremes Probability (Pi) curves with Geometric NIN Coupling (GNC) and Probabilistic NIN Coupling (PNC) are studied in n=2 quantum number. CPEP , CPOTI and z data [7] are used. Hi vs. ci is represented in GNC and Pi vs. ri in PNC. Maximum Pi is calculated with ri variation of 0,1 pm and compared with references. Finally, by way of example, Nitrogen outermost electron is represented both when reaches CPOTI angular limit (CPOTI-AL) and for lobe always growing (LAG) [5].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[417] viXra:1712.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 05:14:50

09 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N>2 and Necessary Nin Relationships.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 9th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First part continues electron density study [6,8] with atoms in Groups I, II and from XIII to XVIII (s and p blocks) whose n principal quantum number is higher than 2. Fundamental difference lies in Origin Electronic System MON (OES MON), which decreases as n increases (P37 [6]). Another factor that affects to lesser extent is Ionization Energy (IE) decrease when n increases. As in articles past, IE is given by [9] as Initial Energy (Eo) [1] and Maximum Probability radius to compare with contributed by NIN coupling is given by [10] and [11]. In the second part CPOTI-AL division and value are indicated and P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced as one line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[416] viXra:1712.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 03:09:57

The Shape of Water and the Tethered Proton

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

Tethered by a proton? How could that happen?
A mainstream proton is just a non-existent point.
The only way a proton could tether something is if it made from threads. And they do NOT know it yet but -- that is exactly what a proton is -- threads.
A free proton looks like this...

Neutron: ●~~~
Proton: ~~~●~~~
Electron: ~~~∗~~~
Hydrogen: ~~~∗~~~●~~~

Two hydrogen atoms can plug their electrons into the vacant corners of an oxygen cubic atom. That creates an H2O water molecule and leaves the hydrogen protons dangling on the outside of the thread mesh-type cage. That is why they claim the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. The hydrogen electrons gets fixed into the octet cube and leave the proton on the outside. That is also how it can tether another atom / molecule.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[415] viXra:1712.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 06:09:14

Microworld_ 38. EmDrive and Other Magnetic Ethereal Flow-Through Jet Engines

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 18 Pages. English and russian texts

In the early two thousands, EmDrive (R.Shawyer) and Antigravity Engine (V. Leonov) were invented which operation principles were known neither to the inventors nor to the contemporary science. Studies based on the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations found that those devices were flow-through engines wherein jets are made of ether and the magnetic field acts as a compressor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[414] viXra:1711.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-23 12:30:02

An Estimate of the Mass of Neutrinos from Nuclear Mass Defects

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 13 pages. Text: pp 1-7; pages 8-13 (please ignore the handwritten numbers): Table 1, legends for Figs. and 3 Figures; Paper presented at 216th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, Aug. 1998, short abstract no. 9.

During the synthesis of a deuteron nucleus from a neutron and a proton, an electron, positron pair and an antineutrino, neutrino pair are released. The electrostatic energy (order of MeV) of the former pair is released as gamma radiation and is equivalent to the mass defect. Based on the largest mass defect per nucleon (MDPN) as the criterion of nuclear stability, it. is estimated that, in general, for a nuclide X(Z,N) with a fractional mass defect f , the MDPN(nu) due to neutrinos/antineutrinos alone is equal to fk(n) (Z/(z+N)), where the proportionality constant k(n) = 0.7 micro atomic mass unit. Since f is of the order of 0.01, MDPN(nu) is in nano-atomic mass units, which is the right order of the mass of neutrinos. (This paper is reprinted with permission from Desktop publication (1998) by Arjun consultancy & publishing Inc.,Wayne N.J.(USA)) 
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[413] viXra:1711.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-16 18:36:24

The Charge Radius of Muonic-Deuterium

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 1 Page.

In the theory "The Proton Charge of Muonic-Hydrogen" (Vixra: 1711.0229, Author: Piscedda Giampaolo) it is proved that the mass of a particle in the space cause the rotation of a volume portion, along X4 axis, then the existence of ether is deduced, and the theory concludes explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. In theory (1711.0229) we get the formula for the decrease of the charge radius of the muonic-hydrogen. From this formula we get now the charge radius of muonic-deuterium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[412] viXra:1711.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-06 05:04:42

Quarks -- A Basic Fundamental Substance?

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 4 Pages.

QUARKS -- A BASIC FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE?

Something like a quark would be impossible. If there are 3 quarks in a proton and the quark is performing specific tasks -- that means the quark is NOT a fundamental basic thing.
And if a quark is not a basic thing that means it is also made from a group of smaller things -- that process would NOT be able to end. And it would keep getting more and more complex with more and more particles...

● 1 Proton
● 3 Quarks
● 9 Elfs
● 27 Dusters

More and more complex? Yes, the Elfs would have to do everything they do to keep themselves together plus everything the quarks are supposedly doing.
The quarks model turns into a nightmare immediately.
The only answer must be Quantum Thread Theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[411] viXra:1710.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-31 19:58:05

My Protons and Neutrons. Neutron Star.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google.

Continuing his discovery of positrino and electrino, postulating, as absolute symmetry, the tetrahedroncubic base of the world - [ASTC] - the representation of a proton and a neutron, a neutron star. The essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the human outlook on nature for humanity in the light of ASTC is exemplified in the abstract: the example of a proton and neutron device, a neutron star. An analogy is suggested, as a lyrical digression, by association with a vine with bunches of grapes, using the example of a quark device. Lyrical digressions in the illustration of the device of a neutron and a proton, quarks lead us to the ensembles of spaces of a certain number of electrino (E-1 \ 3) and spaces of a certain number of positrino (E + 1 \ 3) in their internal arrangement.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[410] viXra:1710.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 11:39:01

Simple Relation Between Proton Radius, Bohr Radius and Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Revised and abridged E-Letter (online: 10 October 2017) in http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6359/79/tab-e-letters

The radius of the proton has aroused a lot interest in recent years, since the reported values vary from 0.8751 fm to 0.8335 fm, where fm = 10-15m. Here the author shows that the former CODATA value obtained for hydrogen can be related to the ground state Bohr radius for hydrogen and the fine structure constant by a simple equation. The latter lower value obtained using muons could be due to the differences in the reduced masses of hydrogen and muon
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[409] viXra:1710.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 04:56:35

A Comment About Determining the Mass Ratio of Proton and Electron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

the reason for writing this review was a strange situation with data published in CODATA 2014 the result of determining the ratio of masses of proton and electron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[408] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 08:36:10

My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 3 Pages. In Russian

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[407] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:13:31

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body of Jesus at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts, and the purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science. We will also be able to explain much in this world that is mysterious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[406] viXra:1709.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:41:43

Microworld 37. Quantum Reveries of “METALLIC” Hydrogen

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The Internet reports Harvard University physicists for the first time ever have derived “metallic” hydrogen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[405] viXra:1709.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 03:06:55

The Lifetime of the Neutron: Experimental Aspect

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 2 Pages. Reference: Valery B. Smolensky “About the life time of a neutron” (http://ufn.ru/ru/tribune/)

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods, the assumption is made that the neutron has two different time of life and, as a consequence, the possibility of the existence in nature of related stable two-particle States: long-lived neutron-antineutron short-lived and long-lived antineutron-short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[404] viXra:1709.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 04:50:39

Theoretical Determination of the Weinberg Angle and the Mass Ratio of the W and Z Bosons

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide the international scientific community information on the possibility of theoretical determination of the Weinberg angle and the mass ratio of the W and Z bosons with a precision equal to the error to determine the relationship of experimental values of the masses of the neutron and proton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[403] viXra:1708.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 23:30:10

A New Physical Model for Calculation of Atomic Mass

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the generally accepted physical model, the synthesis of the heavy elements may happen at a very high temperature in supernova explosions. In consequence of nuclear fu-sion, the supernova stars emit a very strong electromagnetic (EM) radiation, predominantly in the form of X-rays and gamma rays. The intensive EM radiation drastically decreases the masses of the exploding stars, directly causing mass defects of the nuclei. The general description of black body EM radiation is based on the famous Planck’s radiation theory, which supposes the existence of independent quantum oscillators inside the black body. In this paper, it is supposed that in exploding supernova stars, the EM radiating oscillators can be identified with the nascent heavy elements losing their specific yields of their own rest masses in the radiation process. The final binding energy of the nuclei is additionally determined by strong neutrino radiation. Extending Planck’s radiation law for discrete radiation energies, a very simple formula is obtained for the theoretical description of the measured neutral atomic masses. Keywords: atomic mass calculation, Planck’s radiation law, the origin of the elements, binding energy of the nuclei, new theoretical model of the nuclear synthesis.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[402] viXra:1708.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 18:42:09

Electrostatic Force and Charge Structure

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 10 Pages.

In our previous report, Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity, we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity by showing 11 significant digits of correspondence between the maximum value of rotation minus precession and the fine structure constant. We now provide the theoretical basis for the correspondence and its relationship to the previously derived electron and proton structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[401] viXra:1707.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 17:33:53

My Electron and Positron ... Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles ...

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 1Pages.InRussian. http://forum.if4.ru/index.php?topic=320.0

My electron and positron ... Annihilation, particles and antiparticles ... So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature ... There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[400] viXra:1707.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 08:28:28

Nextgen Tokomak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 5 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

Our conceptual tokamak superstructure can self-gravitate and levitate due to its rotating superimposed tori and quantum propulsion per my new quantum fusion theory and model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[399] viXra:1707.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 03:32:41

Self-Gravitating Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

Our conceptual tokamak superstructure could self-gravitate and levitate due to its rotating superimposed tori and quantum propulsion per my new quantum fusion theory and model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[398] viXra:1707.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:50:24

Self-Gravitating Flying Tokomak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen aerospace

This is a nuclear fusion device and supercraft for air- and space travel
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[397] viXra:1707.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:58:55

Quantum Fusion

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 18 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

This article provides new insights in the interaction of light and matter and describes physical processes and technologies that enable the creation of quantum fusion in materialization of the Quantum Fusion (QF) Hypothesis which is applicable in the fields of molecular, quantum and computational mechanics,, material science, quantum physics and astrophysics, and electronics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[396] viXra:1707.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 07:14:06

Self-Gravitating Flying Tokamak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen aerospace

This is a levitating and flying quantum fusion system, acting as a supercraft for air and space travel.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[395] viXra:1707.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 05:55:50

Lightest Supersymmetric Particle is a Self-Conjugated Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 10 Pages.

Analyzing the neutron decay, or beta-decay (Bd), our calculations and evaluations show that the 3rd particle emitted with the Bd (required by Pauli and Fermi to compensate for a noticeable energy gap) can be identified in an electron free of electric charge, that is a neutral electron: e° (instead of a neutrino). In the various Supersymmetric Models, there is the existence of a particle with a limited mass, which can never collapse in a lighter particle: the so-called Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP). To date, this LSP has never been detected in any experiment. Examining the potential properties attributed to that particle in the various Supersymmetric Models, it seems to see a close analogy with features likely to be related to e°. Indeed, from a more in-depth examination, it appears that the properties of the two considered particles are completely superimposable, as if the two particles could be interchangeable, that is, identifiable in one another. It seems interesting to note that in our model we give particular attention to the fundamental property attributable both to the LSP and to the e°, i.e. the symmetry (represented by C, or charge conjugation), detectable by: ē°=C(e°)=e°
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[394] viXra:1707.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 19:44:28

The Electrostatic Force

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

In our previous paper, 'Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity', we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity. We also proved that particle structure is due to special relativity and derived the structure of electron and proton. In addition, we developed a framework for interaction between charged particles and photons. In this paper we extend that work with additional insights into the electrostatic force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[393] viXra:1707.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 05:52:44

Majorana Particle is a Neutral Self-Conjugated Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 12 Pages.

With the neutron decay, a proton and an electron (e-) are emitted. The energy gap, which should be offset by the emission of a 3rd particle, is randomly included between 0.511 and 0.7828 MeV. These values correspond to those of a more or less accelerated electron, but not those of a neutrino, which mass is considered to be ≤ 0.01 electronic masses. Pauli and Fermi hypothesized that this 3rd particle should be free of electric charge and provided with the same mass and spin of an electron. Such requests may be fully met by an electron, but without electric charge: a neutral electron (e°), equally safeguarding all Conservation Laws. If we analyze the properties of this possible particle, they seem to coincide with those attributed to the Majorana Spynor or Fermion: that is, a massive particle, free of electric charge, self-conjugated, i.e. it identifies with its antiparticle (with the exception of the spin: antiparallel): ↓e° ≡ ē°↑
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[392] viXra:1707.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 06:23:42

A Cellular Automaton Molecular Model based on Wave Equation: An Alternative to Cellular Automata QM

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages. this paper has been submitted to MDPI - Mathematics

In a recent paper, it has been argued that QM can arise from classical cellular automata. This is a fresh approach started by some authors including Prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft. Nonetheless, in a previous paper, we have reviewed some inadequacies of Schrödinger equation, hence the entire wave mechanics. According to Shpenkov, the classical wave equation is able to derive a periodic table of elements -which is close to Mendeleyev’s periodic table-, and also other phenomena related to the structure of molecules. It is suggested that Shpenkov’s interpretation of classical wave equation can complement Schrödinger equation. Therefore in this paper we will discuss how we can arrive to a cellular automaton molecular model starting from classical wave equation, as an alternative to cellular automata based QM.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[391] viXra:1706.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:57:24

Mass in Motion According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Polarized propeller shaped Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field. Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance. Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity” The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom Barium nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory. John S. Bell was Right: “How to Teach Special Relativity” and atomic pear shaped contraction
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[390] viXra:1706.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:05:20

Molecular Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[389] viXra:1706.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 02:57:15

Neutral Electron Instead of Neutrino: a New Beta-Decay Model

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 29 Pages.

With the disintegration of the neutron, or -decay (d), a proton, a  ray and a third particle, the neutrino (), are emitted. Their mass and high kinetic energy compensate for the amount of energy and mass which the  ray is not able to fully take away, "when at least" according to Fermi, "we do not want to admit with Pauli the existence of a hypothetical particle, electrically neutral and having mass of the order of magnitude of the electronic mass." The requirements asked by Pauli and Fermi for the , or third particle of the d, are: it must be electrically neutral and have the same mass and spin of the electron. Why not to think of a neutral electron (e°)? All requests would be satisfied, the energy balance would be restored and all Conservation Laws would be safeguarded, without having to invent a new family of particles. Every time it was considered that the  had been detected, they were always indirect detection thanks to traces left by a ghost particle never detected de visu, never directly identified. It is the detection of the impacts’ effects, such as the Cherenkov Effect (CE), to prove the existence of , although it might be another particle to induce the CE. In Nature the CE is only elicited by electrons. The electrons of the atmospheric molecules, hit by cosmic rays at high altitude, are accelerated at very high speed so emitting the Cherenkov Light. No wonder it is still an electron, now without electric charge, to induce the various CEs highlighted during all the surveys carried out. If we considered that the  may coincide with an e°, the gap left by the enigma of Dark Matter and Missing Mass would be filled, so modifying the fate of the Universe: making it conform to Friedmann's first model. The e° is not antithesis with the Grand Unification Theory, since it envisages a  of some mass. In the Supersymmetric Model, the e° could be identified with the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may correspond to a self-conjugated Majorana stable fermion, since the latter, as well as the e° fully identify with their antiparticle (except spin: antiparallel): e°↓ ≡ ē°↑ .
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[388] viXra:1706.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 16:12:47

How a Magnet Physically Attracts Another from a Distance

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a set of properties that a theory must address in order to explain the magical, invisible, action-at-a-distance phenomenon of attraction and repulsion between two magnets. Here we show that of the entities proposed to date only the Rope Hypothesis can physically simulate all of them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[387] viXra:1706.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 01:26:59

On Proton-Neutron Indistinguishabilty and Distinguishability in the Nucleus

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

There is a fundamental duality in as to how protons and neutrons are treated as formimg the nucleus. A nucleus can be described well in an SU (2) I model (where (p-n) are indistinguishable) and in another independent picture where the pair (p-n) is treated as made up of distinguishable proton and netron fermions. Both of these apparently provide successful equivalent descriptions of the nucleus. How this is possible is the focus of this paper. Starting with the Standard Model and the SU(3)-flavour quark models, we look at the microssopic basis for this duality. Chirality and anomaly cancellation and its matching, play a basic role in our work.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[386] viXra:1706.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 19:03:29

Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 22 Pages.

That electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity has been confirmed by an exact mathematical result. Due to special relativity, rotation results in a difference velocity which has a maximum value. The maximum difference velocity, transformed by special relativistic effects, is the significant factor in an equation that produces the fine structure constant. The result exactly matches the 11 significant digits of the fine structure constant value recommended by CODATA. The maximum difference velocity is instrumental to quantization of angular momentum and energy. The maximum difference velocity also enables finding the radius of the electron from its known angular momentum. The electron velocity and radius scaled by the square root of the electron-proton mass ratio give the angular velocity and radius of the proton. The proton and electron characteristics thus calculated when applied to structural models lead to the measured neutron and deuteron masses recommended by CODATA within reported uncertainty. The proton g factor also follows from the proton model. Electron and proton are similar in structure, consisting of three mutually orthogonal rotating rings of mass.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[385] viXra:1705.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 15:22:44

The Rope Hypothesis

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 14 Pages.

The wave model of light was born in the 17th Century and was quickly abandoned in favor of the old Corpuscular Hypothesis on the strength of Newton’s authority. It flourished again in the 19th Century only to be eclipsed once again by the Corpuscular Hypothesis at the turn of the century. The participants at the 5th Solvay Conference reached a compromise in 1926 and finally merged the wave and the corpuscle into an unfathomable concoction known as ‘wave-packet’. This is the official model today, but now it rests on the authority of Niels Bohr. However, the Wave-Packet Hypothesis is not about architecture. The mathematical establishment has turned the argument upside down and incongruously states that light ‘behaves’ as a wave or as a particle depending on the circumstances. There is, therefore, no formal physical configuration of light in Mathematical Physics that a theorist can challenge. Many in the establishment even argue that a mediator is unnecessary and dispose of one entirely in their talks. We compare the wave, particle, field, and wave-packet models championed by Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, and General Relativity against the Rope Hypothesis to underscore that a new paradigm has emerged in the centuries-old debate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[384] viXra:1705.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 21:54:46

Collective Low Energy Nuclear Reaction May Cause Overunity in Graneau’s Water Explosion

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29478.73286

The Russian scientists D.V. Filippov and L.I. Urutskoev pioneered experimental research and theory exploration and they named such reactions as transformation, or C-LENR (Collective Low Energy Nuclear Reaction). In this paper, I present some comments for the intrinsic mechanism, and at last, my conjecture is proposed for alternative explanation on the overunity phenomenon in Graneau’s water explosion experiment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[383] viXra:1705.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 02:14:41

On the BOSON’S Range of the Weak Nuclear Force

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 3 Pages.

As known the Weak Nuclear Force (WNF) acts between quarks (Qs) and leptons. The action of the WNF is mediated by highly massive gauge bosons. How does a Q emit such a massive particle, approximately 16.000 or 40.000 times its mass? Who provides so much energy to a up Q or a down Q? However, it must be considered that according to Quantum Mechanics it is possible to loan temporarily some energy, but to a precise and binding condition, established by the Uncertainty Principle: the higher the energy borrowed, the shorter the duration of the loan. Our calculations show that the maximum distance these bosons can travel, i.e. the upper limit of their range, corresponds to 1.54310-15 [cm] for particles W+ and W- and 1.3610-15[cm] for Z° particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[382] viXra:1705.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 16:45:31

Focused Neutrinos and Alt-Superconductor Catalyzed Betavoltaic Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27195.62248

My recent deep researches have fruited many great discoveries and inventions: 1. thermal solar neutrinos can be focused by special heavy metal lens, and the focused neutrinos can catalyze nuclear beta decay in exponential effect. 2. it is possible to mimic superconductor by dyno-capacitor module to cheaply realize same effects but working in room temperature even higher hundreds Celsius degree. By combining above 2 catalysis technologies, we expect to build a powerful high voltage DC betavoltaic nuclear reactor by using Lutetium fuel 176Lu. Although energy density is far less than conventional fission fuel 235U, however it is very clean nuclear energy, because of non-toxic material and no harmful waste.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[381] viXra:1705.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 16:48:24

Which Elements Can be Candidates of Concatenating ββ Decay Nuclear Fuel?

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 4 pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33906.50884

With the catalysis of focused neutrinos and other special means, some of those 2β isotopes can be outstood for fuel, provided it becomes possible for 2 sequential events of concatenating β1β2 with total energy Q(β1) + Q(β2) positive balance. This research paper at least proposes molybdenum 100Mo as promising candidate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[380] viXra:1705.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 21:13:03

Possibility Analysis on Energy Breakeven of Z-Pinch & Accelerator-Based Fusions

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 5 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28394.93125

Energy breakeven is the key to utilize fusion energy. This paper predicts Z-pinch based fusion breakeven is possible in near future as long as it is available of a better pulse DC power supply with high voltage and tremendous current than prior LTD (Linear Transformer Driver), but accelerator-based fusion hopeless forever.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[379] viXra:1705.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 05:39:19

Determinative Atom Model

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 18 Pages.

The most accepted atom model currently was proposed by Dr. Bohr and by Dr. Schrodinger and Dr. Dirac subsequently12. However, many phenomenon cannot be explained by Bohr’s atom model. He used Coulomb electric force as the centripetal force to explain the rotation of electrons around nucleus. Another very important basic forces, magnetic force and frame-dragging force (spinity), were neglected and not included in his atom model. In Schrodinger’s atom model, there are problems limiting the formation of correct atom model such as principle of uncertainty, Schrodinger’s cat, and EPR paradox345. In this study, a new determinative atom model is proposed to explain atomic phenomenon and to solve above puzzles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[378] viXra:1704.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 14:45:57

Energy Density Calculation Formula and More for Decay Based Nuclear Fuel or Battery

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper presents a convenient calculation formula of energy density for nuclear fuel or nuclear battery that outputs energy by whatever decay. Also a relative formula is deduced for easy comparison between different fuels. At last, with the convenient formula, the energy density comparison and possibility of applying different isomer beta fuels are proactively calculated and aggressively discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[377] viXra:1704.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:28:53

Feigenbaum’s Constant and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Mario Hieb
Comments: 4 Pages.

A simple mathematical relationship exists between two unit-less, universal physical constants: the Sommerfeld fine-structure constant and Feigenbaum’s delta. This relationship may help to explain the “mystery” that has surrounded the fine-structure constant for many decades.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[376] viXra:1704.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:33:50

Microworld_36. Axiomatization of Physics

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[375] viXra:1704.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:08:25

Uzbek Atom

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 61 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[374] viXra:1704.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 22:34:46

A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 60 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[373] viXra:1704.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 07:52:32

Sigma of Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Jozef Dudek is a staff scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Jefferson Lab and an assistant professor of physics at William & Mary. He and his colleagues recently carried out the first complex calculations of a particle called the sigma. [12] Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton’s spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[372] viXra:1703.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 16:41:46

Preon Interaction Theory and Model of Universe

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 102 Pages.

Book contains researches five new ideas: new preon interaction theory of the micro World; relations between time, mass, space, charge and energy; possibility of creating the super-strong (in millions times) matter, having suprice properties; super-strong nuclear AB-needles, which allows to penetrate deep into the Earth and planets; the nuclear geterator that is converting of any matter into energy. 1. In Chapter 1 the author offers some initial ideas about a cognitive construct of the Micro-World with allows to design a preon based Universe matching many qualities of the observable Universe. The main idea is that - the initial base must be very simple: two energy massless virtual particles (eners) and two reciprocity relations (interactions) between them. Author postulates: Two energy massless virtual particles can explain the main features of much of what we see including: mass, electrical charges and the main interactions between particles such as: gravitation, centrifugal and inertial masses, repulsion and attraction of electric charges, weak and strong nuclear forces, design of quarks and baryonic matter. 2. In Chapter 2 author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, volume, matter) in the Universe. In given part 3 he added charge as main parameter in this theory. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations. Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations. Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment. 3. In Chapter 3 the author researches the design the super-strong matter. This matter is stronger than convetional mathriales in millions times. It is can withstand temperatures in millions degree. Aerospace, aviation particularly need, in any era, the strongest and most thermostable materials available, often at nearly any price. The Space Elevator, space ships (especially during atmospheric reentry), rocket combustion chambers, thermally challenged engine surfaces, hypersonic aircraft materials better than any now available, with undreamed of performance as the reward if obtained. As it is shown in this research, the offered new material allows greatly to improve the all characteristics of space ships, rockets, engines and aircraft and design new types space, propulsion, aviation systems. At present the term ‘nanotechnology’ is well known – in its’ ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new nuclear matter has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for space ships, rockets, aircraft, sea ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc. Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less small than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology. 4. In Chapter 4 author offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. In given work he continues to study the problem of a stability and production this matter. He shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, properties, stability and production are necessary for creating them. 5. In Chapter 5 Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[371] viXra:1703.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 19:13:23

Small Non-Expensive Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 143 Pages.

Small Non-Expensive Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors Alexander Bolonkin ISBN 978-1-365-79783-5 The author offers the new, small cheap electric impulse and cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Impulse and Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in version one the electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric field voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the primary compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In electric impulse and cumulative versions of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical or spherical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fuse) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs. Copyright @ author – Luly. Publisher: USA, LULU, www.lulu.com, 2017
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[370] viXra:1703.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 06:40:58

Microworld_35. Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations on External Influence on Photon Behavior

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts.

article describes a mechanism of external influence on behavior of photons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[369] viXra:1703.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-08 02:00:55

Can a Vortex Cool Down Fukushima?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 6 Pages.

A modification of nuclear physics model of Mathis has been proposed. Solution for Fukushima can come outside of mainstream pseudoscience only.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[368] viXra:1703.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-03 00:07:50

Calculating the Parameters of the Tetraneutron

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A large international group of theorists, using the high precision nucleon-nucleon interaction between neutrons, issued the theoretical estimates of the four-neutron (4n) system resonance state energy and its lifetime. For this purpose numerous calculations using supercomputers have been made and obtained the values of 0.84 MeV and 5×10-22 seconds. The same results were obtained with much less efforts based on the mechanistic interpretation of John Wheeler’s geometrodynamic idea.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[367] viXra:1702.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 14:15:29

Cost of Tritium Fusion Energy

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin, Zarek Newman
Comments: 14 Pages.

For the past sixty years, scientists have spent approximately one hundred billion dollars in an attempt to develop tritium thermonuclear energy. They were unsuccessful. No stable thermonuclear reactions were achieved. Current plans are to design an expensive, but workable industrial installation. It will cost tens of billions of US dollars and will possibly only begin to produce electric energy 15 – 20 years from now. Even if the new designs were viable, they are economically unfeasible. Currently, Tritium is used for fusion ignition because the tritium-deuterium thermonuclear reaction (T+D) has the lowest ignition temperature (≈100 million degree) in contrast to deuterium thermonuclear reaction (D+D) which has a fusion ignition temperature 50 - 100 times hotter. This paper demonstrates that because tritium fuel is very expensive ($30,000/gram and more), the electricity generated by the tritium thermonuclear reactor will cost (≈ $1/kwh), at least 10 times more than conventional sources of energy (≈ $0.1/kwh, 2015). Even using Li-6, Li-7 blankets to breed tritium from fusion reactions cannot be a full solution, because, as we will show, they can only restore a maximum of 30% of the expensive tritium fuel. Hundreds of billions of dollars were spent in vain over the past sixty years for R&D of tritium fusion. It is the costliest mistake in the history of science! Research and Development (R&D) of huge, very expensive tritium fusion installations should be abandoned and in its stead, develop viable and economically feasible, inexpensive, small reactors that use deuterium fuel and high temperatures. That decreases the fuel cost by 30,000 times. Viable designs of small thermonuclear reactors have been offered by senior author in [8,9] where an analysis of the problems with the various configurations of the new small and cheap fusion reactors are detailed therein.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[366] viXra:1702.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 16:11:56

Gödelizng Fine Structure Gateway to Comprehending the Penultimate Nature of Reality

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 12 Pages.

We have questioned the value of the Planck constant in other work, such that its value is likely different for a physical reality with parameters for dimensionality (LSXD) beyond the 4D Standard Model. Now the fundamental basis of the fine structure constant (FSC) itself also comes under scrutiny. The FSC is generally determined in terms of other constants; therefore, its origin yet remains a profound mystery. One must go ‘out of bounds’ to obtain a holistic picture. Our understanding of the physical world has progressed from Classical to Quantum; and now to the brink of the 3rd regime of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). We review the 2nd regime origin and development of the FSC, then propose new insights gleaned from 3rd regime UFM parameters and also review importance of the FSC in developing empirical protocols for gaining access to the 3rd regime.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[365] viXra:1702.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 11:32:08

Transparent Fuel Capsule for Fusion Reactor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

For more 60 years scientists havewanted to reach confined, stable thermonuclear reaction state. They are using two main methods: ICF – Inertial Confinement Fusion and MCF – Magnetic Confinement Fusion. In ICF they have tried to heat a frozen thermonuclear fuel by highly compressing the reactive force of the fuel’s vaporized cover and tohold (confine) it by inertial forces of the fuel used. In MCF they heatrarefied plasma by electric current and hold it a relative long time by enshrouding magnetic field. In ICF, only 10-20% the laser energy is used for compression and significantly less for further fuel heating. The author is offering a significantly new design the fuel pellet (capsule) for laser ICF reactor which allows using about 90% the laser energy for pellet heating and compression work. The second advantage of the author’s innovative suggested method is significantly increasing (by a hundred-fold) the time of nuclear reaction (reactivity) as well as the possibility to use the compressed gas fuel at room temperature,instead of the frozen fuel held at absolute Kelvin zero. The suggested pellet (capsule) design requires few collimated light beams (maximum 6, not 192 as with NIF) because it is using offered multi-reflect capsule(pellet). That greatly simplifies the design laser system.Possible of getting conditions will be enough for using the D-D nuclear fuel, which is monetarily less costly by 30,000 times than T-D fuel.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[364] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 07:15:20

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 6 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus is one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . We know gravitation as was introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory is also promising to explain the phenomenon of cosmological redshift.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[363] viXra:1701.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-30 20:26:31

MC Physics – Force Unification Using Mono-Charges- Supplemental

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 3 Pages. Related to www.mcphysics.org website and viXra papers #1701.0002, #1611.0080 and #1609.0359

MC Physics previously proposed unifying all fundamental forces as being derived from electro-static charge force. Force strength was caused by and only interacted with and between quantized mono-charges of a charge type and set charge strength. In a separate paper mono-charges and the F*SCoTt process to build all particles, atoms and matter were described. A modified Coulomb’s Law equation ( Charge Force, F = C1 * C2/ R^z ) for that unification was proposed, which also replaced Newton’s Law of Gravitation, and utilized a z relativistic impacted space exponent. For each individual mono-charge and from the measured experimental data, z = 1.0 (est. range 0.5 to 1.5) for fully relativistic compressed (down to 2 dimensional, circular dilution) space of the lowest known charged mono-charges (e.g. photons of light) moving at the relativistic speed of light; z = 2 for normal space that is mostly static of mixed low and high charged mono-charges (e.g. in typical binary mass bodies) as for gravity; and z > 3+ for stretched/ expanded space for static mono-charges of the highest strength, ie.quarks. The total force transaction z exponent between 2 mono-charges (MC1 and MC2) is proposed to be: z = ( z1 * z2 ) ^ 0.5
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[362] viXra:1701.0657 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 02:27:53

A Simple Method of Determining the Mass of Hadrons

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 6 Pages.

Determining the mass of hadrons was a predicament in Quantum Chromodynamics, suggestions and attempts of using a theory of lattice QCD for such determination has not provided satisfying results. This paper will suggest a new method that offers 99% accuracy therefore much higher than lattice QCD, as well as simplicity. The methodology provided in this paper is relatively simple which makes it easier to do the calculus without unnecessarily losing time on extremely complex equations that serve not practical purpose since the accuracy of lattice QCD in determining hadrionic mass is approximately 10% which is underwhelming. The aforementioned new method will be applied for protons, neutrons and pions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[361] viXra:1701.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 09:15:15

“A Real Picture” of Formation of Primary, Composing Elements of the Matter and the Results of Their Interaction

Authors: Viktor S.Dolgikh
Comments: 16 Pages. In english and in russian

I present this article as a part of my work “HE”: the beginning. A real picture of creation of primary, composing elements of matter and the results of their interaction are described. Introductory and advertising part of it is omitted because of the expected "sarcasm", which will disappear at the end of the article. Many years of practical approach to thinking is the main item in the content of the presented work. It is given in a very condensed form without "tiring" description of the presented picture. Its final statement is given on page 12. The following extended explanation, and main description of basic directions: - the variety of particles due to the result of their division, disintegration and their unnatural creation; - the structure of atoms and molecules of matter in the classification of their states; - the frame structure of the "live" part of this kind of matter with its diversity; - the evolution of matter development, which are constantly being in the process of work, will depend on the interest to this article and are presented in the following publications. To clarify the text I am sending the original.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[360] viXra:1701.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 06:34:49

Key Properties of Hot Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In accordance with the rules of quantum mechanics, the atomic nucleus has discrete energy levels. [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[359] viXra:1701.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 14:43:43

MC Physics - Fundamental Force Unification using Mono-Charges

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: Pages.

MC Physics- Fundamental Force Unification using Mono-Charges Quantization of basic elemental electrostatic charge occurred in the earliest Universe which created an uneven distribution of mono-charges (MCs) by charge type and charge strength. Mono-charges form all matter and cause all force in the Universe. Charge strength provides the inertial mass of all MCs and, therefore, of all matter. All force (electro-static, magnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear and gravity) is electro-static in nature and is instantly and continuously applied only between mono-charges. All force (as well as MC/ matter / mass and Space) is modified by movement in Space (dS/dT), especially at high relativistic velocities. Magnetic poles and force are caused by moving mono-charges, indicating a link between magnetism, inertia and relativity- all resistances to spatial or velocity change. Magnetic force acts only on magnetic poles, i.e. moving MCs. Following the F-SCoTt matter formation processes, modified Coulomb’s Law and modified Newton’s Laws, cooling of the ultra-high kinetic energy early Universe allowed progressively weaker force bondings of quantized MCs to stably form particles- starting with quarks> protons> nuclei> electrons> neutrinos> and lastly forming photons of light. From their joining processes, all particles have internal movements (rotation, vibrations, wobble) that cause variations (oscillations, vibrations) in their projected forces, causing temporary charge imbalances and excess weaker MC joinings. Such movements cause stronger MCs to have a more focused force projection source vectors than weaker MCs which have a collective fuzzy collective force projection source from (mostly) neutralized matter. This is the most likely cause of attraction force to be slightly stronger than repel forces for masses, i.e. causing gravitational force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[358] viXra:1612.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:01:18

Flow Reversal of Negative Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Science (NIFS) has succeeded in revealing the flow of negative hydrogen ions using a combination of infrared lasers and electrostatic probes in the ion-source plasma, which generates a negative-hydrogen-ion beam. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[357] viXra:1612.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 04:33:31

Microworld_ 34. Nuclear Fusion

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts.

“Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” nuclear fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[356] viXra:1611.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 09:05:32

Small, Non-Expensive Electric Impulse Thermonuclear Reactor with Collising Jets

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 23 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydroelectric stations can in 2015. The author offers the new, small cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative vertion of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[355] viXra:1611.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:30:32

Fusion Reactors – a Dream that Can Never Come True

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nuclear fusion is primarily a process of 'system becoming dense', rather than 'fusion of two nuclei'. It is spontaneous in stars, which are light and are moving at high speeds. Earth is dense and moves at a comparatively slow speed. So on Earth, nuclear fusion is non-spontaneous – the energy input required to maintain the reaction will be greater than energy released. So it is practically impossible to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[354] viXra:1611.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 05:42:07

Muon Rings and Frequecy

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of the more convincing experiments in support of Einstein’s special theory of relativity was conducted at CERN in 1977. The experiment involved injecting particles called Muons into a 14 metre diameter ring at speeds approaching that of light and observing their behaviour. The experiment shows conclusively that time is dilated and distances are compressed for the orbiting Muon. There is one other aspect of the experiment which however is often overlooked and that is the effect of relativity on frequency. Here it is shown that the orbital frequency experienced by the Muon is multiplied by a factor Gamma compared to that seen by a stationary observer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[353] viXra:1611.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 15:17:38

MC Physics Model of Sub-Atomic Particles using Mono-Charges

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 11 Pages. Follow up to viXra paper 1609.0359v1.pdf by the same author

A new model of sub-atomic particles is proposed based on mono-charges. It is theorized that mono-charges form all matter and cause all force. Mono-charges are quantized electro-static charges by type (positive or negative) and strength / potential. Distribution of those mono-charges in the early Universe by their quantized properties is described. The process to form the elemental particles of quarks, electrons, neutrinos and photons is outlined. the process to then form composite particles of protons and neutrons, then leading up to atoms and molecules is also outlined.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[352] viXra:1610.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:12:45

Detection of Aortic Graft Infection Combined with a Pelvic Abscess Using 18F-FDG PET/CT in a Patient with FUO

Authors: Mohammed Shah Alam, Auradkar Manisha, Wei Guan, Hu-bing Wu, Quan-shi Wang, Wen-lan Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Aortic graft infection (AGI) is an uncommon but severe late complication of associated with vascular surgery. Early detection is important because of high mortality. Clinical findings often are nonspecific. Some of AGI patients present with FUO. A 67-year-old female received an endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. After 2 years of surgery she suffered from recurrent fever for 8 months and sometimes body temperature peaked at 40°C. Laboratory examinations show all are increased. Multiple modalities of imagine has been performed including x-ray, USG and CT. To find out the cause of FUO he was referred to perform 18F-FDG PET/ CT for further evaluation. The PET/CT images revealed the extent of the inflammation around grafts and the pelvic abscess, which helped to confirm the cause of FUO and establish the diagnosis of AGI. That indicates 18F-FDG PET/CT is a reliable modality for the FUO patients who has undergone endovascular aneurysm repair
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[351] viXra:1610.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 02:30:20

Microworld_33. Electromagnetic Engines Without Moving Parts

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts.

There can be two kinds of electromagnetic engines developed that would be free of moving macroscopic parts. One of them is EmDrive wherein magnetron launches a vortex-like whirl that generates ethereal jet thrust. Another is a capacitor-type photon engine that utilizes “motive force” of photon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[350] viXra:1610.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 01:59:12

Microworld_32. Nature of the “Impossible” EmDrive Jet Thrust

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts. Вас устраивает качество перевода на English?

Jet thrust of the “impossible” electromagnetic engine called ЕmDrive is created by the magnetic whirl that is constantly pumping through flows of ambient ether which in their turn are keeping the magnetic whirl stable.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[349] viXra:1610.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 04:41:37

Microworld 31. Arrow of Time

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts

Refusal of the “arrow of time” in physics is a result of the academic insufficiency of the quantum physics and relativity theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[348] viXra:1610.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:00:52

Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 22 Pages.

During past sixty years, scientists spent tens of billion US dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a sustained stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric power generation stations can in 2016. The author offers the new, small and cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, a constant well-contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its power output product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using moving cumulative explosives and an electric discharge, which allows to accelerate the fuel and special nucleus to very high speed which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel thousands times and heats the fuel by electric impulse to hundreds of millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative version of AB thermonuclear reactors, the fuel nucleus are accelerated by high electric voltage (15 ÷ 60 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the spherical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge. The main advantages of the offered method are very small fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) of the full reactor installation (reactor having spherical diameter (0.3 - 3 m), using the thermonuclear fuel at room-temperature and achieves the possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (propellant after ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[347] viXra:1610.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 12:07:57

Emissivity: A Program for Atomic Emissivity Calculations

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this article we report the release of a new program for calculating the emissivity of atomic transitions. The program, which can be obtained with its documentation from our website www.scienceware.net, passed various rigorous tests and was used by the author to generate theoretical data and analyze observational data. It is particularly useful for investigating atomic transition lines in astronomical context as the program is capable of generating a huge amount of theoretical data and comparing it to observational list of lines. A number of atomic transition algorithms and analytical techniques are implemented within the program and can be very useful in various situations. The program can be described as fast and efficient. Moreover, it requires modest computational resources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[346] viXra:1610.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:34:03

Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 238 Pages.

In the first section we present the atomic part where a C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data to investigate recombination lines arising from electron-ion collisions in thin plasma. R-matrix method was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate-coupling approximation. The data were used to generate dielectronic recombination data for C+ which include transition lines, oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, emissivities and dielectronic recombination coefficients. The data were cast in a line list containing 6187 optically-allowed transitions which include many C II lines observed in astronomical spectra. This line list was used to analyze the spectra from a number of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae, and identify their electron temperature. The electron temperature investigation was also extended to include free electron energy analysis to investigate the long-standing problem of discrepancy between the results of recombination and forbidden lines analysis and its possible connection to the electron distribution. In the second section we present the results of our molecular investigation; the generation of a comprehensive, calculated line list of frequencies and transition probabilities for H2D+. The line list contains over 22 million rotational-vibrational transitions occurring between more than 33 thousand energy levels and covers frequencies up to 18500 cm-1. About 15% of these levels are fully assigned with approximate rotational and vibrational quantum numbers. A temperature-dependent partition function and cooling function are presented. Temperature-dependent synthetic spectra for the temperatures T=100, 500, 1000 and 2000 K in the frequency range 0-10000 cm-1 were also generated and presented graphically.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[345] viXra:1610.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 19:37:13

Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

Authors: Ranganath G Kulkarni
Comments: 3 Pages.

An empirical formula is found for nuclear binding energy per nucleon that agree well with observations from atomic number Z=14.The interpretation indicates that we need to explore physical variables involved in the nuclear force or nuclear binding energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[344] viXra:1609.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 06:51:59

Appearance of Magic Numbers in the Unified Approach for the Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 6 Pages.

Taking the clues from the recently observed phenomena like correlated neutron-proton ejection from nuclei by energetic e-/protons, EMC effect and inconsistent assumptions of liquid drop and shell models for the same set of nuclei (for explanation of different nuclear properties), a unified approach for the nuclear structure was suggested by the author [1]. In the proposed approach, instead of freely moving individual neutrons/protons, nucleons exist in the form of tightly bound np and npn (and pnp also for proton rich nuclei) quasi-particles, which move in overall Coulomb well due to all other quasi-particles. The proposed approach was found to be very useful in understanding many unexplained phenomena [1]. Now, the existence of np and npn quasi-particles is found to be strongly confirmed by the presence of magic numbers across the periodic table where many stable nuclei with different atomic number are found to be have same number of np and npn. For example, there are 30 different stable (or most stable isotope of nuclei with no stable isotope) nuclei with different Z having the magic number of 38 np, 20 nuclei with the magic number of 32 np and 16 with magic number of 40 np.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[343] viXra:1609.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 01:52:00

Microworld_30. the Hidden Matter Problem

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages. English and russian texts

A Reason for Stagnation in the Problem of Hidden Mass - Academic Insufficiency of the Quantum Theory and of the Relativity Theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[342] viXra:1609.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 06:58:49

Microworld_29. Magnetism and Matter

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Which structures of the material world are formed through magnetism?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[341] viXra:1609.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 15:51:09

Could the Electrostatic Force Play a Role in Holding the Atomic Nucleus Together?

Authors: Peter Horst Rehm
Comments: 9 Pages.

An unheralded property of the electrostatic force is that as the distance between charges approaches zero the force increases exponentially without bound. Applied to the nucleus, if a positive fractional charge in one nucleon can get close enough to a negative fractional charge in a neighboring nucleon, the attractive force between them can overcome the repulsive force among protons. An effective distance of about 5% of the radius of a nucleon corresponds to an attractive force of -25 kN, which is consistent with the nuclear force as previously measured. As positive and negative fractional charges occur in both protons and neutrons, this charge-based attraction can potentially occur in a manner that is independent of the net charge of each nucleon. This form of electrostatic bonding may therefore be a significant factor in the nuclear force and may shed light upon the structure of the nucleons and the atomic nucleus.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[340] viXra:1609.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 05:13:22

Hydrogen Atom Exotic State. Part One

Authors: Arayik Emilevich Danghyan
Comments: 14 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the scientific community dominates the conviction that the hydrogen atom is the simplest, and existing theories based on equations of Schrodinger and Dirac fully describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom. In this paper and in the following articles will be shown that in addition to the known state-based solutions of the Schrödinger and Dirac equations, there are states which were not studied and they were not known, or often simply were discarded with the phrase "have no physical meaning." Further it will be shown that the existing equations of quantum mechanics, namely the Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon equation and especially the Schrödinger equation, can not accurately describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom. As a result there will be given a reasonable basis for the feasibility of an experimental search or targeted synthesis of new unknown states of the hydrogen atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[339] viXra:1609.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 05:22:00

Hydrogen Atom Exotic State. Part Two

Authors: Arayik Emilevich Danghyan
Comments: 13 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the study of the hydrogen atom, in order to reveal all the details of the behavior of an electron, one of the main conditions is the use of the correct, appropriate equations. Until recently, this applied Schrödinger equation, Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Schrödinger equation will not analyze because it is not relativistic, and therefore can not qualify for a full and accurate description of the range of high energies and velocities. It will be shown as the Klein-Gordon equation is also unacceptable, because the assumption is deeply disguised errors in the derivation of this equation. Since, in connection with the intended purpose, we will analyze the behavior of an electron in the states with energy below the ground state, it will be shown that the same should be treated with some suspicion in this regard to the results of the Dirac equation. As a result, the only acceptable equation is the equation М2 [1].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[338] viXra:1609.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 06:48:26

Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present study was aimed to analyse the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of 4-MBA. The compound was divided into two parts which are referred as the control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analysed with respect to the control sample. The various analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed the alteration in the relative intensities of the peaks as well as reduction in the average crystallite size (24.62%) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed a slight reduction in the surface area of the treated sample. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis reported a slight increase in the melting point while significant reduction in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (39.96 J/g) as compared to the control (133.72 J/g). Moreover, the TGA thermogram of the treated sample revealed the reduction in the onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any significant alteration as compared to their respective control spectra. The overall data indicated the improved physical and thermal properties of the biofield treated 4-MBA sample that might be helpful in increasing the reaction kinetics, where it will be used as a reaction intermediate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[337] viXra:1609.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 01:28:22

Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone and Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid (MMTO) has been used as a growth medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was conducted to explore the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of peptone and MMTO. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as untreated, and the treated group was received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further subjected to characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and surface area analyzer. The XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the control and treated peptone samples. The DSC analysis showed an increase in thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone (196.22°C) as compared to the control sample (141.20°C). Additionally, the exothermic peak of treated sample (280°C) was increased as compared to the control (270°C). The DSC of control and treated MMTO showed the absence of the melting temperature in their respective DSC thermograms. The TGA analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (172°C) with respect to the control (170°C). Nevertheless, the TGA thermogram of the treated MMTO (293.96°C) showed an increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) as compared with the control (281.41°C). It indicated the good thermal stability of the treated peptone and MMTO samples. The FT-IR result of the treated peptone showed an upward shift in C-H (2817→2833 cm-1), and amide I (1635→1641 cm-1), stretching in the treated sample with respect to the control sample. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated MMTO showed an increase in the frequency of the C-H (2817→2833 cm-1) and amide I (1596→1606 cm-1) bands as compared to the control. Particle size analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of particles) by 9.3 and 41.4%, respectively with respect to the control. Surface area analysis showed increase in surface area by 4.3% in the treated peptone. Altogether, the results corroborated that the biofield energy treatment had altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of peptone and MMTO. It is assumed that biofield treated peptone and MMTO could be utilized as potential candidates for cell culture applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[336] viXra:1608.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:09:42

Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, or 15N in Biofield Energy Treated Aminopyridine Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

2-Aminopyridine (2-AP) and 2,6-diaminopyridine (2,6-DAP) are two derivatives of aminopyridines that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines, dyes and organic sensors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N, in aminopyridine derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2-AP and 2,6-DAP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2-AP and 2,6- DAP showed five and six m/z peaks respectively due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of aminopyridine derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N were calculated for both the derivatives and significant alteration was found in the treated samples as compared to the respective control. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N in treated samples of 2-AP was decreased by 55.83% in T1 and significantly increased by 202.26% in T4. However, in case of 2,6-DAP, the isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 15N/14N, in the treated sample showed a significant increase (up to 370.54% in T3) with respect to the control. GC-MS data suggested that the biofield energy treatment on aminopyridine derivatives had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, or 15N in the treated 2-AP and 2,6- DAP as compared to the control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[335] viXra:1608.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:35:01

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Yeast Extract Powder After the Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Yeast extract powder (YE powder) is particularly used in culture media for the cultivation of microorganisms found in milk or other dairy products. The present study was intended to explore the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The study was accomplished in two groups; first group was remained as control, while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and termed as the treated group. Afterward, both the samples were evaluated using several analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) study showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. This indicated the amorphous nature of the samples. The particle size study revealed the 4.77% and 26.28% increase d50 (in the average particle size) and d99 (particle size below that 99% particles are present), respectively of treated YE powder with respect to the control. The surface area analysis showed the 14.06% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample with respect to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis exhibited the 41.64% increase in the melting temperature of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The TGA/DTG analysis exhibited the increase in Tonset (onset temperature of thermal degradation) by 7.51% and 12.45% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 4.16% and 24.79% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as C-H (stretching) from 2895→2883 cm-1 and 2815→2831 cm-1, respectively; C-N from 1230→1242 cm-1; and C-O stretching from 1062-1147 cm-1→1072-1149 cm-1 of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both the control and treated samples. Therefore, the analytical results suggested the considerable impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The increase in Tonset and Tmax after the biofield treatment suggests that the treated YE powder might be more effective in culture medium than the control YE powder.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[334] viXra:1608.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:37:37

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Hi VegTM Acid Hydrolysate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The hydrolysed vegetable proteins are acidic or enzymatic hydrolytic product of proteins derived from various sources such as milk, meat or vegetables. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the various physicochemical and spectra properties of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate i.e. a hydrolysed vegetable protein. The Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate sample was divided into two parts that served as control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and its properties were analysed using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, UV-visible and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results of various parameters were compared with the control (untreated) part. The XRD data showed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample from 110.27 nm (control) to 79.26 nm. The particle size was also reduced in treated sample as 162.13 μm as compared to the control sample (168.27 μm). Moreover, the surface area analysis revealed the 63.79% increase in the surface area of the biofield treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-Vis spectra of both samples i.e. control and treated showed the absorbance at same wavelength. However, the FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting in peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-S functional groups in the treated sample with respect to the control. The thermal analysis also revealed the alteration in degradation pattern along with increase in onset temperature of degradation and maximum degradation temperature in the treated sample as compared to the control. The overall data showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the treated sample of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate. The biofield treated sample might show the improved solubility, wettability and thermal stability profile as compared to the control sample.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[333] viXra:1608.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 01:39:46

The Moment of Momentum and the Proton Radius

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin, A. S. Kim
Comments: 5 pages. Russian Physics Journal. Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 534-538 (2002). https://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021001025666

The theory of nuclear gravitation is used to calculate the moment of momentum of the gravitational field of a proton, which is compared to the corresponding moment of momentum of the electromagnetic field. As a result, the proton radius is estimated and a relation for the moment of momentum of the field is established, which coincides in form with the expression of the virial theorem for energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[185] viXra:1712.0563 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 06:42:27

Digital Neutrino Resonance (DNR) Like the Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics Analytical Instrument

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 4 Pages.

Already traditional researches like computer tomography (CT), positron–emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are nowdays older (archaical) and dramatically growth significance, from discovery (RND) of detection of resonance neutrinos digitally, conclusion of inovatives researches in chronoscopy and nuclear physics. Discovery of detection of neutrinos neuropatic’s (VAINR), small sub–atomic particles, which are systematically ignorating whatever laws of traditional physics by revolution in last knowledge about this theme, in order to be possible incorporated in one from the oldest wishes of man “have to time in both direction”, although only during searching of pathology of central neural system (CNS) involving the human brain functions imaging and Medulla spinalis from it entranced nervus spinalis and reflexes aferential and eferential. This Spinal Medicine helps human with brain or spinal injuries to give back to “normal life” by using of “cluster medicine”, our excellence of the Czech Republic in this medical branch is work of Prof. MUDr. Eva Syková, DrSc. This article is focused on goal spreading of the newest evolution this extraordinary technics and science supposed a creation of new medically discipline neuroradiology, respectively neutrinoradiology: except diagnostics, therapeutic and pediatric neuroradiology also chronobiology. Wide field of application of RND will be have in Forensic Psychiatry is a sub–speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[184] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 16:48:19

My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[183] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 09:52:02

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[182] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 13:52:06

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[181] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 12:17:56

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[180] viXra:1708.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-07 18:10:32

Electrostatic Force and Charge Structure

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 10 Pages.

In our previous report, Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity, we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity by showing 11 significant digits of correspondence between the maximum value of rotation minus precession and the fine structure constant. We now provide the theoretical basis for the correspondence and its relationship to the previously derived electron and proton structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[179] viXra:1706.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-12 15:13:52

Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 23 Pages.

That electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity has been confirmed by an exact mathematical result. Due to special relativity, rotation results in a difference velocity which has a maximum value. The maximum difference velocity, transformed by special relativistic effects, is the significant factor in an equation that produces the fine structure constant. The result exactly matches the 11 significant digits of the fine structure constant value recommended by CODATA. The maximum difference velocity is instrumental to quantization of angular momentum and energy. The maximum difference velocity also enables finding the radius of the electron from its known angular momentum. The electron velocity and radius scaled by the square root of the electron-proton mass ratio give the angular velocity and radius of the proton. The proton and electron characteristics thus calculated when applied to structural models lead to the measured neutron and deuteron masses recommended by CODATA within reported uncertainty. The proton g factor also follows from the proton model. Electron and proton are similar in structure, consisting of three mutually orthogonal rotating rings of mass.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[178] viXra:1706.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-08 16:28:55

Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 22 Pages.

That electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity has been confirmed by an exact mathematical result. Due to special relativity, rotation results in a difference velocity which has a maximum value. The maximum difference velocity, transformed by special relativistic effects, is the significant factor in an equation that produces the fine structure constant. The result exactly matches the 11 significant digits of the fine structure constant value recommended by CODATA. The maximum difference velocity is instrumental to quantization of angular momentum and energy. The maximum difference velocity also enables finding the radius of the electron from its known angular momentum. The electron velocity and radius scaled by the square root of the electron-proton mass ratio give the angular velocity and radius of the proton. The proton and electron characteristics thus calculated when applied to structural models lead to the measured neutron and deuteron masses recommended by CODATA within reported uncertainty. The proton g factor also follows from the proton model. Electron and proton are similar in structure, consisting of three mutually orthogonal rotating rings of mass.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[177] viXra:1705.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-24 03:02:24

Determinative Atom Model

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 19 Pages.

The most accepted atom model currently was proposed by Dr. Bohr and by Dr. Schrodinger and Dr. Dirac subsequently12. However, many phenomenon cannot be explained by Bohr’s atom model. He used Coulomb electric force as the centripetal force to explain the rotation of electrons around nucleus. Another very important basic forces, magnetic force and frame-dragging force (spinity), were neglected and not included in his atom model. In Schrodinger’s atom model, there are problems limiting the formation of correct atom model such as principle of uncertainty, Schrodinger’s cat, and EPR paradox345. In this study, a new determinative atom model is proposed to explain atomic phenomenon and to solve above puzzles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[176] viXra:1704.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 09:58:15

Power Density Calculation Formula for Decay Based Nuclear Fuel or Battery

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32730.13764

This paper presents a convenient calculation formula of energy density for nuclear fuel or nuclear battery that outputs energy by whatever decay. Also a relative formula is deduced for easy comparison between different fuels. At last, with the convenient formula, the energy density comparison and possibility of applying different isomer beta fuels are proactively calculated and aggressively discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[175] viXra:1704.0222 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-27 21:13:23

Uzbek Atom

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 61 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection between an antineutrino and a neutron must constitute an antineutrino hydrogen is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of a family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate the masses in atoms to the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and of the two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, a change of the lifetime as well as of the radius of any of the structural particles originates in it in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[174] viXra:1704.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-27 21:09:49

A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 60 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection between an antineutrino and a neutron must constitute an antineutrino hydrogen is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of a family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate the masses in atoms to the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and of the two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, a change of the lifetime as well as of the radius of any of the structural particles originates in it in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[173] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 03:50:56

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also has the potential to explain the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-02 01:52:57

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 10 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also successfully explains the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer Anomaly.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[171] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-01 05:44:58

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 7 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus is one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory is also promising to explain the phenomenon of cosmological redshift.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[170] viXra:1610.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-19 07:45:54

Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages.

An equation for nuclear binding energy per nucleon is found that agree well with observations. The interpretation indicates that we need to explore physical variables involved in the nuclear force or nuclear binding energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[169] viXra:1609.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-27 23:29:31

Could the Electrostatic Force Play a Role in Holding the Atomic Nucleus Together?

Authors: Peter Horst Rehm
Comments: 12 Pages.

It is well known that the electrostatic force has infinite range, but an unheralded property of this force is that as the distance between charges approaches zero the force increases without bound. Applied to the atomic nucleus, if a positive fractional charge in one nucleon (proton or neutron) can get close enough to a negative fractional charge in a neighboring nucleon, the attractive force between them would bind these nucleons in an electrostatic bond. For example, at a distance of 5% of a nucleon radius they will experience an attractive force of -25 kN. This is orders of magnitude stronger than the repulsive force between whole protons in the nucleus. Contrary to what is normally expected from the electrostatic force, such a bond would have a short range, shorter than the radius of a nucleon. Ironically, this charge-based bond would match the nuclear force’s characteristic of charge independence (affecting both neutrons and protons), because the required positive and negative fractional charges occur inside both neutrons and protons. This electrostatic bonding of fractional charges may therefore be an overlooked factor in the search for understanding the nuclear force and may shed light upon the structure of the nucleons and the atomic nucleus.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics