**Previous months:**

2009 - 0908(1)

2010 - 1003(2) - 1004(2) - 1008(1)

2011 - 1101(3) - 1106(3) - 1108(1) - 1109(1) - 1112(2)

2012 - 1202(1) - 1207(1) - 1208(3) - 1210(2) - 1211(1) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(1) - 1302(2) - 1303(7) - 1305(2) - 1306(6) - 1308(1) - 1309(1) - 1310(4) - 1311(1) - 1312(1)

2014 - 1403(3) - 1404(3) - 1405(25) - 1406(2) - 1407(3) - 1408(3)

Any replacements are listed further down

[90] **viXra:1408.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 18:55:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 3 Pages. submitted for publication

Unconditionally secure physical key distribution is very slow whenever it is undoubtedly secure. Thus it is practically impossible to use a one-time-pad based cipher to guarantee perfect security be-cause using the key bits more than once gives out statistical information, such as via the known-plain-text-attack or by utilizing known components of the protocol and language statistics. Here we outline a protocol that seems to reduce this problem and allows a near-to-one-time-pad based communication with unconditionally secure physical key of finite length. The unconditionally secure physical key is not used for communication; it is use for a secure communication to generate and share a new software-based key without known-plain-text component, such as keys shared via the Diffie-Hellmann-Merkle protocol. This combined physical/software key distribution based communication looks favorable compared to the physical key based communication when the speed of the physical key distribution is much slower than that of the software-based key distribution. The security proof of this scheme is yet an open problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[89] **viXra:1408.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:06:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[88] **viXra:1408.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 23:27:58*

**Authors:** Alexander Fix, Misha Collins

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A trillion by trillion matrix is almost unimaginably huge, and finding its inverse seems to be a truly im- possible task. However, given current trends in com- puting, it may actually be possible to achieve such a task around 2040 — if we were willing to devote the the entirety of human computing resources to a single computation. Why would we want to do this? Perhaps, as Mallory said of Everest: “Because it’s there”.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[87] **viXra:1407.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 21:22:50*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(3).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[86] **viXra:1407.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 22:02:18*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a convex polynomial-time integer minimization problem

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] **viXra:1407.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 21:16:24*

**Authors:** Samuel C. Hsieh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We establish a lower bound of $2^n$ conditional jumps for deciding the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from a set called a full representation of Boolean functions of n variables - a set containing a Boolean formula to represent each Boolean function of n variables. The contradiction proof first assumes that there exists a RAM program that correctly decides the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from such a set by following an execution path that includes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. By using multiple runs of this program, with one run for each Boolean function of n variables, the proof derives a contradiction by showing that this program is unable to correctly decide the satisfiability of the conjunction of at least one pair of Boolean formulas from a full representation of n-variable Boolean functions if the program executes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. This lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps holds for any full representation of Boolean functions of n variables, even if a full representation consists solely of minimized Boolean formulas derived by a Boolean minimization method. We discuss why the lower bound fails to hold for satisfiability of certain restricted formulas, such as 2CNF satisfiability, XOR-SAT, and HORN-SAT. We also relate the lower bound to 3CNF satisfiability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[84] **viXra:1406.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 18:39:38*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

One of the fundamental objectives of mathematical modeling is to interpret past and present, and, based upon this interpretation, to predict future. The use at time t of available observations from a time series to forecast its value at some future time t+l can provide basis for 1) model reconstruction, 2) model verification, 3) anomaly detection, 4) data monitoring, 5) adjustment of the underlying physical process. Forecast is usually needed over a period known as the lead time that is problem specific. For instance, the lead time can be associated with the period during which training data are available. The accuracy of the forecast may be expressed by calculating probability limits on either side of each forecast. These limits may be calculated for any convenient set of probabilities, for example, 50% and 90%. They are such that the realized value of the time series, when it eventually occurs, will be included within these limits with the stated probability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[83] **viXra:1406.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 20:34:41*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(2).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[82] **viXra:1405.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-29 05:46:55*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Information hiding is not programming hiding. It is the hiding of changeable information into programming modules.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[81] **viXra:1405.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:58:11*

**Authors:** Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ZnO thin films with the thickness of about 15nm on (0001) substrates were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both as grown and then annealed ZnO thin films were oxygen rich. Hydrogen (H2) sensing measurements of the films indicated that the conductivity type of both the unannealed and annealed ZnO films converted from p-type to n-type in process of increasing the operating temperature. However, the two films showed different conversion temperatures. The origin of the p-type conductivity in the unannealed and annealed ZnO films should be attributed to oxygen related defects and Zinc vacancies related defects, respectively. The conversion of the conductivity type was due to the annealing out of the correlated defects. Moreover, p-type ZnO films can work at lower temperature than n-type ZnO films without obvious sensitivity loss.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[80] **viXra:1405.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:02:40*

**Authors:** Kumar Pardeep

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In flow networks, it is assumed that a reliability model representing telecommunications networks is independent of topological information, but depends on traffic path attributes like delay, reliability and capacity etc.. The performance of such networks from quality of service point of view is the measure of its flow capacity which can satisfy the customers demand. To design such flow networks, hierarchical importance indices based approach for reliability redundancy optimization using composite performance measure integrating reliability and capacity has been proposed. The method utilizes cardinality and other hierarchical importance indices based criterion in selecting flow paths and backup paths to optimize them. The algorithm is reasonably efficient due to reduced computation work even for large telecommunication networks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[79] **viXra:1405.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:30:29*

**Authors:** Rahul Sinha, A. Sonika

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design consideration and simulation of interpolator of OSR 128. The proposed structure uses the half band filers & Comb/Sinc filter. Experimental result shows that proposed interpolator achieves the design specification, and also has good noise rejection capabilities. The interpolator accepts the input at 44.1 kHz for applications like CD & DVD audio. The interpolation filter can be applied to the delta sigma DAC. The related work is done with the MATLAB & XILINX ISE simulators. The maximum operating frequency is achieved as 34.584 MHz.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[78] **viXra:1405.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:35:59*

**Authors:** Saman Kaedi, Ebrahim Farshidii

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper a discrete time sigma-delta ADC with new assumptions in optimization of noise transfer function (NTF) is presented, that improve SNR and accuracy of ADC. Zeros and poles of sigma-delta’s loop filter is optimized and located by genetic algorithm with assumption loop filter stability and final quantization noise density of modulator will be significantly decrease. Supposition density of quantization noise as default of optimization result without need to additional circuit or filter, the folded noise in pass band due to down sampling, has been minimized so SNR will be more increase. The circuit is designed and implemented using MATLAB. The simulator result of sigma-delta ADC demonstrates this methodology has 7db (equivalent more than 1bit) improvement in SNR.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[77] **viXra:1405.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:37:04*

**Authors:** Gopalkrishna Joshi, Narasimha H Ayachit, Kamakshi Prasad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Increasing complexity of the processes and their distributed nature in enterprises is resulting in generation of data that is both huge and complex. And data quality is playing an important role as decision making in enterprises is dependent on the data. This data quality is a multidimensional concept. However, there does not exist a commonly accepted set of the dimensions and analysis of data quality in the literature by the concerned. Further, all the dimensions available in literature may not be of relevance in a particular context of information system and not all of these dimensions may enjoy the same importance in a context. Practitioners in the field choose dimensions of data quality based on intuitive understanding, industrial experience or literature review. There does not exist a rigorously defined mechanism of choosing appropriate dimensions for an information system under consideration in a particular context. In this paper, the authors propose a novel method of choosing appropriate dimensions of data quality for an information system bringing in the perspective of data consumer. This method is based on Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP) popularly used in multi-criterion decision making and the demonstration of the same is done in the context of distributed information systems

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[76] **viXra:1405.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:38:30*

**Authors:** Hamid Mohseni Pour, Ebrahim Farshidi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) technique can removes thermal and shaped wideband quantization noise from the output of sigma-delta modulator and improves SNR and SFDR ratios. ANC filter more than desired signal passes harmonics of input signal caused by analog element such as operational amplifier of the integrator without any suppression and this issue causes less increment in SNR and SFDR of analog to digital converter. This paper presents a technique by adding an adaptive harmonic canceller filter in the front of ANC filter addresses this issue and improves considerably performance of the ADC. The simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of this combination technique in first order sigma-delta converter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[75] **viXra:1405.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:24:58*

**Authors:** Pecimuthu Gopalasamy, Zulkefli Mansor

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In many organizations, project management is no longer a separately identified function, but is entrenched in the overall management of the business. The typical project management environment has become a multi - project. Most of the project decisions require consideration of schedule, resource and cost concerns on other project work, necessitating the review and evaluation of multi-project data. Without good project management standard practices the organization very hard to reach their target. The research problem of this study is to assess how project management standard practices in the IT Organizations are using it. The research method employed was to first identify the best practices of project management, by focusing on generally accepted standards and practices are particularly effective in helping an organization achieve its objectives. It also requires the ability to manage projects in today’s complex, fast-changing organizations, its people, processes and operating systems which all work together in a collaborative, integrated fashion.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[74] **viXra:1405.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:31:32*

**Authors:** S.A.Quadri, Othman Sidek

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The decreasing cost of sensors is resulting in an increase in the use of wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring. In most applications, nodes are deployed once and are supposed to operate unattended for a long period of time. Due to the deployment of a large number of sensor nodes, it is not uncommon for sensor nodes to become faulty and unreliable. Faults may arise from hardware or software failure. Software failure causes non-deterministic behavior of the node, thus resulting in the acquisition of inaccurate data. Consequently, there exists a need to modify the system software and correct the faults in a wireless sensor node (WSN) network. Once the nodes are deployed, it is impractical at best to reach each individual node. Moreover, it is highly cumbersome to detach the sensor node and attach data transfer cables for software updates. Over-the-air programming is a fundamental service that serves this purpose. This paper discusses maintenance issues related to software for sensor nodes deployed for monitoring structural health and provides a comparison of various protocols developed for reprogramming.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[73] **viXra:1405.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:32:37*

**Authors:** Mohammed Ali Hussain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Electronic Commerce (Ecommerce) refers to the buying and selling of goods and services via electronic channels, primarily the Internet. The applications of E- commerce includes online book store, e- banking, online ticket reservation(railway, airway, movie, etc.,), buying and selling goods, online funds transfer and so on. During E commerce transactions, confidential information is stored in databases as well communicated through network channels. So security is the main concern in E commerce. E commerce applications are vulnerable to various security threats. This results in the loss of consumer confidence. So we need security tools to counter such security threats. This paper presents an overview of security threats to E commerce applications and the technologies to counter them.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[72] **viXra:1405.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:34:19*

**Authors:** A.saisudheer, V. Murali Praveen, S.jhansi Lakshmi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a low-power pulse-triggered flip-flop (FF) designed and a simple two-transistor AND gate
is designed to reduce the circuit complexity. Second, a conditional pulse-enhancement technique is devised to speed
up the discharge along the critical path only when needed. As a result, transistor sizes in delay inverter and pulsegeneration
circuit can be reduced for power saving. Various post layout simulation results based on UMC CMOS
50-nm technology reveal that the proposed design features the best power-delay-product performance in several FF
designs under comparison. Its maximum power saving against rival designs is up to 18.2% and the average leakage
power consumption is also reduced by a factor of 1.52

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[71] **viXra:1405.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:35:18*

**Authors:** V.Sankaraiah, V.Murali Praveen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

As technology scaling drives the no.of processors upward, current on-chip routers consume substantial portions of chip area, performance, cost & power budgets. Recent work proposes to apply well-known routing technique, which eliminate buffers & hence buffers power (static & dynamic) at the cost of some misrouting or deflection called bufferless deflection routing. While bufferless NoC design has shown promising area and power reductions and offers similar performance to conventional buffered for many workloads. Such design provides lower throughput, unnecessary networkhops and wasting power at high network loads.
To address this issue we propose an innovative NoC router design called Single Side Buffered Defection (SSBD)router. Compared to previous bufferless deflection router SSBD contributes (i) a router microarchitecture with a double-width ejection path and enhanced arbitration with in-router prioritization. (ii)small side buffers to hold some traffic that would have otherwise been deflected.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[70] **viXra:1405.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:36:50*

**Authors:** Vinay Kumar, Abhishek Bansal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Development level of a society is a measure of how efficiently the society is harnessing the benefits of different developmental and welfare programs initiated by the government of the day. Tribal in India have been deprived of opportunities because of many factors. One of the important factor is unavailability of suitable infrastructure for the development plan to reach to them. It is widely acknowledged that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have potential to play a vital role in social development. Several projects have attempted to adopt these technologies to improve the reach, enhance the coverage base by minimizing the processing costs and reducing the traditional cycles of output deliverables. ICTs can be used to strengthen and develop the information systems of development plans exclusively for tribal and thereby improving effective monitoring of implementation. The paper attempts to highlight the effectiveness of ICT in improving livelihood of tribals in India.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[69] **viXra:1405.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:37:39*

**Authors:** T.Rupalatha, G.Rajesh, K.Nandakumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Edge detection is one of the basic operation carried out in image processing and object identification .In this paper, we present a distributed Canny edge detection algorithm that results in significantly reduced memory requirements, decreased latency and increased throughput with no loss in edge detection performance as compared to the original Canny algorithm. The new algorithm uses a low-complexity 8-bin non-uniform gradient magnitude histogram to compute block-based hysteresis thresholds that are used by the Canny edge detector. Furthermore, an FPGA-based hardware architecture of our proposed algorithm is presented in this paper and the architecture is synthesized on the Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed distributed Canny edge detector. The FPGA simulation results show that we can process a 512×512 image in 0.28ms at a clock rate of 100 MHz.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] **viXra:1405.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:38:30*

**Authors:** N.Nallammal, V.Radha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Face recognition is one of the most frequently used biometrics both in commercial and law enforcement applications. The individuality of facial recognition from other biometric techniques is that it can be used for surveillance purposes; as in searching for wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. The steps in a face recognition steps are preprocessing (image enhancement), feature extraction and finally recognition. This paper identifies techniques in each step of the recognition process to improve the overall performance of face recognition. The proposed face recognition model combines enhanced 2DPCA algorithm, LDA, ICA with wavelet packets and curvelets and experimental results proves that the combination of these techniques increases the efficiency of the recognition process and improves the existing systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[67] **viXra:1405.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:39:33*

**Authors:** Ch. Pallavi, V.swathi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Design of area, high speed and power-efficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data-processing processors to perform fast arithmetic functions. From the structure of the CSLA, it is clear that there is scope for reducing the area and delay in the CSLA. This work uses a simple and an efficient gate-level modification (in regular structure) which drastically reduces the area and delay of the CSLA. Based on this modification 8, 16, 32, and 64-bit square-root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) architectures have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design has reduced area and delay to a great extent when compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. This work estimates the performance of the proposed designs with the regular designs in terms of delay; area and synthesis are implemented in Xilinx FPGA. The results analysis shows that the proposed SQRT CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[66] **viXra:1405.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:40:47*

**Authors:** Megha Sharma, Rashmi Kuamri

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Image compression is the growing research area for the real world applications which is spreading day by day by the explosive growth of image transmission and storage. This paper presents the algorithm for gray scale image compression using self organizing map (SOM) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Self organizing map network is trained with input patterns in the form of vectors which gives code vector (weight matrix) and index values as the output. The discrete wavelet transform is applied on the code vectors and storing only the approximation coefficients (LL) and the index values obtained from the self organizing map. The result obtained shows the better compression ratio as well as better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) in comparison with the existing techniques.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[65] **viXra:1405.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:42:04*

**Authors:** J. V. Shiral, J. S. Zade, K. R. Bhakare, N. Gandhewar

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A wireless sensor network consists of group of sensors, or nodes, that are linked by a wireless medium to perform distributed sensing tasks. The sensors are assumed to have a fixed communication and a fixed sensing range, which can significantly vary depending on the type of sensing performed. Duty cycle is the ratio of active time i.e the time at which the particular set of nodes are active to the whole scheduling time. With duty cycling, each node alternates between active and sleeping states, leaving its radio powered off most of the time and turning it on only periodically for short periods of time. In this paper, an ADB protocol is used to manage and control duty cycles as well as regulate , monitor on going traffic among the nodes by using adaptive scheduling. Thus congestion, delay can be controlled and efficiency and performance of overall network can be improved.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] **viXra:1405.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:43:45*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is widely used in signal processing and image processing applications. Distributed arithmetic (DA)-based computation is popular for its potential for efficient memory-based implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter where the filter outputs are computed as inner-product of input-sample vectors and filter-coefficient vector. In this paper, however ,we show that the look-up-table(LUT)-multiplier-based approach, where the memory elements store all the possible values of products of the filter coefficients could be an area-efficient alternative to DA-based design of FIR filter with the same throughput of implementation.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[63] **viXra:1405.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:44:44*

**Authors:** Lakshmi Pujitha Dachuri

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted .OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms. In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels. such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors .we consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[62] **viXra:1405.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:53:06*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Object tracking is an important task in computer vision applications. One of the crucial challenges is the real time speed requirement. In this paper we implement an object tracking system in reconfigurable hardware using an efficient parallel architecture. In our implementation, we adopt a background subtraction based algorithm. The designed object tracker exploits hardware parallelism to achieve high system speed. We also propose a dual object region search technique to further boost the performance of our system under complex tracking conditions. For our hardware implementation we use the Altera Stratix III EP3SL340H1152C2 FPGA device. We compare the proposed FPGA-based implementation with the software implementation running on a 2.2 GHz processor. The observed speedup can reach more than 100X for complex video inputs.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[61] **viXra:1405.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:55:43*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Nowadays, Online banking security mechanisms focus on safe authentication mechanisms, but all these mechanisms are rendered useless if we are unable to ensure the integrity of the transactions made. Of late a new threat has emerged known as Man in the Browser attack, it’s capable of modifying a transaction in real time without the user’s notice, after the user has successfully logged in using safe authentication mechanisms. In this paper we analyze the Man in the Browser attack and propose a solution based upon digitally signing a transaction and using the mobile phones as a software token for Digital Signature code generation. Two factor authentication solutions like smartcards, hardware tokens, One Time Password’s or PKI have long been considered sufficient protection against identity theft techniques. However, since the MITB attack piggybacks on authenticated sessions rather than trying to steal or impersonate an identity, most authentication technologies are incapable of preventing its success. In this paper we take a brief look into how the MITB attack takes place how it is capable of modifying an online transaction. We propose a solution based on using mobile phones as software token for Digital signature code generation. Digital signature is known to ensure the authenticity and integrity of a transaction. Mobile phones have become a daily part of our life, thus we can use the mobile phone as software token to generate Digital Signature code.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] **viXra:1405.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:56:28*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Heightened concerns about the treatment of individuals during interviews and interrogations have stimulated efforts to develop "non-intrusive" technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals in a variety of sensitive environments. Methods or processes that have the potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial expressions have the ability to communicate emotion and regulate interpersonal behavior. Over the past 30 years, scientists have developed human-observer based methods that can be used to classify and correlate facial expressions with human emotion. However, these methods have proven to be labor intensive, qualitative, and difficult to standardize. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen is the most widely used and validated method for measuring and describing facial behaviors. The Automated Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT Automated Facial Image Analysis System (AFA) system developed by Dr. Jeffery Cohn and his colleagues at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. This portable, near real-time system will detect the seven universal expressions of emotion providing investigators with indicators of the presence of deception during the interview process. In addition, the system will include features such as full video support, snapshot generation, and case management utilities, enabling users to re-evaluate interviews in detail at a later date.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] **viXra:1405.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:58:08*

**Authors:** R. Obula Konda Reddy, B. Eswara Reddy, E. Keshava Reddy

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Textures are one of the basic features in visual searching, computational vision and also a general property of any surface having ambiguity. This paper presents a novel texture classification system which has a high tolerance against illumination variation. A Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and binary pattern based automated similarity identification and defect detection model is presented. Different features are calculated from both GLCM and binary patterns (LBP, LLBP, and SLBP). Then a new rotation-invariant, scale invariant steerable decomposition filter is applied to filter the four orientation sub bands of the image. The experimental results are evaluated and a comparative analysis has been performed for the four different feature types. Finally, the texture is classified by different classifiers (PNN, KNN and SVM) and the classification performance of each classifier is compared. The experimental results have shown that the proposed method produces more accuracy and better classification rate over other methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[58] **viXra:1405.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 20:37:05*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 387 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[57] **viXra:1404.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 23:52:54*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 4 Pages. first draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] **viXra:1404.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 06:17:49*

**Authors:** D.V. Lande

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Russian language

The technique of building of networks of hierarchies of terms based on the analysis of chosen text corpora is offered. The technique is based on the methodology of horizontal visibility graphs. Constructed and investigated language network, formed on the basis of electronic preprints arXiv on topics of information retrieval.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[55] **viXra:1404.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 14:21:35*

**Authors:** Y.Saez, X. Cao, L.B. Kish, G. Pesti

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Paper submitted for publication

We review the security requirements for a vehicle communication network. We also provide a critical assessment of the security communication architectures and perform an analysis of the keys to design an efficient and secure vehicular network. We propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[54] **viXra:1403.0957 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 08:51:39*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: Mobile adhoc network is a special kind of wireless networks. It is a collection of mobile nodes without having aid of establish infrastructure. In mobile adhoc network, it is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired network due to its limited physical security, Securing temporal networks like Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) has been given a great amount of attention recently, though the process of creating a perfectly secured scheme has not been accomplished yet. MANETs has some other features and characteristics those are together make it a difficult environment to be secured. The bandwidth of MANET is another challenge because it is unlikely to consume the bandwidth in security mechanisms rather than data traffic. This paper proposes a security scheme based on Public Key infrastructure (PKI) for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using intuitionistic fuzzy logic manipulation. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself according to the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Finally the Experimental results shows that the using of intuitionistic fuzzy based security can enhance the security of (MANETs).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[53] **viXra:1403.0956 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 09:16:01*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [9, 10] and
Salama et al. in [4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. In this paper we introduce and
study new types of neutrosophic concepts " cut levels , normal neutrosophic set, convex
neutrosophic set". Added to we will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then
define the various operations and will study its main properties. Some types of neutrosophic
relations and neutrosophic database are gevine. Finaly we introduce and study neutrosophic
database (NDB for short). Some neutrosophic queries are gevine to a neutrosophic database .

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] **viXra:1403.0940 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-26 11:19:44*

**Authors:** Kailash Ch. Dash, Umakant Mishra

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although Information Systems and Information Technology (IS & IT) has become a major driving force for many of the current day organizations, the NGOs have not been able to utilize the benefits up to a satisfactory level. Most organizations use standard office tools to manage huge amount for field data and never feel the need for a central repository of data. While many people argue that an NGO should not spend too much money on information management, it is a fact that organizing the information requires more of a mindset and an organized behavior than a huge financial investment.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[51] **viXra:1312.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 20:47:05*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 4 Pages. first draft

Time shifts beyond the correlation time of the logic and reference signals create new elements that are orthogonal to the original components. This fact can be utilized to increase the number of dimensions of the logic space while keeping the number of reference noises fixed. Using just a single noise and time shifts can realize exponentially large hyperspaces with large numbers of dimensions. Other, independent applications of time shifts include holographic noise-based logic systems and changing commutative operations into non-commuting ones. For the sake of simplicity, these ideas are illustrated by deterministic time shifts, even though random timing and random time shifts would yield the most robust systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[50] **viXra:1311.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 18:09:43*

**Authors:** S J Nettleton

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Extreme transcendental differential equations are found in many applications including geophysical climate change models. Solution of these
systems in continuous time has only been feasible with the recent development of Runge−Kutta sampling transcendental differential equation
solvers with Chebyshev function output such as Mathematica 9's NDSolve function. This paper presents the challenges and means of solving the
widely used DICE 2007 integrated assessment model in continuous time. Application of the solution technique in a mobile policy tool is discussed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[49] **viXra:1310.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 09:15:15*

**Authors:** Alejandro Edera, Federico Schlüter, Facundo Bromberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Learning the Markov network structure from data is a problem that has received considerable attention in machine learning, and in many other application fields. This work focuses on a particular approach for this purpose called independence-based learning. Such approach guarantees the learning of the correct structure efficiently, whenever data is sufficient for representing the underlying distribution. However, an important issue of such approach is that the learned structures are encoded in an undirected graph. The problem with graphs is that they cannot encode some types of independence relations, such as the context-specific independences. They are a particular case of conditional independences that is true only for a certain assignment of its conditioning set, in contrast to conditional independences that must hold for all its assignments. In this work we present CSPC, an independence-based algorithm for learning structures that encode context-specific independences, and encoding them in a log-linear model, instead of a graph. The central idea of CSPC is combining the theoretical guarantees provided by the independence-based approach with the benefits of representing complex structures by using features in a log-linear model. We present experiments in a synthetic case, showing that CSPC is more accurate than the state-of-the-art IB algorithms when the underlying distribution contains CSIs.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] **viXra:1310.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:13:30*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A. Albolwi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we will introduce and study neutrosophic relations, which can be discussed as generalization of fuzzy relations and intuitionistic fuzzy relations. We will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study the main properties. In addition, we will discuss reflexive, symmetric and transitive neutrosophic relations. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[47] **viXra:1310.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 21:36:42*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Haolan Zhang, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** Pages.

The process of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts which are usually unavailable and with uncertainty. Computer science and information technology is changing the innovation environment and accumulating big data from which a lot of knowledge is discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and still remains several challenge problems to integrate multi-information and lots of rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation. Based on the new cross discipline Extenics, we present a collaborative innovation model in the context of big data. The model transforms collected data into a knowledge base in a uniform basic-element format, and then we explore the innovation paths and its solutions by a formularized model based on Extenics. Finally we score and select all possible solutions by 2D dependent function. The model can collaborate different departments to put forward the innovation solutions with support of big data. The model is proved useful by a practical innovation case in management.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[46] **viXra:1310.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 22:00:31*

**Authors:** A.Victor Devadoss, M. Clement Joe Anand

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Youth is the major assets of a nation, we need to channel their energy accordingly and dissipate it
appropriately for the benefits of a nation and humanity as a whole. Social media has how become
indispensable in our societies. Most of the major social media are predominated by the youth,
exploiting it for one purpose or the other. In this paper we analyzed how youth could constructively,
the role of social media and it’s how it build a nation and achieve a promising future not only for
themselves but equality for the upcoming generations using Neutrosophic cognitive maps. This paper
has four sections. In section one, we give an introduction about Pervasive social Media, Section two
we recall the definition of Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs) Section three is deals with the
methods of finding the hidden pattern in NCMs and analysis of Features or Characters of Youth and
Youth Activism. In final section we give the conclusion based on our study.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] **viXra:1309.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 15:52:30*

**Authors:** L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 4 Pages. submitted for publication

A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[44] **viXra:1308.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-21 14:33:49*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity than in the former schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[43] **viXra:1306.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-26 04:41:30*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The information hiding principle can be applied completely using the Modula language.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] **viXra:1306.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-22 15:24:38*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] **viXra:1306.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 01:49:37*

**Authors:** Dietmar Hildenbrand, Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 6 figures, 1 table. In Braz, J. (ed.), GRAPP 2008, 3rd Int. Conf. on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications. Proc.: Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 22-25, 2008, Porto: INSTICC Press, pp. 99-106 (2008). DOI: 10.1.1.151.7539

This paper presents some basics for the analysis of point clouds using the geometrically intuitive mathematical
framework of conformal geometric algebra. In this framework it is easy to compute with osculating circles
for the description of local curvature. Also methods for the fitting of spheres as well as bounding spheres are
presented. In a nutshell, this paper provides a starting point for shape analysis based on this new, geometrically
intuitive and promising technology.
Keywords: geometric algebra, geometric computing, point clouds, osculating circle, fitting of spheres, bounding spheres.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] **viXra:1306.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 03:19:30*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Ginanjar Utama

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 3 figures, 5 tables. Mem. Fac. Eng. Univ. Fukui 53(1), pp. 47-59 (2005).

This paper first briefly reviews the algebraic background of the conformal (homogeneous) model of Euclidean space in Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1= Cl(4,1), concentrating on the subalgebra structure. The subalgebras include space-time algebra (STA), Dirac and Pauli algebras, as well as real and complex quaternion algebras, etc. The concept of the Horosphere is introduced along with the definition of subspaces that intuitively correspond to three dimensional Euclidean geometric objects. Algebraic expressions for the motions of these objects and their set theoretic operations are given. It is shown how 3D Euclidean information on positions, orientations and radii can be extracted.
The second main part of the paper concentrates on the GeometricAlgebra Java package implementation of the Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1 = Cl(4,1) and the homogeneous model of 3D Euclidean space. Details are exemplified by looking at the structure and code of the basic MultiVector class and of the 3D Euclidean object model class Sphere. Finally code optimization issues and the ongoing open source project implementation are discussed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] **viXra:1306.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-11 02:23:10*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We introduce the alpha version of a C++ Computational Framework to simulate life processes
in the body of a living multicellular
organism by virtually replicating the data flow of the actual living being in real time.
LivMach Framework is an open source project on Sourceforge.net
We use various data structures to effectively simulate all components of a living organism
's body. Due to the
absence of a Graphical User Interface(GUI), we use special indicator statements to display
the flow of data
between various parts of the virtual body.
Using this code,one can simulate the complete physical,mental and psychological behaviour of
simple and complex
multicellular organisms on low cost machines.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-09 11:36:09*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 32 Pages. First draft; to be disseminated at seminar at Uppsala University, Sweden

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435) has claimed that, in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential and that the KLJN scheme provides no security. They attempt to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. After showing that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of the assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications, we crack their system by passive attacks in eight different ways, with 100% success probability, and show that the same cracking methods do not work against the KLJN scheme due to Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We critically analyze the other claims of BR; among others, we prove that their equations (1-3) describing zero security are incorrect for the KLJN scheme. We give mathematical security proofs for each BR attack type and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not successfully been challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] **viXra:1305.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-11 21:47:07*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] **viXra:1303.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 02:32:27*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This is the first volumn of the primer of algorithm. As is well known, algorithm become center of computer science now. In my lecture notes , I focus on one of the alogorithms, which is called The Recursive Algorithm.
In this lectures, we use an understandable viewpoint towards the problems we meet in the class which are not easy to accepted by students, where we select muItiple examples in recursive algorithm together to explain, to make our teaching more convenient.
However, I must say that if you don not have any basic knowledge in computer language. This lecture may be not easy for you and even the same as other algorithm books. But if you read this lecture carefully, it will be helpful for you to study other materials and you will feel easier to accept.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] **viXra:1303.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-12 20:53:43*

**Authors:** Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Balog, Prasad Enjeti

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional grids (chain-like power line). The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When fully developed such system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary dimensions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] **viXra:1303.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 10:56:31*

**Authors:** I. M. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we propose another method to calculate the correlation coefficient of neutrosophic sets. The value which obtained from this method tells us the strength of relationship between the neutrosophic sets and the whether the neutrosophic sets are positively or negatively related. Finally we give some proposition and examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] **viXra:1303.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 11:18:30*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, H. Alagamy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of filters on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy
filters studies in [6], the important neutrosophic filters has been given. Several relations between different neutrosophic
filters and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible applications to computer sciences are touched upon.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[32] **viXra:1303.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 08:50:04*

**Authors:** Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract—We describe the p-untestability of faults in combinational circuits. They are similar to redundant faults, but are defined
probabilistically. P-untestable fault is a fault that is not detectable after N random pattern simulation or a fault, FAN either proves
to be redundant or aborts after K backtracks. We chose N to be about 1000000 and K to be about 1000. We provide a p-untestability detectability algorithm that works in about 85% of the cases, with average of about 14% false negatives. The algorithm is a simple hack to FAN and uses structural information and can be easily
implemented. The algorithm does not prove redundancy completely but establishes a fault as a probabilistically redundant, meaning a
fault with low probability of detection or no detection.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] **viXra:1303.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 07:08:19*

**Authors:** Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract—Reverse order restoration ROR techniques have found great use in sequential automatic test pattern generation ATPG, esp. spectral and perturbation-based ATPG. This paper deals with
improving ROR for that purpose. We introduce parallel-fault multipass 2-level polynomial reverse order restoration PROR algorithms
with constant complexity of the form H(n)G(n) + c where H(n) is the number of vectors to be released this iteration and G(n) is the attenuation factor. In PROR H(n) = nk and G(n) here is 1

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] **viXra:1303.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-06 16:32:05*

**Authors:** Suresh kumar Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract—We like to introduce fQuantum, a Quantum Computing Fault Simulator and new quantum computing fault model based on Hadamard, PauliX, PauliY and PauliZ gates, and the traditional stuckat-1 SA1 and stuck-at-0 SA0 faults. We had close to 100% fault coverage on most circuits. The problem with lower coverage comes from function gates, which we will deal with, in future versions of this paper.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] **viXra:1302.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-18 09:23:54*

**Authors:** Dmitry Lande, Olga Barkova

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Ukrainian language

The generalized schema of operation of an electronic libraries network is proposed, which is based on a phenomena of the confluence of the two main functions of library – servicing customers and gathering collections. Some parameters of electronic libraries network have been examined. The estimate of intensity of collections augment of an electronic library as a part of a peer-to-peer network has been performed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[28] **viXra:1301.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-20 07:38:55*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 40 Pages

In this paper we propose a new algorithm for linear programming. This new algorithm is based on treating the objective function as a parameter. We form a matrix using coefficients in the system of equations consisting objective equation and equations obtained from inequalities defining constraint by introducing slack/surplus variables. We obtain reduced row echelon form for this matrix containing only one variable, namely, the objective function itself as an unknown parameter. We analyze this matrix in the reduced row echelon form and develop a clear cut method to find the optimal solution for the problem at hand, if and when it exists. We see that the entire optimization process can be developed through the proper analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form. From the analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form it will be clear that in order to find optimal solution we may need carrying out certain processes like rearranging of the constraint equations in a particular way and/or performing appropriate elementary row transformations on this matrix in the reduced row echelon form. These operations are mainly aimed at achieving nonnegativity of all the entries in the columns corresponding to nonbasic variables in this matrix or its submatrix obtained by collecting certain rows of this matrix (i.e. submatrix with rows having negative coefficient for parameter d, which stands for the objective function as a parameter for maximization problem and submatrix with rows having positive coefficient parameter d, again representing the objective function as a parameter for minimization problem). The care is to be taken so that the new matrix arrived at by rearranging the constraint equations and/or by carrying out suitable elementary row transformations must be equivalent to original matrix. This equivalence is in the sense that all the feasible solution sets for the problem variables obtained for different possible values of d with original matrix and transformed matrix are same. We then proceed to show that this idea naturally extends to deal with nonlinear and integer programming problems. For nonlinear and integer programming problems we use the technique of Grobner bases (since Grobner basis is an equivalent of reduced row echelon form for a system of nonlinear equations) and the methods of solving linear Diophantine equations (since the integer programming problem demands for optimal integer solution) respectively.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[27] **viXra:1212.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-22 16:30:46*

**Authors:** Vaclav Kosar

**Comments:** 6 Pages. my name with special characters in latex form: V\' aclav Ko\v sa\v r

This article should be easy to understand for anybody and is meant to prove that I proposed new kind of operation system based on wiki-like or graph-like structure is
1-more natural, thus easier to learn
2-more efficient on existing tasks in terms of human time spent
3-can handle new kind of tasks
Computer task is data transformation. It is improbable that current paper-like handling of data is the best way. I would like to show that current computers provide a much more natural and useful way of handling all-purpose data. The main idea is that one should store information in a structure as natural as possible, so that user does not have to give efforts to transform the information (express more, search naturally, write once then just reference ...).
I am not sure if I can claim any authorship of following ideas, since one can never be sure whether an idea existed before and what actually helped one to come up with this idea. The only purpose of this paper is thus the pure desire to make progress of thought, by starting the discussion and construction of crowd sourced operation system based entirely on idea of graph databases.
I cannot provide the reader with infinite detais and precision, thus I leave some uncertainties to be cleared by the reader himself for pleasure.
My main inspirations for this more natural operation system were: Graph database, Wikipedia, brain, Lisp, mind-mapping, QED manifesto, CSS 3, WikiOS.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] **viXra:1212.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-17 07:58:51*

**Authors:** Matthias Mueller (aka Louis Coder)

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Algorithm has been well (!) tested!

In this document I want to introduce and explain an algorithm that determines the solvability state (solvable or unsatisfiable) of any exact-3-SAT formula in polynomial time. It is for sure that the algorithm has polynomial runtime, even in the worst case, as the runtime is artificially limited. The question is only if the algorithm does always output the correct result. I suppose it does, due to a proof of correctness that will be shown in this document, and the evidence that an implementation of the algorithm solved millions of test formulae without any error.
Furthermore this document provides a download link to a (Windows) demo solver program (including source code) that you can instantly try out.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] **viXra:1212.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-11 09:05:35*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Presented and Published in the Proceedings of International Conference on Perspectives of Computer Confluence with Sciences 2012, ICPCCS 12.

In this paper we propose a new algorithm for linear programming. This new algorithm is based on treating the objective function as a parameter. We transform the matrix of coefficients representing this system of equations in the reduced row echelon form containing only one variable, namely, the objective function itself, as a parameter whose optimal value is to be determined. We analyze this matrix and develop a clear method to find the optimal value for the objective function treated as a parameter. We see that the entire optimization process evolves through the proper analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form. It will be seen that the optimal value can be obtained 1) by solving certain subsystem of this system of equations through a proper justification for this act, or 2) By making appropriate and legal row transformations on this matrix in the reduced row echelon form so that all the entries in the submatrix of this matrix, obtained by collecting rows in which the coefficient of so called unknown parameter d whose optimal value is to be determined, become nonnegative and this new matrix must be equivalent to original matrix in the sense that the solution set of the matrix equation with original matrix and matrix equation with transformed matrix are same. We then proceed to show that this idea naturally extends to deal with nonlinear and integer programming problems. For nonlinear and integer programming problems we use the technique of Grobner bases since Grobner basis is an equivalent of reduced row echelon form for a system of nonlinear equations, and the methods of solving linear Diophantine equations respectively.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] **viXra:1211.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-23 14:13:49*

**Authors:** David Grace, Tony Marshall, Xiaodong Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Smart Grid Networks present a modern solution for network automation and digital communication in order to improve the efficiency, sustainability and reliability of electricity distribution. The development of Smart Grid networks is not a simple matter. Electronic grids consist of a large number of systems, intelligent and regular electronic devices, substations, switching stations, dispatching centers and many other elements. This paper analyse the technological requirements of intelligent Smart Grid network with a focus on networking aspects, standards and protocols.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[23] **viXra:1210.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 21:46:31*

**Authors:** Richard Smith, Chenwen Zheng, Frederic Launois

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This work developed a heuristic algorithm to find a solution for the CSAHLP problem. Two formulations were proved CSAHLP-C y CSAHLP-N. For the CSAHLP-C only three size of nodes were proved: 10, 20 and 25 nodes. For problems with more nodes the Cpu-time was very large. For the CSAHLP-N six size of nodes were proved: 10, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 100 nodes. The Cpu-time found are interesting and the gaps are few in the most of cases.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[22] **viXra:1210.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 13:02:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Studiul se înscrie în zona interdisciplinară dintre teoria informaţiei şi extensică, în calitatea ei de ştiinţă a rezolvării contradictoriilor. În acest spaţiu se abordează problema centrală a ontologiei informaţiei relaţia contradictorie dintre comunicare şi informare. Nucleul cercetării îl reprezintă realitatea că investigaţia ştiinţifică a relaţiei comunicare-informare a ajuns într-o fundătură. Relaţia bivalentă comunicare-informare, informare-comunicare a ajuns să fie contradictorie, iar cele două concepte să se blocheze reciproc. În condiţiile în care Extensics este o ştiinţă a soluţionării problemelor contradictorii, se vor utiliza „extensical procedures” pentru a rezolva contradicţia.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] **viXra:1208.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-28 09:40:25*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, He Wen, Andreas Klappenecker

**Comments:** 10 Pages. physical informatics is the exact topic

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(1) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] **viXra:1208.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-20 21:28:38*

**Authors:** Izani Islam, Tahir Ahmad, Ali H. Murid

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The proposed system is developed in two main phases and also a supplementary optimizing stage. At the first phase, the most important features are selected using fuzzy association rules mining (FARM) to reduce the dimension of input features to the misuse detector. At the second phase, a fuzzy adaptive resonance theory‐based neural network (ARTMAP) is used as a misuse detector. The accuracy of the proposed approach depends strongly on the precision of the parameters of FARM module and also fuzzy ARTMAP neural classifier. So, the genetic algorithm (GA) is incorporated into the proposed method to optimize the parameters of mentioned modules in this study. Classification rate (CR) results show the importance role of GA in improving the performance of the proposed intrusion detection system (IDS). The performance of proposed system is investigated in terms of detection rate (DR), false alarm rate (FAR) and cost per example (CPE).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] **viXra:1208.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-18 13:05:14*

**Authors:** D.Abhyankar, M.Ingle

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most frequently needed computing tasks. Mergesort is one of the most elegant algorithms to solve
the sorting problem. We present a novel sorting algorithm of Mergesort family that is more efficient than other Mergesort
algorithms. Mathematical analysis of the proposed algorithm shows that it reduces the data move operations considerably.
Profiling was done to verify the impact of proposed algorithm on time spent. Profiling results show that proposed algorithm
shows considerable improvement over conventional Mergesort in the case of large records. Also, in the case of small records,
proposed algorithm is faster than the classical Mergesort. Moreover the proposed algorithm is found to be more adaptive than
Classical Mergesort.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[18] **viXra:1207.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-09 08:07:02*

**Authors:** Hannah Arendt, Ivan Matic, Lin Zhu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the present study, data was triangulated and two methods of data analysis were used. Qualitative analysis was undertaken of free-text data from students’ reflective essaysto extract
socially-related themes. Heuristic evaluation was conducted by expert evaluators, who investigated
forum contributions and discourse in line with contemporary learning theory and considered the social culture of participation. Findings of the qualitative analysis of students’ perceptions and results of the heuristic evaluation of forum participation confirmed each other, indicating a warm social climate and a conducive, well-facilitated environment that supported individual styles of participation. It fostered interpersonal relationships between distance learners, as well as study-related benefits enhanced by peer teaching and insights acquired in a culture of social negotiation. The environment was effectively moderated, while supporting student-initiative. The mixed-methods approach of evaluating essays and discussions showed a virtual community where most participants experienced a sound balance of
social- and study-related benefits, but with a stronger focus on academic matters.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] **viXra:1202.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 09:49:02*

**Authors:** Baldha Prashantkumar Mansukhbhai

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The new algorithm for multiplication. The multiplication algorithm is best for multiplication algorithm in some cases.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[16] **viXra:1112.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 18:58:12*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article propose a new Booth multiplier design that the booth
expansion is rearranged in square term like:
\[
ab=((a+b)^2-a^2-b^2)/2
\]
If the code length of $a,b$ is $n$, the multiplier on the right is
with the size $2^{2n}$, but multiplier on the left is with the size
$2^n$.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[15] **viXra:1112.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 19:00:52*

**Authors:** Sheng-Ping Wu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article uses the hybrids between the evolutionary method and Monte Carlo method to solve the differential equation, for example in this article, the Schrodinger equation for atom

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14] **viXra:1109.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Sven De Smet

**Comments:** 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an
implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth
and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an
FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in
terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that
takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the
potential to obtain high performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[13] **viXra:1108.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 21 pages. This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, adding examples, adding an experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work,
I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper proposes to extend graph-based weakly relational domains
to a generalized relational context. Using a new definition of coherence, we show
that the definition of a normal form for this domain is simplified. A transitive closure
algorithm for combined relations is constructed and a proof of its correctness
is given. Using the observed similarity between transitive closure of a combined
relation and the normal form closure of a graph-based weakly relational domain,
we extract a mathematical property that a relational abstract domain must satisfy in
order to allow us to use an algorithm with the same form as the transitive closure
algorithm to compute the normal form of a graph-based weakly relational domain.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[12] **viXra:1106.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes to use a group theoretical model for the optimization
of algorithms. We first investigate some of the fundamental properties that are required
in order to allow the optimization of parallelism and communication. Next,
we explore how a group theoretical model of computations can satisfy these requirements.
As an application example, we demonstrate how this group theoretical
model can uncover new optimization possibilities in the polyhedral model.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[11] **viXra:1106.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 12 pages. This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was
submitted to ParCo 2011 and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete
this paper by increasing its clarity, extending the experimental evaluation and adding a
section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a unified model for the optimization of communication
in parallel algorithms and architectures. Based on a property that provides a
unified view of locality in space and time, an algorithm is constructed that generates
a parallel architecture that is optimized for communication for a given computation.
The optimization algorithm is constructed using the lattice algebraic properties
of congruence relations and is therefor applicable in a general context. An
application to a bio-informatics algorithm demonstrates the value of the model and
optimization algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[10] **viXra:1106.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 16 pages, This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 (with added proofs) and is very preliminary.
Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, adding examples, adding an experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a new technique for automatic parallelisation in the
Z-polyhedral model. The presented technique is applicable to arbitrarily nested
loopnests with iteration spaces that can be represented as unions of Z-polyhedra
and affine modular data-access functions. The technique partitions both iteration
and data spaces of the computation. The maximal amount of parallelism that can
be represented using grid partitions is extracted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9] **viXra:1101.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 pages

A C# class library is described that offers an efficient and secure way of
object oriented data transfer and data storage. The classes convert a relational database
in an effective object
oriented database and a file system in an object oriented data storage and transfer system.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8] **viXra:1101.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 pages

The current software generation process is rotten.
This paper analyses why that is the case and what can be done about it.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[7] **viXra:1101.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 pages

This is the account of the course of a project that had the aim to improve
the efficiency of embedded software generation with several orders of magnitude. All
factors that determined the success of the project are treated honestly and in detail.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[6] **viXra:1008.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Priti Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Dipti Chauhan, Amit Bhaghel

**Comments:** 10 pages

Crashing is a process of expediting project schedule by compressing the total project duration. It is helpful when
managers want to avoid incoming bad weather season. However, the downside is that more resources are needed to
speed-up a part of a project, even if resources may be withdrawn from one facet of the project and used to speed-up
the section that is lagging behind. Moreover, that may also depend on what slack is available in a non-critical
activity, thus resources can be reassigned to critical project activity. Hence, utmost care should be taken to make
sure that appropriate activities are being crashed and that diverted resources are not causing needless risk and
project scope integrity. In this paper we want to present a technique called "Unit Crashing" to reduce the total cost
of project. Unit Crashing means to crash the project duration by one unit (day) instead of crashing it completely.
This technique uses an iterative approach to perform unit crashing until all activities along the critical path are
crashed by desired amount. The output of this method will reduce the cost of project, and is useful at places where
cost is of major consideration. Crashing PERT networks can save a significant amount of money in crashing and
overrun costs of a company. Even if there are no direct costs in the form of penalties for late completion of projects,
there is likely to be intangible costs because of reputation damage.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[5] **viXra:1004.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman, Florentin Smarandache, André Rogatko

**Comments:** 25 pages

In this paper, we present a generalization of the relational data model based on interval
neutrosophic set [1]. Our data model is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as
inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or intuitionistic fuzzy relation can only handle
incomplete information. Associated with each relation are two membership functions one is
called truth-membership function T which keeps track of the extent to which we believe the
tuple is in the relation, another is called falsity-membership function F which keeps track of the
extent to which we believe that it is not in the relation. A neutrosophic relation is inconsistent if
there exists one tuple a such that T(α) + F(α) > 1. In order to handle inconsistent situation, we
propose an operator called "split" to transform inconsistent neutrosophic relations into
pseudo-consistent neutrosophic relations and do the set-theoretic and relation-theoretic
operations on them and finally use another operator called "combine" to transform the result
back to neutrosophic relation. For this data model, we define algebraic operators that are
generalizations of the usual operators such as intersection, union, selection, join on fuzzy
relations. Our data model can underlie any database and knowledge-base management system
that deals with incomplete and inconsistent information.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[4] **viXra:1004.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture
becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That's
why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation
of intersections and unions of many sets.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[3] **viXra:1003.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 pages

In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic optimization algorithm for designing
optimal plant layouts in process-focused manufacturing/service facilities. Our proposed
algorithm marries the well-known CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of
Facilities Technique) with the Hungarian assignment algorithm. Being a semi-heuristic
search, our algorithm is likely to be more efficient in terms of computer CPU engagement
time as it tends to converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT
algorithm - a pure heuristic. We also present a numerical illustration of our algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[2] **viXra:1003.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 pages

Thirty-three new definitions are presented, derived from
neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics, and
neutrosophic logic.
Each one is independent, short, with references and cross references
like in a dictionary style.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[1] **viXra:0908.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is shown that we can take all numbers to odd bases such that we
require only about half of the digits required in the current method provided
that we introduce negative mark for each digit. Most probably this
method will have various applications in the computer technology.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] **viXra:1407.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 14:06:07*

**Authors:** Samuel C. Hsieh

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This version corrects a few typing errors found in the previous version.

We establish a lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps for deciding the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from a set called a full representation of Boolean functions of n variables - a set containing a Boolean formula to represent each Boolean function of n variables. The contradiction proof first assumes that there exists a RAM program that correctly decides the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from such a set by following an execution path that includes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. By using multiple runs of this program, with one run for each Boolean function of n variables, the proof derives a contradiction by showing that this program is unable to correctly decide the satisfiability of the conjunction of at least one pair of Boolean formulas from a full representation of n-variable Boolean functions if the program executes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. This lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps holds for any full representation of Boolean functions of n variables, even if a full representation consists solely of minimized Boolean formulas derived by a Boolean minimization method. We discuss why the lower bound fails to hold for satisfiability of certain restricted formulas, such as 2CNF satisfiability, XOR-SAT, and HORN-SAT. We also relate the lower bound to 3CNF satisfiability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] **viXra:1406.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 01:40:38*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 4 Pages. vixra hyperlink added

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger. The attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium at practical applications due to the cable resistance loss. Thus the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security. While the new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, due to its more favorable properties for Eve, it requires higher requirements for the security/privacy enhancing protocol than any earlier versions. We create a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the lower resistance value. We show that, this simple defense protocol totally eliminates Eve's information not only in this but also in the old (Bergou)-Scheuer-Yariv attack. Thus the so far most efficient attack methods become useless against the KLJN scheme.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] **viXra:1406.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-30 21:19:14*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 129 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(2).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] **viXra:1405.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-06 08:25:56*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Information hiding is not programming hiding. It is the hiding of changeable information into programming modules.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] **viXra:1405.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-30 21:17:10*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 402 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] **viXra:1404.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-15 23:12:47*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Göran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 11 Pages. missing/incorrect abstract fixed; extended (second) version

Recently, Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. We proved in a former paper [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1404.4664] that GAA’s mathematical model is unphysical. Here we analyze GAA’s cracking scheme and show that in the cable loss free case it serves less eavesdropping information than the old mean-square based attack, while in the loss-dominated case it offers no information. We also investigate GAA's experimental claim to be capable of distinguishing, with a poor statistics over a few correlation times, the distributions of two Gaussian noises with a relative variance difference of less than 10–8. Normally such distinctions would require hundreds of millions of correlations times to be observable. We identify several experimental artifacts due to poor design that can lead to GAA’s assertions; deterministic currents due to spurious harmonic components ground loop, DC offset; aliasing; non-Gaussian features including non-linearities and other non-idealities in the generators; and the time-derivative nature of their scheme enhancing all these aspects.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[32] **viXra:1404.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-15 06:52:11*

**Authors:** Hsien P. Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 11 Pages. second draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [1] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [2], we proved that the wave claims in the GAA’s attack are heavily unphysical, since the quasi-static limit holds for the KLJN scheme, implying that physical waves do not exist in the wire channel. The assumption of existing wave modes in the short cable at the low frequency limits violates a number of laws of physics including the Second Law of Thermodynamics. One aspect of the mistakes is that in electrical engineer jargon all oscillating and propagating time functions are called waves while in physics the corresponding retarded potentials can be wave-type of non-wave type. Physical waves involve two dual energy forms that are regenerating each other during the propagation, such as the electrical and magnetic fields are doing (similarly kinetic and potential energy in elastic waves); while non-wave-type retarded potential effects in the quasi-static regime, such as in KLJN, have negligible crosstalk between these energy forms and the energy exchange takes place between them and the generators [2].

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] **viXra:1404.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-11 08:37:35*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 4 Pages. second draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10^-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] **viXra:1404.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-08 09:47:54*

**Authors:** Y. Saez, X. Cao, L.b. Kish, G. Pesti

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Paper accepted for publication at FNL on May 19, 2014

We review the security requirements for vehicular communication networks and provide a critical assessment of some typical communication security solutions. We also propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] **viXra:1403.0964 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-07 13:23:57*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Accepted for publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[28] **viXra:1403.0964 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-02 10:24:11*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 12 Pages. author's name corrected; link added

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[27] **viXra:1403.0964 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-31 13:41:15*

**Authors:** H.P. Chan, L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist, G. Schmera

**Comments:** 12 Pages. revised

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] **viXra:1308.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-14 13:37:44*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 pages

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] **viXra:1308.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-10 10:04:57*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] **viXra:1308.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-22 11:49:06*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[23] **viXra:1306.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-28 01:21:51*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages. Sorting algorithm is added.

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!Also, representing list as superposition provides sorting of numbers instantly! One needs to read vector from left to right and prepare the desired sorted list!

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[22] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-20 14:40:22*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-14 10:27:03*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 33 Pages. expanded, in response to Charles Bennett: sec. 1.1.4

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-08 16:02:35*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 31 Pages. small but important corrections

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-10 22:03:20*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 31 Pages. some typos fixed

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[18] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-02 02:11:52*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 31 Pages. typo in abstract corrected

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attacks against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] **viXra:1306.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-17 11:43:33*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 34 Pages. corrected, expanded

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) claimed that thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, and they also asserted that the KLJN scheme does not provide security. They attempted to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches (a scheme that was earlier patented by Davide Antilli). In the present paper, we first show that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success by passive attacks in ten different ways and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme, which is based on Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also provide a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply for the KLJN scheme. Finally we provide mathematical security proofs for each of the attacks on the BR scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[16] **viXra:1305.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-20 15:31:49*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The most interesting finding is that the error probability decays exponentially with the duration of the time window of single bit exchange. The results indicate that it is feasible to have so small error probabilities of the exchanged bits that error correction algorithms are not required. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[15] **viXra:1305.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-21 06:44:51*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 18 Pages. submitted for publication

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14] **viXra:1305.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-26 18:31:54*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. clarifications/enhancements; in publication process

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce an "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[13] **viXra:1305.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-21 04:40:40*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. submitted for publication

Weak physical uncloneable function (WPUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong physical uncloneable function (SPUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[12] **viXra:1303.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-15 20:58:37*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This is the first volumn of the primer of algorithm. As is well known, algorithm become center of computer science now. In my lecture notes , I focus on one of the alogorithms, which is called The Recursive Algorithm.
In this lectures, we use an understandable viewpoint towards the problems we meet in the class which are not easy to accepted by students, where we select muItiple examples in recursive algorithm together to explain, to make our teaching more convenient.
However, I must say that if you don not have any basic knowledge in computer language. This lecture may be not easy for you and even the same as other algorithm books. But if you read this lecture carefully, it will be helpful for you to study other materials and you will feel easier to accept.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[11] **viXra:1303.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 11:16:34*

**Authors:** Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert S. Balog, Prasad Enjeti

**Comments:** 24 Pages. updated, polished

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[10] **viXra:1303.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-19 12:11:30*

**Authors:** Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Balog, Prasad Enjeti

**Comments:** 22 Pages. draft

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional grids (chain-like power line). The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When fully developed such system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary dimensions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9] **viXra:1302.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 11:29:55*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** published in: Metrology and Measurement Systems. Volume XX, Issue 2, Pages 191–204 (open access)

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.
In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.
In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.
In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key.
The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.
Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed at practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8] **viXra:1302.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-12 10:41:55*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 14 Pages. accepted for publication

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.
In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.
In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.
In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key.
The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.
Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed at practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[7] **viXra:1302.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-14 20:30:55*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This version is submitted for publication

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.
In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.
In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.
In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key.
The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[6] **viXra:1302.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-12 14:12:34*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.
In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.
In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.
In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key.
The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[5] **viXra:1212.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-13 07:21:02*

**Authors:** Matthias Mueller

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Algorithm has been well tested.

This document describes an algorithm that is supposed to decide in polynomial time and space if an exact 2- or 3-SAT CNF has a solution or not. To verify the algorithm for correctness, it has been implemented as computer program which successfully determined the solvability of more than 1 million exact-3-SAT formulas. The solver program (Windows binary & source code) can be downloaded via a link in the document. The solver program should run, with some little changes and re-compiling, also on Linux.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[4] **viXra:1208.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-04 09:25:42*

**Authors:** He Wen, Laszlo B. Kish, Andreas Klappenecker

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In press at Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(2^0) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[3] **viXra:1208.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-06 17:25:19*

**Authors:** He Wen, Laszlo B. Kish, Andreas Klappenecker

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2^N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields non-zero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(1) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[2] **viXra:1109.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Sven De Smet

**Comments:** 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an
implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth
and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an
FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in
terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that
takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the
potential to achieve high performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[1] **viXra:1004.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture
becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That's
why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation
of intersections and unions of many sets.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms