Nuclear and Atomic Physics

1809 Submissions

[7] viXra:1809.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 19:12:44

Angular Momentum Acquisition and Spiral Motion, a Requisite for Particle Creation. a Case Study, the Proton.

Authors: Bruno R Galeffi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Particle creation via angular momentum acquisition requires the existence of a charge carrier with initial momentum mivi and potential for initiating down-spiral motion, yet abiding by angular momentum quantization and conservation principles. Applied to the proton with a charge radius 0.8751 fm and momentum mv=moc=5.014x10-19 Kgm/s, a value of angular momentum quantum number n=4 was pinpointed for the proton radius. Surprisingly, a spin angular momentum S equal to ħ/2Φ (~0.309 ħ) was graphically determined, with Φ being the golden ratio. This result led to the conclusion that the proton might be constructed from two opposing spin angular momenta whose resultant is precisely ħ/2, namely ħ/2Φ and ħΦ/2. Further, an expression for the quantization of v2/c2 was derived, revealing that v2/c2 becomes pure imaginary around n=0. The mass gain during the spiral process was found to be only √2.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1809.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 04:38:40

Plasma Thruster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1809.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 09:05:02

Tracking Hydrogen Movement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Recently, researchers developed a system that can count muon events at a much faster rate, allowing an experiment to be completed in a suitable time frame. [35] The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] viXra:1809.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-23 09:08:02

Nuclear Binding Energy Fails (Is Mass Spectrometry Accurate?)

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mass spectrometry measures atomic masses giving precision of 10^{-10}, but its accuracy has not been verified - precision and accuracy are two independent aspects. The Lorentz force law underlying mass spectrometry has not been verified. In the 1920's, the atomic masses of some elements measured through the early mass spectrometers showed some discrepancies from the `whole-number-rule' of atomic weights. The physics community accepted the discrepancies from whole numbers to be correct; they proposed the concept of `mass defects'. This, together with the mass energy equivalence of E = mc^2 allowed Arthur Eddington to propose a new `sub-atomic' energy to account for the source of the energy of the sun to be in line with the 15 billion age of the sun in their theory. They never entertained the other simpler option - that their mass spectrometers were only approximately good. If the atomic masses of nuclides were to be just whole numbers equal to the mass number in atomic mass unit, it would be a confirmation of the law of mass conservation in the atomic and subatomic world. The key to decide the fate of nuclear physics is in sodium fluoride NaF. Sodium and fluorine occur in nature only as single stable isotopes. A chemical analysis of NaF with the current analytical balance to determine the relative atomic mass of Na/F would decide conclusively if mass spectrometry is accurate. The current relative atomic mass of Na/F is : 22.989769/18.998403 or 1.210089; the ratio of the mass number of Na/F is : 23/19 or 1.210526. The accuracy of mass spectrometry would be confirmed if the value is 1.210089 +- 0.000012. Otherwise, if the value is 1.210526 +- 0.000012, it would mean a confirmation of the law of conservation of mass. The implications of such a scenario is beyond imagination - the whole world of nuclear physics would collapse.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1809.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 09:09:18

Electron Heating in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] viXra:1809.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 13:12:45

Suppressing Instabilities in Tokamaks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Fusion, the power that drives the sun and stars, produces massive amounts of energy. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:1809.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 11:22:36

Nuclear Structure Theory Confirmed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics