Data Structures and Algorithms

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Recent Submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[57] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-10 23:52:54

On the "Cracking" Experiments in Gunn, Allison, Abbott, "A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System"

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] viXra:1404.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-09 06:17:49

Building of Networks of Natural Hierarchies of Terms Based on Analysis of Texts Corpora

Authors: D.V. Lande
Comments: 5 Pages. Russian language

The technique of building of networks of hierarchies of terms based on the analysis of chosen text corpora is offered. The technique is based on the methodology of horizontal visibility graphs. Constructed and investigated language network, formed on the basis of electronic preprints arXiv on topics of information retrieval.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[55] viXra:1404.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-07 14:21:35

Securing Vehicle Communication Systems by the KLJN Key Exchange Protocol

Authors: Y.Saez, X. Cao, L.B. Kish, G. Pesti
Comments: 13 Pages. Paper submitted for publication

We review the security requirements for a vehicle communication network. We also provide a critical assessment of the security communication architectures and perform an analysis of the keys to design an efficient and secure vehicular network. We propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[54] viXra:1403.0957 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 08:51:39

A Novel Model for Implementing Security over Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Function

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Mobile adhoc network is a special kind of wireless networks. It is a collection of mobile nodes without having aid of establish infrastructure. In mobile adhoc network, it is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired network due to its limited physical security, Securing temporal networks like Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) has been given a great amount of attention recently, though the process of creating a perfectly secured scheme has not been accomplished yet. MANETs has some other features and characteristics those are together make it a difficult environment to be secured. The bandwidth of MANET is another challenge because it is unlikely to consume the bandwidth in security mechanisms rather than data traffic. This paper proposes a security scheme based on Public Key infrastructure (PKI) for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using intuitionistic fuzzy logic manipulation. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself according to the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Finally the Experimental results shows that the using of intuitionistic fuzzy based security can enhance the security of (MANETs).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[53] viXra:1403.0956 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:16:01

Neutrosophic Relations Database

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 13 Pages.

The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [9, 10] and Salama et al. in [4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. In this paper we introduce and study new types of neutrosophic concepts "  cut levels , normal neutrosophic set, convex neutrosophic set". Added to we will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study its main properties. Some types of neutrosophic relations and neutrosophic database are gevine. Finaly we introduce and study neutrosophic database (NDB for short). Some neutrosophic queries are gevine to a neutrosophic database .
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] viXra:1403.0940 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 11:19:44

Critical Considerations for Developing MIS for NGOs

Authors: Kailash Ch. Dash, Umakant Mishra
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although Information Systems and Information Technology (IS & IT) has become a major driving force for many of the current day organizations, the NGOs have not been able to utilize the benefits up to a satisfactory level. Most organizations use standard office tools to manage huge amount for field data and never feel the need for a central repository of data. While many people argue that an NGO should not spend too much money on information management, it is a fact that organizing the information requires more of a mindset and an organized behavior than a huge financial investment.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[51] viXra:1312.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-01 20:47:05

Times in Noise-Based Logic: Increased Dimensions of Logic Hyperspace

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

Time shifts beyond the correlation time of the logic and reference signals create new elements that are orthogonal to the original components. This fact can be utilized to increase the number of dimensions of the logic space while keeping the number of reference noises fixed. Using just a single noise and time shifts can realize exponentially large hyperspaces with large numbers of dimensions. Other, independent applications of time shifts include holographic noise-based logic systems and changing commutative operations into non-commuting ones. For the sake of simplicity, these ideas are illustrated by deterministic time shifts, even though random timing and random time shifts would yield the most robust systems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[50] viXra:1311.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-26 18:09:43

Solution of Extreme Transcendental Differential Equations

Authors: S J Nettleton
Comments: 6 Pages.

Extreme transcendental differential equations are found in many applications including geophysical climate change models. Solution of these systems in continuous time has only been feasible with the recent development of Runge−Kutta sampling transcendental differential equation solvers with Chebyshev function output such as Mathematica 9's NDSolve function. This paper presents the challenges and means of solving the widely used DICE 2007 integrated assessment model in continuous time. Application of the solution technique in a mobile policy tool is discussed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[49] viXra:1310.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-25 09:15:15

Learning Markov Networks with Context-Specific Independences

Authors: Alejandro Edera, Federico Schlüter, Facundo Bromberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Learning the Markov network structure from data is a problem that has received considerable attention in machine learning, and in many other application fields. This work focuses on a particular approach for this purpose called independence-based learning. Such approach guarantees the learning of the correct structure efficiently, whenever data is sufficient for representing the underlying distribution. However, an important issue of such approach is that the learned structures are encoded in an undirected graph. The problem with graphs is that they cannot encode some types of independence relations, such as the context-specific independences. They are a particular case of conditional independences that is true only for a certain assignment of its conditioning set, in contrast to conditional independences that must hold for all its assignments. In this work we present CSPC, an independence-based algorithm for learning structures that encode context-specific independences, and encoding them in a log-linear model, instead of a graph. The central idea of CSPC is combining the theoretical guarantees provided by the independence-based approach with the benefits of representing complex structures by using features in a log-linear model. We present experiments in a synthetic case, showing that CSPC is more accurate than the state-of-the-art IB algorithms when the underlying distribution contains CSIs.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] viXra:1310.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-24 17:13:30

Neutrosophic Relations

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A. Albolwi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we will introduce and study neutrosophic relations, which can be discussed as generalization of fuzzy relations and intuitionistic fuzzy relations. We will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study the main properties. In addition, we will discuss reflexive, symmetric and transitive neutrosophic relations. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[47] viXra:1310.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 21:36:42

An Extension Collaborative Innovation Model in the Context of Big Data

Authors: Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Haolan Zhang, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: Pages.

The process of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts which are usually unavailable and with uncertainty. Computer science and information technology is changing the innovation environment and accumulating big data from which a lot of knowledge is discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and still remains several challenge problems to integrate multi-information and lots of rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation. Based on the new cross discipline Extenics, we present a collaborative innovation model in the context of big data. The model transforms collected data into a knowledge base in a uniform basic-element format, and then we explore the innovation paths and its solutions by a formularized model based on Extenics. Finally we score and select all possible solutions by 2D dependent function. The model can collaborate different departments to put forward the innovation solutions with support of big data. The model is proved useful by a practical innovation case in management.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[46] viXra:1310.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 22:00:31

Impact of Social Media on Youth Activism and Nation Building in Pervasive Social Computing Using Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMS)

Authors: A.Victor Devadoss, M. Clement Joe Anand
Comments: 6 Pages.

Youth is the major assets of a nation, we need to channel their energy accordingly and dissipate it appropriately for the benefits of a nation and humanity as a whole. Social media has how become indispensable in our societies. Most of the major social media are predominated by the youth, exploiting it for one purpose or the other. In this paper we analyzed how youth could constructively, the role of social media and it’s how it build a nation and achieve a promising future not only for themselves but equality for the upcoming generations using Neutrosophic cognitive maps. This paper has four sections. In section one, we give an introduction about Pervasive social Media, Section two we recall the definition of Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs) Section three is deals with the methods of finding the hidden pattern in NCMs and analysis of Features or Characters of Youth and Youth Activism. In final section we give the conclusion based on our study.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] viXra:1309.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-16 15:52:30

On the Security of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Communicator

Authors: L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist
Comments: 4 Pages. submitted for publication

A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[44] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 14:33:49

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages.

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity than in the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[43] viXra:1306.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-26 04:41:30

Information Hiding and Modula

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

The information hiding principle can be applied completely using the Modula language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] viXra:1306.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-22 15:24:38

Log N Algorithm for Search from Unstructured List

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] viXra:1306.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 01:49:37

Analysis of Point Clouds Using Conformal Geometric Algebra

Authors: Dietmar Hildenbrand, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 6 Pages. 6 figures, 1 table. In Braz, J. (ed.), GRAPP 2008, 3rd Int. Conf. on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications. Proc.: Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 22-25, 2008, Porto: INSTICC Press, pp. 99-106 (2008). DOI: 10.1.1.151.7539

This paper presents some basics for the analysis of point clouds using the geometrically intuitive mathematical framework of conformal geometric algebra. In this framework it is easy to compute with osculating circles for the description of local curvature. Also methods for the fitting of spheres as well as bounding spheres are presented. In a nutshell, this paper provides a starting point for shape analysis based on this new, geometrically intuitive and promising technology. Keywords: geometric algebra, geometric computing, point clouds, osculating circle, fitting of spheres, bounding spheres.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] viXra:1306.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 03:19:30

The GeometricAlgebra Java Package – Novel Structure Implementation of 5D Geometric Algebra R_4,1 for Object Oriented Euclidean Geometry, Space-Time Physics and Object Oriented Computer Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Ginanjar Utama
Comments: 13 Pages. 3 figures, 5 tables. Mem. Fac. Eng. Univ. Fukui 53(1), pp. 47-59 (2005).

This paper first briefly reviews the algebraic background of the conformal (homogeneous) model of Euclidean space in Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1= Cl(4,1), concentrating on the subalgebra structure. The subalgebras include space-time algebra (STA), Dirac and Pauli algebras, as well as real and complex quaternion algebras, etc. The concept of the Horosphere is introduced along with the definition of subspaces that intuitively correspond to three dimensional Euclidean geometric objects. Algebraic expressions for the motions of these objects and their set theoretic operations are given. It is shown how 3D Euclidean information on positions, orientations and radii can be extracted. The second main part of the paper concentrates on the GeometricAlgebra Java package implementation of the Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1 = Cl(4,1) and the homogeneous model of 3D Euclidean space. Details are exemplified by looking at the structure and code of the basic MultiVector class and of the 3D Euclidean object model class Sphere. Finally code optimization issues and the ongoing open source project implementation are discussed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] viXra:1306.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-11 02:23:10

Understanding the LivMach Framework

Authors: Shreyak Chakraborty
Comments: 4 Pages.

We introduce the alpha version of a C++ Computational Framework to simulate life processes in the body of a living multicellular organism by virtually replicating the data flow of the actual living being in real time. LivMach Framework is an open source project on Sourceforge.net We use various data structures to effectively simulate all components of a living organism 's body. Due to the absence of a Graphical User Interface(GUI), we use special indicator statements to display the flow of data between various parts of the virtual body. Using this code,one can simulate the complete physical,mental and psychological behaviour of simple and complex multicellular organisms on low cost machines.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-09 11:36:09

Cracking the Bennett-Riedel Secure Scheme and a Critical Analysis of Their Claims About the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 32 Pages. First draft; to be disseminated at seminar at Uppsala University, Sweden

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435) has claimed that, in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential and that the KLJN scheme provides no security. They attempt to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. After showing that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of the assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications, we crack their system by passive attacks in eight different ways, with 100% success probability, and show that the same cracking methods do not work against the KLJN scheme due to Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We critically analyze the other claims of BR; among others, we prove that their equations (1-3) describing zero security are incorrect for the KLJN scheme. We give mathematical security proofs for each BR attack type and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not successfully been challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-11 21:47:07

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] viXra:1303.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-15 02:32:27

Lecture Notes On Recursive Algorithm

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 50 Pages.

This is the first volumn of the primer of algorithm. As is well known, algorithm become center of computer science now. In my lecture notes , I focus on one of the alogorithms, which is called The Recursive Algorithm. In this lectures, we use an understandable viewpoint towards the problems we meet in the class which are not easy to accepted by students, where we select muItiple examples in recursive algorithm together to explain, to make our teaching more convenient. However, I must say that if you don not have any basic knowledge in computer language. This lecture may be not easy for you and even the same as other algorithm books. But if you read this lecture carefully, it will be helpful for you to study other materials and you will feel easier to accept.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] viXra:1303.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-12 20:53:43

Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution Over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

Authors: Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Balog, Prasad Enjeti
Comments: 22 Pages.

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional grids (chain-like power line). The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When fully developed such system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary dimensions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] viXra:1303.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-09 10:56:31

Correlation Coefficients of Neutrosophic Sets by Centroid Method

Authors: I. M. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, K. M. Mahfouz
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we propose another method to calculate the correlation coefficient of neutrosophic sets. The value which obtained from this method tells us the strength of relationship between the neutrosophic sets and the whether the neutrosophic sets are positively or negatively related. Finally we give some proposition and examples.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] viXra:1303.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-09 11:18:30

Neutrosophic Filters

Authors: A. A. Salama, H. Alagamy
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of filters on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy filters studies in [6], the important neutrosophic filters has been given. Several relations between different neutrosophic filters and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible applications to computer sciences are touched upon.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[32] viXra:1303.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 08:50:04

On the P-Untestability of Combinational Faults

Authors: Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract—We describe the p-untestability of faults in combinational circuits. They are similar to redundant faults, but are defined probabilistically. P-untestable fault is a fault that is not detectable after N random pattern simulation or a fault, FAN either proves to be redundant or aborts after K backtracks. We chose N to be about 1000000 and K to be about 1000. We provide a p-untestability detectability algorithm that works in about 85% of the cases, with average of about 14% false negatives. The algorithm is a simple hack to FAN and uses structural information and can be easily implemented. The algorithm does not prove redundancy completely but establishes a fault as a probabilistically redundant, meaning a fault with low probability of detection or no detection.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] viXra:1303.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 07:08:19

Pror Compaction Scheme for Larger Circuits and Longer Vectors with Deterministic Atpg

Authors: Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract—Reverse order restoration ROR techniques have found great use in sequential automatic test pattern generation ATPG, esp. spectral and perturbation-based ATPG. This paper deals with improving ROR for that purpose. We introduce parallel-fault multipass 2-level polynomial reverse order restoration PROR algorithms with constant complexity of the form H(n)G(n) + c where H(n) is the number of vectors to be released this iteration and G(n) is the attenuation factor. In PROR H(n) = nk and G(n) here is 1
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] viXra:1303.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-06 16:32:05

Fquantum :A Quantum Computing Fault Simulator

Authors: Suresh kumar Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract—We like to introduce fQuantum, a Quantum Computing Fault Simulator and new quantum computing fault model based on Hadamard, PauliX, PauliY and PauliZ gates, and the traditional stuckat-1 SA1 and stuck-at-0 SA0 faults. We had close to 100% fault coverage on most circuits. The problem with lower coverage comes from function gates, which we will deal with, in future versions of this paper.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] viXra:1302.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-18 09:23:54

An Electronic Library As An Environment Of Adaptive Aggregation Of Informarion

Authors: Dmitry Lande, Olga Barkova
Comments: 7 Pages. Ukrainian language

The generalized schema of operation of an electronic libraries network is proposed, which is based on a phenomena of the confluence of the two main functions of library – servicing customers and gathering collections. Some parameters of electronic libraries network have been examined. The estimate of intensity of collections augment of an electronic library as a part of a peer-to-peer network has been performed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[28] viXra:1301.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-20 07:38:55

New Algorithms: Linear, Nonlinear, and Integer Programming

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 40 Pages

In this paper we propose a new algorithm for linear programming. This new algorithm is based on treating the objective function as a parameter. We form a matrix using coefficients in the system of equations consisting objective equation and equations obtained from inequalities defining constraint by introducing slack/surplus variables. We obtain reduced row echelon form for this matrix containing only one variable, namely, the objective function itself as an unknown parameter. We analyze this matrix in the reduced row echelon form and develop a clear cut method to find the optimal solution for the problem at hand, if and when it exists. We see that the entire optimization process can be developed through the proper analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form. From the analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form it will be clear that in order to find optimal solution we may need carrying out certain processes like rearranging of the constraint equations in a particular way and/or performing appropriate elementary row transformations on this matrix in the reduced row echelon form. These operations are mainly aimed at achieving nonnegativity of all the entries in the columns corresponding to nonbasic variables in this matrix or its submatrix obtained by collecting certain rows of this matrix (i.e. submatrix with rows having negative coefficient for parameter d, which stands for the objective function as a parameter for maximization problem and submatrix with rows having positive coefficient parameter d, again representing the objective function as a parameter for minimization problem). The care is to be taken so that the new matrix arrived at by rearranging the constraint equations and/or by carrying out suitable elementary row transformations must be equivalent to original matrix. This equivalence is in the sense that all the feasible solution sets for the problem variables obtained for different possible values of d with original matrix and transformed matrix are same. We then proceed to show that this idea naturally extends to deal with nonlinear and integer programming problems. For nonlinear and integer programming problems we use the technique of Grobner bases (since Grobner basis is an equivalent of reduced row echelon form for a system of nonlinear equations) and the methods of solving linear Diophantine equations (since the integer programming problem demands for optimal integer solution) respectively.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[27] viXra:1212.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-22 16:30:46

Brain-Like Operation System Concept

Authors: Vaclav Kosar
Comments: 6 Pages. my name with special characters in latex form: V\' aclav Ko\v sa\v r

This article should be easy to understand for anybody and is meant to prove that I proposed new kind of operation system based on wiki-like or graph-like structure is 1-more natural, thus easier to learn 2-more efficient on existing tasks in terms of human time spent 3-can handle new kind of tasks Computer task is data transformation. It is improbable that current paper-like handling of data is the best way. I would like to show that current computers provide a much more natural and useful way of handling all-purpose data. The main idea is that one should store information in a structure as natural as possible, so that user does not have to give efforts to transform the information (express more, search naturally, write once then just reference ...). I am not sure if I can claim any authorship of following ideas, since one can never be sure whether an idea existed before and what actually helped one to come up with this idea. The only purpose of this paper is thus the pure desire to make progress of thought, by starting the discussion and construction of crowd sourced operation system based entirely on idea of graph databases. I cannot provide the reader with infinite detais and precision, thus I leave some uncertainties to be cleared by the reader himself for pleasure. My main inspirations for this more natural operation system were: Graph database, Wikipedia, brain, Lisp, mind-mapping, QED manifesto, CSS 3, WikiOS.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] viXra:1212.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-17 07:58:51

Polynomial 3-SAT-Solver

Authors: Matthias Mueller (aka Louis Coder)
Comments: 10 Pages. Algorithm has been well (!) tested!

In this document I want to introduce and explain an algorithm that determines the solvability state (solvable or unsatisfiable) of any exact-3-SAT formula in polynomial time. It is for sure that the algorithm has polynomial runtime, even in the worst case, as the runtime is artificially limited. The question is only if the algorithm does always output the correct result. I suppose it does, due to a proof of correctness that will be shown in this document, and the evidence that an implementation of the algorithm solved millions of test formulae without any error. Furthermore this document provides a download link to a (Windows) demo solver program (including source code) that you can instantly try out.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] viXra:1212.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-11 09:05:35

A New Algorithm for Linear Programming

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 6 Pages. Presented and Published in the Proceedings of International Conference on Perspectives of Computer Confluence with Sciences 2012, ICPCCS 12.

In this paper we propose a new algorithm for linear programming. This new algorithm is based on treating the objective function as a parameter. We transform the matrix of coefficients representing this system of equations in the reduced row echelon form containing only one variable, namely, the objective function itself, as a parameter whose optimal value is to be determined. We analyze this matrix and develop a clear method to find the optimal value for the objective function treated as a parameter. We see that the entire optimization process evolves through the proper analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form. It will be seen that the optimal value can be obtained 1) by solving certain subsystem of this system of equations through a proper justification for this act, or 2) By making appropriate and legal row transformations on this matrix in the reduced row echelon form so that all the entries in the submatrix of this matrix, obtained by collecting rows in which the coefficient of so called unknown parameter d whose optimal value is to be determined, become nonnegative and this new matrix must be equivalent to original matrix in the sense that the solution set of the matrix equation with original matrix and matrix equation with transformed matrix are same. We then proceed to show that this idea naturally extends to deal with nonlinear and integer programming problems. For nonlinear and integer programming problems we use the technique of Grobner bases since Grobner basis is an equivalent of reduced row echelon form for a system of nonlinear equations, and the methods of solving linear Diophantine equations respectively.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] viXra:1211.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-23 14:13:49

On the Intelligent Smart Grid Network

Authors: David Grace, Tony Marshall, Xiaodong Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

Smart Grid Networks present a modern solution for network automation and digital communication in order to improve the efficiency, sustainability and reliability of electricity distribution. The development of Smart Grid networks is not a simple matter. Electronic grids consist of a large number of systems, intelligent and regular electronic devices, substations, switching stations, dispatching centers and many other elements. This paper analyse the technological requirements of intelligent Smart Grid network with a focus on networking aspects, standards and protocols.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[23] viXra:1210.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-22 21:46:31

Solving Hub Location Problems for Networks

Authors: Richard Smith, Chenwen Zheng, Frederic Launois
Comments: 11 Pages.

This work developed a heuristic algorithm to find a solution for the CSAHLP problem. Two formulations were proved CSAHLP-C y CSAHLP-N. For the CSAHLP-C only three size of nodes were proved: 10, 20 and 25 nodes. For problems with more nodes the Cpu-time was very large. For the CSAHLP-N six size of nodes were proved: 10, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 100 nodes. The Cpu-time found are interesting and the gaps are few in the most of cases.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[22] viXra:1210.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-22 13:02:50

Extension Communication Pentru Rezolvarea Contradicţiei Ontologice Dintre Comunicare şi Informaţie

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 12 Pages.

Studiul se înscrie în zona interdisciplinară dintre teoria informaţiei şi extensică, în calitatea ei de ştiinţă a rezolvării contradictoriilor. În acest spaţiu se abordează problema centrală a ontologiei informaţiei relaţia contradictorie dintre comunicare şi informare. Nucleul cercetării îl reprezintă realitatea că investigaţia ştiinţifică a relaţiei comunicare-informare a ajuns într-o fundătură. Relaţia bivalentă comunicare-informare, informare-comunicare a ajuns să fie contradictorie, iar cele două concepte să se blocheze reciproc. În condiţiile în care Extensics este o ştiinţă a soluţionării problemelor contradictorii, se vor utiliza „extensical procedures” pentru a rezolva contradicţia.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] viXra:1208.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-28 09:40:25

Complex Noise-Bits and Large-Scale Instantaneous Parallel Operations with Low Complexity

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, He Wen, Andreas Klappenecker
Comments: 10 Pages. physical informatics is the exact topic

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(1) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] viXra:1208.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-20 21:28:38

Fuzzy Grids-Based Intrusion Detection in Neural Networks

Authors: Izani Islam, Tahir Ahmad, Ali H. Murid
Comments: 18 Pages.

The proposed system is developed in two main phases and also a supplementary optimizing stage. At the first phase, the most important features are selected using fuzzy association rules mining (FARM) to reduce the dimension of input features to the misuse detector. At the second phase, a fuzzy adaptive resonance theory‐based neural network (ARTMAP) is used as a misuse detector. The accuracy of the proposed approach depends strongly on the precision of the parameters of FARM module and also fuzzy ARTMAP neural classifier. So, the genetic algorithm (GA) is incorporated into the proposed method to optimize the parameters of mentioned modules in this study. Classification rate (CR) results show the importance role of GA in improving the performance of the proposed intrusion detection system (IDS). The performance of proposed system is investigated in terms of detection rate (DR), false alarm rate (FAR) and cost per example (CPE).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] viXra:1208.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 13:05:14

A Novel Merge sort

Authors: D.Abhyankar, M.Ingle
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most frequently needed computing tasks. Mergesort is one of the most elegant algorithms to solve the sorting problem. We present a novel sorting algorithm of Mergesort family that is more efficient than other Mergesort algorithms. Mathematical analysis of the proposed algorithm shows that it reduces the data move operations considerably. Profiling was done to verify the impact of proposed algorithm on time spent. Profiling results show that proposed algorithm shows considerable improvement over conventional Mergesort in the case of large records. Also, in the case of small records, proposed algorithm is faster than the classical Mergesort. Moreover the proposed algorithm is found to be more adaptive than Classical Mergesort.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[18] viXra:1207.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-09 08:07:02

Qualitative Analysis of Academic Group and Discussion Forum on Facebook

Authors: Hannah Arendt, Ivan Matic, Lin Zhu
Comments: 10 Pages.

In the present study, data was triangulated and two methods of data analysis were used. Qualitative analysis was undertaken of free-text data from students’ reflective essaysto extract socially-related themes. Heuristic evaluation was conducted by expert evaluators, who investigated forum contributions and discourse in line with contemporary learning theory and considered the social culture of participation. Findings of the qualitative analysis of students’ perceptions and results of the heuristic evaluation of forum participation confirmed each other, indicating a warm social climate and a conducive, well-facilitated environment that supported individual styles of participation. It fostered interpersonal relationships between distance learners, as well as study-related benefits enhanced by peer teaching and insights acquired in a culture of social negotiation. The environment was effectively moderated, while supporting student-initiative. The mixed-methods approach of evaluating essays and discussions showed a virtual community where most participants experienced a sound balance of social- and study-related benefits, but with a stronger focus on academic matters.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] viXra:1202.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-13 09:49:02

Multiplication of Any Number Using Left Shift

Authors: Baldha Prashantkumar Mansukhbhai
Comments: 4 Pages.

The new algorithm for multiplication. The multiplication algorithm is best for multiplication algorithm in some cases.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[16] viXra:1112.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 18:58:12

Design of High Speed 64 Bits Multiplier by Square Function

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article propose a new Booth multiplier design that the booth expansion is rearranged in square term like: \[ ab=((a+b)^2-a^2-b^2)/2 \] If the code length of $a,b$ is $n$, the multiplier on the right is with the size $2^{2n}$, but multiplier on the left is with the size $2^n$.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[15] viXra:1112.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 19:00:52

Evolutionary Computation Hybrids With Monte Carlo Method For Differential Equation

Authors: Sheng-Ping Wu
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article uses the hybrids between the evolutionary method and Monte Carlo method to solve the differential equation, for example in this article, the Schrodinger equation for atom
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14] viXra:1109.0036 [pdf] submitted on 16 Sep 2011

An OpenCL Fast Fourier Transformation Implementation Strategy

Authors: Sven De Smet
Comments: 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the potential to obtain high performance.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[13] viXra:1108.0028 [pdf] submitted on 22 Aug 2011

One More Step Towards Generalized Graph-Based Weakly Relational Domains

Authors: Sven de Smet
Comments: 21 pages. This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, adding examples, adding an experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper proposes to extend graph-based weakly relational domains to a generalized relational context. Using a new definition of coherence, we show that the definition of a normal form for this domain is simplified. A transitive closure algorithm for combined relations is constructed and a proof of its correctness is given. Using the observed similarity between transitive closure of a combined relation and the normal form closure of a graph-based weakly relational domain, we extract a mathematical property that a relational abstract domain must satisfy in order to allow us to use an algorithm with the same form as the transitive closure algorithm to compute the normal form of a graph-based weakly relational domain.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[12] viXra:1106.0033 [pdf] submitted on 15 Jun 2011

Towards a Group Theoretical Model for Algorithm Optimization

Authors: Sven de Smet
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposes to use a group theoretical model for the optimization of algorithms. We first investigate some of the fundamental properties that are required in order to allow the optimization of parallelism and communication. Next, we explore how a group theoretical model of computations can satisfy these requirements. As an application example, we demonstrate how this group theoretical model can uncover new optimization possibilities in the polyhedral model.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[11] viXra:1106.0023 [pdf] submitted on 12 Jun 2011

A Lattice Model for the Optimization of Communication in Parallel Algorithms

Authors: Sven de Smet
Comments: 12 pages. This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, extending the experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a unified model for the optimization of communication in parallel algorithms and architectures. Based on a property that provides a unified view of locality in space and time, an algorithm is constructed that generates a parallel architecture that is optimized for communication for a given computation. The optimization algorithm is constructed using the lattice algebraic properties of congruence relations and is therefor applicable in a general context. An application to a bio-informatics algorithm demonstrates the value of the model and optimization algorithm.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10] viXra:1106.0022 [pdf] submitted on 12 Jun 2011

Parallelisation with a Grid Abstraction

Authors: Sven de Smet
Comments: 16 pages, This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 (with added proofs) and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, adding examples, adding an experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a new technique for automatic parallelisation in the Z-polyhedral model. The presented technique is applicable to arbitrarily nested loopnests with iteration spaces that can be represented as unions of Z-polyhedra and affine modular data-access functions. The technique partitions both iteration and data spaces of the computation. The maximal amount of parallelism that can be represented using grid partitions is extracted.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[9] viXra:1101.0082 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jan 2011

A More Rational Way to Program Storage and Communication of Objects

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 pages

A C# class library is described that offers an efficient and secure way of object oriented data transfer and data storage. The classes convert a relational database in an effective object oriented database and a file system in an object oriented data storage and transfer system.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[8] viXra:1101.0062 [pdf] submitted on 19 Jan 2011

Managing the Software Generation Process

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 20 pages

The current software generation process is rotten. This paper analyses why that is the case and what can be done about it.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[7] viXra:1101.0061 [pdf] submitted on 19 Jan 2011

Story of a War Against Software Complexity

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 pages

This is the account of the course of a project that had the aim to improve the efficiency of embedded software generation with several orders of magnitude. All factors that determined the success of the project are treated honestly and in detail.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[6] viXra:1008.0032 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

A Unit Based Crashing Pert Network for Optimization of Software Project Cost

Authors: Priti Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Dipti Chauhan, Amit Bhaghel
Comments: 10 pages

Crashing is a process of expediting project schedule by compressing the total project duration. It is helpful when managers want to avoid incoming bad weather season. However, the downside is that more resources are needed to speed-up a part of a project, even if resources may be withdrawn from one facet of the project and used to speed-up the section that is lagging behind. Moreover, that may also depend on what slack is available in a non-critical activity, thus resources can be reassigned to critical project activity. Hence, utmost care should be taken to make sure that appropriate activities are being crashed and that diverted resources are not causing needless risk and project scope integrity. In this paper we want to present a technique called "Unit Crashing" to reduce the total cost of project. Unit Crashing means to crash the project duration by one unit (day) instead of crashing it completely. This technique uses an iterative approach to perform unit crashing until all activities along the critical path are crashed by desired amount. The output of this method will reduce the cost of project, and is useful at places where cost is of major consideration. Crashing PERT networks can save a significant amount of money in crashing and overrun costs of a company. Even if there are no direct costs in the form of penalties for late completion of projects, there is likely to be intangible costs because of reputation damage.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[5] viXra:1004.0015 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Neutrosophic Relational Data Model

Authors: Haibin Wang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman, Florentin Smarandache, André Rogatko
Comments: 25 pages

In this paper, we present a generalization of the relational data model based on interval neutrosophic set [1]. Our data model is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or intuitionistic fuzzy relation can only handle incomplete information. Associated with each relation are two membership functions one is called truth-membership function T which keeps track of the extent to which we believe the tuple is in the relation, another is called falsity-membership function F which keeps track of the extent to which we believe that it is not in the relation. A neutrosophic relation is inconsistent if there exists one tuple a such that T(α) + F(α) > 1. In order to handle inconsistent situation, we propose an operator called "split" to transform inconsistent neutrosophic relations into pseudo-consistent neutrosophic relations and do the set-theoretic and relation-theoretic operations on them and finally use another operator called "combine" to transform the result back to neutrosophic relation. For this data model, we define algebraic operators that are generalizations of the usual operators such as intersection, union, selection, join on fuzzy relations. Our data model can underlie any database and knowledge-base management system that deals with incomplete and inconsistent information.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[4] viXra:1004.0007 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Algebraic Generalization of Venn Diagram

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That's why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[3] viXra:1003.0135 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Optimal Plant Layout Design for Process-focused Systems

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan, Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 pages

In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic optimization algorithm for designing optimal plant layouts in process-focused manufacturing/service facilities. Our proposed algorithm marries the well-known CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) with the Hungarian assignment algorithm. Being a semi-heuristic search, our algorithm is likely to be more efficient in terms of computer CPU engagement time as it tends to converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT algorithm - a pure heuristic. We also present a numerical illustration of our algorithm.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[2] viXra:1003.0134 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Definitions Derived from Neutrosophics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 pages

Thirty-three new definitions are presented, derived from neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics, and neutrosophic logic. Each one is independent, short, with references and cross references like in a dictionary style.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[1] viXra:0908.0052 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Odd Algebraic Bases, and Their Utility in Computer

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 3 pages

It is shown that we can take all numbers to odd bases such that we require only about half of the digits required in the current method provided that we introduce negative mark for each digit. Most probably this method will have various applications in the computer technology.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

Recent Replacements

[30] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 08:37:35

On the "Cracking" Experiments in Gunn, Allison, Abbott, "A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System"

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 4 Pages. second draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10^-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-07 13:23:57

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 13 Pages. Accepted for publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[28] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-02 10:24:11

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 12 Pages. author's name corrected; link added

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[27] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-31 13:41:15

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: H.P. Chan, L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist, G. Schmera
Comments: 12 Pages. revised

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-14 13:37:44

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-10 10:04:57

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-22 11:49:06

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[23] viXra:1306.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-28 01:21:51

Log N Algorithm for Search from Unstructured List

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages. Sorting algorithm is added.

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!Also, representing list as superposition provides sorting of numbers instantly! One needs to read vector from left to right and prepare the desired sorted list!
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[22] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-20 14:40:22

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 33 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-14 10:27:03

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 33 Pages. expanded, in response to Charles Bennett: sec. 1.1.4

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-08 16:02:35

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. small but important corrections

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-10 22:03:20

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. some typos fixed

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[18] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-02 02:11:52

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. typo in abstract corrected

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attacks against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-17 11:43:33

Cracking the Bennett-Riedel “secure” Scheme and Critical Analysis of Their Claims About the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 34 Pages. corrected, expanded

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) claimed that thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, and they also asserted that the KLJN scheme does not provide security. They attempted to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches (a scheme that was earlier patented by Davide Antilli). In the present paper, we first show that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success by passive attacks in ten different ways and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme, which is based on Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also provide a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply for the KLJN scheme. Finally we provide mathematical security proofs for each of the attacks on the BR scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[16] viXra:1305.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-20 15:31:49

Errors and Their Mitigation at the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 19 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The most interesting finding is that the error probability decays exponentially with the duration of the time window of single bit exchange. The results indicate that it is feasible to have so small error probabilities of the exchanged bits that error correction algorithms are not required. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[15] viXra:1305.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 06:44:51

Errors and Their Mitigation at the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 18 Pages. submitted for publication

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-26 18:31:54

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 9 Pages. clarifications/enhancements; in publication process

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce an "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[13] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 04:40:40

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 8 Pages. submitted for publication

Weak physical uncloneable function (WPUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong physical uncloneable function (SPUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[12] viXra:1303.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-15 20:58:37

Lecture Notes On Recursive Algorithm

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 50 Pages.

This is the first volumn of the primer of algorithm. As is well known, algorithm become center of computer science now. In my lecture notes , I focus on one of the alogorithms, which is called The Recursive Algorithm. In this lectures, we use an understandable viewpoint towards the problems we meet in the class which are not easy to accepted by students, where we select muItiple examples in recursive algorithm together to explain, to make our teaching more convenient. However, I must say that if you don not have any basic knowledge in computer language. This lecture may be not easy for you and even the same as other algorithm books. But if you read this lecture carefully, it will be helpful for you to study other materials and you will feel easier to accept.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[11] viXra:1303.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-15 11:16:34

Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution Over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

Authors: Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert S. Balog, Prasad Enjeti
Comments: 24 Pages. updated, polished

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10] viXra:1303.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-19 12:11:30

Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution Over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

Authors: Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Balog, Prasad Enjeti
Comments: 22 Pages. draft

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional grids (chain-like power line). The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When fully developed such system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary dimensions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[9] viXra:1302.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-15 11:29:55

Enhanced Secure Key Exchange Systems Based on the Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: published in: Metrology and Measurement Systems. Volume XX, Issue 2, Pages 191–204 (open access)

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same. In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics. In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides. In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key. The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems. Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed at practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[8] viXra:1302.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-12 10:41:55

Enhanced Secure Key Exchange Systems Based on the Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 14 Pages. accepted for publication

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same. In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics. In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides. In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key. The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems. Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed at practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[7] viXra:1302.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-14 20:30:55

Enhanced Secure Key Exchange Systems Based on the Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 13 Pages. This version is submitted for publication

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same. In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics. In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides. In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[6] viXra:1302.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-12 14:12:34

Enhanced Secure Key Exchange Systems Based on the Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 12 Pages.

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same. In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics. In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides. In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[5] viXra:1212.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-13 07:21:02

Polynomial 3-SAT-Solver

Authors: Matthias Mueller
Comments: 26 Pages. Algorithm has been well tested.

This document describes an algorithm that is supposed to decide in polynomial time and space if an exact 2- or 3-SAT CNF has a solution or not. To verify the algorithm for correctness, it has been implemented as computer program which successfully determined the solvability of more than 1 million exact-3-SAT formulas. The solver program (Windows binary & source code) can be downloaded via a link in the document. The solver program should run, with some little changes and re-compiling, also on Linux.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[4] viXra:1208.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-04 09:25:42

Complex Noise-Bits and Large-Scale Instantaneous Parallel Operations with Low Complexity

Authors: He Wen, Laszlo B. Kish, Andreas Klappenecker
Comments: 10 Pages. In press at Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(2^0) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[3] viXra:1208.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-06 17:25:19

Complex Noise-Bits and Large-Scale Instantaneous Parallel Operations with Low Complexity

Authors: He Wen, Laszlo B. Kish, Andreas Klappenecker
Comments: 10 Pages.

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(1) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[2] viXra:1109.0036 [pdf] replaced on 19 Sep 2011

An OpenCL Fast Fourier Transformation Implementation Strategy

Authors: Sven De Smet
Comments: 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the potential to achieve high performance.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[1] viXra:1004.0007 [pdf] replaced on 12 Apr 2010

Algebraic Generalization of Venn Diagram

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That's why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms