In this book, you will find algebra exercises and problems, grouped by chapters, intended for higher grades in high schools or middle schools of general education. Its purpose is to facilitate training in mathematics for students in all high school categories, but can be equally helpful in a standalone workout. The book can also be used as an extracurricular source, as the reader shall find enclosed important theorems and formulas, standard definitions and notions that are not always included in school textbooks.
An AG-groupoid is an algebraic structure that lies in between a groupoid
and a commutative semigroup. It has many characteristics similar to that of a
commutative semigroup. If we consider x^2y^2= y^2x^2, which holds for all x, y in a
commutative semigroup, on the other hand one can easily see that it holds in an
AG-groupoid with left identity e and in AG**-groupoids. This simply gives that
how an AG-groupoid has closed connections with commutative algebras.
We extend now for the first time the AG-Groupoid to the Neutrosophic
AG-Groupoid. A neutrosophic AG-groupoid is a neutrosophic algebraic
structure that lies between a neutrosophic groupoid and a neutrosophic