Algebra

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[247] viXra:1608.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:17:36

DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Xinde Li
Comments: 11 Pages.

This chapter presents the DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels (FLARL) in DSmT framework in order to work precisely with qualitative labels for information fusion. We present and justify the basic operators on qualitative labels (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, root, power, etc).
Category: Algebra

[246] viXra:1608.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:45:01

Unit Graph of Some Finite Group Zn, Cn and Dn

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 10 Pages.

We represent finite group in the form of a graph, these graphs are called unit graph. Since the main role in obtaining the graph is played by the unit element of the group, this study is innovative. Also study of different properties like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group are carried out using the unit graph of the group.
Category: Algebra

[245] viXra:1608.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 18:36:06

Solving Boolean Equation

Authors: Oh Jung Uk
Comments: 19 Pages.

If ∀P:proposition, B(P) is the truth value(0 or 1) of P then we can solve a boolean equation by using these below. B(p_1∨p_2∨…∨p_n )≡1+∏_(k=1)^n▒(1+p_k ) (mod 2) { (x_1,x_2,…,x_n ) | ∏_(i=1)^n▒B(x_i ) ≡0(mod 2)}=(⋂_(i=1)^n▒{ (x_i ) | B(x_i )≡1(mod 2)} )^c={(x_1,x_2,…,x_n ) |(1,1,1,…,1)}^c
Category: Algebra

[244] viXra:1607.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:56:49

On Neutrosophic Quadruple Algebraic Structures

Authors: S.A. Akinleye, F. Smarandache, A.A.A. Agboola
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we present the concept of neutrosophic quadruple algebraic structures. Specially, we study neutrosophic quadruple rings and we present their elementary properties.
Category: Algebra

[243] viXra:1607.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 03:00:47

Affirmative Resolve of Kothe Conjecture

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

Affirmative resolve of Kothe conjecture
Category: Algebra

[242] viXra:1607.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 03:02:03

The Counter Example of Jacobson Conjecture

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

The counter example of Jacobson conjecture
Category: Algebra

[241] viXra:1607.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:16:53

Multi-Structure and Multi-Space

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

I consider that life and practice do not deal with pure spaces, but with a group of many spaces, with a mixture of structures, a 'mongrel', a heterogeneity - the ardently preoccupation is to reunite them! to constitute a multi-structure.
Category: Algebra

[240] viXra:1607.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:22:25

Notes On Using T.I.-82 Calculators To Find Sums

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

A sequence is the range of a function whose domain is a subset of Z.
Category: Algebra

[239] viXra:1607.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:28:27

On an Erdös’ Open Problems

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In one of his books (“Analysis…”) Mr. Paul Erdös proposed the following problem.
Category: Algebra

[238] viXra:1607.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:29:13

On Another Erdös’ Open Problem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Paul Erdös has proposed the following problem.
Category: Algebra

[237] viXra:1607.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:31:31

On Carmichaël’s Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article we prove that the equation ϕ (x) = n admits a finite number of solutions, we find the general form of these solutions
Category: Algebra

[236] viXra:1607.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:32:21

On A Diophantine Equation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we present a method of solving this Diophantine equation, method which is different from Ljunggren’s, Mordell’s, and R.K.Guy’s.
Category: Algebra

[235] viXra:1607.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:33:54

One Application of Wallis Theorem

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

By multiplication we obtain the statement. We prove in the same way for cos x.
Category: Algebra

[234] viXra:1607.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:37:01

Où se Trouve la Faute ? (Equations Diophantiennes)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Où se trouve la faute ? (equations diophantiennes).
Category: Algebra

[233] viXra:1607.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:49:06

P-Q Relationships and Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article is on P-Q Relationships and Sequences.
Category: Algebra

[232] viXra:1607.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:50:34

Prime Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Any odd number can be expressed as a sum of two primes.
Category: Algebra

[231] viXra:1607.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:51:57

Quelques Propriétés Des Medianes

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article généralise cerrtains résultats sur les nédiannes.
Category: Algebra

[230] viXra:1607.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:57:53

Sequences of Sub-Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article is on Sequences of Sub-Sequences.
Category: Algebra

[229] viXra:1607.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:59:18

C. Dumirescu, N. VÎRLAN, ȘT. Zamfir, e. RĂDESCU, N. RĂDESCU, Florentin Smarandache

Authors: Smarandache Type Function Obtained by Duality
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we extended the Smarandache function from the set N' of positive integers to the set Q of rationals.
Category: Algebra

[228] viXra:1607.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:00:58

Solving Problems by Using a Function in The Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

liVe have constructed a function n which associates to each non-null integer m the smallest positive n such that n! is a multiple of m.
Category: Algebra

[227] viXra:1607.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:01:42

Some Periodical Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let N be a positive integer with not all digits the same, and N' its digital reverse.
Category: Algebra

[226] viXra:1607.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:06:10

Subjective Questions and Anwers for A Math Instructor of Higher Education

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 16 Pages.

What are the instructor's general responsabilities ?
Category: Algebra

[225] viXra:1607.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:07:19

Sur la Resolution Dans L’ensemble Des Naturels Des Equationes Linéaires

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

L'utilité du cet article est qu'il établit si le nombre des solutions naturelles d'une équation linéaire est limité ou non.
Category: Algebra

[224] viXra:1607.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:08:59

Sur la Resolution D’équations du Second Degré a Deux Inconnues Dans Z

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Cet article nous presente la resolution l’équations du second degré a deux inconnues dans Z.
Category: Algebra

[223] viXra:1607.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:10:57

Sur Quelques Progressions

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dans cet article on construit des ensembles qui ont la proprieté suivente: quel que soit leur partage en (Leux sous-ensembles, au moins l'un de ces sous-ensembles contient au moins trois éléments en progression arithmétique (ou bien géométrique).
Category: Algebra

[222] viXra:1607.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:11:45

The A.m.a.t.y.c. Competition

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges organizes each year a mathematical competition.
Category: Algebra

[221] viXra:1607.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:28:30

Une Application de la Generalisation du Théorème du Ceva

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Cet article presente une application de la generalisation du théorème du Ceva.
Category: Algebra

[220] viXra:1607.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:29:56

Une Classe D’ensembles Recursifs

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

Dans cet article on construit une classe d' ensembles récursifs, on établit des propriétés de ces ensembles et on propose des applications.
Category: Algebra

[219] viXra:1607.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:30:57

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité Cauchy Bouniakovski-Schwartz

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inegalité Cauchy-Bouniakovski-Schwartz.
Category: Algebra

[218] viXra:1607.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:32:37

Une Generalisation du Theoreme D’Euler

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dans les paragraphes qui suivent nous alions démontrer un resultat qui remplace le teorème d' Euler.
Category: Algebra

[217] viXra:1607.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:33:58

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité de Hölder

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

On géneralise l'inégalité de Holder grâce à un raisonement par récurrence.
Category: Algebra

[216] viXra:1607.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:34:54

Une Généralisation de L’inégalité de Minkowski

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inégalité de Minkowski.
Category: Algebra

[215] viXra:1607.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:35:50

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité de Tcebychev

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inegalité de Tcebychev.
Category: Algebra

[214] viXra:1607.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:36:49

Une Généralisation D’une Théorème de Carnot

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation d’une théorème de Carnot.
Category: Algebra

[213] viXra:1607.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:49:33

About Bernoulli's Numbers

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Many methods to compute the sum ofthe same powers of the first n natural numbers are well-known. In this paper we present a simple proof of the method.
Category: Algebra

[212] viXra:1607.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:52:25

About the Characteristic Function of the Set

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

In our paper we give a method, based on characteristic function of the set, of resolving some difficult problem of set theory found in high school study.
Category: Algebra

[211] viXra:1607.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:55:44

About Very Perfect Numbers

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

the square of an odd prime number can't be very perfect number.
Category: Algebra

[210] viXra:1607.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:58:02

A Function in the Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I shall construct a function n having the following properties.
Category: Algebra

[209] viXra:1607.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:10:32

A Generalization of Euler’s Theorem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the paragraphs which follow we will prove a result which replaces the theorem of Euler.
Category: Algebra

[208] viXra:1607.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:11:16

A Generalization of the Inequality of Hölder

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.
Category: Algebra

[207] viXra:1607.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:12:13

A Generalization of the Leibniz Theorem

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we show a generalization of Leibniz's theorem and an application of this.
Category: Algebra

[206] viXra:1607.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:28:21

An Infinity Of Unsolved Problems Concerning A Function In The Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 23 Pages.

W.Sierpinski has asserted to an international conference that if mankind lasted for ever and numbered the unsolved problems, then in the long run all these unsolved problems would be solved.
Category: Algebra

[205] viXra:1607.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:29:13

An Integer Number Algorithm To Solve Linear Equations

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

An algorithm is given that ascertains whether a linear equation has integer number solutions or not; if it does, the general integer solution is determined.
Category: Algebra

[204] viXra:1607.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:30:26

Another Integer Algorithm To Solve Linear Equations (Using Congruences)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this section is presented a new integer number algorithm for linear equation.This algorithm is more “rapid” than W. Sierpinski’s presented in the sense that it reaches the general solution after a smaller number of iterations. Its correctness will be thoroughly demonstrated.
Category: Algebra

[203] viXra:1607.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:33:51

A Numerical Function in Congruence Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we define a function L which will allow us to generalize (separately or simultaneously) some theorems from Numbers Theory obtained by Wilson, Fermat, Euler, Gauss, Lagrange, Leibnitz, Moser, Sierpinski.
Category: Algebra

[202] viXra:1607.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:37:55

A Property For A Counterexample To Carmichaël’s Conjec

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

There are many papers on this subject, but the author cites the papers which have influenced him, especially Klee’s papers.
Category: Algebra

[201] viXra:1607.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:41:53

Asupra Unei Metode a Lui W. Sierpinski de Rezolvare în Numere întregi a Ecuațiilor Liniare

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In nota urmatoare se fac cateva remarci privind metoda expusa de Sierpinski, remarci ce au ca scop sirnplificarea si extinderea acestei metode.
Category: Algebra

[200] viXra:1607.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:43:32

Asupra Unor Conjecturi si Probleme Nerezolvate Referitoare la O Functie in Teoria Numerelor

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Am construit o functie care asociaza fiecarui intreg nenul n cel mai mic intreg pozitiv m astfel incat m! este multiplu de n.
Category: Algebra

[199] viXra:1607.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:58:29

Coefficients K-Nomiaux

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dans cet article on élargit les notions de "coefficients binomiaux" et de "coefficients trinomiaux" à la notion de"coefficients k-nomiaux~ et on obtient quelques propriétés générales de ceux-ci. Comme application, on généralisera le "triangle de Pascal".
Category: Algebra

[198] viXra:1607.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:00:10

Conjectures On Primes' Summation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any odd integer n can be expressed as a combination of three primes.
Category: Algebra

[197] viXra:1607.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:01:23

Conjectures Which Generalize Andrica's Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

Five conjectures on paires of consecutive primes are listed below with examples in each case.
Category: Algebra

[196] viXra:1607.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:03:33

Contributii la Studiul Unor Functii si Conjecturi in Teoria Numerelor

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 28 Pages.

Teoria Numerelor reprezinta pentru mine o pasiune. Rezultatele expuse mai departe constituie rodul catorva ani buni de cercetari si cautari.
Category: Algebra

[195] viXra:1607.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:04:48

Convergence D’une Famille de Series in

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dans cet article, on construit une famille d'expressions E (n).
Category: Algebra

[194] viXra:1607.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:12:59

Des Fantaisies Mathématiques

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Ces fantaisies mathematiques sont des divertissements, des problèmes amusants : elles font abstraction de la logique communne, mais elles ont quand meme leur "logique", une logique fantaisiste.
Category: Algebra

[193] viXra:1607.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:14:14

Digital Subsequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

We screen this sequence, selecting only the terms whose digits also satisfy the property or relationship.
Category: Algebra

[192] viXra:1607.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:24:48

Enseignement et Recherche Scientifique (Dans Les Mathematiques

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

De nos jours on met un accent puissant sur la correlation de l'enseignement avec la recherche et la production.
Category: Algebra

[191] viXra:1607.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:27:47

Functii Aritmetice

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

Este bine cunoscuta importanta functiilor aritmetice in teoria numerelor, importanta datorata pe de-a parte bogatiei rezultatelor ce se obtin cu ajutorul acestor functii, si pe de alta parte frumusetii acestor rezultate.
Category: Algebra

[190] viXra:1607.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:28:46

Functii Prime si Coprime

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Vom construi urmatoare1e functii pe care le numim prime.
Category: Algebra

[189] viXra:1607.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:43:25

Happy New Mathematical Years!

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Due to professor Gane Policarp’s kindness, I have several issues of “Caietul de informare matematică” (“The Notebook of Mathematical Information”), which has beenput together with attention to detail and skill, and which attracted and persuaded me, fromthe very beginning, to collaborate with small materials.
Category: Algebra

[188] viXra:1607.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:48:58

Inconsistent Systems of Axioms and Contradictory Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

We construct the system of n+2 axioms.
Category: Algebra

[187] viXra:1607.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:49:51

Inequalities for The Integer Part Function In

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we prove some inequalities for the integer part function and we give some applications in the number theory.
Category: Algebra

[186] viXra:1607.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:51:02

In Legatura cu O Problema de la Concursul de Matematica, Faza Locala, Ramnicu Valcea

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Se prezinta in aceasta nota o extindere a unei probleme data la Olimpiada de matematica, faza locala, la Ramnicul VaIcea, clasa a VI-a, 1980.
Category: Algebra

[185] viXra:1607.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:53:18

Integer Solutions of Linear Equations

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article are presented Definitions and properties of the integer solutions of linear equations.
Category: Algebra

[184] viXra:1607.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:58:28

Où se Trouve la Faute Dans ce Raisonnement Par Reccurence?

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

A un concours d'entré en faculté on pose le problème suivant.
Category: Algebra

[183] viXra:1607.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:59:23

Où se Trouve la Faute Sur Les Integrales?

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Où se trouve la faute sur les integrales?
Category: Algebra

[182] viXra:1607.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 11:02:35

General Integration Theory Defined from Extended Cohomology.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We engage in an approach towards integration theory divorced from measure theory concentrating on the dierentiable functions instead of the measurable ones. In a sense, we do for \measure theory" what dierential geometry does for topology; the nal goal of this paper being the rigorous denition of a generalization of the Feynman path integral. The approach taken is an axiomatic one in which it is more important to understand relationships between certain quantities rather than to calculate them exactly. In a sense, this is how the eld of algebraic geometry is developed in opposition to the study of partial dierential equations where in the latter case, the stress is unfortunately still too much on the construction of explicit solutions rather than on structural properties of and between solutions.
Category: Algebra

[181] viXra:1607.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:42:10

Schanuel’s Conjecture’s Partial Resolve

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

Schanuel’s conjecture’s partial resolve
Category: Algebra

[180] viXra:1606.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:16:01

The Complex Form of the Law of Cosines

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical derivation of the complex form of the law of cosines and show how it can help in the vector algebra.
Category: Algebra

[179] viXra:1605.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 15:53:54

Algebraic Poincare Duality 1

Authors: Bin Wang
Comments: 25 Pages. This is the second of three papers, all of which are posted on this site.

This paper includes two main chapters, \S 2 and \S3. Each deals with one type of algebraic Poincar\'e duality (APD) on linear spaces originated from algebraic cycles. Two types of APD confirm the following conjectures: (1) the Griffiths' conjecture on the incidence equivalence versus Abel-Jacobi equivalence. (2) the standard conjectures including the ``D" conjecture over $\mathbb C$.
Category: Algebra

[178] viXra:1605.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 15:57:17

Algebraic Poincare Duality 2

Authors: Bin Wang
Comments: 27 Pages. This is the last of three papers, all of which are posted on this site.

This is the sequel of three papers. In this paper we apply algebraic Poincar\'e duality to the maximal sub Hodge structures to show (1) Generalized Hodge conjecture of level 1 is correct. (2) The generalized Hodge conjecture of level 0, i.e. the usual Hodge conjecture, is correct.
Category: Algebra

[177] viXra:1605.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 15:49:46

Algebraic Poincare Duality 0

Authors: Bin Wang
Comments: 20 Pages. This is the first of three papers, all of which are posted on this site.

We discuss a structure that exists in many problems on smooth projective varieties over the field of complex numbers, and name it as ``Algebraic Poincar\'e duality" or ``APD" for abbreviation. In particular, over the complex numbers with singular cohomology, it is a solution to (1) Griffiths' conjecture on the incidence equivalence versus Abel-Jacobi equivalence, (2) Generalized Hodge conjecture of level 1, (3) Generalized Hodge conjecture of level 0, i.e. the usual Hodge conjecture, (4) The standard conjectures, (5) Grothendieck's ``D" conjecture. However it is not the goal of this paper to show APD implies these conjectures. In this paper we'll build the foundation for the structure by introducing the APD in its simplest form over the complex numbers.
Category: Algebra

[176] viXra:1605.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 12:00:15

Root of a Sum as the Sum of Roots

Authors: José de Jesús Camacho Medina
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the following document shows a particular form of simplify the root of a sum as the sum of roots, through an algebraic expression entitled: "Camacho Identity".
Category: Algebra

[175] viXra:1605.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-03 01:16:32

Special Type of Fixed Point Pairs using MOD Rectangular Matrix Operators

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 257 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time define a special type of fixed points using MOD rectangular matrices as operators. In this case the special fixed points or limit cycles are pairs which is arrived after a finite number of iterations. Such study is both new and innovative for it can find lots of applications in mathematical modeling.
Category: Algebra

[174] viXra:1605.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-03 01:17:45

Special Type of Fixed Points of MOD Matrix Operators

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 202 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce a special type of fixed points using MOD square matrix operators. These special type of fixed points are different from the usual classical fixed points.
Category: Algebra

[173] viXra:1605.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 05:34:51

A Consistent Descriptive Logographic Onomatology of Algebraic Systems

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 34 Pages. An additional category is "Mathematics: Set Theory and Logic"

There are two presently common onamastic (onomatological) methods of logographically naming and thus concisely describing an algebraic system; both methods are often used simultaneously. According to one method, an algebraic system is equivocally denoted by an atomic logographic symbol that originally denotes a certain underlying set of elements, which is regarded as the principal one, while all other objects of the algebraic system, properly named, are kept in mind and are regarded as implicit properties of that set or of its separate elements. That is to say, according to this method, an algebraic system is its principal underlying set of elements together with all its properties, which are implied and are not mentioned explicitly. According to the other method, an algebraic system is regarded as an ordered multiple, whose coordinates properly denote the defining objects of the algebraic system, and consequently the ordered multiple name is equivocally used as a proper name of the algebraic system. Thus, in this case, the togetherness of all constituents of the algebraic system is expressed by the pertinent ordered multiple name in terms of its coordinate names. In my recent article available at http://viXra.org/abs/1604.0124¸ I have demonstrated that both above onomastic methods are inconsistent. Therefore, in that article and also in my earlier article appearing at http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00328, I suggested and used another onomastic method of logographically naming the pertinent algebraic systems, namely that employing, as a name of an algebraic system, a complex logographic name the union of all explicit constituent sets of the system, namely, the underlying sets of elements, the surjective binary composition functions, and the bijective singulary inversion functions; a function is a set (class) of ordered pairs. In the present article, the latter onomastic method is substantiated and generalized in two respects. First, the set of explicit constituent sets of an algebraic system is now extended to include the injective choice, or selection, functions of all additive and multiplicative identity elements of the algebraic system, belonging to its underlying sets, so that all those elements are now mentioned by the logographic name of the system. A general definition of an algebraic system is elaborated in such a way so as to make the new onomastic method universally applicable to any algebraic system.
Category: Algebra

[172] viXra:1604.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-06 07:25:43

An Axiomatic Algebraico-Functional Theory of an N-Dimensional Euclidean Affine Space

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 68 Pages.

A concise rigorous axiomatic algebraico-functional theory of a real affine Euclidean space of any given dimension n>=1 (nDRAfES), which is an underlying discipline of differential and integral calculus and particularly of my recent theory of nD wave fields, presented in arXiv:1510.00328, is developed from an algebraic system, called an affine additive group (AAG). The latter consists of a certain underlying set of points, called an affine additive group manifold (AAGM), and of a certain commutative [abstract] additive group (CAG), called the adjoint group of the AAG, whose elements, called vectors, are related to pairs of points of AAGM by a binary surjection, satisfying the appropriate version of the Chasle, or triangle, law. An AAG is illustrated by an nD primitive (Bravais) affine lattice. When the CAG is successively supplemented by the appropriate additional attributes to become ultimately an nD real abstract vector Euclidean space (nDRAbVES), the AAG is automatically self-adjusted to all current metamorphoses of its adjoint CAG to become ultimately an nDRAfES, of which the above nDRAbVES is adjoint. Relative to its any orthonormal basis, the nDRAbVES, adjoint of the nDRAfES, is isomorphic to the nD real arithmetical vector Euclidean space (nDRArVES), whose underlying set consists of ordered n-tuples of real numbers, being coordinates of the respective abstract vectors of the underlying vector set of the nDRAbVES. A time continuum (TC) is a special interpretation of 1DRAfES. A real-valued functional form (FF) that is initially defined on a certain region of the direct product (DP) of a 1DRAfES and a nDRAfES can rigorously be mapped onto a certain real-valued FF defined on a certain region of the DP of the TC and nDRArVES and vice versa.
Category: Algebra

[171] viXra:1602.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 02:37:55

About "Categories and Sheaves"

Authors: Pierre-Yves Gaillard
Comments: 191 Pages.

The purpose of this text is to make a few comments about the book "Categories and Sheaves" by Kashiwara and Schapira, Springer 2006.
Category: Algebra

[170] viXra:1511.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-27 16:20:45

Algebra of Paravectors

Authors: Józef Radomański
Comments: 17 Pages.

Paravectors just like integers have a ring structure. By introducing an integrated product we get geometric properties which make paravectors similar to vectors. The concepts of parallelism, perpendicularity and the angle are conceptually similar to vector counterparts, known from the Euclidean geometry. Paravectors meet the idea of parallelogram law, Pythagorean theorem and many other properties well-known to everyone from school.
Category: Algebra

[169] viXra:1511.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 11:48:25

Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 215 Pages.

Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.
Category: Algebra

[168] viXra:1511.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 11:52:39

MOD Functions: A New Approach to Function Theory

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 205 Pages.

In this book the notion of MOD functions are defined on MOD planes. This new concept of MOD functions behaves in a very different way. Even very simple functions like y = nx has several zeros in MOD planes where as they are nice single line graphs with only (0, 0) as the only zero. Further polynomials in MOD planes do not in general follows the usual or classical laws of differentiation or integration.
Category: Algebra

[167] viXra:1509.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-01 04:55:38

Smarandache Fuzzy Strong Ideal and Smarandache Fuzzy N-Fold Strong Ideal of a BH-Algebra

Authors: Shahrezad Jasim Mohammed
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we define the concepts of a Q-Smarandache n-fold strong ideal and a Q-Smarandache fuzzy (strong, n-fold strong) ideal of a BH- algebra .Also, we study some properties of these fuzzy ideals.
Category: Algebra

Replacements of recent Submissions

[16] viXra:1604.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-02 05:47:55

An Axiomatic Algebraico-Functional Theory of an N-Dimensional Euclidean Affine Space

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 68 Pages.

A concise rigorous axiomatic algebraico-functional theory of a real affine Euclidean space of any given dimension n>=1 (nDRAfES), which is an underlying discipline of differential and integral calculus and particularly of my recent theory of nD wave fields, presented in arXiv:1510.00328, is developed from an algebraic system, called an affine additive group (AAG). The latter consists of a certain underlying set of points, called an affine additive group manifold (AAGM), and of a certain commutative [abstract] additive group (CAG), called the adjoint group of the AAG, whose elements, called vectors, are related to pairs of points of AAGM by a binary surjection, satisfying the appropriate version of the Chasle, or triangle, law. An AAG is illustrated by an nD primitive (Bravais) affine lattice. When the CAG is successively supplemented by the appropriate additional attributes to become ultimately an nD real abstract vector Euclidean space (nDRAbVES), the AAG is automatically self-adjusted to all current metamorphoses of its adjoint CAG to become ultimately an nDRAfES, of which the above nDRAbVES is adjoint. Relative to its any orthonormal basis, the nDRAbVES, adjoint of the nDRAfES, is isomorphic to the nD real arithmetical vector Euclidean space (nDRArVES), whose underlying set consists of ordered n-tuples of real numbers, being coordinates of the respective abstract vectors of the underlying vector set of the nDRAbVES. A time continuum (TC) is a special interpretation of 1DRAfES. A real-valued functional form (FF) that is initially defined on a certain region of the direct product (DP) of a 1DRAfES and a nDRAfES can rigorously be mapped onto a certain real-valued FF defined on a certain region of the DP of the TC and nDRArVES and vice versa.
Category: Algebra