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Any replacements are listed farther down

[289] **viXra:1901.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 08:52:27*

**Authors:** BOUCHOUAT El Mehdi

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

La théorie des formes quadratiques est très vaste et dans ce mémoire je n'en mentionne qu'une très petite partie. Dans la première section, j'introduis les formes quadratiques et leurs formes bilinéaires associées et je présente quelques résultats généraux. La deuxième section est consacrée à la classification des formes quadratiques sur $\mathbb{C}$, $\mathbb{R}$, et sur les corps finis $\mathbb{F}_{q}$, et dans la troisième section je me concentre sur l'une des applications de la classification des formes quadratiques : La loi de réciprocité quadratique.

**Category:** Algebra

[288] **viXra:1901.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-09 09:14:26*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 1 page, written in english

We propose here a modification of the Clifford algebra with relations using three vectors instead of two.

**Category:** Algebra

[287] **viXra:1812.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-12 00:03:23*

**Authors:** Youngjin Bae

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Rationality problems of algebraic $k-tori$ is closely related to rationality problems of the invariant field, also known as Noether's Problem.
We describe how a function field of algebraic $k-tori$ can be identified as an invariant field under a group action and that a $k-tori$ is rational if and only if its function field is rational over $k$. We also introduce character group of $k-tori$ and numerical approach to determine rationality of $k-tori$.

**Category:** Algebra

[286] **viXra:1812.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 06:25:19*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We use modal logic to evaluate definitions for Kent algebras, as presented for rough set concept analysis. Some definitions are not tautologous, hence refuting Kent algebras on rough sets.

**Category:** Algebra

[285] **viXra:1811.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 21:36:42*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

“Gröbner Bases Theory” & Ontology could be implemented as explained - An Insight into Higher Order Logic (HOL) based Ontology Neuroinformatics Framework by Considering Ontology Oriented Concepts & Language/s based on HOL/Grobner Bases/Scala/Jikes RVM/JVM Technologies/IoT Computing Environments.

**Category:** Algebra

[284] **viXra:1811.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-20 23:28:02*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A historical definition of division by zero is reconsidered.

**Category:** Algebra

[283] **viXra:1811.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-18 20:46:54*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A remark of the definition of division by zero is given.

**Category:** Algebra

[282] **viXra:1811.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-15 19:52:46*

**Authors:** Martin Neuenhofen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that there is a variety of Schur complements that yield a decoupling of a quasi-definite linear system into two quasi-definite linear systems of half the size each. Splitting of linear systems of equations via Schur complements is widely used to reduce the size of a linear system of equations. Quasi-definite linear systems arise in a variety of computational engineering applications.

**Category:** Algebra

[281] **viXra:1811.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-10 00:56:54*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

As the title suggests it is our sincere desire to explore “Quaternions & Rotational Systems” in the highly promising domains of Cryo-EM Image Processing to probe the frontiers of Nano-Bio Systems.

**Category:** Algebra

[280] **viXra:1810.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 01:07:02*

**Authors:** Obiwulu Solomon

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this note, some mathematical equations where solved using a modified approach that introduces logarithm with its rules as well as presented as a certain determinant. While some ideas and theories presented in this note could generate issues of dispute, yet the progressive orderliness and agreement in the method cannot easily be set aside. Diverse equations were developed and conveniently solved by the proposed model. And this modification is called Determinant Method

**Category:** Algebra

[279] **viXra:1810.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-01 09:11:15*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We define here a complex Clifford algebra by help of two intertwined (by a Heisenberg algebra) usual Clifford algebras. We deduce two Dirac operators.

**Category:** Algebra

[278] **viXra:1809.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-23 23:17:37*

**Authors:** Saulo Queiroz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this letter we discuss the inconsistencies of $0/0\cdot x=y$, $x,y\in\real_{\ne 0}$ from the perspective of the zero property multiplication (ZPM) $x\cdot 0 = y\cdot 0$ on $\real$. We axiomatize $x\cdot 0$ as a number $\inull(x)$ that has a real part $\Re(\inull(x))=0$ but indeed is not real. From this we define the set of null imaginary numbers $\nullset$ as $\{\inull(x)|\forall x\in\real_{\ne 0}\} \cup \{0\}$. Based on the definition of uniqueness (i.e., if $x\ne y\Leftrightarrow \inull(x)\ne \inull(y)$ and the null division (i.e., $\inull(x)/0=x$) we show the elementar algebra of $\nullset$. Hence, under the condition of existence of $\nullset$, we show that $0/0=1$ does cause the logic trivialism of mathematic.

**Category:** Algebra

[277] **viXra:1807.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-12 08:50:24*

**Authors:** Saikat sarkar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is only for maths students

**Category:** Algebra

[276] **viXra:1807.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-05 07:07:06*

**Authors:** Abhijit Bhattacharjee

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The paper was submitted to journal of combinatorial theory a, after referee 's review they told me to submit it algebra related journal.

The upper bound of composition series for finite group is obtained .

**Category:** Algebra

[275] **viXra:1807.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 11:10:16*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter, Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 20 pages. Revision, 3 July 2018, with corrections and improvements to the published version, 18 Sep 2017 DOI:10.1002/mma.4597, in MMA 41(11)4088-4105, 30 July 2018, Special Issue: ENGAGE. 9 tables, 4 figures, 28 references.

The Triple Conformal Geometric Algebra (TCGA) for the Euclidean R^2-plane extends CGA as the product of three orthogonal CGAs, and thereby the representation of geometric entities to general cubic plane curves and certain cyclidic (or roulette) quartic, quintic, and sextic plane curves. The plane curve entities are 3-vectors that linearize the representation of non-linear curves, and the entities are inner product null spaces (IPNS) with respect to all points on the represented curves. Each IPNS entity also has a dual geometric outer product null space (OPNS) form. Orthogonal or conformal (angle-preserving) operations (as versors) are valid on all TCGA entities for inversions in circles, reflections in lines, and, by compositions thereof, isotropic dilations from a given center point, translations, and rotations around arbitrary points in the plane. A further dimensional extension of TCGA, also provides a method for anisotropic dilations. Intersections of any TCGA entity with a point, point pair, line or circle are possible. TCGA defines commutator-based differential operators in the coordinate directions that can be combined to yield a general n-directional derivative.

**Category:** Algebra

[274] **viXra:1806.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-30 09:35:47*

**Authors:** Jean Claude Dutailly

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The purpose of the paper is to present new results (exponential, real structure, Cartan algebra,...) but, as the definitions are sill varying with the authors, the paper covers all the domain, and can be read as a comprehensive presentation of Clifford algebras.

**Category:** Algebra

[273] **viXra:1806.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-29 03:36:32*

**Authors:** Saikat sarkar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This artical has been prepared for basic inequality concept.

**Category:** Algebra

[272] **viXra:1806.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-16 20:42:30*

**Authors:** Ayoub ABRACH, El Mehdi BOUCHOUAT

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Search engines are huge power factors on the Web, guiding people to information and
services. Google is the most successful search engine in recent years,his research results are very complete and precise. When Google was an early research project at Stanford, several articles have been written describing the underlying algorithms. The dominant algorithm has been called PageRank and is still the key to providing accurate rankings for search results.
A key feature of web search engines is sorting results associated with a query in order of importance or relevance. We present a model allowing to define a quantification of this concept (Pagerank) a priori fuzzy and elements of formalization for the numerical resolution of the problem. We begin with a natural first approach unsatisfactory in some cases. A refinement of the algorithm is introduced to improve the results.

**Category:** Algebra

[271] **viXra:1805.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-31 00:49:48*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 1 page, written in french

We introduce here the notion of matricial Clifford algebras with help of the product of matrices and the tensor product.

**Category:** Algebra

[270] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-20 05:12:52*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We prove 3 theorems regarding these boundary matrices. We propose 2 conjectures related to the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture.

**Category:** Algebra

[269] **viXra:1804.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-06 07:41:06*

**Authors:** Said Amharech

**Comments:** 5 Pages. the work is written in french

This work is dealing with something that we’re not sure it exists, but it’s just an attempt to solve some problems in algebra, it gives a general idea about the complexe numbers we got from the great mathematicians of all times,
I believe that these complexe numbers we notice in algebra, calculus or even quantum physics are not enough, in general, i think there is another infinite dimension of numbers, and real or complexe numbers are just a simple projection of the complexity of that world.
As a method of work instead of adding a function of rotation pi over two as we did with the real line to expand the complexe plan, i’ve thought to make a function of translation…
But the importance in here is that the function we need is not a linear function to solve some kind of problems like for example dividing over zero, and as you may notice if the function isn’t linear so that the neutral element of the complexe plan for the additive law which it the trivial zero we know is completely different of the neutral element of the new mother group.
at the end we can find some roots easily of riemann’s zeta function but it is not a complexe roots.

**Category:** Algebra

[268] **viXra:1804.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-01 04:40:39*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 4 pages, written in french

We introduce here some algebraic theory about the Hamilton numbers and develop a quaternionic geometry of fiber bundles.

**Category:** Algebra

[267] **viXra:1802.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 10:54:53*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This document is the first in what is intended to be a collection of solutions of high-school-level problems via Geometric Algebra (GA). GA is very much "overpowered" for such problems, but students at that level who plan to go into more-advanced math and science courses will benefit from seeing how to "translate" basic problems into GA terms, and to then solve them using GA identities and common techniques.

**Category:** Algebra

[266] **viXra:1802.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:48:35*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.5. Problema del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc – Chorzow - Graz).
Let a, b, c in ℝ. Prove that V = 4(a² + b² + c² ) - (a + b)² - (b + c)² - (c + a)² >= 0, and determine all values of a, b, c for which V = 0.

**Category:** Algebra

[265] **viXra:1802.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:54:13*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The algorithm presented here is to be applied to polynomials whose independent term has many divisors. This type of polynomials can be hostile to the search for their integer roots, either because they do not
have them, or because the first tests performed have not been fortunate.
This algorithm was first published in Revista Escolar de la Olimpíada Iberoamericana de Matemática,
Number 19 (July - August 2005). ISSN – 1698-277X, in Spanish, with the title ALGORITMO DE DESCARTE DE RAÍCES ENTERAS DE POLINOMIOS.
When making this English translation 12 years later, some erratum has been corrected and when observing from the perspective of time that some passages were somewhat obscure, they have been rewritten trying to make them more intelligible.
The algorithm is based on three properties of divisibility of integer polynomials, which, astutely implemented, define a very compact systematic that can simplify significantly the exhaustive search of integer roots and rational roots.
Although there are many other methods for discarding roots, for example, those based on bounding rules, which sometimes drastically reduce the search interval, for the sake of simplicity, they will not be considered here.
The study presented here could be useful to almost all the young people of the planet, since at some stage of their academic training they will have to solve polynomial equations with integer coefficients, looking
for rational solutions, integer or fractional.
The author thinks that DARRIP's algorithm should be incorporated into the curricula of all the elementary study centers over the world.

**Category:** Algebra

[264] **viXra:1801.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 08:48:03*

**Authors:** A.Polorovskii

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new system of classification that greatly simplifies the task of classifying (or setifying) all finite simple groups (Hereafter referred to as FSGs.) We propose classification of FSGs by identifying each group with the equivalence class of certain groups up to isomorphism. Furthermore, it is shown that every FSG belongs to at least one of the equivalence classes herein.
Using our new classification, the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis is proven.

**Category:** Algebra

[263] **viXra:1712.0575 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 00:18:53*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** Pages.

A simple way of approximating π by slice.

**Category:** Algebra

[262] **viXra:1712.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 10:51:29*

**Authors:** Richard Wayte

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A solution of Fermat’s Last Theorem is given, using elementary function arithmetic and inference from worked examples.

**Category:** Algebra

[261] **viXra:1710.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:35:07*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 1 Page. None.

Mathematical Closure.

**Category:** Algebra

[260] **viXra:1709.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 11:21:53*

**Authors:** Charanjeet Singh Bansrao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The difference of any real transcendental number and complex number e^i is always a complex transcendental number.

**Category:** Algebra

[259] **viXra:1708.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-28 08:38:14*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This note presents the roots (in radicals) of the equations:x^5+10*x^3+20*x-1=0 , x^5-20*x^4-10*x^2-1=0 and related fractals.

**Category:** Algebra

[258] **viXra:1708.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-21 18:38:34*

**Authors:** F.L.B.Périat

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Proposition sur l'infini imaginé comme un espace vectoriel, permettant par distribution des vecteurs de démontrer l'irrationalité de certaines valeurs.

**Category:** Algebra

[257] **viXra:1708.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 12:49:22*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents the real roots (in radicals)of the equation:x^6-3x^4-2x^3+9x^2+3x-26=0.

**Category:** Algebra

[50] **viXra:1812.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-12 10:43:42*

**Authors:** Youngjin Bae

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Rationality problems of algebraic k-tori are closely related to rationality problems of the invariant field, also known as Noether's Problem. We describe how a function field of algebraic k-tori can be identified as an invariant field under a group action and that a k-tori is rational if and only if its function field is rational over k. We also introduce character group of k-tori and numerical approach to determine rationality of k-tori.

**Category:** Algebra

[49] **viXra:1811.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-25 06:15:59*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The historical definition of division by zero given by Brahmagupta is correct.

**Category:** Algebra

[48] **viXra:1811.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-21 06:24:15*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A historical definition of division by zero is reconsidered.

**Category:** Algebra

[47] **viXra:1809.0485 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-23 08:04:46*

**Authors:** Saulo Queiroz

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we discuss the inconsistencies of $0/0\cdot x=y$, $x,y\in\real_{\ne 0}$
from the perspective of the zero property multiplication (ZPM) $x\cdot 0 = y\cdot 0$ on $\real$.
We axiomatize $x\cdot 0$ as a number $\inull(x)$ that has a real part $\Re(\inull(x))=0$
but indeed is not real. From this we define the set of null imaginary numbers
$\nullset$ as $\{\inull(x)|\forall x\in\real_{\ne 0}\} \cup \{0\}$.
We present the elementary algebra on $\nullset$ based on the definitions of
uniqueness (i.e., if $x\ne y\Leftrightarrow \inull(x)\ne \inull(y)$) and
the null division (i.e., $\inull(x)/0=x\ne 0$). Also, \emph{under the condition of existence
of $\nullset$}, we show that $0/0=\inull(0)/\inull(0)=1$ does not cause the logic trivialism
of the real mathematic.

**Category:** Algebra

[46] **viXra:1809.0485 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-01 16:23:37*

**Authors:** Saulo Queiroz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this letter we discuss the inconsistencies of $0/0\cdot x=y$, $x,y\in\real_{\ne 0}$
from the perspective of the zero property multiplication (ZPM) $x\cdot 0 = y\cdot 0$ on $\real$.
We axiomatize $x\cdot 0$ as a number $\inull(x)$ that has a real part $\Re(\inull(x))=0$
but indeed is not real. From this we define the set of null imaginary numbers
$\nullset$ as $\{\inull(x)|\forall x\in\real_{\ne 0}\} \cup \{0\}$.
We present the elementary algebra on $\nullset$ based on the definitions of
uniqueness (i.e., if $x\ne y\Leftrightarrow \inull(x)\ne \inull(y)$) and
the null division (i.e., $\inull(x)/0=x\ne 0$). Also, \emph{under the condition of existence
of $\nullset$}, we show that $0/0=\inull(0)/\inull(0)=1$ does not cause the logic trivialism of the real mathematic.

**Category:** Algebra

[45] **viXra:1809.0485 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-24 10:18:41*

**Authors:** Saulo Queiroz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this letter we discuss the inconsistencies of $0/0\cdot x=y$, $x,y\in\real_{\ne 0}$
from the perspective of the zero property multiplication (ZPM) $x\cdot 0 = y\cdot 0$ on $\real$. We axiomatize $x\cdot 0$ as a number $\inull(x)$ that has a real part $\Re(\inull(x))=0$ but indeed is not real. From this we define the set of null imaginary numbers
$\nullset$ as $\{\inull(x)|\forall x\in\real_{\ne 0}\} \cup \{0\}$. We present the elementary algebra on $\nullset$ based on the definitions of
uniqueness (i.e., if $x\ne y\Leftrightarrow \inull(x)\ne \inull(y)$) and the null division (i.e., $\inull(x)/0=x\ne 0$). Also, \emph{under the condition of existence of $\nullset$}, we show that $0/0=\inull(0)/\inull(0)=1$ does not cause the logic trivialism of the real mathematic.

**Category:** Algebra

[44] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-04 19:34:38*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We prove 3 theorems regarding these boundary matrices. We propose 2 conjectures related to the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture.

**Category:** Algebra

[43] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 05:12:19*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We prove 4 theorems regarding these boundary matrices. We propose 2 conjectures related to the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture.

**Category:** Algebra

[42] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-06 15:20:33*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We prove 4 theorems regarding these boundary matrices. We propose 2 conjectures related to the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture.

**Category:** Algebra

[41] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-02 05:19:02*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We prove 3 theorems regarding these boundary matrices. We propose 2 conjectures related to the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture.

**Category:** Algebra

[40] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-01 17:03:00*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Algebra

[39] **viXra:1805.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-24 17:28:18*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Algebra

[38] **viXra:1804.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-07 11:38:11*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 4 pages, written in french

We introduce here some algebraic theory about the Hamilton numbers and develop a quaternionic geometry of fiber bundles.

**Category:** Algebra

[37] **viXra:1709.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-09 07:22:47*

**Authors:** Charanjeet Singh Bansrao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Difference of Any Real Transcendental Number and Complex Number E^i is Always a Complex Transcendental Number.

**Category:** Algebra

[36] **viXra:1709.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-09 00:03:03*

**Authors:** Charanjeet Singh Bansrao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The difference of any real transcendental number and complex number is always a complex transcendental number.

**Category:** Algebra