Nuclear and Atomic Physics

1712 Submissions

[25] viXra:1712.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:28:13

10 Excited Electrons by Torrebotana Central Line: Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 10th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electron excited states are born referenced to central line denominated Torrebotana with origin always in the first Origin Electronic System (OES) of all atom: 1s [6,9]. This central line that defines energies and charges (z) for central excited states is given by Tete-Vic equation. Excited states are directed towards Torrebotana Central Line approaching when n and l of destination excited state increase. Fist, Torrebotana Central Line application is centred in Beryllium case for which excited state energy is approaching Torrebotana as indicated above. Subsequently, other atoms are studied to corroborate what is seen in Be case and to discover trends in terms of Atomic Number (Z) that serve to open new research lines
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] viXra:1712.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:32:27

Excited Electrons: Lan Plains for Tete Vic Equation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 11th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Torrebotana Central Energetic Line (EJ) [1] supplies energetic values for electron excited states very close to reference [2]. Excited states are grouped into curves that are destiny function, and consequently orbital quantum number plays major role, and attraction towards Torrebotana Central Energetic Line is greater when orbital quantum number increases (s<p<d) [1]. LAN factor is included in Tete-Vic Equation to give circulation to different routes divided by destination reason. Analogy is as follows: 1s Original electronic system (1s OES) creates main ideal line (Torrebotana Central Energetic Line) considering Born electronic system (BES) and simultaneously draws Serelles Secondary Lines in which energy of excited states runs according to destiny (within destiny has special importance orbital quantum number as indicated before, as well as J or Term). LAN plain is jump to Serelles Secondary Line with jumps in which LAN is practically constant throughout Serelles Secondary Line since LAN has small variation with energy. 1s22s as non-excited or initial state and 1s2ns as excited or final state are selected to show such LAN behaviour.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] viXra:1712.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:39:55

13 Relation of Fly Piep de Garberí: LAN-1 and Ionization Energy.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 13th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Electon excited states arise around Torrebotana Central Line [1] by Tete-Vic equation which is attached in P47. Serelles Secondary Lines are originated from Torrebotana Central Line by LAN inclusion. Attraction towards Torrebotana Central Line is accentuated as n and l are increased [1,3]. Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí states linear behaviour between inverse of factor seen in Serelles Secondary Line, i.e. LAN, and zs (Start charge according to P46 non-excited electronic extreme charge). This relation is Z function (atomicity relation) and is connected to P44 Necessary NIN relationships [5] because includes LAN: charge and energy of BES and 1s OES. Ionization energy (IE) of higher atomic number is estimated from Relation of Flui Piep de Garberí and estimate deviation is grouped according to electron configuration.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22] viXra:1712.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:43:07

14 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda: Lan Interatomicity with Energetic Relation.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 14th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda differs from previous relations of Riquelme de Gozy and Flui Piep de Garberí. Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Following case is treated in introductory way of this Relation: jump from 1s2 to 1sns (isoelectronics with He).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] viXra:1712.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:46:54

15 Excited Electron: Relation of Silva de Peral & Alameda II: Jump from ns to Ns.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns with Term=3S and J=1 (isoelectronics with He) is treated in [5] and is now pursued with different jump and with higher non-excited or start n: nss→ns (with ns(start n)>1) Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda refers to one single excited state and to all atoms. Silpovgar relation is theory that searchs jump globalization [5] and is applied to nss→ns with enlargement dedicated to different isoelectronic series that present same jump.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] viXra:1712.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:54:40

17 Excited Electron: Spa IV: Silpovgar IV with Piepflui. Excess Relativistic: Influence in Lan and Spa

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 27 Pages.

This is 17th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is studied in [5,7] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. [6] and [7] are first and second and this is third and last of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that lead to confluence of Silpovgar IV. Third part closes with 5) Other electronic jumps and emphasizes in Silpovgar IV: on the one hand at X→np jump location and on the other with Piepflui or Constant spacing. Finally, 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) brings two main points: Primitive energetic correlation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA PEC) and First application of Relativistic effects.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] viXra:1712.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:57:44

18 Excited Electron: Feliz Theory of eo Vision Relativistic II: Influence in Riquelme de Gozy

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 18th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First application of Relativistic effects is made with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in 1s2→1sns (Term=1S and J=0) where initial relativity postulates (from P61 to P64) are established [8]. This second part seeks to corroborate excess relativistic role in ideality deviation of Riquelme de Gozy whereas Relativistic effect has been seen with Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda in [8].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18] viXra:1712.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:00:23

19 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire I: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 19th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. This article works preferably wit RG relation. First part is dedicated to linearity between LANn→∞ and LAN(P050) in RG representation, as well as asymptotic tendency to its corresponding limits as ns is increased. Second part serves as introduction to Pepliz LAN empire as region of first quadrant in LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P50) representation that is subdivided into zones. Electron jumps are located in one or other zones depending on jump type. External and internal limits of Pepliz LAN empire are postulated.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] viXra:1712.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:04:30

20 Excited Electron: Pepliz Lan Empire II: LANn→∞ Vs. Lan(p50)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 30 Pages.

This is 20th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). LAN allows creation of Serelles Secondary Line from Torrebotana Central Line [1,2]. Different relations have LAN role as common link: Riquelme de Gozy (RG) [2] [3] and [9], Flui Piep de Garberí (FPG) [4] and Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) [5,8]. Pepliz LAN empire is LANn→∞ or LAN(P65) vs. LAN(P050) in RG relation as has been introduced in first part of Pepliz LAN empire [10]. This article has following main axes: 1) Deepen nsp^x→nsp^(x-1)ns that occupies empire zone between P69 and P72 limits 2) LAN amplitude: concept, behaviour and implications 3) Ionization energy obtained by Gozy method (IE Gozy method) 4) Annex or expansion with other empire zones and representation based on P69
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] viXra:1712.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:07:33

21 Electron Probability: Pub Cpep I (Probability Union Between Cpep) Necessary Nin Relationships

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 21st article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).In [9], P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge. This article is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75) From P76 to P78 is the section dedicated to CPEP of different BES that, considered correlatively, form groups and linear trends.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15] viXra:1712.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:17:31

22 Electron Probability: PUB CPEP II in "Flui BAR" (Flui (BES A (Global Advance) Region)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

This is 22nd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced with CPOTI-AL division as a line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge [09]. [10] is the first part for PUB CPEP treatment and considers CPEP breakdown whose Advance presents atomicity and sensitivity to IE variations (P75). Second part in PUB CPEP presents two main lines related to NIN: * P79 establishes simple arithmetic equations between CPEP and elements related (CPEP-i, A and Ai) * P80 (A)→0 stays in Flui BAR where electron configurations reach Global Advance equal to 0 at specific Z intervals
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14] viXra:1712.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:20:30

23 Orbital Capacity by Advancement of Numbers Electron Probability: Pub Cpep III: "Flui BAR" II and Cpep-I

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is 23rd article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).First part is centred on orbital capacity where advancement of numbers must be accomplished; simple trend that also allows predicting electrons can fit into future orbitals. Advancement of numbers is with orbitals present in each period and also in consecutive order [11] where all lower n orbitals are filled before proceeding with upper n. Base structure of electron with two electronic extremes governed by Victoria equation is right-angle triangle whose three sides are: Hi, ci and ri [1,2]. This geometric figure also appears in advancement of numbers because orbital capacity is conditioned by triangular number that can be recomposed in equilateral triangle an in turn in two equal right triangles. Already in field dedicated to NIN concept into electronic extremes [1,9], following parts conclude PUB CPEP introduction [10] and [11] with Flui BAR extension to find connection between different principal quantum numbers and first contact with CPEP-i and its corresponding Individual Advance (Ai).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13] viXra:1712.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 10:23:19

24 Electron Probability: 1s Electron Birth: the Last Diligence to Poti Rock & Snow Hill Victoria

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 20 Pages.

This is last article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).CPOTI-AL-d→∞ evolution with Z is carried out in this article where CPOTIAL-d→∞ is CPOTI anular limit when d→∞ and Z is atomic number. ain axis is CPOTI-ALd→∞ for 1s electron and relativistic relation existence that can justify its behaviour. Two final acts present so-called matter surprise and relation of remaining OES with initial OES for all: 1s OES. OES (origin electronic system) are all ns electrons and origin of all is 1s [1,12]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] viXra:1712.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 19:25:11

Proton/electron Mass Ratio and Gravitational Constant Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

Since relativistic length contraction occurs only in the direction of motion and not in the transverse direction, rotation results in an effect known as Thomas precession. Thomas precession acts as a counter rotation. Because precession increases non-linearly according to the Lorentz factor, rotation minus precession has a maximum value. The maximum value of rotation velocity minus precession velocity is termed the maximum difference velocity and is designated vm. We showed in previous work that this is the physical basis of charge structure, electromagnetic effects, and the fine structure constant. In this report the proton/electron mass ratio is formulated in terms of vm, the speed of light, and the electron mass. The proton mass calculated using the formula is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. The gravitational constant is formulated similarly, and the calculated result is well within the standard uncertainty of the CODATA value. These results build on the framework established in our previous reports.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11] viXra:1712.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 23:58:43

Victoria Equation the Dark Side of the Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 21 Pages. This is first article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at document end).

Following postulates focus application on atomic electrons which, by balancing and swinging of electronic extremes around pivot or initial position, achieve electron cloud with specific positions and momentums and always maintaining initial energy with electronic extremes energy sum (equi-energetic state or ES). First Victoria Equation applications serve to make an initial approximation to atomic radius, to show 2 electronics extremes radial distribution from which velocities and momentums are derived, as well as to know nuclear radius distance and energy of both electronic extremes as function of parameter called birth wavelength division.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] viXra:1712.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 00:34:35

A02 Electronic Extremes: Orbital and Spin (Introduction)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 12 Pages.

Electron that is born in a pivot position and swings from this position with two electronic extremes (EE) is introduced in article dedicated to Victoria Equation [1]. These two electronic extremes always provide equi-energetic sum and their energetic distribution is radius (ri) or division (d) function. In this article, electron begins to show in three dimensions. First, by expanding its radial dimension to two dimensions with a circular orbit movement. Second, reaching three dimensions by raising and lowering these circular orbits with division variations (Swinging movement). In the previous sentence two electron movements have been included: orbital movement with circular movement in specific division and spin movement when moving between orbits changing division with swinging movement like a screw.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] viXra:1712.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:15:44

03 Relations Between Electronic Extremes: Rotation Time as Probability and Feliz I.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 22 Pages.

To the absence of repulsion inter electronic by charge saturation (P04) [1], relation between electrons is added in this article. This relationship conditions ionization energies (birth energies or Eo). After several ideas, relation developed is based on coupling between electrons probability. Electron Probability is introduced based on electron orbital turn time. Firstly, electron probability is defined according to division and radial distance. Variable Compaction Factor or First Feliz Solution is included to correct rising probability with the distance. Finally, electron Probability with Variable Compaction Factor is compared to current orbital representation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:1712.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:50:08

04 Feliz II the Prudent: Probability Radial Closure with High Order Variable CF

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic extreme Probability (Pi) as orbital turn time [3] is obtained with its orbital circumference (ci) [2] divided by its velocity (vi) [1]. Regardless of PEP, whether 1 for 1s Hydrogen or 2 for rest, is verified that First Feliz Solution and its variable CF with first-order approximation changes monotonous PA increase when rA increases [3]. Probability radial closure objective is achieved by using Second Feliz Solution with high order variable CF (Theoretically to order infinite). Second Feliz Solution factors importance is studied and its relationship with d, division in which electronic extreme is found, is checked. As consequence, variable CF behaviour differs to division near 1, intermediate and high. This is 4th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:1712.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 02:20:04

05 Feliz III the King Major: Orbital Filled Keeping Probability Electronic Distribution.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 19 Pages.

Electronic Extreme Probability (Pi), defined in [3] as quotient between orbital circumference (ci) [2] and velocity (vi) [1], includes CF from being constant to variable. Initially, variable CF is 1-order [3] to become in high-order (theoretically up to order infinite) achieving probability radial closure [4]. If probability radial closure is achieved by Second Feliz Solution [4], now arrival at orbital geometric limit and orbital volume filling are acquired with CPOTI coefficient of Third Feliz Solution. These actions are performed by radial probability distribution curve that is kept constant. Finally, a method by trial and error is included to find orbital geometric limit. This is 5th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1712.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:07:22

06 Feliz IV Planet Coupling: Probability Curves Nin Coupling from Origin Electron.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 6th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Fourth Feliz Solution is exposed to justify electron lobes magnitudes (z, MON or CPOTI) that can be in n principal quantum number by means of NIN (negative in negative) concept extension. First electron that exists in a new n principal quantum number has origin role with respect to other electrons that are later incorporated (P34) in this NIN concept extension. This origin electron is defined by electronic system that gives rise to other electronic systems of this same n number (P35 and P36). Origin electron MON values are included in P37 and P38 with first relations between them and equation that allows to obtain MON for No Origin electrons is defined in P39. Probability coefficient that relates two electrons is released (P42) and, together with MON (P39), z (P41) and CPOTI (P43) couplings, serve to Probability curves coupling.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1712.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 03:40:40

07 Nin Coupling Values in N=2 and Oxygen Electronic Density.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 17 Pages.

This is 7th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). P34 NIN III: ns electron as origin of lobes in same n by curves coupling [6] is used to obtain z, CPOTI-AL and CPEP in n=2. These values are used in later studies and are applied here to estimate maximum Oxygen electron density with simple method. Estimate must corroborate Fluorine example that is in agreement with references [6]. By this method, Probability (Pi) calculations are directed to delimited ri (Electronic extremes-nucleus radial distance) differentials rather than divisions (d). Thanks to this change, Pi curves of different electrons can be added or calculation centred on concrete ri can be made.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:1712.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 04:24:01

08 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N=2.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 13 Pages.

This is 8th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). A and B Electronic Extremes Probability (Pi) curves with Geometric NIN Coupling (GNC) and Probabilistic NIN Coupling (PNC) are studied in n=2 quantum number. CPEP , CPOTI and z data [7] are used. Hi vs. ci is represented in GNC and Pi vs. ri in PNC. Maximum Pi is calculated with ri variation of 0,1 pm and compared with references. Finally, by way of example, Nitrogen outermost electron is represented both when reaches CPOTI angular limit (CPOTI-AL) and for lobe always growing (LAG) [5].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1712.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 05:14:50

09 Electron Probability with Nin Coupling in N>2 and Necessary Nin Relationships.

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is 9th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). First part continues electron density study [6,8] with atoms in Groups I, II and from XIII to XVIII (s and p blocks) whose n principal quantum number is higher than 2. Fundamental difference lies in Origin Electronic System MON (OES MON), which decreases as n increases (P37 [6]). Another factor that affects to lesser extent is Ionization Energy (IE) decrease when n increases. As in articles past, IE is given by [9] as Initial Energy (Eo) [1] and Maximum Probability radius to compare with contributed by NIN coupling is given by [10] and [11]. In the second part CPOTI-AL division and value are indicated and P44 Necessary NIN Relationships is introduced as one line to be deepened and implies that Electronic Systems values [6-8] follows trends along nuclear charge.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:1712.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 03:09:57

Water and the Tethered Proton

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Tethered by a proton? How could that happen?
A mainstream proton is just a non-existent point.
The only way a proton could tether something is if it made from threads. And they do NOT know it yet but -- that is exactly what a proton is -- threads.
A free proton looks like this...

Neutron: ●~~~
Proton: ~~~●~~~
Electron: ~~~∗~~~
Hydrogen: ~~~∗~~~●~~~

Two hydrogen atoms can plug their electrons into the vacant corners of an oxygen cubic atom. That creates an H2O water molecule and leaves the hydrogen protons dangling on the outside of the thread mesh-type cage. That is why they claim the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. The hydrogen electrons gets fixed into the octet cube and leave the proton on the outside. That is also how it can tether another atom / molecule.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:1712.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 06:09:14

Microworld_ 38. EmDrive and Other Magnetic Ethereal Flow-Through Jet Engines

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 18 Pages. English and russian texts

In the early two thousands, EmDrive (R.Shawyer) and Antigravity Engine (V. Leonov) were invented which operation principles were known neither to the inventors nor to the contemporary science. Studies based on the methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations found that those devices were flow-through engines wherein jets are made of ether and the magnetic field acts as a compressor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics