Nuclear and Atomic Physics

1309 Submissions

[11] viXra:1309.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 18:07:16

Femtotechnology. AB-matter. Properties, Possibility Production and Applications

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 14 Pages.

Designs of new forms of matter composed of nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles are detailed. This matter is measured in the femtometer (10-15 m) scale (“femtotechnology”), which is millions of times smaller than material on the nanometer (10-9 m) scale (“nanotechnology”). This new Femtotubes has extraordinary properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency and zero friction. All of these properties are magnified millions of times in comparison to those of conventional molecular matter. Applications include concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities such as invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. Key words: femtotechnology, nuclear matter, artificial AB-Matter, Femtotubes, super strength matter, superthermal resistance, invisible matter, super-protection from nuclear explosion and radiation. * Presented to WEB the Cornel University http://arxiv.org on February 2009.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] viXra:1309.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 18:26:52

Nuclear AB-Generator and its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator. Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket. * Initial version was presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2–5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] viXra:1309.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 19:01:05

Artificial Explosion of Sun and AB-Criterion for Solar Detonation

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin, Joseph Friedlander
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Sun contains ~74% hydrogen by weight. The isotope hydrogen-1 (99.985% of hydrogen in nature) is a usable fuel for fusion thermonuclear reactions. This reaction runs slowly within the Sun because its temperature is low (relative to the needs of nuclear reactions). If we create higher temperature and density in a limited region of the solar interior, we may be able to produce self-supporting detonation thermonuclear reactions that spread to the full solar volume. This is analogous to the triggering mechanisms in a thermonuclear bomb. Conditions within the bomb can be optimized in a small area to initiate ignition, then spread to a larger area, allowing producing a hydrogen bomb of any power. In the case of the Sun certain targeting practices may greatly increase the chances of an artificial explosion of the Sun. This explosion would annihilate the Earth and the Solar System, as we know them today. The reader naturally asks: Why even contemplate such a horrible scenario? It is necessary because as thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear missile weapons can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)— an artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity. It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator‘s defense industry) as being built for peaceful, deterrent use. Those concerned about Man‘s future must know about this possibility and create some protective system—or ascertain on theoretical grounds that it is entirely impossible. Humanity has fears, justified to greater or lesser degrees, about asteroids, warming of Earthly climate, extinctions, etc. which have very small probability. But all these would leave survivors --nobody thinks that the terrible annihilation of the Solar System would leave a single person alive. That explosion appears possible at the present time. In this paper is derived the ‗AB-Criterion‘ which shows conditions wherein the artificial explosion of Sun is possible. The author urges detailed investigation and proving or disproving of this rather horrifying possibility, so that it may be dismissed from mind—or defended against. Key words: Artificial explosion of Sun, annihilation of solar system, criterion of nuclear detonation, nuclear detonation wave, detonate Sun, artificial supernova. * J. Friedlander corrected the author‘s English, wrote together with author Abstract, Sections 8, 10 (―Penetration into Sun‖ and ―Results‖), and wrote Section 11 ―Discussion‖ as the solo author
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:1309.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-19 02:59:29

Microwold 5. Photon Structure, Excited Atom, Cosmic Radiation

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts

There has been the structure of photon identified and the structure and form of stable existence of excited atom described. There have been causes for probabilistic description of an excited atom lifetime determined and the nature of cosmic radiation disclosed along with the reasons for the impossibility of identifying its sources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:1309.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 04:25:24

Microwold 4. Superfluidity of Helium

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages. English and Russian texts

At extremely low temperatures liquid helium contains atoms in which electron and nucleus are arranged on the same straight line and both electrons are from the same side of the nucleus. The existence of such atoms allows for gaining a simple, eye-minded understanding of all amazing properties of superfluid helium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1309.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-04 17:00:29

The Relation of Color Charge to Electric Charge

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

The relation of color charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of P.A.M. Dirac.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1309.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-13 08:27:44

Atom Model and Relativity

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 11 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyperfine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:1309.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-04 16:58:42

The Relation of Colour Charge to Electric Charge

Authors: John Neville
Comments: 1 Page.

The relation of colour charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of Dirac.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1309.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-05 06:53:59

Microword 3. Non-Excited Atom

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 8 pages

Nuclei of stable atoms feature stable statically equilibrium configurations of their nucleons. A nucleus magnetic field consists of separate nucleonic magnetic clusters. A stable nucleus charge number Z is equal to the number of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus. Electrons of a stable non-excited atom are located on axial lines of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus and form a statically equilibrium system. “Electron shell” of a non-excited atom can take various forms depending on ambient temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:1309.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-30 04:12:53

Microwold 2. Magnetism, Lorentz Force, Electron Structure

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts. Send you a new version of the paper that has been deleted 29.01.2014

It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:1309.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-03 21:32:08

Proton-Neutron Bonds in Nuclides: Cis and Trans-Phasic Assembly with the Synchronous Interaction

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 26 Pages.

Existing theories are unable to build nuclear structures from the strong interaction upwards. This limitation applies to quantum chromodynamics, binding energies, the shell model, liquid-drop model, and the semi-empirical mass formula. This paper solves part of this problem, starting from a non-local hidden variable (NLHV) design solution. The Cordus theory for the synchronous interaction (strong force is used to predict that protons and neutrons may form different types of bonds, with different stability. Specifically the synchronous interaction is found to be able to assemble particules in- and out-of-phase (cis- and trans-phasic respectively). We identify the role of the neutrons in nuclear bonding, and how the proton and neutron are bonded, and the advantages to both in doing so. In contrast to conventional models of the nucleus, the Cordus theory predicts that protons in stable nuclei are not bound directly together, nor in an amorphous collection (liquid drop), nor as shells, but rather through neutrons as intermediaries. The neutrons provide a set of discrete forces that are complementary to those of the proton, and it is the resulting synchronicity of discrete forces that creates the stable bonding within the nucleus, and has nothing to do with charge per se. Falsifiable predictions are identified. The internal structures of the hydrogen nuclides are derived. The work is significant in that it provides underpinning principles for explaining nuclear bonding and the nuclides. The implications are that nucleus structure is not a simple assembly of points, nor a packing of spheres, but an assembly of rod-like structures into three-dimensional chains of protons and neutrons, hence nuclear polymer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics