Nuclear and Atomic Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[184] viXra:1408.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 17:26:59

Matter Creation

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 3 Pages.

English (traslation): The influence of electricity in the gravity is shown here. Being able to verify this with a simple experiment, charging and discharging a capacitor. Modifying the equation used is achieved justify mass number of atoms in part. And also check that the pressure is needed to create atoms of the planetary cores. Spanish (original): Se muestra aquí la influencia de la electricidad en la gravedad. Pudiendo constatarlo mediante un sencillo experimento, cargando y descargando un condensador. Modificando la ecuación empleada se consigue justificar, en parte, el número másico de los átomos. Y se comprueba, además, que la presión necesaria para crear átomos es la de los núcleos planetarios.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[183] viXra:1408.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-24 05:28:54

Ground Potential

Authors: Steven Sesselmann
Comments: 17 Pages.

Despite the successes of the standard model of particle physics, there are many unanswered questions. The predominance of matter over antimatter, the nature of force, the invariance of the proton mass, the electron to proton mass ratio, the apparent numerical equivalence of protons and electrons, and last but not least, an accurate definition of ground potential. Herein a completely new model is proposed, where electrons and protons originate as Dirac particle pairs. Using this model it is possible to show that the mass difference between the electron and the proton is a function of the observers potential. Based on the current standards for the electron and proton energies, ground potential has been calculated as 930 million volts.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[182] viXra:1408.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-17 11:22:39

Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put a outline for the reconstruction of atomic and nuclear physics
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[181] viXra:1408.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-10 18:32:22

Four-Center Integral of a Dipolar Two-Electron Potential Between S-Type Gto's

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 9 Pages.

We reduce two-electron 4-center products of Cartesian Gaussian Type Orbitals with Boys' contraction to 2-center products of the form psi_alpha(r_i-A) psi_beta(r_j-B), and compute the 6-dimensional integral over d^3r_i d^3r_j over these with the effective potential V_{ij} = (r_i-r_j). r_j/|r_i-r_j|^3.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[180] viXra:1408.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 07:29:52

Microwold 21. Experiment. Theory. Practice.

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 28 Pages. English and russian texts

We have summarized the results of elaboration of the microworld theory that operates adequate structural mathematical models of microscopic objects. Adequate structural models of microscopic objects have been built due to consideration of magnetic interactions among microscopic objects along with other interactions and due to consideration of ether with its resistance to motion of microobjects.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[179] viXra:1408.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-08 08:56:30

Microwold 20. “Spontaneous” Nuclear Disintegration

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

“Spontaneous” nuclear disintegration results from increase in the density of ether in the contemporary Universe. Red shift is indicative of increase in the density of ether in the peripheral regions of the Universe. The observable phenomenon of “spontaneous” nuclear disintegration provides experimental evidence of the fact that increase in the density of ether in the contemporary Universe takes place in the entire Universe rather in its peripheral layers.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[178] viXra:1407.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-19 04:53:00

Microwold 19. Ether and Universe

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 7 pages. English and russian texts

The red shift of remote sources radiation spectra may result from increase in ether density in the peripheral part of our Universe caused by the external matter drawn therein.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[177] viXra:1407.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-03 17:06:30

A Brief Note on the Magnecule Order Parameter Upgrade Hypothesis

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted to AIP Conference Proceedings of ICNAAM 2014

In this short remark, we report on recent hypothetical work that aims to equip Santilli's magnecule model with topological deformation order parameters (OP) of fractional statistics to define a preliminary set of wave-packet wave-functions for the electron toroidal polarizations. The primary objective is to increase the representational precision and predictive accuracy of the magnecule model by exemplifying the fluidic characteristics for direct industrial application. In particular, the OPs are deployed to encode the spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking (which may be restored at the iso-topic level) and correlated with Leggett's superfluid B phases to establish a long range constraint for the wave-functions. These new, developing, theoretical results may be significant because the OP configuration arms us with an extra degree of freedom for encoding a magnecule's states and transitions, which may reveal further insight into the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with these state-of-the-art magnecular bonds.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[176] viXra:1406.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-30 15:58:18

Initiating a Hypothetical Upgrade to Magnecules with Topological Deformation Order Parameters for Spontaneous Superfluidic Gauge Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt
Comments: 14 pages, 5 figures

In this preliminary work, we propose a hypothesis and launch a procedural upgrade to magnecules by equipping these new iso-chemical creatures with topological deformation order parameters (OP) of fractional statistics to encode the spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking (which we expect to be restored at the iso-topic level), correlated helices with long range order, and wave-packet wave-functions for the toroidal polarizations. For this initial "base case", we consider a single magnecular bond between dual inter-locked protium atoms in a magnecule. The results of this equipment support our hypothesis and are significant because the OP configuration incorporates an extra degree of freedom for encoding a magnecule's states and transitions; this may enable us to further decode and comprehend the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with these state-of-the-art magnecular bonds for industrial application. Hence, these outcomes should be subjected to additional stringent examination and improvement.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[175] viXra:1406.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-08 11:29:29

Euler Number in Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederic Sweeney
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Euler Number, or e logarithm, arises naturally from our combinatorial universe, the result of the interactive combination of three distinct states of matter. This paper provides the details about how this combinatorial process takes place and why the range of visible matter extends from Pi to the Euler Number.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[174] viXra:1406.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-06 11:08:24

Why Pi?

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 12 Pages.

At least since the age of the ancient Greeks, humanity has understood the importance of the term Pi, or at least modern humanity has assumed so. Pi, in fact, contains a deeper meaning in a combinatorial universe, one long - forgotten, bypassed by the geometrical significance of Pi. This paper explains the importance of Pi as a value in a combinatorial universe. Along the way, the paper proves that half - spin fermions do not exist in reality.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[173] viXra:1406.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-02 00:27:52

Bhagavad Gita as श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Vedic Nuclear Manual

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 30 Pages. Some text appears in Devanagari which may not appear in some browsers.

Since the 19th Century, many famous western thinkers and important people, including philosophers, have regarded the Bhava Gita as an important philosophical work, worthy of guiding the life of an individual. None realized that they were in fact reading a Vedic Nuclear Manual. In fact, the major works of Vedic Literature were written to serve at least two purposes: to describe particle physics and at the same time to prescribe via metaphor the optimum way to live life on Earth for soul purposes. The two purposes remain inextricably entwined.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] viXra:1405.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 10:38:38

To the Question of Intranuclear Forces

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is shown that nucleons in nuclei of elements are linked NOT by nuclear forces, but by the overall flow of electromagnetic energy circulating in the volume of the nucleus. This assumption allows us to explain some properties of the intranuclear interactions and some well-known observations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[171] viXra:1405.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-24 11:42:53

Clifford Algebras in the Growth of Matter in Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 25 Pages.

In our combinatorial universe, matter grows in a particular way, according to specific steps. The (n + 1) character of this growth lends itself easily to the Clifford Algebra and Clifford Spinor spaces which develop in the fashion of Mount Meru or Pascal’s Triangle. This style of development leads to Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section which implies that these concepts are deeply entwined in the formation of matter. This paper gives a step by step explanation of the process and a lengthy exposition on Clifford Algebras by physicist Frank “Tony” Smith from his monumental website.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[170] viXra:1405.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-24 06:24:37

Microwold 18. Red Shift

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 10 pages. English and russian texts

Это исследование предлагает новые, “неземной” объяснение “красного смещения”электромагнитного излучения. Эта статья показывает, что “красное смещение” наблюдаемое излучение может быть признаком расширения нашей Вселенной, хотя это не доказательство же.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[169] viXra:1405.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-23 10:20:01

On the Nature of Intranuclear Forces \\ К вопросу о внутриядерных силах

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the nucleons in nuclei of elements linked NOT nuclear forces, and the overall flow of electromagnetic energy circulating in the volume of the nucleus. This assumption allows us to explain some properties of the intranuclear interactions and some well-known observation. \\ Показывается, что нуклоны в ядрах элементов связаны НЕ ядерными силами, а общим потоком электромагнитной энергии, циркулирующим в объеме ядра. Это предположение позволяет объяснить некоторые свойства внутриядерных взаимодействий и некоторые известные наблюдения.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[168] viXra:1405.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-14 02:52:32

Microwold 17. Fireball

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

We have gained an adequate understanding of fireball structure basically unavailable to the quantum theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[167] viXra:1405.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-05 12:37:34

The Aspin Bubbles Proton V2

Authors: Yoël Lana-Renault
Comments: 77 Pages.

In the current version 2 of this article we incorporate all the modifications that we have introduced in the Aspin Bubbles project[1] and we mechanically build the proton particle and its antiparticle. The proton structure is very simple: two positons in a circular orbit around a negaton. As we will see in the article, we encounter perfect mechanical machines that meet and comply with all our knowledge on proton and antiproton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[166] viXra:1405.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-03 09:31:11

Radiation in Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 13 Pages.

Vedic Physics contains a concept about radiation which differs from western physics, primarily in its simplicity. This paper compares the western from Wiki to the Vedic Physics concept.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[165] viXra:1405.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-01 19:25:18

Super-residual Force of Strong Nuclear Force (from Gluons) Creates Gravity (as Well as Residual Force for the Nuclear Force)

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

The strong nuclear force which holds together the quarks in the protons and the neutrons is very different from the residual force that keeps the protons and neutrons bound together in the nucleus of an atom. This postulates that there is also a super-residual force from the the gluon interactions of the strong nuclear force. This super-residual force would, obviously, be extremely weak. The super-residual force equals gravity. Gravity is extremely weak. A radical, three-part new possibility for gravity. [1] As electromagnetic radiation is constantly alternating between its electrical and magnetic component, so, the gravity force transmission method could be constantly alternating between its time and space length component. space length = time * c where c is the velocity of light. [Note: not c squared.] [2] As electromagnetic radiation is caused by an electron in a high energy state dropping into a lower energy state & emitting the extra energy as electromagnetic radiation, so “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions) could be caused by a mass in a high energy state dropping into a lower energy state & emitting the extra energy as “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions). [3a] The high energy state of a mass could be caused by the expansion of the universe carrying the mass to an expanded “high energy” space level. The mass quickly “drops down” to its lower energy, “local gravity” non-expanded space level. This extra energy is emitted as “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions). This “shrinkage in mass space” creates mass attraction. In layman’s terms, it could be viewed as the shrinkage causing a local “vacuum” which “tries to suck in the rest of the universe”. This would imply that gravity needs [a] an expanding universe & [b] a difference between “universal gravity / expansion” & “local gravity /expansion”. This would imply that if there was enough matter in the universe to halt expansion of the universe [We are a long way from finding that much matter!] it would also halt gravity! Matter would gradually become unstuck as gravity reduced! [3b] Because there is a difference between “universal gravity / expansion” & “local gravity /expansion” this would mean a difference in the differences on traveling from the centre of a galaxy, to the outer rim of a galaxy and further out into the inter-galactic regions within a local group of galaxies. Near the centre of a galaxy, a given mass would have a larger hold on nearby masses, appearing to give them more mass / inertia and hence slower velocities. The effect would taper off on moving away from the centre of a galaxy, leading to faster velocities towards the edge of galaxies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[164] viXra:1404.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-28 11:29:47

Superheavy Spherical Nuclei. Island of Stability

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 2 Pages. Manuscript has been accepted for review in Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics

In the present paper we show, that nuclei Os 192, Pt 198, Hg 198, Hg 200, Hg 201, Hg 204, Tl 205, Pb 206, Pb 207, At 210, Pa 231, Th 232, AcU 235, Np 237, Pu 240, Am 242, Cm 247, Ku 261, and more create an island of stability. Keywords: superheavy spherical nuclei, island of stability, sphere 192 PACS number: 21.60.-n
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[163] viXra:1404.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-24 14:33:47

Capacitance Definition in the Atomic Scale and Its Applications

Authors: Ali A. Elabd, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdel-Aziz T. Shalaby
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this letter we introduce the definition of the capacitance in the atomic scale. The capacitance in the atomic scale is the same as the macro scale but the electrodes will be the maximum probability sheets of finding the electron. Based on this definition, an electrical model – equivalent circuit – for atom's emission is presented and Hydrogen atom is taken as an example. The line spectra of Iron and Sodium are used to verify the model. Also the concept of capacitance property is introduced. It means the capacitance between the upper and lower quantum states of the valence and conduction band energies respectively.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[162] viXra:1404.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-21 11:43:40

32 Cosmic Energies and their Clifford Algebras

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 63 Pages. charts

In a recent paper, the author explained the function and purpose of Brahma in Vedic Nuclear Physics, in relation to the 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha Mandala, commonly used in Vastu Shasta, known as the Indian form of Feng Shui, but which predates that form by many millennia. This paper overlays a grid of Clifford Algebras and Matrix Algebras over this ancient 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha in an attempt to derive correspondence between the 32 deities of the Vastu Purusha and contemporary mathematical physics. Next, a hypothesis: having established the veracity of the 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha and its 32 deities, is it possible to draw isomorphic relationships between the matrix algebras, Clifford Algebras and ancient Vedic deities? This paper attempts to do so. In addition, the paper solves elementary questions about Five Elements and rotation of the Svas Tika.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[161] viXra:1404.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-20 13:18:27

Exotic Mesons, Hadrons and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[160] viXra:1404.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-18 23:54:28

Brahma In Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 28 Pages. 6 charts

Vedic Physics includes a theory of the emergence of matter from the invisible Substratum of Thaamic matter, into either the stable 8 x 8 Satwa Material or the dynamic 9 x 9 Raja form. Matter emerges in two dimensions from the Substratum, emerging at the very center of a circle, with the extrusion of tiny particles of Dark Matter through a central hole, at the logarithm of e, or the Euler Number. The extrusion of matter through the central hole exerts force on peripheral areas. This phenomenon helps to explain why Brahma is considered as the center of the Vedic Square, or the 9 x 9 Vastu Shastra, as well as the central No. 5 Square in the 3 x 3 Magic Square of Chinese divination, including Qi Men Dun Jia. The irony here is that Professor Minkowski has shown us the irrelevance of Minkowski Time. The appropriate temporal scheme for analysis of most phenomena is that based on Heavenly Stems and Earth Branches of sixty Jia Zi and the system of Na Yin, which includes Five Element information, founded on Base 60 Mathematics and used in China for millennia.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[159] viXra:1404.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-16 04:41:18

Spectral line Hα

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 7 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[158] viXra:1404.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-09 22:26:41

A Spiral Structure for Elementary Particles

Authors: Suraj Kumar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to deduce the possible origin of particle and evolution of their intrinsic properties through spiral dynamics. We consider some of the observations which include exponential mass function of particles following a sequence when fitted on logarithmic potential spiral, inwardly rotating spiral dynamics in Reaction-Diffusion System, the separation of Electron’s Spin-Charge-Orbit into quasi-particles. The paper brings a picture of particles and their Anti Particles in spiral form and explains how the difference in structure varies their properties. It also explains the effects on particles in Accelerator deduced through spiral dynamics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[157] viXra:1404.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-06 21:40:06

Internal Mechanics of Pair Production: Remanufacture of Discrete Fields in a NLHV Design

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 17 Pages.

A theory is presented for the deeper mechanics of pair production. The specific area under examination is the conversion of a photon into an electron-antielectron (positron) pair. The theory is conceptual in nature and is developed within the non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) framework of the Cordus theory. The explanation is given in terms of the remanufacture of the evanescent discrete fields of the photon into the electric fields of the electron and antielectron, and the corresponding emergence of those particules. Secondary outputs are that the theory is able to qualitatively explain recoil dependency on photon polarisation, and give a physical explanation for electron holes.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[156] viXra:1404.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-04 13:52:44

Initiating a Hypothetical Upgrade to Magnecules with Topological Deformation Order Parameters for Magnegas Fuel and Warm Nuclear Fusion

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda
Comments: 13 pages, 6 figures, submitted to the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we initiate an upgrade to Santilli's cutting-edge model of magnecules by further equipping it with order parameters of fractional statistics to encode the topological deformations, spontaneous superfluidic symmetry breaking, correlated helices with long range order, and wavepacket wavefunctions for the iso-electronium's toroidal polarizations. If this hypothesis is proven to be correct, then it should be feasible to apply these constructs to assist in the conceptual, theoretical, and experimental development of Santilli's new, sustainable, efficient, clean energy systems such as the MagneGas Fuel (MGF) and Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Fusion (ICNF)---also called "warm fusion"---in the near future. The initial results for the singlet planar coupling of two interlocked protium atoms support the hypothesis, which should be subjected to additional rigorous scrutiny and improvement via the scientific method.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[155] viXra:1404.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-02 19:48:18

The Spherical Solution of Schrödinger Equation Does not Agree with Any Experiment: Toward New Energy Methods Based on George Shpenkov’s Wave Equation

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 23 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In light of the fact that our world requires new energy supply in order to replace fossil based energy, then it seems that new theory is badly needed – because it is often true that new energy requires new theory. And new theory can only come from new insights. In this paper, I will review the inadequacy of spherical solution of Schrödinger equation to say anything about the structure of molecules. It is a common fact, that the spherical solution of Schrodinger equation is hardly discussed properly in many quantum mechanics textbooks, with excuse that it is too complicated. Then I will discuss George Shpenkov’s wave equation which is able to derive the periodic table of elements, and other phenomena related to the structure of molecules, which is an elusive dream from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. It is argued here that one can expect to arrive at new energy methods using this wave equation as starting point, for instance by virtue of resonance vibration theory. Nonetheless, it is not our view here that the Shpenkov’s wave equation can substitute wave mechanics completely, instead we prefer to say that it can be a complementary approach of wave mechanics. By referring to Schrödinger’s dream in his 1926 paper to find connection between his wave mechanics and vibration frequency, I think that Shpenkov’s wave equation can fulfill that dream.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[154] viXra:1404.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-02 20:04:36

Are Virtual Particles Really Constantly Popping in and Out of Existence? Can Laser Make Them Real?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

This article is summary of discussion in researchgate.net concerning possibility to use laser to create real particle from virtual particles (Schwinger effect).Virtual particles are indeed real particles. Quantum theory predicts that every particle spends some time as a combination of other particles in all possible ways. These predictions are very well understood and tested. Quantum mechanics allows, and indeed requires, temporary violations of conservation of energy, so one particle can become a pair of heavier particles (the so-called virtual particles), which quickly rejoin into the original particle as if they had never been there.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[153] viXra:1403.0945 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 09:46:20

The Relationship and Mechanism of Action Between “Zeeman Effect”, “Stark Effect” with “fine Even Hyperfine Structure”

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

If there exists relationship between the “Zeeman effect” and “Stark effect” with to “fine structure” and “hyperfine structure”.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[152] viXra:1403.0934 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 03:09:04

Origin of the Electron Bubbles, Twisters and Unidentified Electron Objects in Liquid Helium

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, on base of the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I calculated sizes and described mechanism of production of the electron bubbles and the quantized vortices/twisters in liquid helium. Calculated size of the electron bubbles is 2.1 nm whereas of the twisters is of the order of an angstrom (0.1 nm). The mechanism of trapping the electron bubbles by the tangles-bundles composed of the quantized twisters (they are the cores of the electron bubbles) is described as well. The Everlasting Theory leads as well to electron bubbles with smaller core (4 times smaller) which exist at very low temperatures and explode at larger pressure. Such objects are referred to as the unidentified electron objects. Obtained results are consistent or very close to experimental data.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[151] viXra:1403.0928 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 14:32:35

Femtotechnology. AB-matter. Properties, Stability, Possibility Production and Applications

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 20 Pages.

Designs of new forms of matter composed of nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles are detailed. This matter is measured in the femtometer (10-15 m) scale (“femtotechnology”), which is millions of times smaller than material on the nanometer (10-9 m) scale (“nanotechnology”). These new femto-needles, femto-tubes have extraordinary properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency and zero friction. All of these properties are magnified millions of times in comparison to those of conventional molecular matter. Applications include concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities such as invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. But many readers asked about stability of the nuclear matter. It is well-known that the conventional nuclear matter having more than 92 protons or more than 238 nucleons became instable. In given work the author shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. That artificial matter is made by men. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, stability and properties are necessary for creating them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[150] viXra:1403.0918 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 23:16:13

Pi-Theory of the Fundamental Physical Constants: Metrological Aspects

Authors: V.B. Smolenskiy
Comments: 6 Pages.

Presents original theoretical method of determination of fundamental physical constants developed under PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants. Given the finite formulas and calculations. Presents a table comparing the results of theoretical calculations with the data CODATA 2010.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[149] viXra:1403.0824 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:19:57

The Other Relativity Hidden in BOHR’S Atom!

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 22 Pages.

The cosmological constant as the biggest blunder of Einstein? I don’t think so. As I already said many times, his biggest blunder was that of taking into consideration a real fourth dimension. The Universe is three dimensional and will go on being so. All fourth components of relativity are those of the (three dimensional) falling towards the center of mass of the Universe. Below you can find the overwhelming proof from the well established atomic physics! Moreover, they go on supporting their full of holes Universe, with fourth dimensions, dark matter and energy, multidimensionality, multiple Universes (??), expansion contradicted by observations etc… My harmonic and oscillating Universe leads to a harmonic and oscillation based deduction of the Special Theory of Relativity and also of its extension (“Other Relativity”). Well, here below the overwhelming proof from the well established atomic physics!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[148] viXra:1403.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 22:23:48

Does the Sun's Core Consist of Iron Instead of Hydrogen?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 6 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

For years, scientists have assumed that the sun is an enormous mass of hydrogen. Galileo was the first to propose that the sun is filled with gas. But Dr. Oliver Manuel says iron, not hydrogen, is the sun's most abundant element. If his suggestion is true then it may imply that the source of solar energy is different of the presently held theory of hydrogen fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[147] viXra:1403.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 07:32:04

A Resolution of the Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 4 Pages.

Half a century old Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, has not been properly resolved as of now. We revive here, an old model of Sacks of a phenomenological exchange potential, which uses Majorana exchange potential idea to obtain the electric charge switching back and forth between a neutron-proton pair, thereby producing a current along the line joining them. Thus a modified charge current is required to fulfil a new continuity equation. This introduces a new term, completely missed out so far, in the binding energy difference in the mirror nuclei. Thus the above anomaly is resolved consistently within a completely nuclear physics framework.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[146] viXra:1403.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 09:56:34

Casimir Attraction Between Electrons

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a previous paper the author showed that the Casimir force between protons is strong enough to account for the nuclear force. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the Casimir force between two electrons computed by using a proximity force approximation is also strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The electrons are approximated as shells on the scale of the Compton wavelength, since their mass-energy has been shown to be consistent with a shell structure on that scale. It was determined that the Casimir force between two electrons is strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion such that there is a strong attraction between them. This is important as it gives us a mechanism to explain electron charge clustering.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[145] viXra:1403.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 22:21:39

Fallout Forecasts in Surface and Under Water Bursts

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 15 Pages.

Concise, brief 15-page fallout prediction model, covering both land surface and underwater nuclear explosions, radiation shielding by buildings, fallout solubility as function of particle size, retention on vegetation, gamma ray spectrum versus time, fractionation of fission products, salting by cobalt-60 etc., and effects of environmental neutron induced activities in fallout. Includes literature summaries and data reductions to formulae based on many reports.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[144] viXra:1403.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 09:29:36

Investigation of the Rhombic Triacontahedron as a Semi-Classical Particle Model

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

After the author determined that the mass of a proton and electron are equal to the vacuum energy excluded by a shell the size of their charge radii, it became important to find a particle model that forms a shell, since there is no commonly accepted shell-like model. A survey of all common geometric solids was undertaken and only the rhombic tricontahedron was identified as a likely candidate that would allow for a stable quasi-spherical form made of an unequal number of point charges, 12 outer and 20 inner. The electrostatic forces were then computed and it was found that the inward and outward forces cancelled to a large extent. The remaining inward directed force necessary for stability would have to be due to magnetic interactions, which should be possible given a modest amount of rotation. Consequently the rhombic triacontahedron is thought to be a promising semi-classical model for the electron and proton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[143] viXra:1403.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-04 09:06:12

The Proton Radius Puzzle and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[142] viXra:1403.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 20:04:31

Role of Nuclear Generation in Energy-Food-Water Security

Authors: S. J. Nettleton
Comments: 25 Pages.

Presentation to the University of Technology Sydney Food-Water-Energy Security Conference 13 July 2013 on the role of Generation IV integrated fast reactors in food, water, energy and environmental security
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[141] viXra:1403.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-02 09:08:35

The Nuclear Force Computed as the Casimir Effect Between Spheres

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility that the Casimir effect, normally very weak, is strong enough to be significant on the scale of nuclear forces around 1 femtometer (fm = 10-15m). Computations were performed for the Casimir effect between two spheres using a proximity force approximation. It was found that at 2.6 fm the computed Casimir force is strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion and at 0.8 fm it is 20 times stronger than Coulomb repulsion. These values indicate that this strong Casimir force is important on scales of distance consistent with the nuclear force. With refinement it appears likely that the strong Casimir force can account for the nuclear force in its entirety allowing unification of the nuclear force with quantum electrodynamic theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[140] viXra:1402.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-18 21:49:15

Analytical Method High-Precision Determination of Values of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: V.B. Smolenskiy
Comments: Pages.

Within the framework one created of by the author of this article Pi-Theory fundamental physical constants is expounded principally new analytical method high-precision determination of values of fundamental physical constants. Presents the formulae and the results of analytical calculations. Presents selected data CODATA 2010 and the results of their comparison with the calculations. Provides the analysis of the problems of theoretical determination of the numerical values of the fine structure constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[139] viXra:1401.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-24 21:13:18

Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion by Intermediate Rydberg State of Hydrogen: Selection of the Isotopes for Energy Optimization and Radioactive Waste Minimization

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to the General Science Journal

The main objection against cold fusion is based on the theoretical understanding that the Coulomb barrier of the very small nucleus is extremely strong. The size of the atomic nucleus is determined by scattering experiments in which a metal target is usually struck by alpha particles. These experiments yield only energy and angular resolution and their interpretation rely on the assumption that the atomic nuclei and all elementary particles are spherical. A non-spherical nucleus made of thinner non-spherical particles like a torus or a twisted or folded torus will provide similar data for a limited range of the particle energy. At the time of Rutherford, alpha particles with energy from 4 to 8 MeV were used. Modern scattering experiments with energy above 25 MeV show a sharp deviation from the Rutherford theory. They also show a wavelike shape of the scattering cross section as a function of scattering angle. A new interpretation of the scattering experiments leads to the idea that the Coulomb field near the nucleus has a manifold shape with a much larger overall size and therefore is not so strong. The BSM-SG models of atomic nuclei are in excellent agreement with this conclusion. Applying the approach described in the monograph Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion with BSM-SG atomic models, the highly exothermal process between nickel and hydrogen is analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that a proton capture may occur at an accessible temperature in a range of a few hundred degrees. The process is assisted by an intermediate state of hydrogen, known as the Rydberg atom, the magnetic field of which interacts constructively with the recipient nucleus if it is in a proper nuclear spin state. The final conclusion is that it is theoretically possible to obtain nuclear energy without radioactive waste by proper isotope selection of involved elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[138] viXra:1401.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-21 09:19:39

A New Model of Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

the paper put a new model of the atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[137] viXra:1401.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-20 19:56:08

About Theoretical Progress Analytical Determination of Values Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: V.B. Smolenskiy
Comments: Pages.

change of the name on V.B. Smolenskiy
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[136] viXra:1401.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-19 10:11:40

A New Model of the Atom

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put forward a new model of the atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[135] viXra:1401.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-11 07:10:21

Theoretical Determination of the Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: Brand New Unified Approach

Authors: V.B. Smolenskiy
Comments: Pages.

describes a fundamentally new unified approach theoretical determination of the values of the fundamental physical constants. Founded by the author of this article Pi-Theory of the fundamental physical constants (Pi-Theory) allows to determine the are all are dimensional constant with the accuracy of Rydberg's constant and dimensionless constants with any required accuracy. There are presented the results of analytical calculations. Comparison of the adduced data CODATA 2010 with datas of the Theory of fully confirms the theoretical calculations of the Theory. When theoretical determining the of the fine structure constant and abnormal magnetic moment of the electron is no need to use the method of successive approximations of the perturbation theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[134] viXra:1312.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-31 10:33:33

System, Apparatus, Method and Energy Product-by-Process for Resonantly-Catalyzing Nuclear Fusion Energy Release, and the Underlying Scientific Foundation

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 59 Pages. This is an international patent application filed by the author on December 31, 2013 for nuclear “resonant fusion” technology, based on the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles which the author has developed in a number of earlier papers.

A system and related apparatus, method and energy product-by-process for resonantly-catalyzing the release of nuclear fusion energy, comprising: a nuclear fuel; a high-frequency gamma radiation source producing gamma radiation proximate at least one of the resonant frequencies corresponding to m_u, m_d, sqrt(m_u m_d), (m_u+m_d)/2, m_u/(2pi^1.5), m_d/(2pi)^1.5, sqrt(m_u m_d)/(2pi)^1.5, (m_u+m_d)/2(2pi)^1.5, integer harmonic multiples of said resonant frequencies, and sums of said resonant frequencies and said integer harmonic multiples, wherein m_u is the current rest mass of the up quark and m_d is the current rest mass of the down quark; and said gamma radiation source configured in relation to said nuclear fuel so as to subject said nuclear fuel to said gamma radiation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[133] viXra:1312.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-26 03:50:56

Microwod 16. Thermonuclear Problem: Case Study

Authors: Nikolay Leonov
Comments: 10 Pages. English and russian texts

The quantum interpretation of energy output reactions in a “hydrogen” bomb is wrong. Using tokomaks in engineering of controlled light nuclear power reactors is unpromising.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[132] viXra:1312.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-23 14:48:07

Body-Centred-Cubic (BCC) Lattice Model of Nuclear Structure

Authors: Gamal A.Nasser Gabr
Comments: 20 Pages.

This model is development of solid nuclear models. Like FCC model, this model can account for nuclear properties that have been explained by different models. This model gives more accurate explanation for some nuclear properties which are Asymmetric fission, Nuclear binding energy and the most bound nuclei, Natural radioactivity and Number of neutrons in nuclei depending on the structures of these nuclei. The structures of nuclei in this model have special advantage, as there is separation between lattice positions of similar nucleons giving new concept for nuclear force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[131] viXra:1312.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-23 04:05:05

Microwold 15. Quantum Physics Status

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Quantum physics is an approximate theory of the microworld. Its application is limited due to refusal to consider ether resistance to motion of microobjects and negligence of magnetic interactions among the same.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[130] viXra:1312.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-21 06:07:53

A Gauge Theory of Nucleonic Interactions by Contact

Authors: Nicolae Mazilu, Maricel Agop
Comments: 14 Pages.

A gauge theory of contact is presented, based on the general idea that the local deformation of the nucleon surface at contact should be gauged by the variation of curvature. A contact force is then defined so as to cope with both the variation of curvature, and the deformation. This force generalizes the classical definition of surface tension, in that it depends on the mean curvature, but also depends on the variance of the second fundamental form of surface, considered as a statistical variable over the ensemble of contact spots. It turns out that the variance of the second fundamental form does not depend but on the metric of the space of curvature parameters, organized as Riemann space. This result compels us to review the definition of physical surface of a nucleon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[129] viXra:1312.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-03 05:01:11

Microwold 14. is Our Universe a “Black Hole”?

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages. English and russian texts

Could it be possible that our Universe is one of numerous “black holes” in the material world?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[128] viXra:1312.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-02 14:33:14

Stability and Production Super-Strong AB-matter

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

In works [1-3] author offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. In given work he continues to study the problem of a stability and production this matter. He shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, properties, stability and production are necessary for creating them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] viXra:1311.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-29 04:40:14

Microwold 12. Self-Acceleration of Matter

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages. English and russian texts

capability of self-acceleration is a feature of electrons, neutrons, protons, electron-antielectron dipoles etc
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[126] viXra:1311.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-25 04:48:10

Microwold 11. Neutron Interactions

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The article sets forth the identification procedure for parameters of the formula for quantitative description of neutron interactions. There is a description for an objective mechanism of “mass defect” formation given.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[125] viXra:1311.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-19 12:40:31

Electromagnetic Method for Blocking the Action of Neutrons, Alpha-Particles, Beta-Particles and Gamma-Rays Upon Atomic Nuclei.

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we show an electromagnetic method for blocking the action of external neutrons, alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays upon atomic nuclei. This method can be very useful for stopping nuclear fissions, as the chain reactions that occur inside a nuclear fission reactor, and also those nuclear fissions that continue occurring, and generating heat (decay heat) , even after the shut down of the reactor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[124] viXra:1311.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-08 05:20:04

Microwold 10. Neutrino

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The hypothesis of neutrino existence is wrong.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[123] viXra:1310.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-30 08:36:53

Microwold 8. Magnetism of Electron, Neutron and Proton

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[122] viXra:1310.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-24 15:44:36

Thermonuclear Operation Space Lift

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 18 Pages. This paper was rejected by arXiv

The “Project Orion” small fission bomb propulsion concept proposed the one-stage launching of large payloads into low earth orbit, but it was abandoned because of the radioactive fallout into the earth atmosphere. The idea is here revived by the replacement of the small fission bombs with pure deuterium-tritium fusion bombs, and the pusher plate of the Project Orion with a large magnetic mirror. The ignition of the thermonuclear fusion reaction is done by the transient formation of keV super-explosives under the high pressure of a convergent shock wave launched into liquid hydrogen propellant by a conventional high explosive.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[121] viXra:1310.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-20 02:34:13

Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative Nuclear Mechanics from a NLHV Design

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: Pages. Published as: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2013). Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 5(6), 145-174. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145

It has long been expected in physics that there should be causality from the strong nuclear force to nuclear structures, but the mechanisms have been unknown. The present work addresses this problem, by developing a theory based on a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design, that explains the nuclides from the synchronous interaction (strong force) upwards. The basis of the Cordus nuclear theory is that the nucleus consists of a nuclear polymer bonded by the synchronous interaction (strong force). Three-nucleon physics are accommodated, in the form of bridge neutrons across the nuclear polymer. The requirements for nuclide stability are identified as the need to have a nuclear polymer that consists entirely of cis-phasic synchronous bonds, and also a spatially viable layout. Only certain identified layouts are viable. The Cordus nuclear theory successfully explains, for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon, why any nuclide is stable, unstable, non-viable or non-existent. It explains why some elements have multiple nuclides, and others only one. The theory also explains the deviations from the p=n line, why 1H0 and 2He1 are stable with low neutron counts, why 4Be4 and 9F9 are unstable, and why heavier elements require more neutrons than protons for stability. It explains relative stability (lateral trends with one nuclide series), including the anomalous progressions (i.e. those situations where one nuclide is unexpectedly much more or less stable than its neighbouring nuclides). The theory also explains why the limits of stability are where they are. It explains the patterns of stability in the table of nuclides, such as the runs of stable isotopes and stable isotones. Thus the nuclide landscape may be explained by morphological considerations based on a NLHV design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[120] viXra:1310.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-17 02:24:09

Microwold 13. Material World Structure

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The material world objects are infinitely divisible. The material world structure consists of an infinite set of matter organization levels. Primary objects of all levels are similar to each other in their properties but significantly differ in size. Various matter organization levels are built according to the same pattern but microworld and macroworld.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[119] viXra:1310.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 03:12:06

The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Nuclear Physics and the Substratum

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 47 Pages. some photos and charts

The Egyptian Book of the Dead, a collection of coffin texts, has long been thought by Egyptologists to describe the journey of the soul in the afterlife, or the Am Duat. In fact, the so – called Book of the Dead describes the invisible Substratum, the “black hole” form of matter to which all matter returns, and from which all matter arises. The hieroglyphics of the Papyrus of Ani, for example, do not describe the journey of the soul, but the creation of the atom. This paper gives evidence for the very Ancient Egyptians as having knowledge of a higher mathematics than our own civilization, including the Exceptional Lie Algebras E6 and G2, the Octonions and Sedenions, as well as the Substratum and the nuclear processes that occur there. The Osiris myth represents a general re – telling of the nuclear processes which occur within the Substratum, the invisible “black hole” form of matter.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[118] viXra:1310.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 02:30:31

The New Nuclear Magic Number (34) Explained by the Coaxial Ring System of Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

Proposal for an atomic nuclear coaxial ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic, including the newest number of 34 nucleons found by RIBF/Riken Japan (October 2013). The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei. We found interesting coaxial ring solutions, which were not only able to match the sequence of magic number numerology in a surprising way, but also able to explain the newest discovery of an extra magic number 34.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[117] viXra:1310.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 02:29:33

Microwold 9. Unknown 3Не

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages. English and russian texts

Quantum theory has been proven to have basically nо information on 3Не existence conditions and properties.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[116] viXra:1310.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-12 02:45:54

Clifford Clock and the Moolakaprithi Cube

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 50 Pages. 3 charts

Matter begins with the Clifford Clock at the border of the Substratum state; then can be traced through to the Moolaprakrithi state. Along the way, this paper traces the Trigrams of Chinese metaphysics to the Clifford Clock and the Clock of Complex Spaces, the binary aspects of the trigrams and the binary aspects of the Octonions and the Fano Plane, then the construction of the 3 x 3 x 3 Cube from the Trigrams; then isomorphic relations between the Cube and the Klein Quartic and the Sierspinski Triangle; Clifford Algebras and their organization via Pascal’s Triangle (Zhang Hui’s Triangle or Mount Meru); connections to the Magic Triangle of Exceptional Lie Algebras which terminates with E8.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[115] viXra:1310.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-10 04:47:49

Microwold 7. Electromagnetic Atomic Radiation Frequency Spectrum Mechanism

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The mechanism of electromagnetic atomic radiation frequency spectrum has been described
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[114] viXra:1310.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-08 02:35:30

Microwold 6. Magnetism in the Macroworld and in the Microworld

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts

Diamagnetism prevails in the microworld. We have described mechanisms of macroscopic paramagnetism and macroscopic diamagnetism occurrence from microscopic diamagnetism.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[113] viXra:1310.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-03 10:26:56

Super – Conductivity in Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 41 Pages. 3 Charts

Vedic Physics theory posits that Super Conductivity occurs amidst the 18 types of Quarks in the Thaamic type of matter, known as the Substratum, A.K.A. “Black Hole.” Specifically, Super Conductivity occurs at at an approximate phase - related velocity, between the 4th.and 6th power of light velocity, identified as Moha Thaama to Andha Thaama states. These states correspond to the Quark and Planck Mass phenomena in contemporary physics. Moreover, the phenomena described herein may help to explain the mysterious radio waves detected since the 1990’s from M82 and M87 in 2010.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[112] viXra:1310.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-01 21:33:52

Nuclear Polymer: Spatial Arrangement of Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus

Authors: Dirk Pons, Arion Pons, Aiden Pons
Comments: 20 Pages.

A theory is developed for the physical layout of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, starting from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for the strong force. Specifically, the paper shows the application of the Cordus mechanics for the synchronous interaction (strong force) to nuclear structure. This interaction provides for different types of synchronous bonds based on frequency phase, and thus predicts that protons and neutrons have several bonding options and hence spatial interactions. Given that in this NLHV design the nucleons also have physical size, these interactions have consequences for the shapes that the assembly takes. The theory predicts that the nucleus structure is an assembly of rod-like structures into three-dimensional chains of protons and neutrons, hence nuclear polymer. The principles of this mechanics are sketched out, and successfully applied to explain the stability trends and discontinuities in the helium nuclides.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[111] viXra:1309.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 18:07:16

Femtotechnology. AB-matter. Properties, Possibility Production and Applications

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 14 Pages.

Designs of new forms of matter composed of nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles are detailed. This matter is measured in the femtometer (10-15 m) scale (“femtotechnology”), which is millions of times smaller than material on the nanometer (10-9 m) scale (“nanotechnology”). This new Femtotubes has extraordinary properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency and zero friction. All of these properties are magnified millions of times in comparison to those of conventional molecular matter. Applications include concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities such as invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. Key words: femtotechnology, nuclear matter, artificial AB-Matter, Femtotubes, super strength matter, superthermal resistance, invisible matter, super-protection from nuclear explosion and radiation. * Presented to WEB the Cornel University http://arxiv.org on February 2009.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[110] viXra:1309.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 18:26:52

Nuclear AB-Generator and its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator. Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket. * Initial version was presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2–5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[109] viXra:1309.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 19:01:05

Artificial Explosion of Sun and AB-Criterion for Solar Detonation

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin with Joseph Friedlander
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Sun contains ~74% hydrogen by weight. The isotope hydrogen-1 (99.985% of hydrogen in nature) is a usable fuel for fusion thermonuclear reactions. This reaction runs slowly within the Sun because its temperature is low (relative to the needs of nuclear reactions). If we create higher temperature and density in a limited region of the solar interior, we may be able to produce self-supporting detonation thermonuclear reactions that spread to the full solar volume. This is analogous to the triggering mechanisms in a thermonuclear bomb. Conditions within the bomb can be optimized in a small area to initiate ignition, then spread to a larger area, allowing producing a hydrogen bomb of any power. In the case of the Sun certain targeting practices may greatly increase the chances of an artificial explosion of the Sun. This explosion would annihilate the Earth and the Solar System, as we know them today. The reader naturally asks: Why even contemplate such a horrible scenario? It is necessary because as thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear missile weapons can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)— an artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity. It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator‘s defense industry) as being built for peaceful, deterrent use. Those concerned about Man‘s future must know about this possibility and create some protective system—or ascertain on theoretical grounds that it is entirely impossible. Humanity has fears, justified to greater or lesser degrees, about asteroids, warming of Earthly climate, extinctions, etc. which have very small probability. But all these would leave survivors --nobody thinks that the terrible annihilation of the Solar System would leave a single person alive. That explosion appears possible at the present time. In this paper is derived the ‗AB-Criterion‘ which shows conditions wherein the artificial explosion of Sun is possible. The author urges detailed investigation and proving or disproving of this rather horrifying possibility, so that it may be dismissed from mind—or defended against. Key words: Artificial explosion of Sun, annihilation of solar system, criterion of nuclear detonation, nuclear detonation wave, detonate Sun, artificial supernova. * J. Friedlander corrected the author‘s English, wrote together with author Abstract, Sections 8, 10 (―Penetration into Sun‖ and ―Results‖), and wrote Section 11 ―Discussion‖ as the solo author
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[108] viXra:1309.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-19 02:59:29

Microwold 5. Photon Structure, Excited Atom, Cosmic Radiation

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts

There has been the structure of photon identified and the structure and form of stable existence of excited atom described. There have been causes for probabilistic description of an excited atom lifetime determined and the nature of cosmic radiation disclosed along with the reasons for the impossibility of identifying its sources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[107] viXra:1309.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 04:25:24

Microwold 4. Superfluidity of Helium

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages. English and Russian texts

At extremely low temperatures liquid helium contains atoms in which electron and nucleus are arranged on the same straight line and both electrons are from the same side of the nucleus. The existence of such atoms allows for gaining a simple, eye-minded understanding of all amazing properties of superfluid helium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[106] viXra:1309.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-11 03:42:17

The Relation of Color Charge to Electric Charge

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

The relation of color charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of P.A.M. Dirac.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[105] viXra:1309.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 01:57:33

Atom Model and Relativity

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 8 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyper fine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[104] viXra:1309.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-08 04:28:57

The Relation of Colour Charge to Electric Charge

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

The relation of colour charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of Dirac.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[103] viXra:1309.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-05 06:53:59

Microword 3. Non-Excited Atom

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 8 pages

Nuclei of stable atoms feature stable statically equilibrium configurations of their nucleons. A nucleus magnetic field consists of separate nucleonic magnetic clusters. A stable nucleus charge number Z is equal to the number of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus. Electrons of a stable non-excited atom are located on axial lines of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus and form a statically equilibrium system. “Electron shell” of a non-excited atom can take various forms depending on ambient temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[102] viXra:1309.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-03 21:32:08

Proton-Neutron Bonds in Nuclides: Cis and Trans-Phasic Assembly with the Synchronous Interaction

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 26 Pages.

Existing theories are unable to build nuclear structures from the strong interaction upwards. This limitation applies to quantum chromodynamics, binding energies, the shell model, liquid-drop model, and the semi-empirical mass formula. This paper solves part of this problem, starting from a non-local hidden variable (NLHV) design solution. The Cordus theory for the synchronous interaction (strong force is used to predict that protons and neutrons may form different types of bonds, with different stability. Specifically the synchronous interaction is found to be able to assemble particules in- and out-of-phase (cis- and trans-phasic respectively). We identify the role of the neutrons in nuclear bonding, and how the proton and neutron are bonded, and the advantages to both in doing so. In contrast to conventional models of the nucleus, the Cordus theory predicts that protons in stable nuclei are not bound directly together, nor in an amorphous collection (liquid drop), nor as shells, but rather through neutrons as intermediaries. The neutrons provide a set of discrete forces that are complementary to those of the proton, and it is the resulting synchronicity of discrete forces that creates the stable bonding within the nucleus, and has nothing to do with charge per se. Falsifiable predictions are identified. The internal structures of the hydrogen nuclides are derived. The work is significant in that it provides underpinning principles for explaining nuclear bonding and the nuclides. The implications are that nucleus structure is not a simple assembly of points, nor a packing of spheres, but an assembly of rod-like structures into three-dimensional chains of protons and neutrons, hence nuclear polymer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[101] viXra:1308.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-27 02:46:41

Microworld 1. Wave-Corpuscle Duality in Macroworld and in Microworld:similarities and Dissimilarities

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper identifies the substantial nature of microworld wave-corpuscle duality and sets out fundamental differences between the microworld and macroworld wave-corpuscle duality.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[100] viXra:1308.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-19 06:26:52

High Temperature Core Creation in the P-N Junction of Semiconductor Devices and Its Usage for Fusion

Authors: Vesellin Tashev, Angel Manev, Dimitar Valev
Comments: 7 Pages.

The growing number of nuclear power plants confronts scientists with the problem to increase significantly the proportion of the public security. This requirement gradually makes the projects expensive and unacceptable for energy production. This problem motivates the researchers to generate a variety of ideas, some of them rather exotic at first glance. The utilization of thermonuclear synthesis is part of the efforts to obtain cheap, safe and clean energy. Unfortunately, the fundamental projects for building fusion reactors encounter significant difficulties at this stage. A number of scientists attempt to improve the existing know-how. Others try to realize fundamentally new ideas to control the fusion. The goal of such proposal is in the realization of many consecutive micro-thermonuclear explosions, so that the energy to be absorbed in small portions without destroying the power plant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[99] viXra:1308.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-12 09:57:59

General Weak Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[98] viXra:1308.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-08 09:28:34

The Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[97] viXra:1308.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-06 06:09:24

Thermonuclear Problem: Case Study (Термоядерная проблема:ситуационный анализ)

Authors: Nikolay Leonov
Comments: 10 Pages.

The quantum interpretation of energy output reactions in a “hydrogen” bomb is wrong. Using tokomaks in engineering of controlled light nuclear power reactors is unpromising. (Квантовое понимание реакций выделения энергии в «водородной» бомбе ошибочно. Высокотемпературный разогрев ядерного вещества необходим только для получения взрывного выделения энергии. Использование токамаков для построения управляемых энергетических реакторов на легких ядрах бесперспективно.)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[96] viXra:1308.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-01 21:25:22

Semi-Fundamental Abundance of the Elements

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 16 Pages. email me genebarbee@msn.com

Fusion is an important process in nature. It determines primordial helium and abundance of other elements measured throughout the universe. Fusion powers the sun and is important in aging of the stars and other high density, high temperature processes. The author developed a mass/information model of the neutron and proton in reference [1]. The model was extended to a binding energy model for atoms in reference [2] and the fundamental information from the model was applicable to fusion in general. Specifically the author developed fusion equations that followed the same theme found in the early references, i.e. description of nature based on information and probabilities. Of particular interest was a model that was largely independent of measured parameters and based on fundamentals of atomic binding energy model. Reference [3] presented a temperature history for expansion that was similar to other cosmologies but energy in the proton mass model [1] did not support “near infinite” temperatures at “time zero”. A short time later (on the order of hundredths of seconds) the author’s proposal does produce temperatures in the range of 1e9K, except the energy is related to neutron decay. Plasma exists until the temperature drops enough to allow electrons to form orbits around protons. Eventually acoustic and gravitational forces become dominant and accumulation of mass into clusters, galaxies and clusters begins. The concentration process later allows stars to “light up” with fusion when they become dense and hot. This is known in the literature as re-ionization. Stars burn up their hydrogen and follow a well documented aging cycle that depends on the kinetics of progressive fusion reactions. Literature cites measurements regarding the abundance of the heavy elements [11] that are produced by these reactions. Fusion and heavy element formation are well studied but the author believes that the approach presented herein is almost fundamental. The main empirical factor is the amount of material subjected to the high temperature conditions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[95] viXra:1308.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-01 10:34:34

On Quarks, Nuclei and Boron-10 Neutron Capture

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 7 Pages.

The quark make-up of protons and neutrons is discussed. Neutrons that give protons and electrons must be composed of “Combo Up or Down” quarks. The neutral baryons of stable nuclei do not contain “Combo quarks”. An alpha particle containing a “Combo quark” is not the same as an electron-stripped He-4 atom which contains none. Since the mass of Up and Down quarks constitute less than 1% of the total mass of baryons, the remainder mass of these must be non-particulate mass, herein called “fat”. Dumbbell models of the stable positive and neutral baryons are presented. Using these baryonic dumbbells, the extraordinary ability of the Boron-10 nucleus to capture neutrons is modeled.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[94] viXra:1307.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-20 19:58:44

A Fundamental Model of Atomic Binding Energy

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 9 Pages. Other papers are in Cosmology and Relativity section

A Top-down approach to Fundamental Interactions, viXra:1307.0082 [2] presents the author’s attempt to “crack the information theory code” underlying nature. Once the energy components were understood, a model for the neutron and proton was developed. It is presented in Reference 2 and repeated below under the next heading. Using reference 1 for gravity, reference 2 also proposes an approach to unification of the four forces. The proton model shows that there is a 10.15 mev orbit that losses energy and is responsible for the binding energy curve. This paper contains the analysis. Literature cites “water drop” models for binding energy that are admittedly empirical. Quantum physicists have suggested that there should be “electron like” shells inside atoms but to the author’s knowledge they remain unclear. If there are shells the nucleons should fall into lower energy states releasing the remainder as binding energy. The author explored this possibility. Empirically, the model was successful but no explanation could be found for why a nucleon occupied a given shell. The first part of the binding energy curve rises quickly and then levels off as saturation occurs. When the author compared the shape of the curve to a probability based model a fundamental relationship was discovered. The relationship is almost identical to the fundamentals presented in reference 2.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[93] viXra:1306.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-27 16:42:59

Mapping the 10B, 9Be, 10Be, 11B, 11C, 12C and 14N Binding Energies with High Precision based Exclusively on the Up and Down Quark Masses

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 10 Pages.

We extend the results of two recent letters by expressing the 10B, 9Be, 10Be, 11B, 11C, 12C and 14N binding energies, each independently and each to about parts-per-million or small parts-per-100,000 accuracy in AMU, exclusively as a function of the up and down current quark masses.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[92] viXra:1306.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-25 08:31:22

Fitting the 6Li, 7Li, 7Be and 8Be Binding Energies to High Precision based Exclusively on the Up and Down Quark Masses

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 12 Pages.

We extend the results of an earlier recent letter by expressing the 6Li, 7Li, 7Be and 8Be binding energies, each independently and each to about parts-per-million or small parts-per-100,000 accuracy, exclusively as a function of the up and down current quark masses.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[91] viXra:1306.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-24 23:25:20

Fitting the 2H, 3H, 3He, 4He Binding Energies and the Neutron minus Proton Mass Difference to Parts-Per-Million based Exclusively on the Up and Down Quark Masses

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 10 Pages.

We report a method for expressing the 2H, 3H, 3He and 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference, each independently and each to about parts-per-million accuracy, exclusively as a function of the up and down current quark masses. In the process, the precision with which these quark masses are predicted is improved by a factor of at least six orders of magnitude beyond the best presently-known data.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[90] viXra:1306.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-10 10:14:38

Counterfeit/obsolete Equipment and Nuclear Safety Issues of Vver-1000 Reactors at Kudankulam, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, K Sahadevan, Raminder Kaur, Christopher Busby, M Sabir, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 15 Pages. Keywords: Counterfeit reactor equipment, Nuclear Safety, Global Catastrophic Risk, Reactor Pressure Vessel, Core Damage Frequency, Radiological Disaster, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant, VVER-1000, obsolete reactor equipment.

Counterfeit equipment is becoming a major threat to nuclear safety globally. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) in India housing two VVER-1000 reactors, imported from Russia is being delayed because of counterfeit, substandard and obsolete equipment. The polar crane, the limb of the reactor, is defective as its hoisting capacity is less than 80% of its nameplate capacity. The crane is used for installing the equipment inside the reactor building and also for removing spent fuel. The contract said that there will be no weld in the beltline of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The received vessels have two circumferential welds on the beltline. RPV, the heart of the reactor is irreplaceable and hence determines the life of the reactor. RPV and polar crane are safety grade equipment. The core-damage frequency(CDF) of the reactor in the contract was 10e−7reactor-years, while the supplied reactor has a CDF of 10e−5reactor-years. Two units of generator transformers were received as damaged and these were dismantled and reassembled at the site. This paper finds evidences of the unethical practices of sale and use of obsolete and counterfeit reactor equipment and discusses the global catastrophic risks with reference to the international nuclear safety standards.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[89] viXra:1306.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-08 23:10:42

On Space Bombs

Authors: S. Kalimuthu
Comments: 3 Pages. This is only a proposal.And the road to space bombs is TOO and TOO long.

The space is not empty.It is full of energy.According to the law of conversation of energy, one form of energy can be converted in to another form.In this work, the author proposes to make space bombs out of space enrgy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[88] viXra:1305.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-30 09:45:05

Rresearch of Strange Phase in Fusion-Fission Nuclei

Authors: Giancarlo Gazzoni
Comments: 29 Pages.

Empirical semi-classical decay beta decays to electron capture, and phenomena of "cold fusion" This article discusses a statistic empirical decays beta, derived from macroscopic observables. In this way, we can find and "isolate" sensitive variables which determine the frequency of decay of nuclei. and we can begin to understand how to intervene "to artificially change the natural rates of decay, and find ways to decay, fission and fuse nuclei in energy conditions" cold " We can identify the underlying mechanism that allows type of decays, and to understand why the phenomena of decay, for  +  for electron capture and decay  are driven by the same basic principles we can understand the mysterious mechanisms of the so-called Cold Fusion., and explains how to re nuclear fusions occur in environments with very low density energy. We can understand how the nuclei, using energy "environmental concentration is not high, can have behaviors that seem to be possible only for large energies, The statistics electro - weak are based on the assumption that every phenomenological decay electroweak, must be mediated by Higgs bosons decaying into Z ° and W ∓ , And produce a phase strange, The quarks change flavor, in the interaction of Z ° bosons created by the excitement of the local vacuum, and that modify the stangeness of quarks, which decay into down and up with the issue of W bosons ∓ and modification of electrical charge.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[87] viXra:1305.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-30 09:54:37

Reseach of Strange Phase in Fission Fusion Nuclei-2 Part

Authors: Giancarlo Gazzoni
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper we approach the problem with a simple empirical observations of the fluctuations Energy under vacuum, nuclei to higt atomic number, and nuclear interactions That affect them, including the phenomena called cold fusion, We are led to believe that the oscillations of the electrons induce fluctuations in energy nuclei. With changes in energy density of the core, density variations involving definition of space between quarks and production of Higgs bosons, which decay rapidly in Z ° bosons, W bosons decaying into The problem of mergers and fission induced by cold nuclear phenomena, has been addressed in the first part of the article where they took into account nuclei with atomic number less than 4. The central point is that it takes vortices of electrons and nuclei, for nuclear reactions and mergers cold. With simple analogy with what happens in the vortex elements, and elemental analysis, we can assume vortex structures with fairly ordered, with average temperatures components of very similar. At the center of the vortex, the nuclei components can have temperatures similar enough, we can assume a state BEC for nuclei in the center of the vortex. In this case, we can assume that the fields axion produced by exchange between quarks of different nuclei in quasi-BEC and composed of photons super-luminal, may be in a state very excited, very strong, and can have a range of microns. The vortices then, can range from the size of microns to nano-meters .. The same state is conceivable BEC is obtained from exchanges assionici very strong, we can assume that trade even if the components of micrometric crystals, and in Mossbauer phenomenon .. With this approach, very simply , we obtain results that confirm the observations made from the analysis of the behavior of nuclei with atomic number less than 4. The results are the same, with a possible explanation of the phenomenon in the fullness of time decay alpha, beta and fission. We use this empirical approximations for a rigorous mathematical analysis, according to the standard parameters, involves the use of 19 free parameters standard, +9 parameters for the oscillation energy vacuum quasi-standard + 7 parameters for the Higgs bosons, + 100 parameters for self-interaction with the Higgs fields.(SUSY semplice) we must proceed with empirical experiments, for statistics calculated behavior.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[86] viXra:1305.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-26 17:32:33

Study On the Capacitance Between Orbitals and Atoms Modeling

Authors: Ali A. Elabd, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdel-Aziz T. Shalaby
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the assumption that the orbital or energy level of an electron can be considered as an electrode of a tunnel junction. Based on this assumption, an electrical model – equivalent circuit – for atom's emission is presented and Hydrogen atom is taken as an example. Also the line spectra of Iron and Sodium are used to verify the model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[85] viXra:1305.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-27 03:41:18

Differentiation of Matter and Antimatter by Hand: Internal and External Structures of the Electron and Antielectron

Authors: Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons, Aiden J Pons
Comments: 18 Pages.

A previous conceptual work, called the Cordus conjecture, has proposed a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for the photon, and thereby proposed a solution to photon entanglement and wave-particle duality. This paper applies a systems design approach to extend the theory to matter, specifically to differentiate between the matter-antimatter species. This concept rests on two premises: that particules have span (physical separation between reactive ends); and that their externally emitted discrete forces have an energisation sequence. Specific hidden-variable models are proposed for the electron, positron, and proton. This concept provides a better explanation of the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. It also provides foundational concepts from which new solutions to other problems, like annihilation and baryogenesis, can be envisaged. The Cordus theory goes beyond conventional NLHV solutions, such as the de Broglie-Bohm model, by offering a solution not only for the inner contents of a particle, the hidden variables, but also predicting how its discrete fields operate. This theory provides a physically natural explanation for spin, handedness, chirality, and related directional attributes of particles, which are otherwise only abstract concepts in quantum mechanics. The theory also explains parity violation, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. This work makes a conceptual contribution of presenting a new concept of handedness and the matter-antimatter species differentiation. It demonstrates the potential of hidden-variable designs to provide solutions of high explanatory power.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[84] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-18 23:31:00

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[83] viXra:1305.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-08 16:17:08

Evidencing ‘Tight Bound States’ in the Hydrogen Atom: Empirical Manipulation of Large-Scale XD in Violation of QED

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso, Jean Pierre Vigier
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this work we extend Vigier’s recent theory of ‘tight bound state’ (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a ‘super quantum potential’ extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a ‘force of coherence’ inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[82] viXra:1304.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 05:46:41

Nuclear Binding Energy, Fission and Fusion: Obviating a ‘Thermodynamic Ponzi Scheme’. A Historical Perspective

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 30 Pages.

It is argued that the scale of atomic masses rests far too heavily on two possibly dubious pieces of evidence. These are the nineteenth-century determination of the atomic weight of hydrogen, and early mass spectrographic work on the determination of atomic masses. The determination of the atomic weight of hydrogen is possibly prone to overestimation because of adventitious enrichment in deuterium during the experimental procedure. The mass spectrographic work is likely to be susceptible to both systemic and theoretical errors deriving from the assumptions employed; it is also possibly enmeshed in the confusion between the (then prevailing) chemical and physical scales of atomic weight. All these ambiguities may well have led to a dubious confirmation of the atomic mass of hydrogen. The idea of the ‘mass defect’, deriving from this work, formed a corner-stone of the subsequently developed theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus. A particular problem with the mass-defect idea is that, by mass-energy equivalence, heavier atoms would be less stable than lighter ones. (Thus, the mass defect may well be an artefact deriving from the inherent inaccuracies of early mass-spectrographic studies.) All this has apparently led to a dubious theory of nuclear structure. Thus, the balance between the electrostatic and strong forces should favour the latter with increasing atomic mass – contrary to current theory, which apparently neglects to take account of the predominance of nearest-neighbour interactions between nucleons. Consequently, the origins of nuclear energy, whether by fission or fusion, seem unclear. Taken as a whole, these arguments indicate a fundamental reappraisal of current theoretical ideas: It would appear that mass-energy equivalence may be involved more fundamentally and insidiously in the generation of nuclear energy; it is also possible that the radionuclides arise by the malformation of nuclei during their creation, a consequence of their mass and size.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[81] viXra:1304.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 00:56:38

The Jiang Periodic Table of the Elements

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 4 Pages.

using the stable number theory we calculate the best electron configurations of elements and not from experimental data.WE make the Jiang periodic table of the elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[80] viXra:1304.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 12:05:13

Atom, Avogadro Number and Atomic Cosmology

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai
Comments: 12 Pages.

If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic matter ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The proposed basic idea is - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. By highlighting the six major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four possible assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant or the classical gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s angular momentum. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained Hubble’s constant is (67.88 to 71.41) km/sec/Mpc and is very close to the recommended value. This is a remarkable coincidence and seems to play a vital role in future unified physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[79] viXra:1303.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-25 00:50:21

The Cubic Atomic Model

Authors: Franklin Hu
Comments: 10 Pages.

A new atomic model is described which builds atoms out of alternating protons and electrons. Unlike the currently accepted planetary atomic model developed by Bohr and Rutherford, the nucleus is not a compact sphere of protons and neutrons which are surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Rather, the atoms are built up like Lego bricks into octahedral shapes. These shapes give rise to locations on the atoms for other atoms to dock and form molecules. These shapes also explain many of the observed properties of the atoms such as the observed ionization energies, spectra, fission fragments and the allowed isotopes for an atom. This model eliminates the need for the strong force and significantly simplifies our understanding of how atoms are constructed using only the electrostatic force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[78] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-23 05:24:48

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 5 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[77] viXra:1303.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-18 02:19:33

On the Estimation of Nuclear Force and Theoretical Mass of Proton

Authors: Kapil Chandra
Comments: 5 Pages.

We proposed a new expression for force to estimate the numerical amount of nuclear force, this is the most fundamental forces of nature and its gives us the theoretical mass of proton and electron, followed by the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Through it, we also determined the size of nucleus, we believe, this work be helpful to understand the evolution of first atom after the Big-Bang
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[76] viXra:1303.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-03 04:24:08

A Quark-Independent Description of Confinement

Authors: Nicolae Mazilu
Comments: 21 Pages.

Currently the quantitative description of confinement inside nuclear matter is exclusively limited to computer experiments, mainly on lattices, and concentrating upon calculating the static potential. There is no independent reference for comparison and support of the results, especially when it comes to the quark potential in the continuum limit. Yet, we are entitled to be optimistic, for the basic results of these calculations seem to be correct from an entirely different point of view, suggested by Manton’s geometrization of Skyrme theory. The present work shows the reasons of this point of view, and offers a static potential that might serve as independent reference for comparison and endorsement of any lattice calculations, and in fact of any structural hypotheses of nuclear matter. A historical review of the pertinent key moments in the history of modeling of nuclear matter, as well as an outlook anticipating the necessary future work, close the argument.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[75] viXra:1302.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-24 23:19:32

The Best Periodic Table of Elements

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages. pdf

in this paper we make the best periodic table of elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[74] viXra:1302.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-21 10:16:00

Why Nuclear Blasts are Powerful

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 1 picture

It is hypothesized why nuclear blasts are so explosive. It is not because the atoms are splitting at all. All a nuclear weapon does is use solid material that directly transitions to plasma naturally.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[73] viXra:1302.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 09:09:32

Explicando a Variação do Raio do Próton Nos Experimentos

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 16 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0099

@@In experiments for proton radius measurement that use muonic hydrogen, the value obtained was four percent below the expected standard value, which is not explained by quantum electrodynamics. This article theoretically explains this results and presents an equation that calculates the proton radius, which coincides with the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments, with a difference of only 0.07 percent. These results are based on Ulianov String Theory (UST), a new String Theory, which is able to model the most important particles in our universe as photons, protons, electrons, neutrons, muons and positrons. The author believes that the experiment with Muonic Hydrogen represents a breakthrough in modern physics, because it points out flaws in the standard model and opens space for new theories that model the electron and proton as strings. The experience with muonic hydrogen may lead to a model in which the electron is no longer a "small ball" orbiting the nucleus and it turns into a two-dimensional brane surrounding the nucleus. Thus, this experiment has the potential to be so important, such as the historical experience of the Michelson interferometer, which marked the end of the preponderance of the Newtonian mechanics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[72] viXra:1302.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 09:49:50

Uma Pista Para O Enigma do Tamanho do Próton: a Emergência do Paradigma Elétron-Membrana

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 9 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1302.0026

@@Recent experiments for proton radius measurement, based on muonic hydrogen confirmed that the proton size obtained by muon interaction is 4% smaller than the standard value. This results generate a new problem that was called “the proton size puzzle”. The author believes that this occurs because the proton radius changes, depending on the particle with which it is interacting. In this context the author proposes that the standard proton radius be defined in conditions, where a proton is isolated in space, without interacting with any other particle. In this condition the standard proton radius seems very close to the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments. If this new standard proton radius value be admitted, one solution to the "proton size puzzle" must answer two basic questions: a) Why the proton increase it size when interacting with an electron in a hydrogen atom? b) Why the proton maintain the (new) standard radius value, when interacting with the muon to form a muonic hydrogen atom? The question (a) can be answered, in a context where the electric force that arises between the opposite charges (of the electron and the proton) may be affecting the proton and expanding its radius. Considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with the proton as "observer" of the electron position, the proton also not will "know" where the electron position is. Thus the proton is simultaneously attracted to all positions where the electron might be positioned, which are defined by the orbital wave function. Thus the uncertainty principle could explain that the proton is subjected to a radial force field, which tends to increase its size. Another solution for the proton size puzzle, proposed by the author, considers a change in the physical interpretation of the orbital wave functions. These functions are currently associated probability density of the presence of the electron in a given volume of space. In this new interpretation, the wave functions equations are the same, but its final values (that can be expressed in C/m3) can be associated with an effectively density of electric charge, that exists simultaneously, composing a negative charges membrane which are distributed in space around the atomic nucleus, as defined by the orbital wave function charge densities. This new model has been called by the author as “Electron Membrane Paradigm” (EMP), because in it the “electron particle” is turning into an “electron membrane”. The EMP has the potential to solve the proton size puzzle, and allowing the emergence of new theories, that can model both, electrons and other particles, in the form of strings and membranes.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[71] viXra:1302.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-04 18:29:25

One Clue to the Proton Size Puzzle: The Emergence of the Electron Membrane Paradigm

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recent experiments for proton radius measurement, based on muonic hydrogen confirmed that the proton size obtained by muon interaction is 4% smaller than the standard value. This results generate a new problem that was called “the proton size puzzle”. The author believes that this occurs because the proton radius changes, depending on the particle with which it is interacting. In this context the author proposes that the standard proton radius be defined in conditions, where a proton is isolated in space, without interacting with any other particle. In this condition the standard proton radius seems very close to the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments. If this new standard proton radius value be admitted, one solution to the "proton size puzzle" must answer two basic questions: a) Why the proton increase it size when interacting with an electron in a hydrogen atom? b) Why the proton maintain the (new) standard radius value, when interacting with the muon to form a muonic hydrogen atom? The question (a) can be answered, in a context where the electric force that arises between the opposite charges (of the electron and the proton) may be affecting the proton and expanding its radius. Considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with the proton as "observer" of the electron position, the proton also not will "know" where the electron position is. Thus the proton is simultaneously attracted to all positions where the electron might be positioned, which are defined by the orbital wave function. Thus the uncertainty principle could explain that the proton is subjected to a radial force field, which tends to increase its size. Another solution for the proton size puzzle, proposed by the author, considers a change in the physical interpretation of the orbital wave functions. These functions are currently associated probability density of the presence of the electron in a given volume of space. In this new interpretation, the wave functions equations are the same, but its final values (that can be expressed in C/m3) can be associated with an effectively density of electric charge, that exists simultaneously, composing a negative charges membrane which are distributed in space around the atomic nucleus, as defined by the orbital wave function charge densities. This new model has been called by the author as “Electron Membrane Paradigm” (EMP), because in it the “electron particle” is turning into an “electron membrane”. The EMP has the potential to solve the proton size puzzle, and allowing the emergence of new theories, that can model both, electrons and other particles, in the form of strings and membranes.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[70] viXra:1301.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-21 18:02:26

Periodic Table is Wrong

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 9 Pages. it is a very important paper.

We prove that periodic table is wrong
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[69] viXra:1301.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 13:53:27

A Student's Guide to Nuclear Physics

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nuclear Physics is a major subject in Physics as well as a sub subject in chemistry that deals with the study of radioactive elements and materials as well as how they work and can be used. Its main field of study is interactions that happen in the nuclei of a compound or of an element. Nuclear Physics is also a major field of particle physics as well. Nuclear Physics also includes using radioactive elements in fields such as medicine and technology. It also can focus on emission processes such as Neutron Emission, Positron Emission, and Proton Emission. Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896, and is thought to be the father of nuclear physics. Henri's experiment was the investigation of phosphorescence in uranium salts. A year later J.J. Thomson made the discovery of the electron which was the second most major discoveries in nuclear physics since Henri's discovery. Thomson and Henri's discoveries led to more major scientific discoveries in there time including the discovery of alpha, beta, and gamma ray radiation. Nuclear Physics is also known as the study of high energy processes and nucleosynthesis that takes place between elements. The two must major fundamentals of Nucleosynthesis are Stellar and Supernova Nucleosynthesis.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[68] viXra:1301.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-05 07:49:05

The Affect of External Electric Field on the Lasing Mechanism in the Fluid

Authors: A.H. Abdelrahman, M. D. Abdella, Mahgoub Salih
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work the plasma hydrodynamical equations are exploited to explain the physical constraints under which amplification takes place. It is shown that lasing takes place in plasma in condition of concentration of electrons is less than the equilibrium concentration. In addition the amplification transpires when the internal field is stronger than the external applied field.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[67] viXra:1212.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-11 08:19:59

Macro-Analogies and Gravitation in the Micro-World: Further Elaboration of Wheeler’s Model of Geometrodynamics

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 11 pages, including 3 figures and 1 tables, Published: Progress in Physics, 2012, v.2, p.47-57

The proposed model is based on Wheeler’s geometrodynamics of fluctuating topology and its further elaboration based on new macro-analogies. Micro-particles are considered here as particular oscillating deformations or turbulent structures in non-unitaty coherent two-dimensional surfaces. The model uses analogies of the macro-world, includes into consideration gravitational forces and surmises the existence of closed structures, based on the equilibrium of magnetic and gravitational forces, thereby supplementing the Standard Model. This model has perfect inner logic. The following phenomena and notions are thus explained or interpreted: the existence of three generations of elementary particles, quark-confinement,“Zitterbewegung”, and supersymmetry. Masses of leptons and quarks are expressed through fundamental constants and calculated in the first approximation. The other parameters — such as the ratio among masses of the proton, neutron and electron, size of the proton, its magnetic moment, the gravitational constant, the semi-decay time of the neutron, the boundary energy of the beta-decay— are determined with enough precision.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[66] viXra:1212.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-07 01:20:09

Epion – the Charged Pion’s Ground State Susy Boson

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 4 Pages.

With reference to the previously proposed SUSY fermion-boson mass ratio 2.2627, based on the muon and proton rest masses, charged pion rest energy can be expressed as (1/2.2627)(mp.mm)^(1/2)=139.25 MeV. In the similar way a new boson related to electron-proton can be predicted as (1/2.2627)(mp.me)^(1/2)=9.677 MeV = mex. It can be called as the “EPION”. It can be suggested that, nuclear binding force is mediated by this hidden boson and charged pion is its excited state. In support of the existence the epion, rest mass of the neutral electro weak boson can be expressed as mZ=(mn2/mex) where mn is the rest mass of neutron. In this new direction fitted semi empirical mass formula energy constants are 16.29, 19.354,0.766,23.76 and 11.88 MeV respectively.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[65] viXra:1210.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-07 13:17:58

Electron and Proton Charge are Relational Characteristics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is hypothesized that charge is a relational aspect of electromagnetic patterns stabilizing and is not an intrinsic quality of hypothetical entities called “electron/proton”.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[64] viXra:1210.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-01 10:50:23

The Analysis of the Beta Decay that Occurs in the Nucleus

Authors: sangwha Yi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the special relativity theory and the quantum mechanics, if the -decay that occurs in the nucleus is analyzed by the Yukawa’s pion theory, a virtual electron and a virtual anti-neutrino move in the velocity in neutrons during the uncertainty time. If the nucleus give the enough energy a neutron, the virtual electron, the virtual anti-neutrino and a neutron do the free electron, the free anti-neutrino of the velocity and the proton. And a virtual positive electron and a virtual neutrino move in the velocity in protons during the uncertainty time. If the nucleus give the enough energy a proton, the virtual positive electron, the virtual neutrino and a proton do the free positive electron, the free neutrino of the velocity and a neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[63] viXra:1209.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-28 12:21:32

Past, Present and Future of the Avogadro Number

Authors: U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana
Comments: 11 Pages. Searching, collecting, sorting and compiling the cosmic code is an essential part of unification

The definition of Avogadro number (N) and the current experiments to estimate it, however, both rely on the precise definition of “one gram”. Hence most of the scientists consider it as an ad-hoc number. But in reality it is not the case. In atomic and nuclear physics, atomic gravitational constant is Avogadro number times the Newton’s gravitational constant. Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit,(c^4/G). Ratio of classical force limit and weak force magnitude is (N^2). Thus in this paper authors proposed many unified methods for estimating the Avogadro number.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[62] viXra:1209.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-06 22:57:02

New Evidence for Anomalies of Radio-Active Decay Rates

Authors: Matti Pitkanen
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new piece of evidence for the periodic variations of nuclear decay rates in astrophysical time scales has been reported by Sturrock et al: now in the case of Ra-222 nuclei. In this article the TGD inspired explanation for the variations is developed in more detail by utilizing the data provided in this article. The explanation relies on nuclear string model predicting the existence of almost degenerate ground states of nuclei (in the natural MeV energy scale) with excitations energies assumed to lie in keV energy range. The variations of the decay rates defined naturally as averages for the decay rates of excitations would be induced by keV radiation from the solar corona. The would also explain the anomalously high temperature of solar corona and relate the observed periodicities to the rotation rate of corona.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[61] viXra:1208.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-07 17:27:21

Strong Interaction Reconceptualised: Synchronous Interlocking of Discrete Field Elements

Authors: D.J.Pons, A.D. Pons
Comments: 22 Pages.

The purpose of this work was to create a new conceptual model of the strong force (interaction). This is necessary because existing models, of which quantum chromodynamics is the dominant paradigm, are not yet capable of explaining nucleus structure ab initio starting from the strong force. A design method was used to search for alternative concepts within the cordus structure (a non-local hidden variable solution). One such successful concept is presented. In this model the strong force arises from the synchronisation of discrete field elements between particules. This causes the participating particules to be interlocked: the interaction pulls or repels particules into co-location and then holds them there, hence the apparent attractive-repulsive nature of that force and its short range. This force only applies to particules in coherent assembly. The concept of virtual particles can still be accommodated, but is not the preferred interpretation. The model also provides a conceptual unification of the strong and electro-magnetic-gravitation (EMG) forces, with the weak force having a separate causality. It is proposed that the EMG forces and the strong force are different manifestations of a single underlying mechanism. The EMG forces are proposed to be based on the linear strength, bending, and torsional deflection (respectively) caused by these hyffons, whereas the strong force is based on the synchronicity of the field elements. By implication particules can EITHER perceive the strong force, OR the EMG forces, not both. Which it is depends on the nature of their bonding and their proximity. Thus the strong force is predicted to be intimately linked to coherence, with the EMG forces being the associated discoherent phenomenon. This also means that there is no need to overcome the electrostatic force, because it is inoperative when the strong force operates. Hence we suggest that ‘strong’ is an inappropriate way of thinking about this interaction. ‘Synchronous force’ would be better. The cordus model makes several testable predictions, particularly about the behaviour of the strong force in coherent bodies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[60] viXra:1208.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-03 02:38:41

The Radius of the Proton in the Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Based on the notion of strong gravitation, acting at the level of elementary particles, and on the equality of the magnetic moment of the proton and the limiting magnetic moment of the rotating non-uniformly charged ball, the radius of the proton is found, which conforms to the experimental data. At the same time the dependence is derived of distribution of the mass and charge density inside the proton. The ratio of the density in the center of the proton to the average density is found, which equals 1.57 .
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] viXra:1207.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-29 11:39:23

Determination of a New Force with Characteristics of Nuclear Force and Both Attractive and Repulsive Components

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 23 Pages. 6 Figures

Presently, a new force has been determined. It is generated due to interaction between magnetic fields of the interacting particles, e.g., between electrons in electron beams, between protons in proton beams, and between nucleons in nuclei. Due to this force, electrons, protons and nucleons etc. are held together in their respective systems against the repulsive Coulomb force generated between them due to interaction between their charges. Presently, it has also been determined that, due to interaction between magnetic fields of two particles, a repulsive force, other than the repulsive Coulomb force and much stronger, too is generated. The present force has some very important and striking characteristics: (i) it is strong; (ii) short range; and (iii) charge independent, which are exactly the same as we speculate for nuclear force between nucleons to have. Finally, giving plausible arguments and evidences from the well established existing knowledge, it has been tried to conclude that the current cause of origin of nuclear force cannot be true. The presently determined cause should be the actual cause of origin of nuclear force, and the presently determined force should be the actual nuclear force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[58] viXra:1207.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-20 14:29:25

Gravitational Atomic Synthesis

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is described a process for creating new atoms starting from pre-existing atoms. We show that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[57] viXra:1207.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-18 04:00:00

Vacuum, Space-Time, Matter and the Models of Smarandache Geometry ( 真空、时空、物质和Smarandache几何模型 ), English-Chinese Edition,

Authors: Hu Chang-Wei
Comments: 260 Pages.

The vacuum is not void, in which there is infinite mysteries. The matter in vacuum state is called the ether, whose macroscopic effects, microscopic representation and cosmoscopic interaction are researched and discussed, is like the unmatter or unparticles called by Prof. Smarandache. In the absolute space-time theory, the ether is a compressible superfluid, a point of maximal value of its density is the mass center of an object. A change in the ether density causes a change in the actual space-time standard, and thus leads up to quantitative effects which include the effects of relativity and quantum etc.. The theory of relativity is a quantitative theory with light as the measure of space-time, where the distribution of ether is always homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, which is just so-called Lorentz symmetry, it is only a practicable mathematical model, and is not applicable to faster than light velocity. The gravitational field is a ether density wave-packet, whose interaction is not infinite. The cosmoscopic interaction of ether will surpass gravitational interaction and is about its ten times in cosmoscopic system of galaxies and galaxy clusters, so that describing cosmos can not use only the gravitational field equation. The methodology and related concepts proposed by Prof. Smarandache are applied, and Smarandache geometry models of relativity, macro-physics, interval field ether theory and infinite order and hierarchical cosmology are described in this book. 真空不空,奥妙无穷。真空态物质被称为以太,它好比Smarandache教授所说的Unmatter 或Unparticles。对以太的宏观效应,微观表现和宇观作用进行了探讨。在绝对时空观中,以太是可压缩的超流体,它的密度的极大值点是实物的质心。以太密度的变化,会引起现实的时空标准的变化,从而导致了定量效应,这包括相对论性效应和量子效应等等。相对论是以光作为时空衡量标准的一种定量描述理论,在这里,以太的分布永远是处处均匀,各向一致的,这就是所谓的洛伦兹对称性,它只是一种可行的数学模型,对超光速是无效的。引力场是以太密度波包,它的作用不是无限的。在星系、星系团的世界里,以太的宇观作用,将超过并达到引力作用的10倍左右。因此,不能只用引力场方程来描述宇宙。书中运用了Smarandache教授提出的方法论和有关概念,描绘了相对论、宏观物理学、区间场以太论和无穷阶等级式宇宙学的Smarandache几何模型。
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[56] viXra:1207.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-03 14:17:40

Gravitational Separator of Isotopes

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we show a gravitational separator of isotopes which can be much more effective than those used in the conventional processes of isotopes separation. It is based on intensification of the gravitational acceleration, and can generate accelerations tens of times more intense than those generated in the most powerful centrifuges used for Uranium enrichment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[55] viXra:1205.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-08 16:42:54

Whether the Mass and Energy Are Equivalent? (Эквивалентны ли масса и энергия?)

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 6 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that Einstein's postulate on equivalence of mass and energy contradicts the law of energy conservation and not correspondence with bottom of fact (Показывается, что постулат А.Эйнштейна об эквивалентности массы и энергии противоречит закону сохранения энергии и не соответствует существу дела).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[54] viXra:1204.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-14 09:23:39

Beta Decay as a Virtual Particle Interaction Analogous to Hawking Radiation

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 5 Pages.

The existing theory of the weak interaction has some troublesome issues with conservation of energy and limited range. Beta decay theory would be more complete if there were a mechanism that places the electron or positron decay product farther from the proton or neutron so that they would not be immediately reabsorbed. This is readily accomplished by a Hawking radiation type interaction between a virtual electron-positron pair and a proton or neutron and this type of interaction readily accounts for each form of beta decay.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[53] viXra:1204.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-10 19:04:05

Engineering the Ni-H Bomb

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

The anomalous heat production detected in Ni-H systems was recently explained based on the fact that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces and overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, producing nuclear fusion reactions. This effect can provide a consistent and coherent explanation for anomalous heat production detected in Ni-H Systems, and shows that a Ni-H System can be easily transformed into a Hydrogen bomb. Here, a Ni-H bomb of 20 kilotons is engineered.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[52] viXra:1203.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-30 04:34:23

Complete Understanding of Neutron, Deuteron, Alpha Particle and Nuclei – A New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 68 Pages. Number of Figures:8

Regarding neutron, numerous questions arise, e.g.: 1. A neutron happens to be unstable in its free state and becomes stable in stable nuclei and systems (e.g. deuterons and particles), but why and how? 2. What does happen or situation is created in stable nuclei/systems such that the neutrons become stable in them? 3. Why and how is that situation not being created in nuclei/systems having, e.g. two-neutrons, three-neutrons and one-proton etc.? 4. Why and how does neutron have unstable and stable, both the states, while the rest of all the elementary particles have only one state, either stable or unstable? 5. Why and how does neutron survive for time t = 885.7 seconds (mean life time of neutron) and then decays, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second? But the standard quark model and the other neutron models fail to give explanation of the above questions. Therefore, presently a new model for neutron structure has been proposed that gives clear and complete explanation of all the above questions along with very clear and complete explanation of the following numerous greatly important phenomena/events: 1. Why and how beta particles, which are electrons, are emitted from the nuclei during beta decay while it is believed that the electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 2. Why and how energy of the emitted beta particles varies in the form of a continuous energy spectrum; 3. Why and how the neutrons have high penetrating power and distinguishable low and high-energy ranges; 4. How one-neutron and one-proton are arranged in a deuteron such that a binding force is generated between them which persists and consequently deuteron exists in nature; 5. Why and how di-proton and di-neutron do not exist in nature; 6. Why and how binding energy per nucleon (Eb) of tritium and helium-3 are increased to > 2 Eb of deuteron, and Eb of tritium > Eb of helium-3; 7. Why and how tritium is radioactive, decaying into helium-3 through beta decay; 8. How two-neutrons and two-protons are arranged in an alpha particle such that it persists and behaves like a particle and beams of alpha particles are obtained despite having repulsive Coulomb force between them; 9. Why and how Eb of alpha particle is increased to > 6 Eb of deuteron, instead of increasing to 2 Eb of deuteron; 10. How are nucleons arranged in nuclei having mass number (A) integer multiple of 4 such that the nuclei are most strongly stable; 11. Why and how Eb of beryllium-8 < Eb of helium-4, while Eb of nuclei increases as their A increases; 12. Why and how other nuclei are not strongly stable; 13. Why and how near A = 62, Eb is maximum and then it gradually decreases as A increases and ultimately for A > 200, the nuclei become radioactive and alpha, beta, gamma, neutrino are emitted from them; 14. How gamma and neutrino obtain particle like physical existence and so high energy and penetrating power. These explanations give almost a complete understanding of neutron, deuteron, alpha particle and nuclei (structure, stability and decay). Finally: 1. An important conclusion has been drawn that the strength of stability of a nucleus does not depend only upon its Eb but also upon the strength of stability of its neutrons because the later one too varies; 2. The existence of antineutrino has been question marked.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[51] viXra:1203.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-28 11:34:16

The Proton-Electron Mass Ratio, the Fine-Structure Constant, the Electron G-Factor and Von Klitzing's Constant.

Authors: Richard Blaber
Comments: 10 pages, 21 equations, 0 figures.

In this paper, we shall show how the proton-electron mass ratio is determined by the values of α, the fine-structure constant, g-sub-e, the electron g-factor, and R-sub-K, von Klitzing’s constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[50] viXra:1203.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-10 10:37:41

Proton and Electron Mass Derived as the Vacuum Energy Displaced by a Casimir Cavity

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 5 Pages.

Two of the great mysteries of physics are the origin of mass and the mysterious mass ratio between the proton and electron of ~1836. In this paper it is shown that the mass-energy of the proton is equivalent to the vacuum energy excluded by a spherical Casimir cavity with an average radius equal to the charge radius of a proton. Likewise the electron mass is shown to be equivalent to the vacuum energy excluded by a spherical shell with an average diameter equal to the Compton wavelength of the electron. The ratio ~1836 is derived as a natural consequence of the vacuum energy exclusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[49] viXra:1203.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-08 23:33:30

Asymptotic Equations of Two-Body Correlations

Authors: M. Fabre de la Ripelle
Comments: 22 Pages.

Asymptotic Equations for Two-Body Correlations M. Fabre de la Ripelle An asymptotic equation for two-body correlations is proposed for a large number of particles in the framework of the Integro-Differential Equation approach. The quality of the equation is discussed with examples. Adiabatic and asymptotic properties of the two-body correlations are investigated.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[48] viXra:1203.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-03 15:30:32

The Photon

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 22 Pages.

A model is proposed for the photon as a material particle having zero mass. It is based on the supposition that antimatter has negative gravitational mass and that mass is an additive quantum value. Considerations of special relativity lead to a model for the photon as a compound bipolar system comprising a particle and its antiparticle equivalent. Consideration is given to the dynamics of such a system. The forces are found to be in balance provided that certain velocity terms are taken to be affected by relativity, leading to a system which is stable and one in which the photon can exist in a vacuum without recourse to an ether or ether like substance. The photon is found to have a finite bandwidth and a velocity profile which varies with frequency.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[47] viXra:1202.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-23 16:31:23

A Quark-Free, Antiquark-Free, Gluon-Free, Higgs-Free, Nonsense-Free, Model of Particle Physics

Authors: W. Newtspeare
Comments: 7 Pages.

The wisest of the Ancient Greek philosophers realised that ultimately the universe could only be composed of identical indivisible spheres; and Squish Theory extends this idea with the concept of compressible spacebubbles. In a universe composed only of spacebubbles, all mass/energy must be a compression of the spacebubbles, so particles can only be made of squashed spacebubbles which are spinning either clockwise or anticlockwise. It therefore follows that in physics terms, particles can only be composed of collections of positive and negative charges, as in positrons and electrons. The reasoning behind this conclusion is largely philosophical and cosmological, but is not discussed in this paper. Rather what the paper does is examine the difference in mass between particles of similar size, in order to show that the theory is consistent with existing data; and to determine the binding energies of charges inside particles, and on the surface of particles. It then shows that the values deduced are consistent with the idea that a neutron is a proton with 3 extra charges on its surface; and also that the binding energies of simple atomic nuclei can be predicted on the basis of the interactions between charges on the surface of nucleons. Of course there is not sufficient accurate data on particle masses, to show conclusively that they must be collections of charges; if there had have been, then clearly somebody would have already noticed the pattern; however the pattern is certainly strong enough to warrant further testing. The major problem for this theory, is that the standard model has taken root, and in these highly religiosised times, physicists have a religious duty to condemn all new ideas as crackpot. However we do not even need to scratch the surface of the standard model to see that it is untenable, as a universe composed of so many ‘elementary’ particles would not merely have required a separate creator, but one of severely impaired intellect, a hypothesis nobody has ever suggested. On top of this, of the major actors in the drama, the dozens of quarks and anti-quarks, none have actually been directly measured for either mass or charge; and even those ‘elementary’ particles which do actually exist, such as muons, are clearly composed of something else otherwise they would not spontaneous disintegrate. In Squish Theory there is no such problem, as all particles are merely composed of pairs of charges, which can unravel in the same way as electron/positron pairs; so the only unbreakable particles must be electrons and positrons, which can only unravel if they meet their Nemesis.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[46] viXra:1201.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-28 09:45:17

A New Model for Bosons(w,z,h ) Masses Calculation and Validation Tests Based on the Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this paper was re-visited the dual Ginzburg-Landau model for the calculation of Lorenz force, monopoles current, and the energy of vortex lines for a vortex triangular lattice type Abrikosov within a nucleon, to find their meaning. For now, it was found that these energies would correspond to the subatomic particles,W,Z,H bosons, pion , and of nucleon itself. Also, it was determined the fusion temperature of two nucleons. The model permits to explain the beta decay mechanism of radioisotopes to be the same as the dark counts in the case of superconductors. A link with gravity as a force that counteracts the destruction of superconductivity, is discussed. In this model to a superconductor analogue, we do not use an a-priori Higgs field, and hence a Higgs boson. The entire work is done in natural units.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[45] viXra:1201.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-11 14:39:11

Alternate Interpretation of the Original Fleischmann and Pons Experiments

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 8 Pages.

A case is made for the fusion reactions apparently occurring in the original Fleischmann and Pons (F-P) experiments to be the result of free D+ ions formed at the anode during electrolysis colliding with deuterons trapped in the Pd lattice of the cathode, rather than trapped deuterons being squeezed together by the lattice. The data from the experiments show that the energy output of F-P cells was essentially proportional to the energy input, independent of the cathode size or the current strength, which implies that the cathode plays a passive role in the energy production. The number of D+ ions produced at the anode and their velocities are proportional to the current used in the cell, so that the number of D+ ions that survive the trip across the gap between the anode and the cathode is greater for greater currents. The larger numbers of D+ ions from the higher currents result in more collisions with trapped deuterons in the cathode producing more energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] viXra:1201.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-11 14:55:52

Efficient Energy Conversion of the 14MeV Neutrons in DT Inertial Confinement Fusion

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 10 Pages.

In DT fusion 80% of the energy released goes into 14MeV neutrons, and only the remaining 20% into charged particles. Unlike the charged particles, the uncharged neutrons cannot be confined by a magnetic field, and for this reason cannot be used for a direct conversion into electric energy. Instead, the neutrons have to be slowed down in some medium, heating this medium to a temperature of less than 103K, with the heat removed fom this medium to drive a turbo-generator. This conversion of nuclear into electric energy has a Carnot efficiency of about 30%. For the 80% of the energy released into neutrons, the efficiency is therefore no more than 24%. While this low conversion efficiency cannot be overcome in magnetic confinement concepts, it can be overcome in inertial confinement concepts, by surrounding the inertial confinement fusion target with a sufficiently thick layer of liquid hydrogen and a thin outer layer of boron, to create a hot plasma fire ball. The hydrogen layer must be chosen just thick and dense enough to be heated by the neutrons to 100,000K. The thusly generated, fully ionized, and rapidly expanding fire ball can drive a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator at an almost 100% Carnot efficiency, or possibly be used to generate hydrocarbons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[43] viXra:1201.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-06 16:36:19

Matter-Antimatter GeV Gamma Ray Laser Rocket Propulsion

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 14 Pages.

It is shown that the idea of a photon rocket through the complete annihilation of matter with antimatter, first proposed by Sänger, is not a utopian scheme as it is widely believed. Its feasibility appears to be possible by the radiative collapse of a relativistic high current pinch discharge in a hydrogen-antihydrogen ambiplasma down to a radius determined by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Through this collapse to ultrahigh densities the proton-antiproton pairs in the center of the pinch can become the upper GeV laser level for the transition into a coherent gamma ray beam by proton-antiproton annihilation, with the magnetic field of the collapsed pinch discharge absorbing the recoil momentum of the beam and transmitting it to the spacecraft. The gamma ray laser beam is launched as a photon avalanche from one end of the pinch discharge channel.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[42] viXra:1112.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-30 10:47:19

Guided Impact Fusion

Authors: Colin Jack
Comments: 33 Pages.

There is a straightforward and cost-effective way to generate energy from fusion. The enabling technology has existed for at least a decade: it is an indictment of the way science currently progresses that it has been overlooked.

The basic method is familiar: a hollow fuel capsule implodes within a hohlraum. However the hohlraum is heated not by lasers, but by the impact of charged micropellets fired at ultravelocity from a modified particle accelerator. This technique has long been used to test spacecraft micrometeoroid shields, and has been suggested for fusion. The key novel step is that it is now possible to track and guide each pellet individually during flight, using COTS-available technology. This opens up options never before considered:

- The pellets catch up together over a long flightpath, so peak power level can be multiplied a millionfold. A train of pellets launched over a period of milliseconds arrives at the hohlraum within a span of nanoseconds: an accelerator of modest power can provide a larger peak input than is possible with lasers.
- The pellets are progressively discharged as they travel, so mutual repulsion at convergence is eliminated.
- The pellets impact the hohlraum in a precisely specified pattern, whose variation with time is also tailored to cause optimal fuel capsule implosion.

The method is ideally suited to standoff operation. Detonation can take place within a disposable projectile, within a lithium waterfall which extracts the energy while breeding replacement tritium. There is no need for a large vacuum chamber.

The only net fuel input is deuterium. Capital cost is modest. Equipment life is indefinite. It will be possible to retrofit existing coal-fired generating plant for fusion.

Overall length of the accelerator and standoff pipe is substantial, several kilometres. However even if the whole length has to be placed in a tunnel, its cost is small compared to that of a power station.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[41] viXra:1112.0043 [pdf] submitted on 14 Dec

Theoretical Feasibility of Cold Fusion According to the BSM - Supergravitation Unified Theory

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: Monograph, 26 pages, 17 figures.

Advances in the field of cold fusion and the recent success of the nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, in which the energy release cannot be explained by a chemical process, need a deeper understanding of the nuclear reactions and, more particularly, the possibility for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The current theoretical understanding based on high temperature fusion does not offer an explanation for the cold fusion or LENR. The treatise "Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory", based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum, provides an explanation from a new point of view by using derived three-dimensional structures of the atomic nuclei. For explanation of the nuclear energy, a hypothesis of a field micro-curvature around the superdense nucleus is suggested. Analysis of some successful cold fusion experiments resulted in practical considerations for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The analysis also predicts the possibility of another cold fusion reaction based on some similarity between the nuclear structures of Ni and Cr.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] viXra:1112.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-01 15:24:55

Stability and Decay: Mechanisms for Stability and Initiators of Decay in the Neutron

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 17 Pages.

Why is the neutron stable in the nucleus? Why is the free neutron unstable outside the atom? This paper applies the cordus conjecture to address these questions. The proposed explanation is that in the nucleus the discrete field structures (cordus HED) of the proton and neutron fulfil each other, thereby providing a joint stability. When the neutron is removed from the nucleus, its stability becomes compromised. By comparison the single proton on its own does not need the neutron, so it remains stable. The free neutron is able to maintain a dynamic stability by moving its field structures around. It can do this indefinitely. However it is in a compromised state, and vulnerable to perturbation by external fields. Two initiators are anticipated for decay. One is randomly occurring field fluctuations from the external fabric, and these are proposed for the conventional decay route. The second is impact by another particule. In both cases it is the external fields that cause the decay, by constraining the neutron so that it cannot dynamically adjust. Hence it is trapped in a state that leads to decay at its next frequency cycle. The second path could involve any particule with sufficient energy to disturb the neutron. Also, the impact of a neutrino is specifically identified as a potential initiator of decay. The implications if this is correct, are that the neutron has two separate decay paths, which are mixed together in what we perceive as the beta minus process. The first is determined by the local density of the (spacetime) fabric, and the second by the number of energetic particules and neutrinos encountered. The significance of the two decay paths is that neutron decay rates are predicted to be variable rather than constant. A general set of assumptions are extracted for stability and decay of particules in general.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[39] viXra:1111.0064 [pdf] submitted on 18 Nov 2011

Femtotechnology: Stability of AB-needles. Fantastic Properties and Application

Authors: A.A. Bolonkin
Comments: 19 pages

In article "Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties" *1+ American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/24045154) author offered and consider possible super strong nuclear matter. But many readers asked about stability of the nuclear matter. It is well known, the conventional nuclear matter having more 92 protons or more 238 nucleons became instability. In given work the author shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, researched Earth's interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in Nature now, but nanotubes also is not in Nature. That is artificial matter is made men. The AB-matter also is not now, but research and investigation their possibility, stability and properties are necessary for creating them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] viXra:1111.0039 [pdf] submitted on 10 Nov 2011

Decay Modes of Excited 4he Below the Fragmentation Levels

Authors: A. Meulenberg, K P Sinha
Comments: 10 pages

Three reasons are given to dispute the claims of numerous experimenters that higher-than-expected heat and radiation are obtained from nuclear fusion of deuterium atoms at room temperature: 1) the inability of two low-energy protons or deuterons to penetrate the mutual Coulomb barrier; 2) the production of heat in excess of that possible for the measured particulate radiation, and 3) the high levels of 4He measured (much beyond that permitted by present nuclear physics models). The first has been addressed earlier. This paper discusses the second and how it leads to an understanding of a critical mechanism behind low-energy nuclear reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[37] viXra:1111.0035 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2011

The Preponderance of Matter: Asymmetrical Genesis Via the Antineutrino Route

Authors: D. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons
Comments: 19 pages

The existence of the universe is an enigma because the energy at genesis should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which should have subsequently annihilated. What happened in the baryogenesis process to cause matter to predominate in the cosmos? A candidate conceptual solution is presented based on the cordus conjecture, and featuring the antineutrino in a prominent role. A detailed model is produced for the production of an electron-antielectron pair from photons. The novel contribution is showing how the discrete field structures of the photon dynamically transform into those of the two massy particules. A new production process is detailed whereby an energetic antielectron is remanufactured into a proton and two antineutrinos. The production process could equally have converted electrons to antiprotons, and a tentative explanation is given for why this might not have happened. Therefore it is suggested that the apparent asymmetry of baryogenesis is because the antimatter is hiding in plain sight, having been remanufactured into the matter baryons themselves. In this model four photons are transformed into an electron and proton, i.e. a hydrogen atom, and two antineutrinos. The antimatter field structure of the antielectron is carried away by the antineutrinos as a waste stream. This paper therefore provides an alternative conceptual solution to the baryogenesis asymmetry in the universe, and it also explains the leptogenesis asymmetry. As a corollary, the conditions are identified under which the proton may decay.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[36] viXra:1111.0026 [pdf] submitted on 4 Nov 2011

Electron as Magnetic Monopole

Authors: Malcolm Macleod
Comments: 2 Pages.

A formula for an electron as a geometrical shape whose axis is a magnetic monopole is proposed. The electron formula is constructed from Planck length, Planck mass, elementary charge and c. This geometrical shape is symmetrical for an electron at rest.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[35] viXra:1111.0023 [pdf] submitted on 4 Nov 2011

Weak Interaction: Reassembly of Particules

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Standard Model interprets the weak interaction, e.g. neutron beta decay, to be a short-range field carried by the W and Z bosons. In that interpretation the short range arises because of the heavy mass of the W and Z bosons. This paper reconceptualises the weak interaction and the bosons. The cordus HED notation was used to work out the field structures of the bosons, giving W-(r.1.1 .a.11.1 .t11) and W+( r1.1. .a1 .t). The theory suggests that there is no single Z boson, but several varieties. Cordus suggests that the W and Z bosons do not exist in the form of 0D point particles with static characteristics, but instead are complex structures undergoing dynamic assembly and disassembly processes. The conventional concept that the bosons change the flavour of the quark is questioned. Instead the model shows that the bosons not the cause or the mechanism for the change, but merely the by-products and waste process stream from the conversion process. The neutrino-antineutrino annihilation process is modelled and predicted to result in either an electron-positron pair and two photons, or four photons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[34] viXra:1111.0022 [pdf] submitted on 4 Nov 2011

Structure of the Neutrino and Antineutrino

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 27 Pages.

The neutrino is involved in many of the unsolved areas of fundamental physics and cosmology, and therefore a better understanding of the causes of its behaviour is useful. This paper develops a conceptual theory for the internal structure of the neutrino, particularly the arrangement of its discrete field structures. The model is created using the concept of the cordus hyff emission directions (HEDs). Using the known quark composition of the neutron and proton, and the existing cordus models for their discrete field structures, and using the beta decay processes, we determine the discrete field structure of the neutrino by a reverse-engineering process. The structure of the neutrino in HED notation is found to be v(r11 .a .t11) or variants thereof, and the antineutrino to be v(r11 .a .t11) etc. The results are consistent whether using beta - decay, beta +, or electron capture. The results suggest that the neutrino is not its own antiparticle. Consequently neutrinoless double beta decay is predicted to be infeasible. The model predicts the neutrino has zero nominal mass, though a dynamic noise-mass is expected. The reasons why the neutrino moves at the speed of light are explained, and involve the engagement of its field structures, which are incomplete, with the fabric (spacetime). The gravitational bending of its trajectory is explained, even for a massless neutrino. This explanation requires the abandonment of both locality and the invariance of the vacuum-speed of light. The model also explains why neutrinos are always found with left-spin-hand, and antineutrinos with right, and suggests that the opposite structures are fundamentally unavailable. By moving away from the 0D point assumption of orthodox physics, cordus is able to generate a novel and radical model of the neutrino, and ground its behaviour in physically realistic interpretations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33] viXra:1109.0068 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

Cordus Process Diagrams: Symbolic Representation of Annihilation Mechanics

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages

We introduce a new system-modelling representation for the interaction of particules with internal structures (hidden variable solutions). This is an improvement on Feynman diagrams that only represent points and limited information about state. The notation is able to represent key variables describing the internal states, such as phase and the three dimensional discrete field structures. The latter include the cordus hyff emission directions (HEDs). With this method it is possible to model the different stages in an interaction processes. It is applied to the cordus annihilation mechanics, and the resulting models qualitatively distinguish between the parapositronium and orthopositronium annihilation phenomena.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32] viXra:1109.0047 [pdf] submitted on 22 Sep 2011

Annihilation Mechanisms: Intermediate Processes in the Conversion of Electron and Antielectron Into Photons

Authors: D. J. Pons
Comments: 21 pages

The outcomes of annihilation are known, including some of the intermediary products, and the process can be represented by Feynman diagrams and modelled mathematically. However the mechanisms of annihilation at a deeper fundamental level are unknown. How exactly does matter and antimatter convert into photons? How does mass change into energy? This paper develops an answer by providing a theory for the annihilation process based on mechanics derived from the cordus conjecture. The particular area under examination is the annihilation of an electron and antielectron (positron) to gamma photons. In this model matter and antimatter annihilate by transforming their field structures - called hyff - into those of the photon. The process is more one of remanufacture than destruction. The model proposes the stages of annihilation and identifies the mechanisms for each. The reverse of the process gives a physical description of leptogenesis: the creation of separate electron and antielectron particules out of two initial photons. It also explains why the proton and electron do not annihilate. We show that a deeper common mechanism exists for annihilation, leptogenesis, and bonding.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31] viXra:1109.0045 [pdf] submitted on 20 Sep 2011

Contrasting Internal Structures: Photon and Electron

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 9 pages

We develop a conceptual model for the internal structures of the photon and electron, based on the cordus model. The main differentiating feature between the photon and electron is identified as the way it deals with its field structures or hyff. The photon has a fibrillating relationship with its field, whereas the electron is a pulsating field-pump. The resulting model permits an explanation of the discrete (approximately quantised) electrostatic force, the propulsion mechanism for the speed of light, and the gravitational bending of light. These are side-effects and the larger advantage of this model is the potential to explain photon-electron interactions generally.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[30] viXra:1109.0014 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2011

Particle Consistency of Microscopic and Macroscopic Motion

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 6 pages.

The scenario of particle has been greatly written in the past, but its incompleteness is so serious that the connection of microscopic and macroscopic world is broken. The 19th century's experiment by both Perrin and Thomson is unable to prove whether the cathode rays are negatively charged or not. Here we propose, the particles of an atom are organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems to orbit, wave-like movement demonstrated in double-slit experiment is nothing but an aggregation of the movement of many fine particles. Along with previous work, it is hopeful to see that hierarchical two-body gravitation may unify different level structures and their motion together.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29] viXra:1109.0009 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2011

Mirror Images: Matter and Antimatter

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 15 pages

Existing theories of physics struggle to explain the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. This paper offers a reconceptualisation based on the cordus conjecture. We create a new concept of handedness, called ma, and an operational definition based on the energisation sequence of the cordus reactive-ends. Each reactive end for a stable matter particuloid, e.g. the electron, has three orthogonal hyff. The hand of these is held to be the same for all matter particuloids, whether positive or negative charge. For all antimatter particuloids the hand is inverted. The inversion also changes the direction of the hyff, and thus reverses the charge, but this is a secondary effect. This cordus concept permits models to be created differentiating between the electron, proton, and antielectron (positron). This explains why the antielectron is very different to the proton despite the same charge, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. It also allows the wider integration of bonding and annihilation as manifestations of a single deeper mechanics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] viXra:1108.0043 [pdf] submitted on 26 Aug 2011

Content Analysis of Thorium Research Publications

Authors: E.R. Prakasan, Sandeep Kadam, K. Bhanumurthy
Comments: 10 Pages

Research and Development on thorium utilization for the power production is in its peak for the last one decade. The established researchers and new researchers are trying to explore the area of thorium where less work is done. The present paper make an endeavor to show which are the areas where intensive research on thorium is already and automatically less researched will be highlighted.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[27] viXra:1107.0033 [pdf] submitted on 17 Jul 2011

Three Magnetic Dipoles Provide a Physically Realistic Simulation of the Repulsive-Attractive Nature of the Strong Force and of the Cabibbo Angle

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Strong Force is unique in that it changes from repulsive to attractive as the distance between two quarks increases, and rapidly approaches a steady level thereafter. Unlike the inverse square law related to the surface area of a sphere, there is as yet no simple physical explanation for this phenomenon. It is demonstrated that the inductive forces between three magnetic dipoles symmetrically arrayed and tilted around a circle, will result in a repulsive force acting radially on any one one of them at close proximity, that changes to an attractive force with increase of distance. The forces are most like the Strong Force when the tilt is at around 13o, remarkably similar to the Cabibbo Angle1 relating the Strong and Weak reactions. These results encourage development of Tamari's Beautiful Universe2 (BU) model of a universal lattice entirely made up of magnetic dipoles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[26] viXra:1106.0009 [pdf] submitted on 7 Jun 2011

Hybrid Chemical-Nuclear Convergent Shock Wave High Gain Magnetized Target Fusion

Authors: F. Winterberg
Comments: 17 pages

In DT fusion 80% of the energy is released in 14 MeV neutrons. To utilize this energy the neutrons must in all proposed DT fusion concepts (including the ITER) be slowed down in a medium, heating the medium up to a temperature not exceeding a few thousand degrees, from which this energy is converted into mechanical energy, and ultimately into electric energy. While the conversion from mechanical into electric energy goes at a high efficiency (90%), the conversion of the thermal energy into mechanical energy is limited by the Carnot process to about 30%. To overcome this limitation, I propose to slow down the neutrons in the combustion products of a convergent spherical detonation wave in HMX, for example, which ignites a magnetized DT target which is placed in the center of convergence, prior to the ignition of the high explosive from its surface. The thermonuclear ignition is achieved by the high implosion velocity of 50km/sec reached in the center, compressing and igniting the preheated magnetized target. Even though the thermonuclear gain of a magnetized target is modest, it can become large if it is used to ignite unburnt DT by propagating burn. There the gain can conceivably be made 1000 times larger, substantially exceeding the yield of the high explosive. And if the spherical high explosive has a radius of about 30cm, the 14 MeV DT fusion reaction neutrons are slowed down in its dense combustion products, raising the temperature in it to 100000 K. At this temperature the kinetic energy of the expanding fire ball can be converted at a high (almost 100%) efficiency directly into electric energy by an MHD Faraday generator. In this way most of the 80% neutron energy can be converted into electric energy, about three times more than in magnetic (ITER) or inertial (ICF) DT fusion concepts.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[25] viXra:1106.0006 [pdf] submitted on 6 Jun 2011

How Electrons Consist of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead
Comments: 7 pages

In this paper we investigate the connection between electrons and electromagnetic waves. We then propose how electrons could consist of electromagnetic waves. From this proposal we explain why electron-positron annihilation results in only gamma rays being formed, as well as how gamma rays can form electron-positron pairs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] viXra:1105.0042 [pdf] submitted on 27 May 2011

What is Mass?

Authors: Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we investigate the connection between energy and mass. From this we propose that mass is "generated" when a volume of space contains a sufficient amount of localised energy. We then show how this definition explains various phenomena, for example why mass increases with velocity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] viXra:1104.0048 [pdf] submitted on 15 Apr 2011

Cold Fusion: A False Hope as the Source of Energy

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 3 pages.

There were many claims and counter claims in regard to the cold fusion in the history of science. For a long period of time, it has been thought that the solution for the energy needs of the future is in achieving the cold fusion by simply using the hydrogen gas at room temperature. We get very limited amount of energy in the combustion of the hydrogen gas, whereas if we use the same amount of hydrogen in an apparent cold fusion, we are supposed to get abundant amount of energy sufficient enough to power the energy needs of the world for billions of years into the future. Until now, all the attempts at achieving the cold fusion were consuming more energy than the energy released. Why we weren't able to achieve the cold fusion for all these years if it is really a possibility? That is because of our premises in understanding the fusion such as the definition of mass and the binding energy were not correct. It will never be possible to get more energy out of hydrogen gas at room temperature in an apparent cold fusion reaction.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22] viXra:1104.0006 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2011

Cold Fusion. Andrea Rossi's Method

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 4 pages. In English

The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating. In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in Vixra: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi's reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] viXra:1103.0080 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2011

Rossi's Reactors Reality or Fiction?

Authors: Ludwik Kowalski
Comments: 3 pages. I plan to publish the attached note in a physical science journal.

A table-top prototype of a new kind of nuclear reactor has been demonstrated recently at the University of Bolognia. This note addresses conceptual difficulties associated with the reported features of the device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] viXra:1103.0039 [pdf] submitted on 12 Mar 2011

The Extended Micro Hot Fusion Scenario

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 5 pages, A shorter version of this paper has appeared in: Abstracts of the 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Dagomys, Sochi, Russia, 25 June - 1 July 2007, pp. 114 - 115

The cold fusion neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts can be explained by the extended micro hot fusion scenario. I describe the model and present the experimental evidence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] viXra:1102.0054 [pdf] submitted on 27 Feb 2011

Atomic Nuclear Geometry Based on Magic Number Logic.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 4 pages.

Proposal for an atomic nuclear polar ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic. The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei. We found only one solution, which was not only able to match the sequence of magic number numerology in a surprising way. but also the well known axis-symmetrical shape of some atomic electron clouds.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18] viXra:1007.0026 [pdf] submitted on 17 Jul 2010

Using Simple Number Theory to Predict Stable Isotopes

Authors: Sean C. Williams
Comments: 15 pages

An abstract method is described for predicting stable isotopes using simple number theory based on a system of predefined combinations, or "Blocks", of protons and neutrons. Each Block is made up of a prime number of protons, and a binary power increase in the number of neutrons. Predictions using the Block system fully includes all the stable isotopes.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] viXra:1004.0039 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Some Unsolved Problems, Questions, and Applications of The Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

According to the Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model [1] all nuclides of beta stable isotopes can be described by three fundamental nucleon clusters {NPN,PNP,NP), with halo clusters (NN,PP,NNN) now experimentally observed. The Brightsen model builds on the early cluster models of the Resonating Group Structure of John Wheeler [2] and the Linus Pauling Close-Packed Spheron Model [3], which predict mathematically that the wave function of a composite nucleus can be viewed quantum mechanically as a combination of partial wave functions that correspond to the multiple ways nucleons (protons, neutrons) can be distributed into closepacked clusters, thus rejecting the standard model Hartree-Fock formalism of average field interactions between independent nucleons in nuclear shells. Presented in this section are a number of unsolved problems, questions, and future experimental pathways based on the Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model formalism--many additional applications can be gleamed from careful study of the literature cited in the references provided
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] viXra:1003.0039 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Unmatter Entities Inside Nuclei, Predicted by the Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 5 pages

Applying the R. A. Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model of the atomic nucleus we discuss how unmatter entities (the conjugations of matter and antimatter) may be formed as clusters inside a nucleus. The model supports a hypothesis that antimatter nucleon clusters are present as a parton (sensu Feynman) superposition within the spatial confinement of the proton (1H1), the neutron, and the deuteron (1H2). If model predictions can be confirmed both mathematically and experimentally, a new physics is suggested. A proposed experiment is connected to othopositronium annihilation anomalies, which, being related to one of known unmatter entity, orthopositronium (built on electron and positron), opens a way to expand the Standard Model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15] viXra:1002.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 Feb 2010

On the Origin of Atoms

Authors: Richard C. Williams
Comments: 1 page

If energy is seen as having relative displacement based on atomic mass then it is possible to see how the atom was envisaged
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14] viXra:1001.0041 [pdf] submitted on 27 jan 2010

Trajectories of Bodies at Capture and Gigantic Atoms

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 4 pages

The present global sensation in this article is that any physical phenomenon is by and large connected to motion of a matter (material bodies). The facts speak that the official science nothing knows about this motion, therefore all its outcomes not worth a brass farthing and are suit only for a waste basket.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13] viXra:0910.0055 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2009

Is Deuterium Fusion Catalyzed by Antineutrinos?

Authors: Isaac Shomer
Comments: The title and abstract of this article have been submitted for inclusion in the April 2010 meeting of the American Physical Society Additionally, information covered by this paper will likely be presented in video format on my web site, http://www.metacafe.com/channels/SpaceCadet262/

The hypothesis of Fischbach and Jenkins that neutrinos emitted from the sun accelerate radioactive decay is noted. It is thought that neutrinos accelerate beta decay by reacting with neutron-rich nuclides to form a beta particle and a daughter product, with no antineutrino emitted. Conversely, it is proposed that antineutrinos can react with proton-rich nuclides to cause positron decay, with no neutrino emitted. It is also proposed that the nuclear fusion of the hydrogen bomb is triggered not only by the energy of the igniting fission bomb, but by the antineutrinos created by the rapid beta decay of the daughter products in the fission process. The contemplated mechanism for this chain reaction fusion process is the following: (1) The antineutrinos from the fission daughter products cause positron decay of deuterium by the process outlined above. (2) In a later fusion step, these positrons subsequently react with neutrons in deuterium to create antineutrinos. Electrons are unavailable to annihilate positrons in the plasma of the hydrogen bomb. (3) These antineutrinos thereafter react with more deuterium to form positrons, thereby propagating the chain.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] viXra:0910.0034 [pdf] submitted on 19 Oct 2009

The Strong Force - Two Expressions

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The exact origin of the strong force (holding compound atomic nuclei together) is not yet a completely settled matter. Some authors (Robert Oerter) attribute this force to the exchange of virtual mesons between protons and neutrons (as in the original theory of Yukawa), while others (Frank Close) claim this old model has been superseded by the modern theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and attribute the binding of nucleons to a magnetic analog of the color charge, originating in the exchange of gluons between quarks. My own view is that the original Yukawa model is correct, but the reader will have to make his own choice, and realize that not all experts would agree with me.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11] viXra:0908.0101 [pdf] submitted on 24 Aug 2009

Helium-Like Atoms

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 5 pages

In the article the theory of helium-like atoms is given
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] viXra:0908.0049 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

A Design for Making a New Simple Coil Trap

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 2 pages

It seems that for some applications we require to decrease the drifting velocity of atomic or molecular beams, and seemingly various methods have been designed to achieve this purpose. I propose to select a relatively big coreless solenoid through which we can give an intense direct (probably impulsive) electric current. Set the whole instrument which is to create the beam in the space interior to the solenoid, and create the beam parallel to the solenoid. There is no magnetic field gradient inside a current-carrying solenoid. So, the drift velocity of the beam is not changed inside the solenoid, but when it is leaving the solenoid its drift velocity decreases. (If we use this method conversely we can increase the drift velocity of the beam.)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] viXra:0908.0048 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Classical Justification of the Photoelectric Effect

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 6 pages

It is said that empirical results of the photoelectric effect have no classical justification and then are used for deduction of the famous relation E = hν as an alternative way to Planck's deduction. We show that these results are in fact justifiable by the classical theory of electromagnetism and then this way can not be a valid manner for obtaining this relation. Using the presented discussions simple justification of the Rayleigh scattering and of the action mechanism of laser are presented in support of the validity of the discussion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:0908.0047 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Classical Justification of the Franck-Hertz Experiment

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 6 pages

By increasing the voltage in the Franck-Hertz experiment we reach a breakdown voltage in which the current existent between the grid and anode is canceled. This breakdown voltage will be repeated at equal intervals by increasing the voltage.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:0908.0046 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Classical Justification of the Wave-Like Behavior of Electron Beams

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 17 pages

Relying on this fact that not only role of the medium (intermediate gas) cannot be ignored in the electric discharge between cathode and anode, but also it is very important, the diffraction and interference phenomena which an electron beam can reveal are justified. This act is done after analyzing the manner in which stroke propagates via the gas valence electrons. In this respect an experiment is proposed as a test. We conclude that the cathodic ray does not carry charge, ie is not a ray of electrons being shot but is a longitudinal wave arising from the vibration of the valence electrons of the molecules of the carrying-wave medium. In this way the mechanism of production of and the difference between the longitudinal and transverse waves and that our longitudinal wave is only due to compression (not expansion) impacts are explained.
Our ability for complete deflecting and making away the electron beam (behind the anode), existence of sharp shadow of anode in the electric discharge tube, existence of dark-bright striated columns in this tube (similar to Kundt tube in acoustics), and the action mechanism of image intensifying in the image intensifier tubes are all described as witnesses to confirm the wave-like motion for electron beam proposed in this paper and reject the shooting motion for it.
Deflection of the trajectory of electron beams in electric and magnetic fields is justified in wave-like motion of "going" and "backing" for evaluation of which an experiment has been proposed. It is shown that how for transferring of momentum there is no necessity to suppose shooting motion for electron in the cathodic ray.
Two separate parallel cathodic rays repel each other. This will be contrary to what the electromagnetism predicts if a cathodic ray is to carry charge. This phenomenon is justified by the model presented here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:0908.0011 [pdf] submitted on 3 Aug 2009

Multielectronic Atoms

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 5 pages

In the article the constitution of multielectronic atoms is reviewed and the new form of the Mendeleyev's table is offered.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:0908.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2 Aug 2009

Electron Motion in a Field of Two Nuclei and Chemical Bond

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 7 pages

In the article the different types of a chemical bond are reviewed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:0907.0041 [pdf] submitted on 27 Jul 2009

On Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Ions

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 8 pages.

In the article the ionization potentials of atoms are considered, the similar electronic structure of ions with identical number of electrons is shown and the formulas of calculation of potentials of ionization of any multicharge ions are given.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:0907.0035 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2009

Atoms

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 25 pages

In the article the theory of hydrogen-like atoms is given and some details of an electron motion in atom are described.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:0907.0027 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2009

The Theory of Atoms Nuclei

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 26 pages.

In the article the theory of atomic nuclei is set up and the impact way of implementation of thermonuclear reactions is offered.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:0702.0054 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Polytopes and Nuclear Structure

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

While the parameters, Z and A, of atomic nuclei indicate a general structural pattern for the nuclei, the exact nuclear masses in their fine differences seem not to exhibit the orderly kind of logical system that nature must exhibit. At first consideration atomic nuclei are considered as an assembly of Z protons and N = A - Z neutrons. That description is not to say that such an assembling action actually occurs as such. Rather, the assembly point of view is a procedure for determining what the characteristics of the resulting nucleus must be: it must have a mass defect relative to the sum of the masses of those components in an amount equal to that which is required by the theoretical scenario of so assembling the nucleus. Unlike the case of the neutron as a combination of a single proton and electron [see "A New Look at the Neutron and the Lamb Shift"2], the components of an atomic nucleus cannot come together to form the nucleus naturally and unaided because of the mutual electrostatic repulsion of the protons and the electric neutrality of the neutrons. That is, to assemble the particles as in a nucleus and make them stay so assembled requires removing from them the potential energy that they would have when assembled were it not somehow removed. Analysis discloses a comprehensive orderly structure among the nuclear masses of all the nuclear types and isotopes. A component of that analysis and logical order is the family of geometric forms called polytopes, in particular the regular polyhedrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[79] viXra:1408.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-29 10:07:10

The Program for Construction to the Real《Atomic and Nuclear Physics》

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

put a outline for the reconstruction of atomic and nuclear physics
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[78] viXra:1406.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-03 16:56:02

Initiating a Hypothetical Upgrade to Magnecules with Topological Deformation Order Parameters for Spontaneous Superfluidic Gauge Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt
Comments: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we propose a hypothesis and launch a procedural upgrade to magnecules by equipping these new iso-chemical creatures with topological deformation order parameters (OP) of fractional statistics to encode the spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking (which we expect to be restored at the iso-topic level), correlated helices with long range order, and wave-packet wave-functions for the electron toroidal polarizations. For this initial "base case", we consider a single magnecular bond between dual inter-locked protium atoms in a magnecule. The results of this equipment support our hypothesis and are significant because the OP configuration arms us with an extra degree of freedom for encoding a magnecule's states and transitions; this may enable us to further decode and comprehend the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with these state-of-the-art magnecular bonds for direct industrial application. Hence, these outcomes should be subjected to additional stringent examination and improvement.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[77] viXra:1405.0296 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-24 03:51:59

On the Nature of Intranuclear Forces \\ К вопросу о внутриядерных силах

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown that the nucleons in nuclei of elements linked NOT nuclear forces, and the overall flow of electromagnetic energy circulating in the volume of the nucleus. This assumption allows us to explain some properties of the intranuclear interactions and some well-known observation. \\ Показывается, что нуклоны в ядрах элементов связаны НЕ ядерными силами, а общим потоком электромагнитной энергии, циркулирующим в объеме ядра. Это предположение позволяет объяснить некоторые свойства внутриядерных взаимодействий и некоторые известные наблюдения.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[76] viXra:1405.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-23 06:54:20

Nobel Laureate Murray Gell-Mann’s Scientific, Objective, Plain Disproof of Quantum Entanglement Hype and Its Censorship by Deceivers Who Cater to Popular Superstitious Pseudoscience

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is common amongst the bigoted elite physicists and mathematicians to dismiss radical writings by a non-famous, non-Nobel Laureate as mere worthless “opinion”, without bothering to waste time reading it to even bother to find out whether it is based on facts and proof tested by experimental or observational data. Then they close down the discussion and refuse to enter further correspondence. So this paper consists entirely of a short quotation from Murray Gell-Mann’s very poorly organized book The Quark and the Jaguar, published in 1994, disproving popular superstition/fairy tale quantum entanglement hypers and media sponsors.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[75] viXra:1404.0434 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-07 05:27:58

Exotic Mesons, Hadrons and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[74] viXra:1404.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-07 20:47:13

Initiating a Hypothetical Molecular Upgrade to Iso-Electronium with Topological Deformation Order Parameters for Spontaneous Superfluidic Gauge Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda
Comments: 13 pages, 6 figures, submitted to the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we propose a hypothesis and initiate a step-by-step, systematic upgrade to the cutting-edge iso-electronium model by further equipping it with order parameters of fractional statistics to encode the topological deformations, spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking, correlated helices with long range order, and wavepacket wavefunctions for the toroidal polarizations. For this initial case, we consider the singlet planar coupling of two hydrogen atoms that are interlocked with a Santilli-Shillady strong valence bond to form a molecule with iso-electronium. The enhancement results support our hypothesis and are significant because the order parameters arm the iso-electronium model an extra degree of freedom to work with, which may authorize us to further decode and comprehend the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with the configuration of the toroidal polarizations. Thus, these outcomes should be subjected to additional rigorous scrutiny and improvement via the scientific method.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[73] viXra:1403.0586 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-04 20:07:04

Does the Sun's Core Consist of Iron Instead of Hydrogen? and What is Its Implication to Solar Energy Sources?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 12 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. This file is written in order to stimulate further observation/experiment. Comments are welcome.

For years, scientists have assumed that the sun is an enormous mass of hydrogen. Galileo was the first to propose that the sun is filled with gas. But Dr. Oliver Manuel says iron, not hydrogen, is the sun's most abundant element. IF his suggestion is true then it may imply that the source of solar energy is different of the presently held theory of hydrogen fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[72] viXra:1403.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 10:28:27

The Proton Radius Puzzle and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[71] viXra:1401.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-31 16:39:56

Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion by Intermediate Rydberg State of Hydrogen: Selection of the Isotopes for Energy Optimization and Radioactive Waste Minimization

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main objection against cold fusion is based on the theoretical understanding that the Coulomb barrier of the very small nucleus is extremely strong. The size of the atomic nucleus is determined by scattering experiments in which a metal target is usually struck by alpha particles. These experiments yield only energy and angular resolution and their interpretation rely on the assumption that the atomic nuclei and all elementary particles are spherical. A non-spherical nucleus made of thinner non-spherical particles like a torus or a twisted or folded torus will provide similar data for a limited range of the particle energy. At the time of Rutherford, alpha particles with energy from 4 to 8 MeV were used. Modern scattering experiments with energy above 25 MeV show a sharp deviation from the Rutherford theory. They also show a wavelike shape of the scattering cross section as a function of scattering angle. A new interpretation of the scattering experiments leads to the idea that the Coulomb field near the nucleus has a manifold shape with a much larger overall size and therefore is not so strong. The BSM-SG models of atomic nuclei are in excellent agreement with this conclusion. Applying the approach described in the monograph Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion with BSM-SG atomic models, the highly exothermal process between nickel and hydrogen is analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that a proton capture may occur at an accessible temperature in a range of a few hundred degrees. The process is assisted by an intermediate state of hydrogen, known as the Rydberg atom, the magnetic field of which interacts constructively with the recipient nucleus if it is in a proper nuclear spin state. The final conclusion is that it is theoretically possible to obtain nuclear energy without radioactive waste by proper isotope selection of involved elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[70] viXra:1401.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-28 17:38:28

Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion by Intermediate Rydberg State of Hydrogen: Selection of the Isotopes for Energy Optimization and Radioactive Waste Minimization

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 16 Pages.

The main objection against cold fusion is based on the theoretical understanding that the Coulomb barrier of the very small nucleus is extremely strong. The size of the atomic nucleus is determined by scattering experiments in which a metal target is usually struck by alpha particles. These experiments yield only energy and angular resolution and their interpretation rely on the assumption that the atomic nuclei and all elementary particles are spherical. A non-spherical nucleus made of thinner non-spherical particles like a torus or a twisted or folded torus will provide similar data for a limited range of the particle energy. At the time of Rutherford, alpha particles with energy from 4 to 8 MeV were used. Modern scattering experiments with energy above 25 MeV show a sharp deviation from the Rutherford theory. They also show a wavelike shape of the scattering cross section as a function of scattering angle. A new interpretation of the scattering experiments leads to the idea that the Coulomb field near the nucleus has a manifold shape with a much larger overall size and therefore is not so strong. The BSM-SG models of atomic nuclei are in excellent agreement with this conclusion. Applying the approach described in the monograph Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion with BSM-SG atomic models, the highly exothermal process between nickel and hydrogen is analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that a proton capture may occur at an accessible temperature in a range of a few hundred degrees. The process is assisted by an intermediate state of hydrogen, known as the Rydberg atom, the magnetic field of which interacts constructively with the recipient nucleus if it is in a proper nuclear spin state. The final conclusion is that it is theoretically possible to obtain nuclear energy without radioactive waste by proper isotope selection of involved elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[69] viXra:1401.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-23 01:04:12

A New Model of Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

this article put a new model of an atomic Structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[68] viXra:1311.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-29 03:48:36

Electromagnetic Method for Blocking the Action of Neutrons, Alpha-Particles, Beta-Particles and Gamma-Rays Upon Atomic Nuclei.

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we show an electromagnetic method for blocking the action of external neutrons, alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays upon atomic nuclei. This method can be very useful for stopping nuclear fissions, as the chain reactions that occur inside a nuclear fission reactor, and also those nuclear fissions that continue occurring, and generating heat (decay heat) , even after the shut down of the reactor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[67] viXra:1310.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-12 17:51:10

Internal Structure and Assembly Mechanics of the Nucleus: Nuclides of Hydrogen to Neon

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 44 Pages.

It has long been expected in physics that there should be causality from the strong nuclear force to nuclear structures, but the mechanisms have been unknown. The present work addresses this problem, by developing a theory based on a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design, that explains the nuclides from the synchronous interaction (strong force) upwards. The basis of the Cordus nuclear theory is that the nucleus consists of a nuclear polymer bonded by the synchronous interaction (strong force). Three-nucleon physics are accommodated, in the form of bridge neutrons across the nuclear polymer. The requirements for nuclide stability are identified as the need to have a nuclear polymer that consists entirely of cis-phasic synchronous bonds, and also a spatially viable layout. Only certain identified layouts are viable. The Cordus nuclear theory successfully explains, for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon, why any nuclide is stable, unstable, non-viable or non-existent. It explains why some elements have multiple nuclides, and others only one. The theory also explains the deviations from the p=n line, why 1H0 and 2He1 are stable with low neutron counts, why 4Be4 and 9F9 are unstable, and why heavier elements require more neutrons than protons for stability. It explains relative stability (lateral trends with one nuclide series), including the anomalous progressions (i.e. those situations where one nuclide is unexpectedly much more or less stable than its neighbouring nuclides). The theory also explains why the limits of stability are where they are. It explains the patterns of stability in the table of nuclides, such as the runs of stable isotopes and stable isotones. Thus the nuclide landscape may be explained by morphological considerations based on a NLHV design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[66] viXra:1310.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-01 04:41:04

The New Nuclear Magic Number (34) Explained by the Polar Coaxial Ring System of Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages. 8

Proposal for an atomic nuclear Polar-coaxial ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic, including the newest number of 34 nucleons found by RIBF/Riken Japan (October 2013). The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei. I found interesting coaxial ring solutions, which were not only able to match the sequence of magic number numerology in a surprising way, but also able to explain the latest discovery of an extra magic number 34.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[65] viXra:1310.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-29 03:54:12

The New Nuclear Magic Number (34) Explained by the Polar Coaxial Ring System of Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

Proposal for an atomic nuclear Polar-coaxial ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic, including the newest number of 34 nucleons found by RIBF/Riken Japan (October 2013). The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei. I found interesting coaxial ring solutions, which were not only able to match the sequence of magic number numerology in a surprising way, but also able to explain the latest discovery of an extra magic number 34.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[64] viXra:1310.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-30 01:52:03

Nuclear Polymer Explains the Stability, Instability, and Non-Existence of Nuclides

Authors: Dirk Pons, Arion Pons, Aiden Pons
Comments: 39 Pages.

Problem – The explanation of nuclear properties from the strong force upwards has been elusive. Purpose – This paper develops a theory to explain, from first principles, why any one nuclide is stable, unstable, or non-existent. Approach – Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the bonding arrangements between nucleons. This was based on the covert structures for the proton and neutron as defined by the Cordus theory, a type of non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields. Findings - Nuclear bonding arises from the synchronous interaction between the discrete fields of the proton and neutron. This results in not one but multiple types of bond, cis- and transphasic, and assembly of chains and bridges of nucleons into a nuclear polymer. The synchronous interaction constrains the relative orientation of nucleons, hence the nuclear polymer takes only certain spatial layouts. The stability of nuclides is entirely predicted by morphology of the nuclear polymer and the cis/transphasic nature of the bonds. The theory successfully explains the qualitative stability characteristics of all hydrogen and helium nuclides. Originality - The concept of a nuclear polymer, and its associated mechanics, is novel and totally unlike any other theory. This mechanics is the first to explain the stability, instability, or non-existence of nuclides starting from the strong/synchronous force. It is also the first to explain the role of the neutron in the nucleus.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[63] viXra:1309.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-13 08:27:44

Atom Model and Relativity

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 11 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyperfine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[62] viXra:1309.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-29 21:55:29

Atom Model and Relativity

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 11 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyperfine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[61] viXra:1309.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-09 03:04:41

Atom Model and Relativity

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 9 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyperfine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[60] viXra:1309.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-18 17:24:17

The Relation of Colour Charge to Electric Charge (V2)

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

The relation of colour charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of Dirac.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] viXra:1309.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-30 04:12:53

Microwold 2. Magnetism, Lorentz Force, Electron Structure

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts. Send you a new version of the paper that has been deleted 29.01.2014

It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[58] viXra:1308.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-04 15:47:04

Semi-fundamental Model of Elemental Abundance

Authors: Gene H Barbee
Comments: 18 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Fusion is an important process in nature. It the abundance of elements measured throughout the universe. Fusion powers the sun and is important in aging of the stars and other high density, high temperature processes. A binding energy model for atoms is extended in this section to abundance of the elements produced in stellar burning phases. Of particular interest was a model that was largely independent of measured parameters and based on probabilities. Reference 17 presented a temperature history for expansion that was similar to other cosmologies. A short time later (on the order of seconds) the author’s R1+R3 model produces temperatures in the range of 1e9K from the initial kinetic energy 9.7 MeV [17]. Plasma exists until the temperature drops enough to allow electrons to form orbits around protons. Eventually acoustic and gravitational forces become dominant and accumulation of mass into clusters, galaxies and clusters begins. The concentration process later allows stars to “light up” with fusion when they become dense and hot. This is known in the literature as re-ionization. Stars burn up their hydrogen and follow a well-documented aging cycle that depends on the kinetics of progressive fusion reactions. Literature cites measurements regarding the abundance of the heavy elements [8][7][11] that are produced by these reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[57] viXra:1307.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-19 08:23:02

A Simple Model of Atomic Binding Energy

Authors: Gene H Barbee
Comments: 10 Pages. genebarbee@msn.com

A Top-down approach to Fundamental Interactions, viXra:1307.0082 [2] presents the author’s attempt to understand if there is an information code underlying nature. Once the energy components were understood, a model for the neutron and proton was developed. The proton model is presented in Reference 2 and repeated below under the next heading. The proton model shows that there is a 10.15 mev orbit that losses energy and is responsible for the binding energy curve. The goals of this paper are to verify the value 10.15 mev and present a simple model of atomic binding energy,. Literature cites “water drop” models for binding energy that are admittedly empirical. Quantum physicists have suggested that there should be “electron like” shells inside atoms but to the author’s knowledge they remain unclear. If there are shells the nucleons should fall into lower energy states releasing the remainder as binding energy. The author explored this possibility. Empirically, the model was successful but no explanation could be found for why a nucleon occupied a given shell. The first part of the binding energy curve rises quickly and then levels off as saturation occurs. When the author compared the shape of the curve to a probability based model a simple relationship was discovered. The relationship is almost identical to the fundamentals presented in reference 2.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[56] viXra:1305.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-27 22:22:06

Differentiation of Matter and Antimatter by Hand: Internal and External Structures of the Electron and Antielectron

Authors: Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons, Aiden J Pons
Comments: 18 Pages.

A previous conceptual work, called the Cordus conjecture, has proposed a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for the photon, and thereby proposed a solution to photon entanglement and wave-particle duality. This paper applies a systems design approach to extend the theory to matter, specifically to differentiate between the matter-antimatter species. This concept rests on two premises: that particules have span (physical separation between reactive ends); and that their externally emitted discrete forces have an energisation sequence. Specific hidden-variable models are proposed for the electron, positron, and proton. This concept provides a better explanation of the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. It also provides foundational concepts from which new solutions to other problems, like annihilation and baryogenesis, can be envisaged. The Cordus theory goes beyond conventional NLHV solutions, such as the de Broglie-Bohm model, by offering a solution not only for the inner contents of a particle, the hidden variables, but also predicting how its discrete fields operate. This theory provides a physically natural explanation for spin, handedness, chirality, and related directional attributes of particles, which are otherwise only abstract concepts in quantum mechanics. The theory also explains parity violation, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. This work makes a conceptual contribution of presenting a new concept of handedness and the matter-antimatter species differentiation. It demonstrates the potential of hidden-variable designs to provide solutions of high explanatory power.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[55] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-23 22:33:39

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a roadblock for the real understanding of antimatter. Antimatter is generated with high energy devices like particle colliders and proton guns. But those devices are denitely not needed because particle is its antiparticle, it all depends on particle's spin vector.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[54] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-09 23:28:43

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 2 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particles are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[53] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-22 23:45:50

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[52] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-22 04:27:53

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[51] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-06 07:11:18

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages. Fixes

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[50] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-24 00:07:34

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 3 Pages. Fixes

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[49] viXra:1305.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-17 23:47:22

Antimatter

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 4 Pages. Fixes

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a road block for the real understanding of antimatter. Currently antimatter is generated with high energy devices (colliders and proton guns). Used energies are just too big. Excited anti-particle's are very hard to handle.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[48] viXra:1305.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-03 10:21:42

Evidencing ‘Tight Bound States’ in the Hydrogen Atom: Empirical Manipulation of Large-Scale XD in Violation of QED

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Jean-Pierre Vigier
Comments: 19 Pages. serious typos, reference to wrong figures etc repaired

In this work we extend Vigier’s recent theory of ‘tight bound state’ (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a ‘super quantum potential’ extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a ‘force of coherence’ inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[47] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-09 13:11:17

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 30 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[46] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-18 05:58:38

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 29 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[45] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-16 15:02:22

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 24 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-27 04:18:18

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 22 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[43] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-22 04:56:24

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 18 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[42] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-05 04:53:50

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 16 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[41] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-29 18:40:40

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 15 pages

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-03 05:53:24

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 12 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[39] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-10 11:36:51

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 10 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-28 05:16:44

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 8 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[37] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-26 18:44:37

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 8 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[36] viXra:1303.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-25 06:01:17

Vortex of Light

Authors: Ivo Van Der Rijt
Comments: 6 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics. It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time. All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[35] viXra:1302.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-26 19:23:08

Jiang Periodic Table of Elements

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages.

abstract:We make the Jiang periodic table of elements
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[34] viXra:1302.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-19 19:35:30

One Clue to the Proton Size Puzzle: The Emergence of the Electron Membrane Paradigm

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recent experiments for proton radius measurement, based on muonic hydrogen, confirmed that the proton size obtained by muon interaction is 4% smaller than the standard value. These results generated a new problem that was called “the proton size puzzle”. This author believes that it occurs because the proton radius changes, depending on the particle with which it is interacting. In this context the author proposes that the standard proton radius be defined in conditions, where a proton is isolated in space, without interacting with any other particle. In this condition the standard proton radius seems very close to the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments. If this new standard proton radius value is accepted, one solution to "the proton size puzzle" must answer two basic questions: a) Why does the proton increase its size, when interacting with an electron in a hydrogen atom? b) Why does the proton maintain the (new) standard radius value, when interacting with the muon to form a muonic hydrogen atom? Question (a) can be answered, in a context where the electric force that appears between the opposite charges (of the electron and the proton) may be affecting the proton and expanding its radius. Considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with the proton as an "observer" of the electron position, the proton also will not "know" where the electron position is. Thus the proton is simultaneously attracted to all positions where the electron might be, which are defined by orbital wave function. Thus, the uncertainty principle could explain that the proton is subjected to a radial force field, which tends to increase its size. Another solution for the proton size puzzle, proposed by the author, considers a change in the physical interpretation of orbital wave functions. These functions are currently connected to the probability density of the presence of the electron in a given volume of space. In this new interpretation, the wave function equations are the same, but their given values (that can be expressed in C/m3) can be associated with an effective density of electric charge, that exists simultaneously, composing a negative charge membrane, which are distributed in space around the atomic nucleus, as defined by the orbital wave function charge densities. The author calls this new model the “Electron Membrane Paradigm” (EMP), because in it the “electron particle” turns as into an “electron membrane”. The EMP has the potential to solve ’the proton size puzzle’, allowing the emergence of new theories, that can model both, electrons and other particles, in the form of strings and membranes.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33] viXra:1301.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-02 08:12:53

Periodic Table is Wrong

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages.

periodic table is wrong
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32] viXra:1208.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-08 16:11:53

The “HIGGS” from Anti-Neutrons and Neutrons

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Eleven pages

The new anti-neutron, first proposed in 2011 [16], and ordinary neutrons, are both without electric charge, and are therefore rather difficult to accelerate and/or impact together in a high energy collider sufficient to cause annihilation, and thus create a 100% energy “Higgs” styled Boson, such Bosons arguably representing all of the mass in the universe. This very high energy impact combination was first suggested during conversation, publicly, by U.K. chemist R. Guy Grantham, MRSC, on 25 August 2011. [18] This writer had proposed, previously [16], a simple universal theory/model of the atom composed of anti-neutrons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos, which better explains fusion, fission, radioactivity, electromagnetic radiation, gravity, electric force, magnetic force, and the strong force. Dr. D. Sasso’s recent formalisms for electrons, positrons, and photons [19] are adopted herein to better describe the author’s original 2011 anti-neutron model of the atom. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31] viXra:1208.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-08 04:43:32

Synchronous Interlocking of Discrete Forces: Strong Force Reconceptualised in a NLHV Solution

Authors: Dirk Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: Pages. Published as: Pons, D.J., A.D. Pons, and A.J. Pons, Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution Applied Physics Research, 2013. 5(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107

The conventional requirements for the strong force are that it is strongly attractive between nucleons whether neutral neutrons or positively charged protons; that it is repulsive at close range; that its effect drops off with range. However theories, such as quantum chromodynamics, based on this thinking have failed to explain nucleus structure ab initio starting from the strong force. We apply a systems design approach to this problem. We show that it is more efficient to conceptualise the interaction as interlocking effect, and develop a solution based on a specific non-local hidden-variable design called the Cordus conjecture. We propose that the strong force arises from particules synchronising their emission of discrete forces. This causes the participating particules to be interlocked: the interaction pulls or repels particules into co-location and then holds them there, hence the apparent attractive-repulsive nature of that force and its short range. Those discrete forces are renewed at the de Broglie frequency of the particule. The Cordus theory answers the question of how the strong force attracts the nucleons (nuclear force). We make several novel falsifiable predictions including that there are multiple types of synchronous interaction depending on the phase of the particules, hence cis- and trans-phasic bonding. We also predict that this force only applies to particules in coherent assembly. A useful side effect is that the theory also unifies the strong and electro-magneto-gravitation (EMG) forces, with the weak force having a separate causality. The synchronous interaction (strong force) is predicted to be intimately linked to coherence, with the EMG forces being the associated discoherent phenomenon. Thus we further predict that there is no need to overcome the electrostatic force in the nucleus, because it is already inoperative when the strong force operates. We suggest that ‘strong’ is an unnecessarily limiting way of thinking about this interaction, and that the ‘synchronous’ concept offers a more parsimonious solution with greater explanatory power for fundamental physics generally, and the potential to explain nuclear mechanics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[30] viXra:1208.0006 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-02 03:57:01

The Radius of the Proton in the Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 15 pages. Accepted by Hadronic Journal

Based on the notion of strong gravitation, acting at the level of elementary particles, and on the equality of the magnetic moment of the proton and the limiting magnetic moment of the rotating non-uniformly charged ball, the radius of the proton is found, which conforms to the experimental data. At the same time the dependence is derived of distribution of the mass and charge density inside the proton. The ratio of the density in the center of the proton to the average density is found, which equals 1.57.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29] viXra:1207.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-22 18:33:16

Gravitational Atomic Synthesis at Room Temperature

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is described a process for creating new atoms starting from pre-existing atoms. We show that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] viXra:1207.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 11:05:11

Gravitational Separator of Isotopes

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we show a gravitational separator of isotopes which can be much more effective than those used in the conventional processes of isotopes separation. It is based on intensification of the gravitational acceleration, and can generate accelerations tens of times more intense than those generated in the most powerful centrifuges used for Uranium enrichment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[27] viXra:1207.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-10 05:51:54

Gravitational Separator of Isotopes

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we show a gravitational separator of isotopes which can be much more effective than those used in the conventional processes of isotopes separation. It is based on intensification of the gravitational acceleration, and can generate accelerations tens of times more intense than those generated in the most powerful centrifuges used for Uranium enrichment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[26] viXra:1207.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-08-31 11:16:33

Gravitational Separator of Isotopes

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we show a gravitational separator of isotopes which can be much more effective than those used in the conventional processes of isotopes separation. It is based on intensification of the gravitational acceleration, and can generate accelerations tens of times more intense than those generated in the most powerful centrifuges used for Uranium enrichment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[25] viXra:1203.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-30 23:06:27

Complete Understanding of Neutron, Deuteron, Alpha Particle and Nuclei: A New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 70 Pages. 8 Figures

Presently, a new model for neutron structure has been proposed. Because the standard quark model and the other neutron models fail to give explanation of the questions, e.g.: 1. A neutron happens to be unstable in its free state and becomes stable in stable nuclei and systems (e.g. deuterons and alpha particles), but why and how? 2. What does happen or situation is created in stable nuclei/systems such that the neutrons become stable in them? 3. Why and how is that situation not being created in nuclei/systems having, e.g. two-neutrons, three-neutrons and one-proton etc.? 4. Why and how does neutron have unstable and stable, both the states, while the rest of all the elementary particles have only one state, either stable or unstable? 5. Why and how does neutron survive for time t = 885.7 seconds (mean life time of neutron) and then decays, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second? 6. Why and how do neutrons have high penetrating power and distinguishable low and high-energy ranges? The present model gives clear and complete explanation of all the above questions along with very clear and complete explanation of the following several greatly important phenomena/events: 1. Why and how beta particles, which are electrons, are emitted from the nuclei during beta decay while it is believed that the electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 2. Why and how energy of beta particles emitted during beta decay varies in the form of a continuous energy spectrum; 3. Why and how nature has provided us only deuteron while the bound states, di-proton and di-neutron are also theoretically possible but do not exist; 4. Why and how binding energy per nucleon (Eb) of tritium and helium-3 are increased to > 2×Eb of deuteron, and Eb of tritium > Eb of helium-3; 5. Why and how tritium is radioactive and decays into helium-3 through beta decay; 6. How two-neutrons and two-protons are arranged in an alpha particle such that it persists and behaves like a particle and beams of alpha particles are obtained despite having repulsive Coulomb force between them; 7. Why and how Eb of alpha particle is increased to > 6× Eb of deuteron, instead of increasing to 2×Eb of deuteron; 8. How nucleons are arranged in nuclei having mass number A = integer multiple of 4 that the nuclei become most strongly stable; 9. Why and how Eb of beryllium-8 < Eb of helium-4, while Eb of nuclei increases as their A increases in multiple of 4; 10. Why and how nuclei having A not equal to integer multiple of 4 are not strongly stable; 11. Why and how near A = 62, Eb is maximum and then it gradually decreases as A increases and ultimately for A > 200, the nuclei become radioactive and alpha, beta, gamma, neutrino are emitted from them; 12. How gamma and neutrino obtain particle like physical existence and so high energy and penetrating power. Finally an important conclusion has been drawn that the strength of stability of a nucleus does not depend only upon Eb of the nucleus but also upon the strength of stability of neutrons of the nucleus, because the later one too varies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] viXra:1203.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-05 04:29:21

The Photon

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 22 Pages.

A model is proposed for the photon as a material particle having zero mass. It is based on the supposition that antimatter has negative gravitational mass and that mass is an additive quantum value. Considerations of special relativity lead to a model for the photon as a compound bipolar system comprising a particle and its antiparticle equivalent. Consideration is given to the dynamics of such a system. The forces are found to be in balance provided that certain velocity terms are taken to be affected by relativity, leading to a system which is stable and one in which the photon can exist in a vacuum without recourse to an ether or ether like substance. The photon is found to have a finite bandwidth and a velocity profile which varies with frequency.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] viXra:1202.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2012-04-08 05:17:32

A Possible Explanation for Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

Anomalous heat production has been detected in Ni-H Systems. Several evidences point to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is shown here based on the recent discovery that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces. Under certain circumstances, the intensities of gravitational forces can even overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, and, in this way, produce nuclear fusion reactions, without need high temperatures for these reactions occur.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22] viXra:1202.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-29 17:42:20

A Possible Explanation for Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

Anomalous heat production has been detected in Ni-H Systems. Several evidences point to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is shown here based on the recent discovery that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces. Under certain circumstances, the intensities of gravitational forces can even overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, and, in this way, produce nuclear fusion reactions, without need high temperatures for these reactions occur.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] viXra:1202.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-25 05:26:39

A Possible Explanation for Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

Anomalous heat production has been detected in Ni-H Systems. Several evidences point to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is shown here based on the recent discovery that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces. Under certain circumstances, the intensities of gravitational forces can even overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, and, in this way, produce nuclear fusion reactions, without need high temperatures for these reactions occur.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] viXra:1201.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-29 11:06:47

A New Model for W,Z, Higgs Bosons Masses Calculation and Validation Tests Based on the Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this paper was re-visited the dual Ginzburg-Landau model for the calculation of Lorenz force, monopoles current, and the energy of vortex lines for a vortex triangular lattice type Abrikosov within a nucleon, to find their meaning. For now, it was found that these energies would correspond to the subatomic particles, , bosons, pion , and of nucleon itself. Also, it was determined the fusion temperature of two nucleons. The model permits to explain the beta decay mechanism of radioisotopes to be the same as the dark counts in the case of superconductors. A link with gravity as a force that counteracts the destruction of superconductivity, is discussed. In this model to a superconductor analogue, we do not use an a-priori Higgs field, and hence a Higgs boson. The entire work is done in natural units.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] viXra:1112.0088 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-10 05:04:37

Guided Impact Fusion

Authors: Colin Jack
Comments: 30 Pages.

There is a practical way to generate energy from fusion. The basic method is well known: a hollow fuel capsule implodes within a hohlraum. However the hohlraum is heated not by lasers, but by the impact of charged micropellets fired at ultravelocity. This technique has long been used to test spacecraft micrometeoroid shields, and has been suggested for fusion. The key novel step is that it is now possible to track and guide each pellet individually during flight, using COTS-available technology. This opens up options never before considered:
- The pellets catch up together during flight through a long vacuum pipe, so an accelerator of modest power can provide a very high peak input pulse. A train of pellets launched over a period of milliseconds arrives at the hohlraum within a span of nanoseconds: a ‘temporal compression’ factor of one million.
- Successively smaller course corrections fine-tune the pellet trajectories to ever-increasing precision. The pellets are progressively discharged as they travel, so mutual repulsion at convergence is eliminated. The pellets impact the hohlraum in a precisely specified pattern.
The method is ideally suited to standoff operation. Detonation can take place completely surrounded by flowing lithium, which extracts the energy while also breeding tritium to close the fuel cycle. There is no need for a large vacuum chamber, and no unwanted radioactives are produced.
The only net input is deuterium and lithium. Capital cost is modest. Equipment life is indefinite. It will be possible to retrofit existing coal-fired generating plant for fusion.
Overall length of the accelerator and standoff pipe is substantial, several kilometres. However even if the whole length has to be placed in a tunnel, its cost is small compared to that of a power station. The pellets travel at only a few hundred km/sec: the accelerator is driven at RF frequency, by inexpensive solid state switches.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18] viXra:1112.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2011-12-15 14:23:32

Theoretical Feasibility of Cold Fusion According to the BSM - Supergravitation Unified Theory

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 26 Pages.

Advances in the field of cold fusion and the recent success of the nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, in which the energy release cannot be explained by a chemical process, need a deeper understanding of the nuclear reactions and, more particularly, the possibility for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The current theoretical understanding based on high temperature fusion does not offer an explanation for the cold fusion or LENR. The treatise "Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory", based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum, provides an explanation from a new point of view by using derived three-dimensional structures of the atomic nuclei. For explanation of the nuclear energy, a hypothesis of a field micro-curvature around the superdense nucleus is suggested. Analysis of some successful cold fusion experiments resulted in practical considerations for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The analysis also predicts the possibility of another cold fusion reaction based on some similarity between the nuclear structures of Ni and Cr.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] viXra:1111.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-01 19:57:59

Asymmetrical Genesis by Remanufacture of Antielectrons

Authors: D. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons
Comments: 20 Pages. Edition 6

The asymmetrical genesis problem concerns why the universe should have an abundance of matter over antimatter. This paper shows how the baryogenesis and leptogenesis asymmetries may both be resolved. The solution is given in terms of the transformation of particles under a set of remanufacturing processes. Specific predictions are given for these processes in terms of the discrete field structures of the Cordus theory. It is proposed that two initial photons are converted via pair production into an electron and antielectron. A second process remanufactures the antielectron into a proton. Two antineutrinos are emitted, removing the antimatter handed field structures. The original electron and proton may bond to form a simple hydrogen atom, or combine via electron capture to form a neutron and hence heavier nuclides. The preponderance of the matter pathways in the genesis production sequence is explained as domain warfare between the matter and antimatter species.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] viXra:1111.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-09 11:32:06

Spherical Electron as a ’quark’ Magnetic Monopole

Authors: Malcolm Macleod
Comments: 2 Pages.

A dimensionless formula for an electron whose axis is a magnetic monopole is proposed. This magnetic monopole is constructed from Planck units; Planck-time, Planck-mass, elementary charge and c. As it forms a 1/3rd power of e, its structure suggests a candidate for the quark and so the differences between the positron and proton may be more geometrical than physical. A Planck unit Mathematical Universe Hypothesis is implied with particles as mathematical formulas that dictate (modulate) the frequency of Planck unit events via a periodic analog wave-state to digital Planck-event (Planck-time Planck-mass) point-state oscillation (wave-particle duality becomes a wave to point oscillation).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15] viXra:1111.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-17 18:36:11

Beta Decays and the Inner Structures of the Neutrino in a NLHV Design

Authors: D.J. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons
Comments: 21 Pages. Pons, D. J., Pons, A., D., & Pons, A., J. (2014). Beta decays and the inner structures of the neutrino in a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 6(3), 50-63. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n3p50 (alternative http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0022)

A novel conceptual theory is developed for the beta decay and electron capture processes, based on the specific non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design provided by the Cordus theory. A new mechanics is sketched out for the interactions of particules through their discrete forces, and is a deeper level representation of Feynman diagrams. The new mechanics is able to correctly predict the outcomes of the decay processes, beta minus, beta plus, electron capture. It predicts specific NLHV structures for the neutrino and antineutrino. The velocity and unique spins of the neutrino species may then be explained as a consequence of the hidden structures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14] viXra:1111.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-23 20:51:20

Beta Decays and the Inner Structures of the Neutrino in a NLHV Design

Authors: D.J. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons
Comments: 20 Pages.

A novel conceptual theory is developed for the beta decay and electron capture processes, based on the specific non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design provided by the Cordus theory. A new mechanics is sketched out for the interactions of particules through their discrete forces, and is a deeper level representation of Feynman diagrams. The new mechanics is able to correctly predict the outcomes of the decay processes, beta minus, beta plus, electron capture. It predicts specific NLHV structures for the neutrino and antineutrino. The velocity and unique spins of the neutrino species may then be explained as a consequence of the hidden structures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13] viXra:1109.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-20 03:01:25

Annihilation Mechanisms

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 24 Pages. Pons DJ, Pons AD, Pons AJ (2014) Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 6 (2):28-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28

This paper develops an ontologically rich explanation of the inner mechanics of the annihilation process, starting from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design. This explains the process in terms of the handedness of matter and antimatter, the interaction of the electron and antielectron as they approach, the collapse of their discrete force structures and their reformation into photon structures. The process is more one of remanufacture than destruction. The resulting Cordus theory successfully explains para- and ortho-positronium annihilation. It explains the different photons output, the relative difference in lifetimes, and why Bhabha scattering sometimes happens instead. The theory exposes a deeper common mechanism for annihilation, pair-creation, and bonding.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] viXra:1109.0014 [pdf] replaced on 12 Oct 2011

Particle Consistency of Microscopic and Macroscopic Motion

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 8 pages.

The scenario of particle has been greatly written in the past, but its incompleteness is so serious that the connection of microscopic and macroscopic world is broken. The 19th century's experiment by both Perrin and Thomson is unable to prove whether the cathode rays are negatively charged or not. Here we propose, the particles of an atom are organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems to orbit, wave-like movement demonstrated in double-slit experiment is nothing but an aggregation of the movement of many fine particles. Along with previous work, it is hopeful to see that hierarchical two-body gravitation may unify different level structures and their motion together.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11] viXra:1109.0014 [pdf] replaced on 16 Sep 2011

Particle Consistency of Microscopic and Macroscopic Motion

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 8 pages.

The scenario of particle has been greatly written in the past, but its incompleteness is so serious that the connection of microscopic and macroscopic world is broken. The 19th century's experiment by both Perrin and Thomson is unable to prove whether the cathode rays are negatively charged or not. Here we propose, the particles of an atom are organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems to orbit, wave-like movement demonstrated in double-slit experiment is nothing but an aggregation of the movement of many fine particles. Along with previous work, it is hopeful to see that hierarchical two-body gravitation may unify different level structures and their motion together.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] viXra:1105.0042 [pdf] replaced on 1 Jun 2011

What is Mass?

Authors: Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we investigate the connection between energy and mass. From this we propose that mass is "generated" when a volume of space contains a sufficient amount of localised energy. We then show how this definition explains various phenomena, for example why mass increases with velocity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] viXra:1104.0048 [pdf] replaced on 23 May 2011

An Unifying Basis for all the Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 4 pages.

A successful explanation of the actual underlying physical process for an observed phenomenon will lead to the prediction of other possible scenarios for that process. A new understanding of how the nuclear reactions such as the fission and fusion works leads to the explanation of other observed anomalies. All the nuclear reactions, including the low energy nuclear reactions, appear to be the manifestation of the collapse and or expansion of a group of particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:1104.0048 [pdf] replaced on 1 May 2011

An Unifying Basis for all the Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 4 pages.

A successful explanation of the actual underlying physical processes for an observed phenomenon will lead to the prediction of other possible scenarios for that process. A new understanding of how the nuclear reactions such as the fission and fusion works leads to the explanation of other observed anomalies. All the nuclear reactions, including the low energy nuclear reactions, appears to be the manifestation of the collapse and expansion of a group of particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:1104.0048 [pdf] replaced on 25 Apr 2011

Cold Fusion: A False Hope as the Source of Energy

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 4 pages.

The notion of extracting enormous amounts of energy from a cold fusion nuclear reaction is based on the flawed fundamental concepts such as the definition of mass and the binding energy. A critical analysis of these concepts reveals that the cold fusion is nothing but a mirage and a misguided notion. However, it is possible to extract small amounts of energy in non-fusion nuclear reactions at room temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1104.0006 [pdf] replaced on 17 Nov 2011

How Can 30% of Nickel in Rossi's Reactor be Transmuted Into Copper?

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 4 pages. best editing.

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi's reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1104.0006 [pdf] replaced on 12 Apr 2011

Cold Fusion. Andrea Rossi's Method

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 4 pages. In English - amended with more recent data on isotopes mass.

The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating. In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in Vixra: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi's reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:1104.0006 [pdf] replaced on 7 Apr 2011

Cold Fusion. Andrea Rossi's Method

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 4 pages. In English

The interest on Andrea Rossi's Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating. In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in Vixra: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi's reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1103.0080 [pdf] replaced on 27 Mar 2011

Rossi's Reactors Reality or Fiction?

Authors: Ludwik Kowalski
Comments: 4 pages. I plan to publish the attached note in a physical science journal.

A tabletop prototype of a new kind of nuclear reactor was demonstrated recently at the University of Bologna. This note addresses conceptual difficulties associated with the reported features of the device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:0910.0034 [pdf] replaced on 15 Dec 2010

The Strong Force - Two Expressions

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The exact origin of the strong force (holding compound atomic nuclei together) is not yet a completely settled matter. Some authors (Robert Oerter) attribute this force to the exchange of virtual mesons between protons and neutrons (as in the original theory of Yukawa), while others (Frank Close) claim this old model has been superseded by the modern theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and attribute the binding of nucleons to a magnetic analog of the color charge, originating in the exchange of gluons between quarks. My own view is that the original Yukawa model is correct, but the reader will have to make his own choice, and realize that not all experts would agree with me (or each other). My reasons for preferring the original Yukawa model are several: 1) Yukawa's mathematics work, correctly predicting the mass of the exchanged mesons. If we deny the validity of this model, what are we to do with this mathematical structure and these mesons? Neither will go away just to please a new model. 2) If the color-magnetism theory is correct, then all proton-neutron combinations should be equivalent, whereas we know that some are favored - the alpha particle, for example - and all combinations of even numbers of nucleons. There are also "magic numbers" of nucleons, combinations of special stability among the heavier nuclei. Finally, why do we not find isolated neutron-neutron pairings? The pion exchange model answers all these questions. 3) Because mesons carry both flavor and color charges, it is also possible that both effects are at work simultaneously. Mesons carry color-anticolor charges (always of the same color), so they can neatly substitute themselves for the color charge of a baryon's quark. Because they also carry flavor/anti-flavor charges (in this case not necessarily of the same flavor: d and anti- u, for example), they can just as neatly change a baryon's "u" quark into a "d" quark (and hence a proton into a neutron), or vice versa. A "magnetic" color effect, however, could not by itself change a quark's flavor. The exchange of mesons allows the neutron to satisfy its natural tendency to undergo beta decay via a virtual reaction rather than an actual decay. 4) The magnetic analog of the color charge is expressed as "asymptotic freedom" - the increasing freedom of movement of the quarks as they approach each other at the center of the baryon. Hence this is an inwardly directed "magnetic" effect, typical of the strong force, not a likely source for binding energy outside the confines of the baryon. The symmetry-keeping role of the color charge is to permanently confine the fractional charges of the quarks to whole quantum charge units. While "asymptotic freedom" is completely understandable within this conservation context as a "local gauge symmetry" effect, the external binding of other baryons is not. (See: Frank Close: The New Cosmic Onion" Taylor and Francis 2007); (See: Robert Oerter: The Theory of Almost Everything. Penguin (Plume) 2006); (See: Gross, Politzer, Wilczek: Science: 15 October 2004 vol. 306 page 400: "Laurels to Three Who Tamed Equations of Quark Theory.")
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:0910.0034 [pdf] replaced on 27 Sep 2010

The Strong Force - Two Expressions

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The exact origin of the strong force (holding compound atomic nuclei together) is not yet a completely settled matter. Some authors (Robert Oerter) attribute this force to the exchange of virtual mesons between protons and neutrons (as in the original theory of Yukawa), while others (Frank Close) claim this old model has been superseded by the modern theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and attribute the binding of nucleons to a magnetic analog of the color charge, originating in the exchange of gluons between quarks. My own view is that the original Yukawa model is correct, but the reader will have to make his own choice, and realize that not all experts would agree with me (or each other). My reasons for preferring the original Yukawa model are several: 1) Yukawa's mathematics work, correctly predicting the mass of the exchanged mesons. If we deny the validity of this model, what are we to do with this mathematical structure and these mesons? Neither will go away just to please a new model. 2) If the color-magnetism theory is correct, then all proton-neutron combinations should be equivalent, whereas we know that some are favored - the alpha particle, for example - and all combinations of even numbers of nucleons. There are also "magic numbers" of nucleons, combinations of special stability among the heavier nuclei. Finally, why do we not find isolated neutron-neutron pairings? The pion exchange model answers all these questions. 3) Because mesons carry both flavor and color charges, it is also possible that both effects are at work simultaneously. Mesons carry color-anticolor charges (always of the same color), so they can neatly substitute themselves for the color charge of a baryon's quark. Because they also carry flavor/anti-flavor charges (in this case not necessarily of the same flavor: d and anti-u, for example), they can just as neatly change a baryon's "u" quark into a "d" quark (and hence a proton into a neutron), or vice versa. A "magnetic" color effect, however, could not by itself change a quark's flavor. The exchange of mesons allows the neutron to satisfy its natural tendency to undergo beta decay via a virtual reaction rather than an actual decay. (See: Frank Close: The New Cosmic Onion" Taylor and Francis 2007); (See: Robert Oerter: The Theory of Almost Everything. Penguin (Plume) 2006.)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics