Nuclear and Atomic Physics

1908 Submissions

[9] viXra:1908.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 15:15:47

There Is Only Charge!

Authors: Eshel Faraggi
Comments: 5 Pages. (c) 2019 Eshel Faraggi, All Rights Reserved.

A picture of the universe is presented where electromagnetic charge accounts for all observed phenomena. This picture is based on the Heisenberg relations of quantum mechanics. All the results obtained are consistent with EM charge being responsible for both what we classically identify as mass, and for the interactions required to keep intact the nucleons, and the nuclei of atoms. The approach is grounded in both quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:1908.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 09:56:53

The Modified Atomic Nucleus Model

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 1 Page.

The atomic nucleus should be made by neutrons and protons in one line alignment. They will be arranged as N-P-N-P-N-P or N-P-N-P-N to reduce the energy as low as it can. Neutrons and protons arrange in opposite magnetic field. Thus, protons can generate opposite magnetic field compared to neutrons. Thus, the two directions of the magnetic fields generated by protons and neutrons can let electrons to orbit the nucleus by forming two opposite directional standing waves.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:1908.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 07:28:35

Improved Approximation of the Fine Structure Constant as a Series Representation in e and pi

Authors: Michael J. Bucknum, Eduardo A. Castro
Comments: 7 Pages. corresponding email address: mjbucknum@yahoo.com

An improved approximation of the fine structure constant as a series in e and pi is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1908.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 13:29:12

Nuclear Structure and Allotropes.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, we examined the basic principles for the interactions between energy fields, and analyzed the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. Here we apply those basic principles to nuclear physics and make further proposals. The results may provide an alternative explanation for the forces at the sub-atomic level, and an alternative explanation for the existence of allotropes - the different forms of an element.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1908.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 00:52:35

Puzzling Radii of Calcium Isotopes: $^{40}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{44}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{48}{\rm Ca} \rightarrow ^{52}{\rm Ca}$}, and Duality in the Structure of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ and $^{48}_{20}{\rm Ca}_{28}$

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Anisul Ain Usmni, Usuf Rahaman, Mohammad Ikram
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we study the issue of the puzzle of the radii of calcium isotopes. Despite an excess of eight neutrons, strangely $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ exhibits essentially the same charge radius as $^{40}{\rm Ca}$ does. A fundamental microscopic description of this is still lacking. Also strange is a peak in charge radius of calcium at N = 24. The $^{52}{\rm Ca}$ (N = 32) nucleus, well known to be doubly magical, amazingly has recently been found to have a very large charge radius. Also amazing is the property of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ which simultaneously appears to be both magical/spherical and strongly deformed as well. We use a Quantum Chromodynamics based model, which treats triton as elementary entity to make up $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$. We show here how this QCD based model is able to provide a consistent physical understanding of simultaneity of magicity/sphericity and strong deformation of a single nucleus. This brings in an essential duality in the structure of $^{42}_{14}{\rm Si}_{28}$ and subsequently also that of $^{48}_{20}{\rm Ca}_{28}$ We also provide consistent understanding of the puzzling radii of calcium isotopes. We predict that the radius of $^{54}{\rm Ca}$ should be even bigger than that of $^{52}{\rm Ca}$; and also that the radius of $^{60}{\rm Ca}$ should be the same as that of $^{40}{\rm Ca}$. In addiion we also show wherefrom arises the neutron E2 effective charge of $\frac{1}{2}$.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:1908.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 00:13:54

Einstein and Compton Were not Capable to Explain the Photoelectric Effect and the Compton Effect, Because They Did not Understand the Electron

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 389 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

"I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron" Adrian Ferent "Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrically charged particles like electrons when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The photoelectric effect was first observed in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for ‘his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.’ Einstein and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the photoelectric effect. Compton Effect is the increase in wavelength of X-rays that have been scattered by electrons. Compton explained by applying conservation of energy and conservation of momentum to the collision between the photon and the electron. Compton was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927 ‘for his discovery of the effect named after him.’ Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Compton effect. "The electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent "The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron" Adrian Ferent How I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect: "I explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle" Adrian Ferent "Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron" Adrian Ferent "The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!" Adrian Ferent I explained the Compton effect: The Compton effect: individual photon collides with single electron that is free or quite loosely bound electron in the atom. The incident photon transfers the energy and momentum to the electron. The photon changes its direction and transfers a portion of its original energy to the electron from which it scattered producing an energetic recoil electron. The scattered photon must thus have less energy and momentum than the incoming photon. The fraction of the incident photon energy that is transferred depends on the scattering angle; if the photon is deflected only slightly, little energy is transferred to the electron. "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron" Adrian Ferent "The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron" Adrian Ferent "Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field" Adrian Ferent "The electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles" Adrian Ferent In the Compton scattering the transfer of maximum energy happens when the incident photon is backscattered from the electron and its original direction is reversed. In the photoelectric effect all the energy of the photon is transferred to the electron, because it is not a free electron. "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV" Adrian Ferent "The Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter" Adrian Ferent 233. I am the first who explained the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect with the interaction of two photons, the incident photon and the photon which is inside the electron 234. I am the first who discovered that the energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV 235. I am the first who discovered that the energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV, that is why in Compton scattering the energy of the incident photon is scattered by the electron 236. I am the first who explained that Einstein, Compton and all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect because they did not understand the electron 237. I am the first who explained that the electron is not a dot, has a volume that is why the incident photon interacts with the electron at different angles and it is scattered at different angles 238. I am the first who discovered that the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are examples of the conservation law of energy and of total momentum that is why the energy of the photon inside the electron will be around 0.5 MeV 239. I am the first who explained that the Photoelectric effect and the Compton effect are Proofs for my theory that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1908.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 11:04:11

Scattering Revisited

Authors: Ernesto López González
Comments: 32 pages (On spanish)

Background “Just waves�? is a new hypothesis that postulates that matter and energy could be formed by space-time waves in a six dimensional space with anisotropic curvature. Since this waves can be modified by the scattering procces I study the influence of these modifications in the form factor. Results According with the scattering energy particle-waves are just slightly deformed ( reducing their radius ), converted from spheres to plane disks ( so we change from a 3D Fourier transform to a 2D Fourier transform) and compressed by a geometric series of factor 2. These mechanisms depend not only on the energy exchanged, but also on the energy of the incident particles, as well as on the speed of the particle to be studied. After successfully applying these ideas to proton, neutron, pion and muon form factor it is concluded that there is an optimal range of energies for each particle (increasing it indefinitely only leads to the erroneous conclusion that they have no internal structure). Transverse charge density is recommended as the best method for their study. Existence of quarks is denied and an explanation is given to the discrepancy between residual strong nuclear force measurements and maximum binding energies per nucleon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:1908.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 05:31:21

Early Conclusion of Rubidium Autoradiograph

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

original planned duration of experiment was 6 months
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:1908.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-06 03:02:00

Can We Replicate Stellar Nucleosynthesis?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

It is argued that the genuine stellar nucleosynthesis cannot be replicated with the artificial conditions in stellarator-type fusion (Wendelstein 7-X in Germany) or tokamak fusion (ITER in France). We need quantum gravity to understand how quantum tunneling works in the presence of gravity, and model quantum tunneling in plasma under strong gravity. As of today, the task of generating energy by fusing atoms together is not scientifically feasible. Wendelstein 7-X and ITER will not work. They may only look "exciting", like Titanic.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics