Nuclear and Atomic Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[547] viXra:1903.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 07:24:42

Beta-Decay Puzzle Solved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An international collaboration including scientists at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decays of free neutrons. [12] Analysis of data from the MINOS+ experiment reveals no evidence for oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter-a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos-particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe-could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[546] viXra:1903.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 11:39:19

System of Particles and Field in a Unified Field Theory

Authors: Jean Claude Dutailly
Comments: 142 Pages.

In previous contributions I have presented a unified theory of particles and field, in the Geometry of General Relativity, which accounts for all the known force fields, as well as the properties of elementary particles, without the need to invoke additional dimension or special physical phenomenon. In this paper the theory is fully detailed, and its focus is on models of systems of elementary particles interacting with the field. The equations are established for continuous systems and solutions, as well as methods to solve the usual cases are exposed in the model of 2 particles. It is then possible to build clear models of systems such as nuclei and atoms and study the conditions for their stability. It gives also another vision of the special behavior of the nuclear forces. Discontinuous processes involve discontinuities in the field and I show that they can be represented by particles-like objects, the bosons. Their interaction with particles is formalized in a rigorous but simple way.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[545] viXra:1903.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 14:34:40

Plasma Focus on Twists and Turns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Whether zipping through a star or a fusion device on Earth, the electrically charged particles that make up the fourth state of matter better known as plasma are bound to magnetic field lines like beads on a string. [41] Such plasmonic resonances have significant roles in biosensing with ability to improve the resolution and sensitivity required to detect particles at the scale of the single molecule. [40] A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of unique lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University. [39]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[544] viXra:1903.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 19:19:25

An Atom Model of Stationary Electrons

Authors: Cang Ye
Comments: 6 Pages. The atom model is back to what it should be

This paper presents a new microscopic extension to the Coulomb’s law --- a formula that describes how electron and nucleus interact each other within atom world. Based on this Coulomb’s law extension, a new atom model is proposed. Compared with current electron-cloud model and with old Bohr model, this model is most like atom’s real physical structure. Using this new model and basic integral calculation, the spectrum of hydrogen gas and the spectrum of ionized helium gas are successfully derived.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[543] viXra:1903.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 06:46:56

一种新的原子模型--电子静止模型

Authors: 叶苍
Comments: 6 Pages. 真实的原子世界没那么复杂,太复杂了是思维因为误入了歧途

本文给出了库仑定律在原子尺度上的扩展公式。 根据这个扩展,提出了电子静止的原子模型。 用简单的做功定义和积分运算,计算出了氢原子气体的全部光谱, 和氦原子气体的一半光谱。
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[542] viXra:1903.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 23:57:09

Quantum Chromodynamics Based Model: a New Perspective on Halo-Structure and New-Magicity in Exotic Nuclei

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 17 Pages.

A quite recent, ingenious experimental paper (Raabe et al., Nature 431 (2004) 823), studied fusion of an incoming beam of halo nucleus 6-He with the target nucleus 238-U . They managed to extract information which could make basic discrimination between the structures of the target nucleus (behaving as standard nucleus with density distribution described with canonical RMS radius r = r0 A 1/3 with r0 = 1.2 fm), and the ”core” of the halo nucleus, which surprisingly, does not follow the standard density distribution with the above RMS radius. This provides unambiguous and strong support for a Quantum Chromodyanamics based model structure, which shows as to how and why the halo structure arises. This model succeeds in identifyng all known halo nuclei and also makes clear-cut and unique predictions for new halo nuclei. It also provides a consistent and unified understanding of what is imlied for the emergence of new magic numbers in the study of exotic nuclei. It is triton clustering, as apparent from experimental data on neutron-rich nuclei, which guides us to this new model. It provides a new perspective, of how QCD leads to a consistent understanding of the nuclear phenomenon, both of the N ∼ Z nuclei, and of those which are far away from this limit.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[541] viXra:1903.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 08:48:36

Movies in Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at LMU and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics have developed a microscope that tracks the motion of electrons. [31] "There's a process in strongly interacting physics where fundamental particles, like electrons, can come together and behave as if they were a fraction of an electron," said Davis, a graduate student in Foster's research group. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[540] viXra:1902.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-26 08:13:39

Nuclear Orbital for Emc Effect

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to explain the European Muon Collaboration effect using nuclear orbital, equivalent to the molecular orbital theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[539] viXra:1902.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-22 08:31:27

Proton's Pressure Distribution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

For the first time, MIT physicists have calculated a proton's pressure distribution, and found that the particle contains a highly pressurized core that, at its most intense point, is generating greater pressures than are found inside a neutron star. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component—the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[538] viXra:1902.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-21 10:11:40

Alpha Particle Condensates in Oxygen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

When the nucleus gets nearly enough energy to disintegrate into alpha particles, the alpha particles can arrange themselves in the lowest possible quantum energy level, forming a Bose-Einstein condensate. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[537] viXra:1902.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 11:12:17

Power Transfer Mechanism Using Probes

Authors: Sumedha
Comments: 3 Pages. Space based power transfer

The failure of power systems in most of the satellite missions is the reason behind mission failure. Since the power transfer method using another satellite by the method of rendezvous and docking can be introduced considering the concept of the surrounding particle conditions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[536] viXra:1902.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 12:57:25

Correlated Nucleons Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component—the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[535] viXra:1902.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 02:39:53

Constant $ e \cdot C / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ Determines\\ Magnetic Flux Quantum in Charged Leptons

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 6 Pages.

The constant $ e \cdot c / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ is a common characteristic of charged leptons ($e, \mu, \tau $) resulting from their identical fraction $\hat{m}/\lambda_{C}$ of magnetons $\hat{m}$ to Compton-wavelengths $\lambda_{C}$, in spite of their largely differing $\hat{m}$ and $\lambda_{C}$. However the physical interpretation of this constant remained uncertain, but now clarified: It is proven that $ e \cdot c / 2 \pi \hspace{2} \alpha $ is an alternative and equivalent definition of the magnetic flux quantum $ h/2 \hspace{2} e$ which makes up the dipole-fields of charged leptons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[534] viXra:1902.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-16 14:21:08

Cold Plasma Electric Compression Fusion

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

All experiments of fusion of hydrogen (except the LENR type) are done at high temperatures. The main models being the Tokamak magnetic confinement and the Inertial Confinement models. The new design proposed here is based on a novel idea not attempted before. It uses direct electric field compression of a cold deuterium plasma (which may even be near 0 K) to undergo direct nuclear fusion to Helium-4 which may not be accompanied with any production of neutrons or gamma rays. The design is simple and most research laboratories would have the resources and technology to experiment with this new design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[533] viXra:1901.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-23 08:02:49

Collision of Individual Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to new technology, it is possible to retain individual atoms, move them in a targeted manner or change their condition. [19] Using a new computational method, an international collaboration has succeeded for the first time in systematically investigating magnetic quantum effects in the well-known 3-D pyrochlore Heisenberg model. [18] Researchers in the US and Japan say they have observed spin superfluidity and very long distance spin transport in an antiferromagnetic insulator made from graphene for the first time. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[532] viXra:1901.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 16:20:46

Physical Model for Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Jozsef Garai
Comments: 18 Pages.

Atomic scale description of the electrochemically induced cold fusion is presented. The model consistent with the conditions required for successive experiments and offers physical explanation for the occurrence of nuclear fusion at low energies. Based on this atomic scale description, the vibrational frequency of the D2 molecules in vacancy is calculated. The fundamental frequency of the vibrating Deuterium molecule in a cavity is 21.65 THz, which is almost identical with the observed “sweet spot” in the two laser experiments at 20.8 THz, indicating that this previously unidentified peak represents the self frequency of the Deuterium molecule in vacancy. The fundamental frequencies in vacancies for HD and H2 molecules are also calculated. It is predicted that these frequencies in HD or H2 systems should also activate the reaction and that the fundamental frequencies in cavities should remain unchanged regardless of the hosting lattice.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[531] viXra:1901.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 08:08:56

Zirconium Isotope Capture Neutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The probability that a nucleus will absorb a neutron is important to many areas of nuclear science, including the production of elements in the cosmos, reactor performance, nuclear medicine and defense applications. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[530] viXra:1901.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 08:49:54

Electronegativity Rewrites Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Electronegativity is one of the most well-known models for explaining why chemical reactions occur. [30] Innovations in microscale electronics, medicine, combustion and scores of other technologies depend on understanding and predicting the behavior of electricity on the smallest of length scales. [29] New research from UBC's Okanagan campus, recently published in Nature Communications, may have uncovered the key to one of the darkest secrets of light. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[529] viXra:1901.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 15:43:03

The Production Of Helium In Cold Fusion Experiments

Authors: Melvin H. Miles
Comments: 15 Pages. Helium-4 Production in the Palladium-Deuterium System

It is now known that cold fusion effects are produced only by certain palladium materials made under special conditions. Most palladium materials will never produce any excess heat, and no helium production will be observed. The palladium used in our first six months of cold fusion experiments in 1989 at the China Lake Navy laboratory never produced any measurable cold fusion effects. Therefore, our first China Lake result were listed with CalTech, MIT, Harwell and other groups reporting no excess heat effects in the DOE-ERAB report issued in November 1989. However, later research using special palladium made by Johnson-Matthey produced excess heat in every China Lake D2O-LiOD electrolysis experiment. Further experiments showed a correlation of the excess heat with helium-4 production. Two additional sets of experiments over several years at China Lake verified these measurements. This correlation of excess heat and helium-4 production has now been verified by cold fusion studies at several other laboratories. Theoretical calculations show that the amounts of helium-4 appearing in the electrolysis gas stream are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range. The experimental amounts of helium-4 in our experiments show agreement with the theoretical amounts. The helium-4 detection limit of 1 ppm (1000 ppb) reported by CalTech and MIT was far too insensitive for such measurements. Very large excess powers leading to the boiling of the electrolyte would be required in electrochemical cold fusion experiments to even reach the CalTech or MIT helium-4 detection limit of 1000 ppb helium-4 in the electrolysis gas stream.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[528] viXra:1901.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 00:25:47

The Spiral Proton by Numbers: Composite Angular Momentum, Mass Discrimination, and G-Factor as 1

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Angular momentum acquisition and spiral motion seems to drive particle creation. This process requires an initial momentum mivi having the ability to initiate spiral motion via quantized circular orbitals, while abiding by momentum conservation principles. This approach led to the discovery at [Ref1] that the proton was constructed from 2 opposing angular momenta S=ħ/2Φ and L=ħΦ/2 resulting in precisely ±ħ/2 (Φ=golden ratio). It is now found that S is linked to the proton charge, magnetic moment, and 11% of the mass via a rotating charged hollow sphere of radius 0.875 fm. On the other hand, L is associated with 89% of the proton mass centered within 0.23 fm radius. The angular velocity related to L is found 3.5 times that of S. The proton charge-to-energy ratio calculation leads to a surprising equivalence Coulomb vs. Joule.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[527] viXra:1812.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 17:01:16

Voodoo Fusion Energy

Authors: Daniel L. Jassby
Comments: Pages: 8

During the last 15 years a host of fusion energy “startups” have declared that their systems will put net electrical power on the grid or serve as a portable electric power generator within a decade. But only 10% of these myriad ventures have given evidence of any fusion-neutron production whatever. This paper defines “voodoo fusion energy” as those plasma systems that have never produced any fusion neutrons, but whose promoters make the claim of near-term electric power generation. With representations analogous to those of the notorious Theranos blood-diagnosis sham, the voodoo-fusion practitioners have cast a spell over credulous journalists, investors and politicians.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[526] viXra:1812.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 08:01:15

Pear-Shaped Nuclear Fission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Nuclear fission is a process in which a heavy nucleus split into two. Most of the actinides nuclei (plutonium, uranium, curium, etc) fission asymmetrically with one big fragment and one small. [31] A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[525] viXra:1812.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:11:28

Microworld_53. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 13

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

THE THEORY OF NON-LINEAR OSCILLATIONS ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF WATER AND ABOUT THE NATURE OF “FLOATING WATER BRIDGE” The article offers information about the structure of water and the structure of “floating water bridge”. In natural conditions, water has multimolecular aggregates of branched hyper-skeletal structure, which composition and shape depend on temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[524] viXra:1812.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 07:05:05

Strongly-Correlated Proton-Neutron Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[523] viXra:1812.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:31:34

Weak Force Between Protons and Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[522] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 20:40:20

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[521] viXra:1812.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:04:59

Microworld_52. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 12

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

EmDrive, “Antigravity engine”, photon engine – outbreak of a new power engineering era in the contemporary earth civilization.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[520] viXra:1812.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 14:40:10

Low Inductive and Resistance Energy Capacitor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper considers the design of a powerful electric capacitor with a very small induction and resistance. Such capacitors are necessary in many branches of technology, when all the energy of a capacitor must be given out for millionths (10-6) of a second to an object with low electrical resistance. The proposed capacitor allows you to reduce the installation of energy supply to a nuclear reactor and its cost a thousand times. Key words: Low Inductive Capacitor, Low Resistance Capacitor, Energy Capacitor, Capacitor for Fusion Reactor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[519] viXra:1811.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:03:40

ANovel Approach to Reduce Toxicities and to Improve Bioavailabilities of DNA/RNAof Human Cancer Cells–Containing Cocaine (Coke), Lysergide (Lysergic AcidDiethyl Amide or LSD), Δ9–Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [(–)–trans–Δ⁹–Tetrahydrocannabinol],Theobromine (

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato.
Comments: 17 Pages. https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/2018/v-4-n-6-august-2018 , Alireza Heidari and Ricardo Gobato. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.6, (1-17), August 9, 2018.

The aim of the present study was to reduce toxicities and to improve bioavailabilities of DNA/RNA of human cancer cells–containing Cocaine (Coke), Lysergide (Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide or LSD), Δ9–Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [(–)–trans–Δ⁹–Tetrahydrocannabinol], Theobromine (Xantheose), Caffeine, Aspartame (APM) (NutraSweet) and Zidovudine (ZDV) [Azidothymidine (AZT)] as anti–cancer Nano drugs by coassembly of dual anti–cancer Nano drugs to inhibit DNA/RNA of human cancer cells drug resistance.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[518] viXra:1811.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 05:34:45

Microworld_51. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 11

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Сauses of Half-Century Failures in the Thermonuclear Problem. “Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” fusion. The article describes possible fusion reactions of instantly self-disintegrating nuclei of 5Li and 8Ве. There has been a preliminary estimate of the efficiency of such reactions for building controllable light nuclei power reactors considered. In the early two thousands, EmDrive (R.Shawyer) and Antigravity Engine (V. Leonov) were invented which operation principles were known neither to the inventors nor to the contemporary science. Studies based on the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations found that those devices were flow-through engines wherein jets are made of ether and the magnetic field acts as a compressor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[517] viXra:1811.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 09:07:17

Atomic Parity Violation Milestone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have recently succeeded in observing parity violation in ytterbium atoms with different numbers of neutrons. [35] Exploring the mystery of molecular handedness in nature, scientists have proposed a new experimental scheme to create custom-made mirror molecules for analysis. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[516] viXra:1811.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 03:33:17

Microworld_50. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 10

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology. The article describes a mechanism of external influence on behavior of photons. The variability of microobject mass. The flow of energy of matter in motion. Mass-energy equivalence. Collapse. Annihilation. Mass defect.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[515] viXra:1811.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 03:47:07

Microworld_49. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 9

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 30 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[514] viXra:1811.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 03:40:49

Microworld_48. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 8

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 27 Pages. English and russian texts

Despite of the known successes by the physical theory, it has been long haunted by principal problems incapable in solutions. The article describes how these problems are solved by the theory of non-linear oscillations (TNO). The material world objects are infinitely divisible. The material world structure consists of an infinite set of matter organization levels. Primary objects of all levels are similar to each other in their properties but significantly differ in size. Various matter organization levels are built according to the same pattern but microworld and macroworld.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[513] viXra:1811.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 02:46:04

Microworld_47. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 7

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 31 Pages. English and russian texts

The contemporary physics believes that proton is, alongside with electron, an elementary microobject, while neutron is a composite proton-electron microobject. It believes that neutron is an unstable object capable of spontaneously disintegrating into proton and electron. At the same time, it believes that neutron is not a simple symbiosis of proton and electron. The hypothesis of neutrino existence is wrong. The article reports that the contemporary physical information on the material world parameters called “world constants” is incomplete or false. There are proposed some methods for studying the possibilities for building of a macroscopic ethereal “perpetual” engine.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[512] viXra:1811.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 03:09:37

Microworld_46. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 6

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The article offers mechanisms of electromagnetic emissions by radiators unknown to the contemporary physics, discovered by TNO.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[511] viXra:1811.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 08:06:00

Microworld_45. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 5

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 29 Pages. English and russian texts

Magnetism almost unnoticeable in the contemporary microworld theory fulfils an essential constructive function in the real material world as it generates an enormous variety of objects and properties thereof. At extremely low temperatures liquid helium contains atoms in which electron and nucleus are arranged on the same straight line and both electrons are from the same side of the nucleus. The existence of such atoms allows for gaining a simple, eye-minded understanding of all amazing properties of superfluid helium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[510] viXra:1811.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 07:59:06

Microworld_44. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 4

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron. Diamagnetism prevails in the microworld. We have described mechanisms of macroscopic paramagnetism and macroscopic diamagnetism occurrence from microscopic diamagnetism. This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[509] viXra:1811.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 08:41:47

Microworld_43. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 3

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

The mechanism of electromagnetic atomic radiation frequency spectrum has been described.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[508] viXra:1811.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 09:28:13

Microworld_42. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 2

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper offers solutions to a number of outstanding physical problems found with the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations (TNO). Nuclei of stable atoms feature stable statically equilibrium configurations of their nucleons. A nucleus magnetic field consists of separate nucleonic magnetic clusters. A stable nucleus charge number Z is equal to the number of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus. Electrons of a stable non-excited atom are located on axial lines of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus and form a statically equilibrium system. “Electron shell” of a non-excited atom can take various forms depending on ambient temperature. There has been the structure of photon identified and the structure and form of stable existence of excited atom described. There have been causes for probabilistic description of an excited atom lifetime determined and the nature of cosmic radiation disclosed along with the reasons for the impossibility of identifying its sources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[507] viXra:1811.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 15:17:06

Aethereal Device of the World.

Authors: Akovantsev Pyotr Ivanovich
Comments: 172 Pages.

In article the description of a peace arrangement by means of one sushchnosti-Efira is explained. The ideas of structures of an electron and a proton allowing to explain an atom electroneutrality, to understand the nature of a charge, electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions are given. Ideas of the gravitation nature are given. The nature of emergence of centrifugal force is described. Descriptions of experiments which carrying out, will show existence of Air around us are given. Idea of formation of elements of the table of Mendeleyev is given, interactions at the level of atoms and molecules are shown. At the cosmological level stages of development of the Universe are shown. I operate not with symbols, but images and I don't attract mathematics to the proof of the conclusions. I attract an experiment and observations of astronomy and astrophysics to the proof. On my concepts the nature of force is put in driving of Air. Svetoefirodinamika is the cornerstone of all natural phenomena. In the Universe there is only one process of transition of Air TO THE PUBLIC. All phenomena in the Nature are intended for ensuring this process or are a consequence of this process. I have exact answers and the true beliefs concerning different things, and I am absolutely confident in it.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[506] viXra:1810.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 06:51:51

Microworld_41. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 1

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper identifies the substantial nature of microworld wave-corpuscle duality and sets out fundamental differences between the microworld and macroworld wave-corpuscle duality. It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[505] viXra:1810.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 15:02:10

Thomas Precession is the Basis for the Structure of Matter and Space

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 27 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity was incomplete as originally formulated since it did not include the rotational effect described twenty years later by Thomas, now referred to as Thomas precession. Though Thomas precession has been accepted for decades, its relationship to particle structure is a recent discovery, first described in an article titled "Electromagnetic effects and structure of particles due to special relativity". Thomas precession acts as a velocity dependent counter-rotation, so that at a rotation velocity of (Sqr(3)/2) c, precession is equal to rotation, resulting in an inertial frame of reference. During the last year and a half significant progress was made in determining further details of the role of Thomas precession in particle structure, fundamental constants, and the galactic rotation velocity. In this article, these discoveries are described and proofs are provided, with results matching experimentally determined values to between eight and thirteen significant digits. Among the discoveries described and proven herein are 1) the observed galactic rotation velocity and elementary particle spin interact due to Thomas precession, 2) the basis for Planck's constant and quantized energy levels is Thomas precession, 3) the fine structure constant is a function of galactic rotation velocity and the maximum value of rotation velocity minus precession velocity. Also discovered and proven is that, due to the inertial frame of reference resulting from Thomas precession, distance and time, with units meters and seconds, within three dimensional space are sufficient to describe the structure of particles and their interactions. Einstein showed that energy is dependent on frame of reference with his equation E =g mc2, and he formulated E = mc2 as rest energy. Proven herein is that particle mass and rest energy are functions of rotational velocity due to Thomas precession. These far reaching discoveries are all interrelated, and based in Thomas precession. The theory, models, and equations give results that match experimental data to very high precision.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[504] viXra:1810.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 14:59:39

Inertial Impulse Electric Thermonuclear Reactor and Method of It.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

The author offers the new small reactor and method for getting a nuclear energy. Main idea is getting a high temperature by new high intensity opposed electric field and two opposed collision jets. Reactor has many innovations and can easy to get the high ignition temperature up 30 keV (350 million K), has enough fuel density (~6×1028 1/m3) and conformation (10-6 sec) without the cryogenic, laser or magnetic systems. Author invited a new method for heating of plasma by a direct electric currency, not using laser and laser compressing or heating X-ray or particles beam, not using magnetic field for plasma conformation. No cryogenic temperature. Reactor has Lawson criterion in hundreds of times more than need. The fuel may be liquid, sold, chemical elements and their measures or a compressed gas into ampule. Reactor can work on cheap D+D nuclear fuel (1 gram of deuterium cost only 1$), is very cheap and has a small installation. Author offered the ideas how to easy convert nuclear energy into mechanical energy, electricity, rocket thrust and some chemical elements into the need elements. The main test (getting the thermonuclear reaction) costs only some ten thousand dollars. If test will be successful, we can immediately design the engines for ships, trains, submarines, electric stations, propulsions for rockets and so on. The method for getting thermonuclear energy comprising the following steps: using the reactor for getting energy; making the special fuel capsule; placing the capsule into said reactor camera with the automatic delivery system; connecting the capsule to said source energy; charging the energy source a need energy; switching the energy source to the capsule; quick heating said fuel capsule up an ignition thermo-nuclear temperature by direct electric currency the need voltage, power and ignition energy; producing thermonuclear energy; cooling the reactor to acceptable temperature by injecting a cooling agent; using of thermonuclear energy. The author has reached and developed the theory of such reactors, made a lot of computations. Invention has a lot of features. He recommends contacting him for details and computations, . 13 Claims, 5 Figures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[503] viXra:1810.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 03:16:12

Challenging the Orbital Model of the Atom

Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Comments: Pages.

The Conventional Science approach to atomic structure, as represented by the Standard Model and Quantum Physics, is based upon the orbital model for the atom: viz. a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons moving in ‘spdf’ orbitals as spinning particles and/or waves as embodied in Dirac’s wave equation. Although the orbital model has been transformed from Bohr model into its current stochastic quantum form, the orbital concept has not been seriously challenged since Thompson’s nebular and plum pudding models were put aside in deference to Rutherford’s nuclear model in the early 1900’s; and yet ever since it has underpinned the thrust of Physics research and theory. The approach taken by this paper has been to consider how concentrations of energy could combine to form quarks, nucleons and atoms. The resulting model strongly correlates the atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table to their physical and chemical characteristics. It also provides an explanation for different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries as well as for phenomena that the orbital model fails to explain such as beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral topics such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are also addressed (see the appendices) to add depth to the challenge. ‘Challenging the orbital model of the atom’ is not a critique of the orbital model, highlighting its discrepancies and problems: instead it explores the possibilities of an alternative model, which, due to its energy-centric emphasis, has been dubbed ‘Energy to Matter’ (or E2M). E2M provides pragmatic, logically consistent explanations of physical phenomena and challenges the unquestioning pursuit of a problematic, complex and possibly flawed orbital model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[502] viXra:1810.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 01:26:43

Head-On Colliding Hydrogen Plasma Fusion - A Proposed Workable Hydrogen Fusion Generator

Authors: Timothy J Walshaw
Comments: 16 Pages.

Abstract This paper describes a novel method of achieving practical hydrogen fusion. What is proposed is that two plasma streams of hydrogen having a high density and a large cross-section are fired at each other, head-on, at a high speed. At a certain point, nuclear fusion will occur. The design of this device allows extraction and utilisation of the heat produced. When protons collide at a sufficient velocity, with the required high plasma density and large plasma cross-section, some of the protons fuse into helium nuclei, generating heat. If the plasma density and cross-section are large enough, the required velocity can be relatively low and is technically feasible. The so-called Lawson Criterion describes this trade-off. The Maxwell-Boltzmann tail effect combined with the Quantum Mechanical tunnelling effect reduces the required velocity further to an achievable level. These plasma streams are accelerated to high relative velocities by a novel plasma acceleration device, also described in this article. This device also allows the stream of plasma to have a high enough density and cross-section, so that the required relative velocity of the plasma can be relatively low. The device consists of two plasma accelerators firing plasma at each other. Each of the accelerators consist of a tube surrounded by a large number of individual electro-magnetic coils, each connected to a power supply. The electro-magnetic field of each coil is varied so that a magnetic ‘pocket’ is created. Each pocket holds a packet of plasma. The magnetic fields of the coils are varied so that each pocket is accelerated up the tube to a high velocity, carrying the packet of plasma with it. These packets of plasma are ejected out of the tubes and fired head-on at each other. If these plasma packets are of sufficiently high relative velocity, density and cross-section, hydrogen fusion will occur. Plasma fusion can be generated continuously using this device. The heat generated can be utilised by injecting water into the location where fusion occurs, and the resultant steam generated can be used to generate electricity. A single plasma accelerator can be used to accelerate plasma to a high velocity, to be used by space ships or as a weapon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[501] viXra:1810.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 01:52:00

Electron Gun Reveal Atomic Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[500] viXra:1810.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-05 07:08:22

Neutron Scan Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[499] viXra:1810.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 07:53:04

Mercury Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An unprecedented combination of experimental nuclear physics and theoretical and computational modelling techniques has been brought together to reveal the full extent of the odd-even shape staggering of exotic mercury isotopes, and explain how it happens. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[498] viXra:1809.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 19:12:44

Angular Momentum Acquisition and Spiral Motion, a Requisite for Particle Creation. a Case Study, the Proton.

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Particle creation via angular momentum acquisition requires the existence of a charge carrier with initial momentum mivi and potential for initiating down-spiral motion, yet abiding by angular momentum quantization and conservation principles. Applied to the proton with a charge radius 0.8751 fm and momentum mv=moc=5.014x10-19 Kgm/s, a value of angular momentum quantum number n=4 was pinpointed for the proton radius. Surprisingly, a spin angular momentum S equal to ħ/2Φ (~0.309 ħ) was graphically determined, with Φ being the golden ratio. This result led to the conclusion that the proton might be constructed from two opposing spin angular momenta whose resultant is precisely ħ/2, namely ħ/2Φ and ħΦ/2. Further, an expression for the quantization of v2/c2 was derived, revealing that v2/c2 becomes pure imaginary around n=0. The mass gain during the spiral process was found to be only √2.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[497] viXra:1809.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 04:38:40

Plasma Thruster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[496] viXra:1809.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 09:05:02

Tracking Hydrogen Movement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Recently, researchers developed a system that can count muon events at a much faster rate, allowing an experiment to be completed in a suitable time frame. [35] The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[495] viXra:1809.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-23 09:08:02

Nuclear Binding Energy Fails (Is Mass Spectrometry Accurate?)

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mass spectrometry measures atomic masses giving precision of 10^{-10}, but its accuracy has not been verified - precision and accuracy are two independent aspects. The Lorentz force law underlying mass spectrometry has not been verified. In the 1920's, the atomic masses of some elements measured through the early mass spectrometers showed some discrepancies from the `whole-number-rule' of atomic weights. The physics community accepted the discrepancies from whole numbers to be correct; they proposed the concept of `mass defects'. This, together with the mass energy equivalence of E = mc^2 allowed Arthur Eddington to propose a new `sub-atomic' energy to account for the source of the energy of the sun to be in line with the 15 billion age of the sun in their theory. They never entertained the other simpler option - that their mass spectrometers were only approximately good. If the atomic masses of nuclides were to be just whole numbers equal to the mass number in atomic mass unit, it would be a confirmation of the law of mass conservation in the atomic and subatomic world. The key to decide the fate of nuclear physics is in sodium fluoride NaF. Sodium and fluorine occur in nature only as single stable isotopes. A chemical analysis of NaF with the current analytical balance to determine the relative atomic mass of Na/F would decide conclusively if mass spectrometry is accurate. The current relative atomic mass of Na/F is : 22.989769/18.998403 or 1.210089; the ratio of the mass number of Na/F is : 23/19 or 1.210526. The accuracy of mass spectrometry would be confirmed if the value is 1.210089 +- 0.000012. Otherwise, if the value is 1.210526 +- 0.000012, it would mean a confirmation of the law of conservation of mass. The implications of such a scenario is beyond imagination - the whole world of nuclear physics would collapse.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[494] viXra:1809.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 09:09:18

Electron Heating in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[493] viXra:1809.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 13:12:45

Suppressing Instabilities in Tokamaks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Fusion, the power that drives the sun and stars, produces massive amounts of energy. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[492] viXra:1809.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 11:22:36

Nuclear Structure Theory Confirmed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[491] viXra:1808.0656 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 03:23:39

Physics Predict Crowd Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally don't seem to have much in common, but researchers at Cornell are connecting the dots. [27] Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[490] viXra:1808.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 12:43:04

Searching Harmonics in Nuclei Gyromagnetic Ratios. Startling Emergence of Scaling, Pseudo Octaves, and the Fine-Structure Constant from a Seemingly Random Network.

Authors: Bruno R. Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A plot of the nuclei gyromagnetic ratios vs. corresponding mass numbers was intuitively fitted with classic damped sinusoids of the form [asin(bx+c)+d]exp(-kx) using the interactive QtiPlot software. The outcome was a 2D interlaced network from which unexpected scaling emerged. The sine waves frequencies in descending order were found to follow the intriguing correlation b/2π=0.0100+0.137exp(-N/1.306) with N=0,1,2... The amplitude value at 0.137 is interpreted as 10^-3/α with α being the fine-structure constant. The scaling factor exp(1/1.306) which is ≈2.15 is discussed in relation to stretched octaves and probable connection to the golden ratio. The sinusoids equivalent energy range is found at E= 7.29-107 MeV. The asymptotic energy value at 7.29 is interpreted as 10^3α, from which a nucleon mean radius at ≈0.85 fm is deduced.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[489] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 05:55:47

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[488] viXra:1808.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 04:09:51

Electron Carries "Hidden" 31,6 GW Field Energy Vortex

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 4 Pages. 4

An electron is enveloped by a "hidden" electromagnetic field-energy circulation vortex of $\approx 31,6$ GW passive power determined by the Poynting-vector field existing around an electron. The energy vortex is most intensive in the proximity of classical electron radius, with maximum in its equatorial plane.\\ A thoretical upper limit of such (non-usable) passive energy circulation is analytically determined by integration of the Poynting-vector field over a specific plane of reference. The result highlights a new singularity problem of classical electron theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[487] viXra:1808.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 03:03:42

The General Property of Matter Discloses Origin of Geopathic Radiations, Black Holes, Threat of LHC and Negative Impact of Radiations of the World Equipment on Health

Authors: V. Korniienko, N. Korniienko, M. Turkin
Comments: 9 Pages.

We have experimentally found out that matter has the quantum electromagnetic field (QEF) which forms interaction of energies of elementary particles of this matter. Therefore impact of any forces on matter causes indignation of her QEF in the form of quantum electromagnetic waves (S-radiations). Therefore under the influence of loadings to which all bodies of the Universe are subject their QEF generates space S-radiations that discloses origin of geopathic radiations. Besides, centrifugal forces which arise in a rotor of the generator of power plant, cause indignation of QEF of a rotor in the form of S-radiations. They induce in stator windings quantum currents which, together with electric current, come to the equipment. Owing to what permanent magnets and all world equipment generate S-radiations which have negative effect on health. For the same reason magnets of the Big hadron collider (LHC), create not only the electromagnetic, but also quantum field which has negative effect on purity of experiments in LHC and the environment. The analysis of space pictures in a range of S-radiations has shown that Black holes form streams of space S-radiations. Therefore, if the power of LHC exceeds admissible, then S-radiations from his quantum field will create the Black hole of such size that it is capable to absorb Earth. Therefore it is necessary to neutralize on the basis of standards quantum currents in the world equipment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[486] viXra:1808.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 03:40:49

Thorium-molten-salt Reactors, A Next Generation Design

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

a brief overview of 3 current designs of thorium-molten-salt reactors
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[485] viXra:1807.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 08:09:54

Charge Shared among Multiple Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Since the charge is shared among multiple atoms—the non-classical model—the molecule has more flexibility to undergo a diverse array of reactions, including those needed to break apart the strong bonds of alkanes. [33] New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[484] viXra:1807.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 17:18:23

Certificate of Authenticity and Technetium Extraction Procedure

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

14 year nuclear experiment and technetium extraction procedure
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[483] viXra:1807.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:18:34

Linearity Between Excited Electron Energy Vs. Lan Applied to na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns (Spanish Version)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 18 Pages.

Spanish version. Linearity between excited electron energy vs. LAN. This article includes: A) Summary of Introduction and First Part ([10,12] and [18]) of Second Block [10,20]. B) Theory application to several cases and more specifically to Na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns. C) Modification and optimization in P62 and relativistic effect.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[482] viXra:1807.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 02:56:19

Neutron Cluster Explain The Distribution of Dark Matter

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Atom passed by photon sphere can be lose all electrons and then its nucleus disintegrate into neutron cluster. It explains the distribution of dark matter and why positron exist in that area.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[481] viXra:1807.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 01:15:48

Looking to the Bohr’s Atomic Model

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bohr in 1913 introduced new atomic model based on quantum theory that explained the limitations of the previously existing Rutherford’s atomic model. Through this article we have tried to provide an outlook to the Bohr’s model and studies how it helped to describe the atomic structure of an atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[480] viXra:1807.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 03:20:27

Quark String of Elementary Particle

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper suggests quark combination of elementary particle based on AdS/CFT correspondence. Through this, we can define quark conservation law and majonara particle. Tension of closed string which diverge to infinity confine quarks as in color confinement of strong interaction.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[479] viXra:1807.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:45:04

Hydrogen Dissociation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[478] viXra:1807.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 09:10:20

New Nuclear Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[477] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 02:06:33

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[476] viXra:1807.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 09:57:45

Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Like other magnetic confinement devices, turbulence appears in the heated plasma that causes heat and particles to wander across these surfaces and ultimately come into contact with the first wall surrounding the plasma. [31] The new approach, known as a plasma q-plate, will revolutionize sources for generating optical vortices. The work will impact a broad range of applications. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[475] viXra:1806.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 06:21:14

A02 Bohr Model with Victoria Equation 3 Dimensions Orbital and Spin

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 18 Pages.

Bohr's atomic model presents problems such as loss of energy by rotating charge or absence of explanation for electron probability (electron cloud). Here we show resolution of these problems and optimization of Bohr's model with two electronic extremes that always maintaining initial energy. Electronic extreme behaviour is based on Victoria equation [1]. Debate between the current model and the one based on Bohr with Victoria equation is proposed. In this article, electron begins to show in three dimensions. First, by expanding its radial dimension to two dimensions with a circular orbit movement. Second, reaching three dimensions by raising and lowering these circular orbits with division variations (Swinging movement). In the previous sentence two electron movements have been included: orbital movement with circular movement in specific division and spin movement when moving between orbits changing division with swinging movement like a screw.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[474] viXra:1806.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 23:05:41

SRC Model for Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 13 Pages.

A new approach for the nuclear structure is suggested which is based upon the idea that the nucleons are not moving independently inside the nuclei, but are forming Short Range Correlated (SRC) quasi-particles. The existence of SRCs inside nuclei has been verified by many experiments [1-3] and is considered to be underlying reason behind the EMC effect [4]. Using few assumptions, a SRC based model for the nuclear structure is proposed. The model is equivalent to the liquid drop model for consideration of the nuclear binding energy and is equivalent to the shell model if the shell structure of SRC quasiparticles is considered. Equivalence of the present model to the cluster model for specific applications is also highlighted. Further, this model provides insights for the symmetric/asymmetric nature of spontaneous fission and Giant Resonances.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[473] viXra:1806.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 10:06:24

Magnetic Spin Controlling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

EPFL physicists have found a way to reverse electron spins using electric fields for the first time, paving the way for programmable spintronics technologies. [19] Manipulating light in a variety of ways—shrinking its wavelength and allowing it to travel freely in one direction while stopping it cold in another—hyperbolic metamaterials have wide application in optical communications and as nanoparticle sensors. [18] A new way of enhancing the interactions between light and matter, developed by researchers at MIT and Israel's Technion, could someday lead to more efficient solar cells that collect a wider range of light wavelengths, and new kinds of lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that could have fully tunable color emissions. [17] A team of researchers at the Center for Relativistic Laser Science, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have developed a method to measure the shape of laser pulses in ambient air. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[472] viXra:1805.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 05:40:46

Space Expension by Mass-Energy Conversion

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper presents solution of caculating dark-energy and its distribution.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[471] viXra:1805.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 08:08:59

Laser-Driven Implosion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel particle acceleration mechanism they describe as a micro-bubble implosion, in which super-high energy hydrogen ions (relativistic protons) are emitted at the moment when bubbles shrink to atomic size through the irradiation of hydrides with micron-sized spherical bubbles by ultraintense laser pulses [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[470] viXra:1805.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 15:27:59

Universal Pattern Leading to Proton Radius Puzzle Solved

Authors: J. Gielen
Comments: 14 Pages.

A unique pattern found in stockmarket graphs is found in all other graphs too. For instance at earthquake graphs, maybe able to predict earlier a break-out. Also leading to the proton, it's movement and even the solvent of the proton radius puzzle! Alpha, pi and proton get connected!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[469] viXra:1805.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-13 03:55:38

Outlines of Rutherford’s α-Particles Scattering Experiment

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Nikita Parajuli
Comments: 6 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Rutherford’s α-particles scattering experiment was one of the milestone for the physics community as it provided an insight to an atom thus discarding the previously prevailed Thomson’s model. Through this article we shall examine the theoretical formulation of Rutherford’s experiment and how it helped to shape the modern physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[468] viXra:1805.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 05:27:13

Photons and the Diverse Nature of Light

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can be produced by a range of large-scale events (nuclear reactions, galaxy collisions, the Big Bang etc.) or by smaller scale events such as the excitement of a gas or a chemical reaction. This short article focuses on the nature of photons and their transmission as ‘normal’ light, plane and circularly polarised light and transverse mode light.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[467] viXra:1805.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 02:00:57

Material-Aging Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

According to the researchers, aging originates at the atomic and molecular levels. [21] The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[466] viXra:1805.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 11:26:38

Magic Numbers of Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[465] viXra:1805.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 02:34:40

The Golden Section in Physics (in English)

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical constants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the electron/proton and electron/muon mass-ratios, the ratio of the gravitational/electromagnetic interaction, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: exponential relations between physical constants, Titius-Bode rule, new atomic mass formula.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[464] viXra:1804.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 05:45:18

Nuclear Accurate Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[463] viXra:1804.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 04:06:10

Relevance of Atomic Structure to the Physical Characteristics of Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: A 9 page paper containing 9 explanatory diagrams

Energy to Matter (E2M) proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table and their bonding characteristics. This short article and associated videos present some of the modelled atomic structures and shows how the structure of the nucleus relates to the observed physical and bonding characteristics of the elements involved.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[462] viXra:1804.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 09:09:59

The Golden Ratio in Atomic Theory

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 4 pages

It is now exactly fifteen years since the author sent a short article on the topic of the title to Nature, but it was not accepted. Two years later, a full paper was accepted in Molecular Physics, 103 (2005) 877, in the Special Issue in honor of Nicholas Handy and the author has published many papers over the years. The Golden ratio is an amazing number that is found to govern many natural spontaneous creations of Universe. The article to Nature, reproduced here, shows for the first time that it arises right in the core of the atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[461] viXra:1804.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 02:17:34

The Origin of the Mass of a Charged Particle and the Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Since the charge Q is the set of infinitesimal charge dQ, electric force is operated between infinitesimal charges and therefore, electrostatic self-energy exists due to the presence of charge Q itself. Electrostatic self-energy has a potential to explain substantial parts of elementary particle mass. Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[460] viXra:1804.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 01:49:53

Coulombic Energy Replaced by Electromagnetic Energy in Bohr’s Theory Makes Atomic Physics Simple and Sensible

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages

Over a century ago Bohr arrived at the conclusion that the ground state energy of hydrogen is half the Coulombic energy, which is negative. As hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe, it implies that the energy of the Universe is predominantly negative. Since this is strange, the author found that on replacing the Coulombic energy by electromagnetic energy, the energy is in fact positive. This modification of Bohr’s theory gave rise to many interesting results, showing that atomic physics is much simpler and more meaningful.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[459] viXra:1804.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 07:33:29

Nuclei Catch Up with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In an attosecond study of the H2 molecule, physicists at ETH Zurich found that for light atomic nuclei, as contained in most organic and biological molecules, the correlation between electronic and nuclear motions cannot be ignored. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[458] viXra:1804.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 09:07:54

Quantum Mechanics Solved with Simplified Orbital Mechanics

Authors: Enos Øye
Comments: 10 Pages.

We show that a simplified force between the electron and the nucleus solves Quantum Mechanics in the simplest way possible. We update and rewrite Bohr's postulates, we show the simple relation between the electric and magnetic force, we show how light is emitted, and find a new term for the fine structure constant which is the simplest term there is. Simplified Orbital Mechanics results in a new atomic model which allow mathematically the observed electron cloud. All calculations can be found in this google spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jE6hjJNPcY7h98DkkGVEJiO9x3LK-_ZK6553cd2b_M8/edit#gid=498321884
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[457] viXra:1803.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 22:21:05

Refutation of Six Weak Reactions in Nucleosynthesis © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services.com

We find the six weak forces in nucleosynthesis are not tautologous and hence suspicious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[456] viXra:1803.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:22:23

Interaction Between the Nucleons in the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Nesho Kolev Neshev
Comments: 5 Pages.

The work presented here considers the cause and character of the nuclear forces acting between the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. It postulates that the nuclear interaction is the result of resonance phenomena between the interacting nucleons. The presented model of the interaction is shown to match known experimental data with great accuracy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[455] viXra:1803.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 00:12:33

Gif Annihilation and Creation of a Pair of Elementary Particles.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian: http://universe100.narod.ru/ English: http://universe100.narod.ru/100-Oglavlenie.html http://universe100.narod.ru/210-Photon.html dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. Description of the processes of annihilation and pair production from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe. GIF annihilation: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq5J.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b15.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u210/image017.gif GIF- pair production: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq6G.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b16.gif
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[454] viXra:1803.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 03:56:19

Nucleus CT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[453] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 06:44:01

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[452] viXra:1802.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43

Electron. New Information on the Material World Structure - New Issues

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[451] viXra:1802.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59

Energy to Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity. The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts. E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter. It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[450] viXra:1802.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 13:59:40

Electrons Excite Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The NEEC effect occurs when a charged atom captures an electron, giving the atom's nucleus enough energy to jump to a higher excited state. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[449] viXra:1802.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 11:37:30

Why there Are no Black Holes. Deadlock Hypotheses of Modern Physics.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 9 Pages. 2005

The error of mathematical fantasies in the region of large densities inside stars is shown. The impossibility of infinite density growth is shown. An alternative description of the processes in the masses of massive stars is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[448] viXra:1801.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 10:03:25

Golden Section in Physics: an Interesting Number

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 11 Pages. in Hungarian

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical con-stants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the proton/electron mass-ratio, the cosmological constant of Einstein’s general relativity, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: physical constants, exponential relations between physical constants, Bode-Titius rule, mass formula of neutral-atoms, mass formula of leptons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[447] viXra:1801.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:21:43

Bose Condensation of Atomic Electrons. Experimental Regularities Discussion

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

The experimental data analysis overturns «modern scientific representation» of the atomic structure. In articles [1-3] is shown, that atomic electrons do not form stochastic orbitals «spread» in space, but «are condensed» in ring or spherical electron shells, and do not behave as independent particles, but demonstrate collective properties. Besides in atom the nonlinear nature of a microcosm becomes evident: the main quantum number of electron states, alongside with integer numbers, gets also fractional values - due to interactions on harmonic components. The weighty confirmation of microcosm nonlinearity was obtained at the analysis of a quantum Hall effect [4]. These discoveries have key value not only for physics development, but also for all natural sciences using in varying degree knowledge about substance structure. Therefore discussion of the experimental regularities showing an inconsistency of the atom theory, which almost century dominated in physics, is extremely important for acceleration of transition to new representations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[446] viXra:1801.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 22:30:53

Quantum Hall Effect and Superconductivity

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: Pages.

Quantum Hall Effect and, in particular, fractional quantum Hall Effect have forced theorists to rack their brains over an explanation of these phenomena. However for past decades since the effect was opened theory has remained in an unsatisfactory state. Existing explanation of a quantum Hall Effect looks less convincing in connection with the fact that it is simultaneously accompanied by even more «strange and inexplicable» phenomenon - superconductivity. However, the study of these key problems of physics is important not only from the point of view of adequate theory formation, but also as a way to deepen our knowledge about fundamental bases of substance structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[445] viXra:1801.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 05:38:28

Microworld 39. EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” – Outbreak of a New Power Engineering Era in the Contemporary Earth Civilization

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The invention of flow-through magnetic ethereal jet engines EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” opens the potential of ether in a new power engineering development.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[444] viXra:1801.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 10:34:04

Color of Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[443] viXra:1801.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 01:11:59

On the Possibility of Self-Cleaning Plasma in Centrifugal Z-Pinch

Authors: Sergey Sevtsov
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article shows the possibility of self-cleaning of plasma in the variety of Z-pinch - centrifugal Z-pinch. This circumstance leads to a decrease in the heat loss due to bremsstrahlung from the plasma. As a result, there are prerequisites for increasing efficiency of plasma cumulating in a new device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[442] viXra:1801.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 13:39:04

A Novel Belt Model of the Atom, Compatible with Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Alexander Yurkin, James Peters, Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we provide a novel atomic, paraxial model in which a single belt of electrons surrounds the nucleus. The electronic belt is depicted in terms of broken lines and split wavy trajectories that intersect an axis, giving rise to small angles that can be accurately calculated. We demonstrate that the probabilistic electronic cloud of the atom described by quantum mechanics can be depicted in terms of an electronic belt, because its sizes closely match the descriptions given by de Broglie and Heisenberg. In touch with the claims of the two latter Authors, the wavy trajectories around the nucleus come back to a starting point, so that their orbits are stationary.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[441] viXra:1712.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-26 06:25:05

"Matter Structure"

Authors: Viktor S.Dolgikh
Comments: Pages.

This article is the continuation of the author's previous work <>, published earlier <> - 1701.0488[PDF]. In this work the structure of hydrogen, oxygen atoms and the water molecule is considered. It shows the general principle of the matter elements structure with the main types of its state : "gaseous" ; "liquid" ; "solid". To clarify the text I am sending the original.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[205] viXra:1902.0284 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-20 10:25:59

Cold Plasma Electric Compression Fusion

Authors: chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

All experiments of fusion of hydrogen (except the LENR type) are done at high temperatures. The main models being the Tokamak magnetic confinement and the Inertial Confinement models. The new design proposed here is based on a novel idea not attempted before. It uses direct electric field compression of a cold deuterium plasma (which may even be near 0 K) to undergo nuclear fusion. At high temperatures, the only reaction possible is fusion to helium-3, a neutron and gamma-rays of a definite energy. A direct fusion of deuterium-deuterium to a lone helium-4 nucleus without the production of a neutron is possible provided the initial deuterium carries no kinetic energy; this means such a reaction may happen only near absolute zero temperatures. So far, this reaction at cold temperature has not been contemplated by the nuclear fusion community. This fusion design is simple and most research laboratories would have the resources and technology to experiment with this new design.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[204] viXra:1901.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 14:41:17

Physical Model for Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Jozsef Garai
Comments: 28 Pages.

Atomic scale description of the electrochemically induced cold fusion is presented. The model consistent with the conditions required for successive experiments and offers physical explanation for the occurrence of nuclear fusion at low energies. Based on this atomic scale description, the vibrational frequency of the D2 molecules in vacancy is calculated. The fundamental frequency of the vibrating Deuterium molecule in a cavity is 21.65 THz, which is almost identical with the observed “sweet spot” in the two laser experiments at 20.8 THz, indicating that this previously unidentified peak represents the self frequency of the Deuterium molecule in vacancy. The fundamental frequencies in vacancies for HD and H2 molecules are also calculated. It is predicted that these frequencies in HD or H2 systems should also activate the reaction and that these fundamental frequencies in cavities should remain unchanged regardless of the hosting lattice.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[203] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-13 21:08:35

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 26 Pages. on Russian

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[202] viXra:1810.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-18 20:32:07

Head-On Colliding Plasma Fusion - A Proposed Workable Hydrogen Fusion Generator

Authors: Timothy J Walshaw
Comments: 16 Pages. I am just replacing the last words in the abstract '...or as a weapon.' These words will upset many people, and the device was not devized as a weapon.

Abstract This paper describes a novel method of achieving practical hydrogen fusion. What is proposed is that two plasma streams of hydrogen having a high density and a large cross-section are fired at each other, head-on, at a high speed. At a certain point, nuclear fusion will occur. The design of this device allows extraction and utilisation of the heat produced. When protons collide at a sufficient velocity, with the required high plasma density and large plasma cross-section, some of the protons fuse into helium nuclei, generating heat. If the plasma density and cross-section are large enough, the required velocity can be relatively low and is technically feasible. The so-called Lawson Criterion describes this trade-off. The Maxwell-Boltzmann tail effect combined with the Quantum Mechanical tunnelling effect reduces the required velocity further to an achievable level. These plasma streams are accelerated to high relative velocities by a novel plasma acceleration device, also described in this article. This device also allows the stream of plasma to have a high enough density and cross-section, so that the required relative velocity of the plasma can be relatively low. The device consists of two plasma accelerators firing plasma at each other. Each of the accelerators consist of a tube surrounded by a large number of individual electro-magnetic coils, each connected to a power supply. The electro-magnetic field of each coil is varied so that a magnetic ‘pocket’ is created. Each pocket holds a packet of plasma. The magnetic fields of the coils are varied so that each pocket is accelerated up the tube to a high velocity, carrying the packet of plasma with it. These packets of plasma are ejected out of the tubes and fired head-on at each other. If these plasma packets are of sufficiently high relative velocity, density and cross-section, hydrogen fusion will occur. Plasma fusion can be generated continuously using this device. The heat generated can be utilised by injecting water into the location where fusion occurs, and the resultant steam generated can be used to generate electricity. A single plasma accelerator can be used to accelerate plasma to a high velocity for a variety of purposes such as propelling a space ship.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[201] viXra:1809.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 16:53:13

Angular Momentum Acquisition and Spiral Motion, a Requisite for Particle Creation. a Case Study, the Proton.

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Particle creation via angular momentum acquisition requires the existence of a charge carrier with initial momentum mivi and potential for initiating down-spiral motion, yet abiding by angular momentum quantization and conservation principles. Applied to the proton with a charge radius 0.8751 fm and momentum mv=moc=5.014x10^-19 Kgms^-1, a value of angular momentum quantum number n=4 was pinpointed for the proton radius. Surprisingly, a spin angular momentum S equal to ħ/2Φ (~0.309 ħ) was graphically determined, with Φ being the golden ratio. This result led to the conclusion that the proton might be constructed from two opposing spin angular momenta whose resultant is precisely ħ/2, namely ħ/2Φ and ħΦ/2. Further, an expression for the quantization of v^2/c^2 was derived, revealing that v^2/c^2 becomes pure imaginary around n=0. The mass gain mR/mi during the spiral process was found to be only √2. Following the same reasoning, a neutron radius of 0.834 fm was found.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[200] viXra:1808.0605 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-29 09:51:51

Searching Harmonics in Nuclei Gyromagnetic Ratios. Startling Emergence of Scaling, Pseudo Octaves, and the Fine-Structure Constant from a Seemingly Random Network.

Authors: Bruno R. Galeffi
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you

A plot of the nuclei gyromagnetic ratios vs. corresponding mass numbers was intuitively fitted with classic damped sinusoids of the form [asin(bx+c)+d]exp(-kx) using the interactive QtiPlot software. The outcome was a 2D interlaced network from which unexpected scaling emerged. The sine waves frequencies in descending order were found to follow the intriguing correlation b/2π=0.0100+0.137exp(-N/1.306) with N=0,1,2... The amplitude value at 0.137 is interpreted as 10^-3/α with α being the fine-structure constant. The scaling factor exp(1/1.306) which is ≈2.15 is discussed in relation to stretched octaves and probable connection to the golden ratio. The sinusoids equivalent energy range is found at E=7.29-107 MeV. The asymptotic energy value at 7.29 is interpreted as 10^3α, from which a nucleon mean radius at ≈0.85 fm is deduced.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[199] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-17 16:12:07

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard - v3

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[198] viXra:1808.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 16:24:11

Rubidium as THE Radioactive Minimal Standard - v2

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief explanation of why we should be using rubidium as the primary minimal standard for radioactivity
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[197] viXra:1808.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-08 01:09:33

Particle Physics and a Steady State Cosmos

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 21 Pages. CITE: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6934223.v3

Preprint Abstract - This article is a combination of two rejected essays I wrote for the journals “Nature Physics” and “Physics Essays” (the journal versions didn’t include this explanatory “Preprint Abstract”). Here’s a copy of the rejection letter from the editor of “Physics Essays” which I found very encouraging, except for his comment that “the speculative component of your paper is too predominant”. Dear Dr. Bartlett: I have concluded the examination of your paper and certainly enjoyed the imagination and conviction behind the concepts that you propose. Unfortunately, I had to conclude that the speculative component of your paper is too predominant, and the journal Physics Essays is not the best outlet for your ideas. I think that your paper should be exposed to the scrutiny and appreciation of a readership different from that of Physics Essays. I strongly encourage you to submit it to another journal, where surely it will be accepted. In any case, I am grateful that you submitted it first to Physics Essays. My best regards, Sincerely yours, Emilio Panarella My article must appear to be obviously incorrect. Not only is the graviton undiscovered, but there are decades of evidence stating that no relation exists between that graviton and the Higgs boson. There's nearly a century of science stating the bosons of the weak nuclear force are independent of the gravitons of gravitation and aren't formed by them ie the weak force can't be unified with gravity. And saying gravity is involved with matter's creation has been nonsense ever since Newton established the reverse. The odds against anyone writing a short article that correctly contradicts the above are tremendously great. But it's accepted that the graviton probably does exist and that it will be discovered eventually. In this age when many confidently pursue a Theory of Everything, does it make sense to cling to the idea that gravitons and Higgs bosons can have no relation? Einstein even published a paper in 1919 which he titled "Does gravitation play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" It can be argued that discovery of the nuclear forces invalidated that paper. However, Einstein's remarkable intuition might well have discerned that gravitons could play an essential role in the structure of the bosons of the nuclear forces. And instead of being purely mathematical in form, why couldn't the Theory of Everything use vector-tensor-scalar geometry to make gravitation play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles of matter? Science today seems to be overly dependent on observation and experiment. These are certainly extremely valuable but the search for knowledge of how the universe works must leave plenty of room for concepts developed by the mind. These mental constructs, while ideally capable of confirmation by experiments and observations, are not subject to the severe limitations and easy deceptions which the bodily senses are. All scientific detectors and instruments – no matter how grand – are enhancements of the senses, and are restricted to the technology of a particular era. The mind, though admittedly capable of great errors, is also able to see infinitely farther than the senses and far beyond present technology. It can see areas that are pure science fiction today, but might well be confirmed by a future civilization. For example, the claim near the end of this article that everything in the universe is infinite and eternal is the result of prior work with vector, tensor and scalar quantities in the fields of Higgs bosons, matter particles and bosons of the nuclear forces. It should not be dismissed merely because it contradicts present knowledge. Every advance contradicted accepted understanding at some stage. The same leeway deserves to be extended to the ideas that the universe is scientifically fine-tuned and neither contracts nor expands. Journal Abstract - It has been reported that astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gaia space observatory “have made the most precise measurement to date of the universe's expansion rate. The results further fuel the mismatch between measurements for the expansion rate of the nearby universe, and those of the distant, primeval universe -- before stars and galaxies even existed. This so-called ‘tension’ implies that there could be new physics underlying the foundations of the universe.” (1) Combining BITS (BInary digiTS) with topology and the vector-tensor-scalar relationship results in the tension referred to being resolved by expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. This lack of expansion or contraction overturns the Big Bang, cosmic inflation and Roger Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. Keywords - Cosmology, Electromagnetism, Gravitation, Higgs boson, Vector-tensor-scalar geometry, Cosmic non-expansion, Extra large-scale dimensions, Supersymmetry, Wick rotation, Topology, Weak-force bosons, Strong-force gluons, Matter, Quantum spin, Mass, Charge, Time, Block universe, Infinite and eternal Earth
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[196] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-17 02:52:30

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[195] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-12 08:21:13

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[194] viXra:1805.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 09:52:08

The Golden Section in Physics (in English)

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical constants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the electron/proton and electron/muon mass-ratios, the ratio of the gravitational/electromagnetic interaction, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background. Keywords: exponential relations between physical constants, Titius-Bode rule, new atomic mass formula.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[193] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-09 19:49:16

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics