**Previous months:**

2009 - 0908(1)

2010 - 1003(2) - 1004(2) - 1008(1)

2011 - 1101(3) - 1106(3) - 1108(1) - 1109(1) - 1112(2)

2012 - 1202(1) - 1208(3) - 1210(2) - 1211(1) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(1) - 1302(2) - 1303(6) - 1305(2) - 1306(6) - 1308(1) - 1309(1) - 1310(4) - 1311(1) - 1312(1)

2014 - 1403(3) - 1404(3) - 1405(25) - 1406(2) - 1407(2) - 1408(3) - 1409(3) - 1410(3) - 1411(1) - 1412(2)

2015 - 1501(2) - 1502(4) - 1503(3) - 1504(4) - 1505(2) - 1506(1) - 1507(1) - 1508(1) - 1509(5) - 1510(6) - 1511(1)

2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(4) - 1603(7) - 1604(1) - 1605(8) - 1606(6) - 1607(6) - 1608(3) - 1609(3) - 1610(2) - 1611(3) - 1612(4)

2017 - 1701(3) - 1702(4) - 1703(1) - 1704(1) - 1706(2) - 1707(5) - 1708(4) - 1709(1) - 1710(4) - 1711(1) - 1712(7)

2018 - 1801(4) - 1802(5) - 1803(2) - 1804(3) - 1805(4) - 1806(1) - 1807(5) - 1808(3) - 1809(4) - 1810(6) - 1811(3) - 1812(2)

2019 - 1901(5) - 1902(7) - 1903(11) - 1904(7) - 1905(6) - 1906(6) - 1907(8) - 1908(3)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[306] **viXra:1908.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-21 21:53:33*

**Authors:** F.L.B. Périat

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We know since Cook that Boolean satisfiability problems with at least three literals in each clauses are in NP and are NP-complete. With proving that 3-SAT (or more) is in P, corollary proves that P = NP.
In this document, we explain how to find a SAT problem solution in polynomial complexity time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[305] **viXra:1908.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-20 02:18:13*

**Authors:** Arundale Ramanathan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new hybrid encoding method is proposed, with which short unicode strings could be compressed using context aware pre-mapped codes and delta coding resulting in surprisingly good ratios.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[304] **viXra:1908.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 04:47:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 23 Pages. In portuguese.

Introducing firstly the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic and then without using them we presented original proofs of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. These proofs don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[303] **viXra:1907.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-27 02:54:18*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Interesting Introduction & Simple Suggestion Using [ ETA Language/X-Machines/Mongo DB/BaseX DB/JikesRVM(RVM – Research Virtual Machine)/JVM/Java/GCSpyTool ] in the Context of DNA Sequencing Concepts towards Implementation of [ IoT/HPC/OSGI ] Heterogeneous Computing Environments for Next Generation Bio-informatics R&D.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[302] **viXra:1907.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-26 00:58:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

Breakthrough in Quantum Computing Now, a team of Virginia Tech chemistry and physics researchers have advanced quantum simulation by devising an algorithm that can more efficiently calculate the properties of molecules on a noisy quantum computer. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[301] **viXra:1907.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-26 02:50:09*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

[ Monads+Parsec ] based on Haskell as Mathematical Tools to Probe DNA Sequencing in the Context of [ Nano-Bio ] Devices/IoT/HPC R&D.
[ DNA Sequencing as a ‘Physical Anology’ of Monads.Monad as a strategy for combining computations into more complex
computations/Testing in Progress ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[300] **viXra:1907.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-22 05:45:24*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

Applications of Random Matrices to Image Processing for Image Denoising in the Context of Cryo-Electron Microscopy[Cryo-EM] Image Processing & Informatics Using [ Julia Language + Fortran based SIMPLE Cryo-EM Software ] towards PETASCALE-HPC Algorithm/s Design,Understanding & Testing – A Simple Suggestion With an Interesting [ R&D ] Insight.
[ SIMPLE Cryo-EM Software +Julia Random Matrices Library interfacing for Testing IoT/HPC/Heterogeneous Computing R&D ]
[ Julia joins Fortran/C/C++ Club as a high-level language in which PETAFLOPS computations have been achieved ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[299] **viXra:1907.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-21 01:52:13*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Insight into Cryo-EM Image Processing R&D based on Byte Code Engineering Analysis in the Context of [ OPAL-Scala Byte Code Engineering Tool/Scala LAB/ImageJ/Fiji] Software – A Simple & Interesting Exploration Using [ Scala/JikesRVM(RVM - Research Virtual Machine)/Java Virtual Machine(JVM)/Metascala-Scala JVM ] Informatics Frameworks.
[Scala/Jikes RVM/Metascala -Scala JVM are Worth Learning in the Context of IoT/HPC/AI/ML/DL/ImageJ/Fiji ]
[Exploring OPAL in Scala -Test Driven Byte Code Engineering R&D ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[298] **viXra:1907.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-19 23:10:10*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

DNA Sequencing Using Higher Order Logic[HOL] & Stochastic Processes as Mathematical Tools towards Next Generation/Hi-End Bio-Informatics R&D Frameworks in the Context of [ OPAL/Byte Code Engineering/Scala/Java/JikesRVM( RVM-Research Virtual Machine ) /JavaVirtual Machine/Metascala-Scala JVM/IoT/HPC Heterogeneous Computing Environments ]
[ Scala/Java/JVM based Languages – The Next BIG Thing in IoT/HPC/Bio-informatics/BIGDATA Revolution – Advanced Software Architecture R&D ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[297] **viXra:1907.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-11 10:51:29*

**Authors:** Ortho Flint, Asanka Wickramasinghe, Jay Brasse, Chris Fowler

**Comments:** 41 Pages. The paper has been submitted for peer-review.

In this paper, we provide a polynomial time (and space), algorithm that determines satisfiability of 3-SAT. The complexity analysis for the algorithm takes into account no efficiency and yet provides a low enough bound, that efficient versions are practical with respect to today's hardware. We accompany this paper with a serial version of the algorithm without non-trivial efficiencies (link: polynomial3sat.org).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[296] **viXra:1907.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-07 22:46:14*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Interesting Insight into [ CooL-SPE/GCCS-Gentle Compiler Construction System ] Software in the Context of Computational Complexity of Ising Spin Glass Models towards [DNA/RNA] based High Performance Sequencing and Theoretical Analysis of Gene Therapy R&D.
[ Spin Glasses are always an inspiration – A Computational Challenge for the 21 st Century ? ]
[The CooL-SPE is a programming environment specially designed to support the professional development of large-scale object-oriented application systems . Revisiting CooL-SPE in the Context of Bio-informatics ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[295] **viXra:1906.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 03:07:38*

**Authors:** Alexander Ivanov, Yevhenii Babichenko, Hlib Kanunnikov, Paul Karpus, Leonid FoiuKhatskevych, Roman Kravchenko, Kyrylo Gorokhovskyi, Ievhen Nevmerzhitskyi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Journal: NaUKMA Research Papers. Computer Science

Blockchain as a technology is rapidly developing, finding more and more new entry points into everyday life. This is one of the elements of the technical Revolution 4.0, and it is used in the field of supply, maintenance of various types of registers, access to software products, combating DDOS attacks, distributed storage, fundraising for projects, IoT, etc.
Nowadays, there are many blockchainplatforms in the world. They have one technological root but different applications. There are many prerequisites to the fact that in the future the number of new decentralized applications will increase. Therefore, it is important to develop a methodology for determining the optimal blockchainbased platform to solve a specific problem. As an example, consider the worldfamous platforms Ethereum, Nem, and Stellar. Each of them allows to develop decentralized applications, issue tokens, and execute transactions. At the same time, the key features of these blockchainbased platforms are not similar to one another. These very features will be considered in the article.
Purpose. Identify the key parameters that characterize the blockchainbased platforms. This will provide an opportunity to present a complex blockchain technology in the form of a simple and understandable architecture. Based on these parameters and using the expertise of the article’s authors, we will be able to develop a methodology to be used to solve the problems of choosing the optimal blockchainbased platform for solving the problem of developing smart contracts and issuing tokens.
Methods. Analysis of the complexity of using blockchainbased platforms. Implementation of token issuance, use of test and public networks, execution of transactions, analysis of the development team and the community, analysis of the user interface and the developer interface.
Discussion. By developing a platform comparison methodology to determine optimal characteristics, we can take the development process to a new level. This will allow to quickly and effectively solve the tasks.
Results. Creation of a methodology for comparison blockchainbased platforms.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[294] **viXra:1906.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-23 05:01:48*

**Authors:** Ilan Ehrenfeld, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov, Vitalii Sarychev, Roman Yavich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. accepted to 9th Int. Conf. on Geotechnique, Construction Materials and Environment, Tokyo, Japan, 2019

Unmanned autonomous robots will be widely used very soon for land use, treatment, and monitoring. Our and the other groups already described technologies, that can be used for such robots (Kupervasser et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, May, 2018 Vol.14, Issue 45, pp.10-16; Djaja et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, Aug, 2017, Vol.13, Issue 36, pp.31-34). We continue developing these technologies and present here new patented technology of airborne vision-based control of ground robots. The main idea is that robot’s “eyes” is not located on robot, but are independent autonomous system. As a result, the “eyes” can go up and observe the robot from above. We present in this paper algorithms used for two real physical prototypes of a such system

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[293] **viXra:1906.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-21 08:54:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[292] **viXra:1906.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 00:16:59*

**Authors:** Sarthak Kamat

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Customer reviews are integral to retail businesses. This paper demonstrates new methods for ranking the most representative and interesting snippets within reviews posted by their customers.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[291] **viXra:1906.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 23:51:47*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Interesting Investigation towards Understanding of [ OpenJIT Compiler Framework + ImageJ - Java Imaging Software ] Interaction with JikesRVM
[ RVM- Research Virtual Machine ] in the Context of [Byte Code Engineering Library(BCEL) + IoT + High Performance Computing (HPC)] related Java based Heterogeneous Image Processing Environments – A Simple Suggestion & Technical Notes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[290] **viXra:1906.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-05 21:30:23*

**Authors:** Takeuchi Leorge

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This paper estimates indirect quicksort and mergesort for various sizes of array element, and suggests a data
structure to guarantee time complexity of O(n log(n)) in C language.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[289] **viXra:1905.0446 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-22 10:20:18*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Preprint: IOP J Phys Conf Series 2019, R L Amoroso, D M Dubois, L H Kauffman, P Rowlands (eds) Advances in Fundamental Physics: Prelude to Paradigm Shift, 11th International Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist J-P Vigier, 2018 Liege, Belgium

Since the mid-1990s theoretical quadratic exponential and polynomial Quantum
Computing (QC) speedup algorithms have been discussed. Recently the advent of relativistic
information processing (RIP) introducing a relativistic qubit (r-qubit) with additional degrees of
freedom beyond the current Hilbert space Bloch 2-sphere qubit formalism extended theory has
appeared. In this work a penultimate form of QC speedup – Instantaneous Quantum Computing
Algorithms (IQCA) is proposed. Discussion exists on passing beyond the quantum limits of
locality and unitarity heretofore restricting the evolution of quantum systems to the standard
Copenhagen Interpretation. In that respect as introduced in prior work an ontological-phase
topological QC avails itself of extended modeling. As well-known by EPR experiments
instantaneous connectivity exists inherently in the nonlocal arena. As our starting point we utilize
Bohm’s super-implicate order where inside a wave packet a super-quantum potential introduces
nonlocal connectivity. Additionally EPR experiments entangle simultaneously emitted photon
pairs by parametric down-conversion. Operating an IQCA requires a parametric up-conversion
cycle an M-Theoretic Unified Field Mechanical (MUFM) set of topological transformations
beyond the current Galilean Lorentz-Poincairé transforms of the standard model (SM). Yang-
Mills Kaluza-Klein (YM-KK) correspondence is shown to provide a path beyond the semi-quantum
limit to realize the local-nonlocal duality required to implement IQCA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[288] **viXra:1905.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-16 06:45:34*

**Authors:** Miguel Morales

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper we present an implementation of a trustless system of measurement and enforcement of advertising metrics. Specifically, our implementation uses a sidechain composed of a decentralized consortium of verifiers.
This implementation provides a decentralized and democratically governed mechanism for
the codification of measurement standards.
This implementation enforces the standards for computing advertising metrics based on signals received from disconnected programmatic supply chain participants.
A simple standard could be codified that enforces the computation of an attribution.
It also enables a mechanism in which supply-chain participants may be paid using cryptocurrency safely and at scale.
Thus, the system we describe implements the
trifecta of blockchain-based tracking and billing of programmatic advertising: campaign insertion orders, supply-chain transparency, and payments.
In this paper, we will describe the management of participant identities, a Plasma based sidechain architecture, and support for payments. We also describe a Proof-of-Stake consensus along with a rewards and penalties system used to perpetually incentivize and enforce the correct function of the network.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[287] **viXra:1905.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-13 12:12:22*

**Authors:** Lucidity

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The digital advertising ecosystem isn’t in a great place. While growth in digital is booming, the
most essential members of the ecosystem (namely advertisers and publishers) are frustrated and powerless in the face of an increasingly apparent reality: digital advertising has a transparency problem. In an age where measuring the performance of ad campaigns is paramount, marketers are unable to fully understand the value they deliver. As has become true for most industries, data is the key to measuring performance. But in advertising, data is trapped
and siloed in black box technologies, causing data disagreements and opening the door for fraudulent activities. The end result? Waste. Wasted money. Wasted time.
Lucidity has built a blockchain-based solution (with five patents filed) that solves these issues. We provide advertisers with a unified set of data, free of discrepancies and fraud, that they can use to gauge their effectiveness. We provide publishers with a way to prove the value of their inventory and avoid identity theft. And we’ve built the only advertising focused blockchain technology to-date that doesn’t require advertisers and agencies to change their work flow or set up integrations. In the following whitepaper, we will outline in detail the problems we’re solving, how we solve it, and the team that’s bringing it all together.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[286] **viXra:1905.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-14 01:50:58*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Short Communication

DNA Sequencing Informatics Framework Using [CoqTP/q*cert/CRSX-HACS/Java/Ocaml/JikesRVM/(RVM-Research Virtual Machine)] in the Context of [IoT/HPC/Cloud Computing/JIProlog/Owl] Hi-End Complex Environments – An Interesting insight into the Technically Challenging R&D domains involving Nano-Bio Systems.
[ Towards AI/ML/DL based Interfacing of Engineering/Physics/Biology/Medicine Domain Platforms ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[285] **viXra:1905.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-08 22:21:53*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Short Communication on Fortran & Ocaml

[CoqTP-q*cert-Ocaml-Fortran-SIMPLE] Image Processing Software based Informatics Framework for Electron Microscopy(EM) Images – A Novel Suggestion to interface Fortran with Ocaml in the Context of cryo-EM Image Processing Tasks.
[ Exploring Theorem Proving & Ocaml - Fortran Interfacing & Image Processing ]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[284] **viXra:1905.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-03 04:10:04*

**Authors:** Ji Yuan

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

Background: Though the academic has been studying the requirement prioritization methodology, the industry still encounters challenges of the requirement prioritization in real world. Most academic models only study requirement prioritization under some limited contexts. Unexpected factors induce the challenges when practicing a requirement prioritization method.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to find what challenges to practice requirement prioritization methodologies commonly need to be improved or have been neglected.
Methods: We used systematic mapping study and interview-based survey. The systematic mapping study conducts the overview and generalization on the present requirement prioritization techniques in the academic. The survey does the interview on the actual status of practicing requirement prioritization in real world. The data of both methods is qualitatively analyzed by thematic analysis.
Results: Through the systematic mapping study on 17 articles, we found some characters common in the design of the academic requirement prioritization models, about the usual workflow step, advantage and limitation. Then through the survey with 14 interviewees, we studied what method the practitioner is most using and what challenge exists to practice the requirement prioritization in real world, mainly related to the workflow and limitation of these practical methods. Finally, based on the contrast of results above, we find what challenge for practitioners between the academic and practical methods worth to be improved or studied further. Besides, according to the acquired empirical insights, we proposed some potential future trends.
Conclusions: This study elicited the challenges and insights to practice requirement prioritization methods, which brings the value to inspire the industry for designing and applying more productive requirement prioritization method. Besides, based on the empirical result, we proposed 2 new definition (Practicable Requirement Prioritization Engineering and Modularized Requirement Prioritization Model) and 1 potential situation (Requirement Prioritization of Compounded-Business Software) worth to be studied for the future trend.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[283] **viXra:1904.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-22 09:49:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

Toshiba Corporation has realized a major breakthrough in combinatorial optimization—the selection of the best solutions from among an enormous number of combinatorial patterns—with the development of an algorithm that delivers the world's fastest and largest-scale performance, and an approximately 10-fold improvement over current methods. [37]
A team of researchers at NTT Corporation has developed a way to use light-based computer hardware that allows it to to compete with silicon. [36]
Called the Quantum Material Press, or QPress, this system will accelerate the discovery of next-generation materials for the emerging field of quantum information science (QIS). [35]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[282] **viXra:1904.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-18 07:43:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A team of University of Otago/Dodd-Walls Centre scientists have created a novel device that could enable the next generation of faster, more energy efficient internet. [22]
UCLA researchers and colleagues have designed a new device that creates electricity from falling snow. [21]
Two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors are promising for quantum computing and future electronics. Now, researchers can convert metallic gold into semiconductor and customize the material atom-by-atom on boron nitride nanotubes. [20]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[281] **viXra:1904.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 11:44:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

High-performance computing (HPC)-the use of supercomputers and parallel processing techniques to solve large computational problems-is of great use in the scientific community. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[280] **viXra:1904.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 10:01:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[279] **viXra:1904.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-06 07:54:12*

**Authors:** Nesma Abd El-Mawla, Mahmoud Badawy, Hesham Arafat

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Day after day the world stuck more and more in wars, pollution and so many other risk that threaten the
environment. With a population of more than 7.3 billion, the planet suffers from continuous damage from human
activity. As a result of these human distortions, climate change is one of the most fatal challenges that face the world.
Climate Change won’t be stopped or slowed by a single action, but with the help of too many small contributions
from different fields, it will have an impressive impact. Changing to electricity generation, manufacturing, and
transportation generate most headlines, but the technology field can also play a critical role. The Internet of Things
(IoT) in particular, has the potential to reduce greenhouse emissions and help slow the rise of global temperatures.
IoT includes more than super brilliant new gadgets and smart widgets. It also influences the Earth's condition, from
its available resources to its climate. In this paper we are showing that technology itself could be the tool will save
the world if we take advantage of it. Environmental monitoring is a broad application for the Internet of Things (IoT).
It involves everything from watching levels of ozone in a meat packing facility to watching national forests for
smoke. These solutions are the first step toward creating a numerous connected infrastructures to support innovative
services, better flexibility and efficiency. We also make a spot on Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and its
challenges as the future is for it.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[278] **viXra:1904.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 14:51:28*

**Authors:** Nesma Abd El-mawla, Mahmoud Badawy, Hesham Arafat

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have turned to be the backbone of most present-day information
technology, which supports the service-oriented architecture in a major activity. Sensor nodes and its
restricted and limited resources have been a real challenge because there’s a great engagement with
sensor nodes and Internet Of things (IoT). WSN is considered to be the base stone of IoT which has been
widely used recently in too many applications like smart cities, industrial internet, connected cars,
connected health care systems, smart grids, smart farming and it's widely used in both military and civilian
applications now, such as monitoring of ambient conditions related to the environment, precious species
and critical infrastructures. Secure communication and data transfer among the nodes are strongly needed
due to the use of wireless technologies that are easy to eavesdrop, in order to steal its important
information. However, is hard to achieve the desired performance of both WSNs and IoT and many critical
issues about sensor networks are still open. The major research areas in WSN is going on hardware,
operating system of WSN, localization, synchronization, deployment, architecture, programming models,
data aggregation and dissemination, database querying, architecture, middleware, quality of service and
security. In This paper we discuss in detail all about Wireless Sensor Networks, its classification, types,
topologies, attack models and the nodes and all related issues and complications. We also preview too
many challenges about sensor nodes and the proposed solutions till now and we make a spot ongoing
research activities and issues that affect security and performance of Wireless Sensor Network as well.
Then we discuss what’s meant by security objectives, requirements and threat models. Finally, we make a
spot on key management operations, goals, constraints, evaluation metrics, different encryption key types
and dynamic key management schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[277] **viXra:1904.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-03 11:08:23*

**Authors:** Egger Mielberg

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We propose a brief analysis of Blockchain technology. Here we try to show as pluses
as minuses of this technology in context of storing, intellectual search, analysis and other
functionality that is crucial for Big Data System of any kind. We also share our vision of future
development of crypto/digital market.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[276] **viXra:1903.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-24 09:14:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

A free, open-source toolkit to help researchers deal with data management overload has been devised by the John Innes Centre Informatics team. [43]
A new computer program that spots when information in a quantum computer is escaping to unwanted states will give users of this promising technology the ability to check its reliability without any technical knowledge for the first time. [42]
With enhanced understanding of this system, the Quantum Dynamics Unit aims to improve upon the industry standard for qubits – bits of quantum information. [41]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[275] **viXra:1903.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-21 21:57:39*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Short Technical Notes

[Dlang+Ragel State Machine Compiler+Colm] Based Design of Embedded Systems & Bio-informatics in the Context of IoT/HPC for Hi-end Computational Environment/s – An Insight into Probing Intelligent Embedded Systems and Intelligent Bio-informatics Frameworks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[274] **viXra:1903.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 12:18:27*

**Authors:** Andrey Davydenko, Cuong Sai, Maxim Shcherbakov

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Forecast evaluation is inevitably connected with the need to store actuals and forecasts for further analysis. The issue gets complicated when it comes to handling rolling-origin forecasts calculated for many series over multiple horizons. In designing forecast data formats it is important to provide access to all the variables required for exploratory analysis and performance measurement. We show that existing approaches used to store forecast data are not always applicable for implementing reliable cross validation techniques. Here we propose flexible yet simple data schemas allowing the storage and exchange of actuals, forecasts, and additional variables of interest. We also demonstrate how various forecast evaluation tools can be implemented based on the schemas proposed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[273] **viXra:1903.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-18 00:08:43*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Revisiting Mathematical Formalism involving [Lp Spaces] in the Context of Microwave Imaging for [Medical applications/CryoElectronMicroscopy] – Using [Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Scala/JVM/JikesRVM/Scalalab/LMS-Scala Informatics] to Implement [IoT/HPC] Computing Framework/s.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[272] **viXra:1903.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-13 23:19:02*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Insight into ANTLR(antlr)/jEdit/NetBeans/Eclipse/Java/JVM/JikesRVM/OSGi as Bioinformatics Platform in the Context of DNA/RNA Sequencing & Gene Chip Design – A Simple & Interesting Suggestion towards Interfacing Nano-Bio Systems/IoT Hardware & Software/HPC Environments.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[271] **viXra:1903.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-11 22:56:28*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Insight into Theoretical Analysis of Gene Therapy using Coq Theorem Prover[CTP] – A Simple Computing Framework on -[Molecular/Bio-molecular Systems,Bio-informatics + Spectroscopy] to Probe Gene Therapy in the context of Group Theory.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[270] **viXra:1903.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 09:09:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[269] **viXra:1903.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-06 22:12:54*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Exploring & Examining Cryo-EM Images in the Context of Helical Protein Polymers/Bio-Polymers for Helical Reconstructions Using Ruby Language/Machine Learning/Image Processing/ruby-LLVM Informatics Framework.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[268] **viXra:1903.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-07 05:27:25*

**Authors:** Marco Mühl

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In German

Security is a big topic for basically every network. Attackers are consistently improving their methods and should always be considered a big threat. Especially in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) it is important to find countermeasures. But often this is a big challenge: Finding the right balance between security, effort, performance and cost is not easy. In this paper it is shown, how the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) can handle an often used attack on networks: the wormhole attack.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[267] **viXra:1903.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-01 17:53:03*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Yet in portuguese. The chapter 5 complements the previous article.

Introducing the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic we presented an original proof of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. This proof don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[266] **viXra:1902.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-27 10:26:48*

**Authors:** Arundale R., Charumathi A., Harsha N.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

None of the lossless entropy encoding methods so far have addressed compression of small strings of arbitrary lengths. Although it appears inconsequent, space occupied by several independent small strings become significant in memory constrained environments. It is also significant when attempting efficient storage of such small strings in a database where while block compression is most efficient, retrieval efficiency could be improved if the strings are individually compressed. This paper formulates a hybrid encoding method with which small strings could be compressed using context aware static codes resulting in surprisingly good ratios and also be used in constrained environments like Arduino. We also go on to prove that this technique can guarantee compression for any English language sentence of minimum 3 words.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[265] **viXra:1902.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-25 18:28:09*

**Authors:** Junhao Li

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Apparently, arxiv moderators do not like ideas which make their own research useless.

Internet service abuse is a significant threat for service providers, internet users, and even national security. In this short article, I present elastic blockchain, an architecture for solving massive internet abuse. For webmasters, elastic blockchain lowers the cost of service abuse prevention and may even benefit from service abuse. For regular users, it provides a more user-friendly way to prove their goodwill than doing Turing tests. For attackers and water armies, it increases their cost of attacks dramatically, so they are less likely to do that.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[264] **viXra:1902.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-22 16:09:24*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Yet in portuguese.

Introducing the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic we presented an original proof of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. This proof don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[263] **viXra:1902.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-18 00:54:16*

**Authors:** DNT Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

MOEA Framework interaction with Bio-CPP in the context of Nucleic Acids/Polypeptide Bio-Informatics & Computing towards Using – Java/JVM/Jikes RVM/C++/Genetic Algorithms.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[262] **viXra:1902.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 07:20:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 66 Pages.

The deluge of cyberattacks sweeping across the world has governments and companies thinking about new ways to protect their digital systems, and the corporate and state secrets stored within. [42]
The Pentagon on Friday said there has been a cyber breach of Defense Department travel records that compromised the personal information and credit card data of U.S. military and civilian personnel. [41]
Quantum secure direct communication transmits secret information directly without encryption. [40]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[261] **viXra:1902.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-10 23:54:09*

**Authors:** Hugh Wang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists $3$-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, $3$-SAT is not in $\mathbf{P}$, and therefore $\mathbf{P}\neq\mathbf{NP}$.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[260] **viXra:1902.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-08 04:39:01*

**Authors:** DNTKumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Protein Folding Mechanisms – An Introduction & Novel Suggestion based on Dijkstra’s Algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[259] **viXra:1901.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-23 02:34:03*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Interesting Insight & Interaction of Q*cert With BaseX Data Base System in the Context of BIG-DATA Based on - High Volume Data Querying,Informatics & Computing.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[258] **viXra:1901.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 03:37:17*

**Authors:** Chandrima Chowdhury

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this project, an Excel based automated tool has been developed which extensively uses D3.Js, R, Excel VBA and Phantom JS to provide an integrated application that automatically fetches the data from the web and develops models, creates interactive hovering data label D3 charts on excel and also tests the accuracy of the predictions just at the click of a button. Though the models are very basic, the automation mechanism is effective and can be used by people who still want to rely on basic excel apps for stock data analytics.
A demo of the tool is available here: https://youtu.be/VBx7Ik6aw7c

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[257] **viXra:1901.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 23:06:16*

**Authors:** D.N.T.Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Technical Notes

Q*cert – CoqTheoremProver[CTP]/OCaml as
Bio-informatics Platform in the Context of Understanding Protein Folding Mechanisms Based on General Purpose Libraries – A Simple Interesting Insight Into the Promising, Challenging & Interesting World of Protein Engineering and Applications.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[256] **viXra:1901.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 04:53:17*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Using Topology to Understand Protein Folding Mechanisms – An Approximate and Simple Suggestion in the Context of HOL/Scala/Java/JikesRVM/JVM.
[HOL – Higher Order Logic]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[255] **viXra:1901.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-03 17:32:21*

**Authors:** Krystian Zawistowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose an O(n log n) algorithm for evaluation of bivariate Kolmogorov-
Smirnov statistics for n samples which. It offers few orders of magnitude
of speedup over existing implementations for n > 105 samples of input.
The algorithm is based on static Binary Search Trees and sweep algorithm.
We share C++ implementation with Python bindings.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[254] **viXra:1812.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-09 06:30:39*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We introduce and suggest to research a special class of optimiz- ation problems, wherein an objective function is a real-valued complex vari- ables function under constraints, comprising complex-valued complex vari- ables functions: "Complex Optimization" or "Complex Programming".
We demonstrate multiple examples to show a rich variety of problems, d-
escribing complex optimization as an optimization subclass as well as a Mi-
xed-Real-Integer Complex Optimization.
Next, we introduce more general concept "Quaternionic Optimization" for
optimization over quaternion subsets

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[253] **viXra:1812.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-03 14:36:20*

**Authors:** Rishab Bhattacharyya, Aditya Das, Atanu Majumdar, Pramit Ghosh

**Comments:** Pages.

Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most disruptive technologies now- adays which can efficiently connect, control and manage intelligent objects those are connected to the Internet. IoT based applications like smart education, smart agriculture, smart health-care, smart homes etc which can deliver services with- out manual intervention and in a more effective manner. In this work, we have proposed a IoT based smart home automation system using a micro-controller based Arduino board and mobile based Short Message service (SMS) application working functionality. Wi connectivity has been used to establish the communi- cation between the Arduino module and automated home appliances. We have proposed a real-time scheduling strategy that offers a novel communication pro- tocol to control the home environment with the switching functionality. Our sim- ulation results show that the proposed strategy is quite capable to achieve high performance with different simulation scenarios.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[252] **viXra:1811.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-22 09:31:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

The power of the method Bayati and his colleagues outline is that it can be used to pursue multiple goals at once. [37] Using micromagnetic simulation, scientists have found the magnetic parameters and operating modes for the experimental implementation of a fast racetrack memory module that runs on spin current, carrying information via skyrmionium, which can store more data and read it out faster. [36] Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[251] **viXra:1811.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-19 10:58:07*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A. E. Fawzy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Theaimofthischapteristopresenttexturefeaturesforimagesembedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of neutrosophic sets. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[250] **viXra:1810.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-14 09:18:20*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We introduce and suggest to research a special class of optimization problems,
wherein an objective function is a real-valued complex variables function
and constraints comprising complex-valued complex variables functions

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[249] **viXra:1810.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-12 17:56:39*

**Authors:** Young TAB-LO

**Comments:** 1 Page.

N/A

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[248] **viXra:1810.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-13 04:56:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The Pentagon on Friday said there has been a cyber breach of Defense Department travel records that compromised the personal information and credit card data of U.S. military and civilian personnel. [41] Quantum secure direct communication transmits secret information directly without encryption. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[247] **viXra:1810.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-07 18:13:41*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

The optimization paradigm is not tautologous, hence refuting complex programming as that paradigm as a new class.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[246] **viXra:1810.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-06 08:08:06*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I have been working for a time about basic laws of directing the universe [1,2]. It seems that the most basic and impressive principle which causes any physical phenomenon is the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg [3], that existence have any property because of the uncertainty. During this process, while I was thinking about conservation of information I noticed, that information cannot be lost; but at a point, it becomes completely unrecognizable according to us as there is no alternative. Any information and the information searched for become the same after a point relatively to us. The sensitivity increases forever but its loss. Each sensitivity level also has higher level; so actually an absolute protection seems possible.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[245] **viXra:1810.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-05 18:20:15*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We introduce and suggest to research a special class of optimization problems,
wherein an objective function is a real-valued complex variables function
and constraints comprising complex-valued complex variables functions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[244] **viXra:1809.0601 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-30 07:15:47*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We introduce and suggest to research a special class of optimization problems,
wherein an objective function is a real-valued complex variables function
and constraints comprising complex-valued complex variables functions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[243] **viXra:1809.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-15 08:18:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Workflow management systems allow users to prepare, produce and analyze scientific processes to help simplify complex simulations. [27] Now, a team of A*STAR researchers and colleagues has developed a detector that can successfully pick out where human actions will occur in videos, in almost real-time. [26] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Germany and the U.S. has developed a deep learning algorithm that can be used for motion capture of animals of any kind. [25] In 2016, when we inaugurated our new IBM Research lab in Johannesburg, we took on this challenge and are reporting our first promising results at Health Day at the KDD Data Science Conference in London this month. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning—a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data—with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[242] **viXra:1809.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-10 17:59:12*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We develop two different polynomial-time integer factorization algorithms.
We reduce integer factorization problem to equivalent problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points
in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce those minimization problem to the polynomial-time minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer
points in a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we show that there exists an NP-hard minimization problem,
equivalent to the original minimization problem, we conclude that P = NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[241] **viXra:1809.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-05 07:47:16*

**Authors:** Shravan Mohan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This preliminary note presents a heuristic for determining rank constrained solutions to
linear matrix equations (LME). The method proposed here is based on minimizing a non-
convex quadratic functional, which will hence-forth be termed as the Low-Rank-Functional
(LRF). Although this method lacks a formal proof/comprehensive analysis, for example in
terms of a probabilistic guarantee for converging to a solution, the proposed idea is intuitive
and has been seen to perform well in simulations. To that end, many numerical examples are
provided to corroborate the idea.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[240] **viXra:1808.0651 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 08:12:31*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 6 Pages. License Creative Commons 4.0

Historically as well as mathematically, the octonions were derived from the quaternions, and the quaternions from the complex numbers. A proper C++ implementation of these numerical types should reflect these relationships. This brief note describes how the author's previously published C++ Quaternion class serves as the natural foundation for a C++ Octonion class.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[239] **viXra:1808.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-19 22:31:41*

**Authors:** Terence Chi-Shen Tao

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

According to the Green-Tao theorem that a small number of sequences contains an isoquant sequence of arbitrary length
The isometric sequence is infinite
And in such a structure, p = np

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[238] **viXra:1808.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-12 07:01:09*

**Authors:** 문예강

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, Describe about an integer sorting algorithm that is better than radix sort and more general than counting sort.
It works like quick sort in worst case.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[237] **viXra:1807.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-29 07:51:50*

**Authors:** John Archie Gillis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Recursive compression of random data is generally deemed to be an impossible process that defies the laws of physics (Shannon Entropy). This paper explains why this perception is incorrect and provides a proof that explains how such a compression system may be achieved. The practicality of the method has yet to be determined.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[236] **viXra:1807.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-29 08:10:25*

**Authors:** John Archie Gillis

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The present methods take a novel approach to solving NP-Complete problems and provide steps that a computational device and software program can follow to accurately solve NP-class problems without the use of heuristics or brute force methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[235] **viXra:1807.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-23 13:10:53*

**Authors:** Caesar Chad, Neo Liu, Leon Lau, Joseph Sadove

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

BITCONCH chain proposed an innovative POR (Proof Of Reputation) reputation consensus algorithm, which solved the pain point that the blockchain is difficult to maintain both high throughput and decentralization. Based on social graphs, BITCONCH Chain mathematically models social, time, and contribution activities to build a decentralized reputation system. Each user has the opportunity to establish a high reputation value. The higher the user's reputation, the lower the transaction cost (or even free). The more opportunities that are selected as trust nodes to participate in the consensus, the greater the benefits. High-reputation users are defined as “mutual trust nodes”, and small micro-transactions will start “payment channels” for high-speed offline transactions.
The reputation system and system incentive system will effectively promote the continued enthusiasm of business developers and ordinary users, and contribute to the construction of the business ecosystem. Business developers with traffic are more likely to get high reputation values, and the chances of being elected to a trusted full node are higher. Ordinary users can increase reputation by actively engaging in social interactions and actively using business applications in the ecosystem, increasing the chances of being selected as trusted light nodes.
The Bitconch chain uses a DAG directed acyclic graph data structure to maintain the system's positive scalability. Support smartphone light node client to resist the decentralization of the system and maintain dispersion. Zero-knowledge verification, latticed data storage, quantum-level encryption algorithms, and improved BVM virtual machines make Bitconch chain more reliable and provide a friendly DApp and sidechain development environment to meet certain applications. Technical requirements for large file storage, low transaction costs, user information protection, sidechain and smart contract iterations, and bug fixes.
BITCONCH chain is a decentralized distributed network with no block and no chain, which solves two difficulties in the application of blockchain: scalability and decentralization. Bitconch chain, which can be applied to the commercial application needs of users above 10 million, is the most feasible blockchain ecosystem for high-frequency small micro-transactions and social applications.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[234] **viXra:1807.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 11:19:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[233] **viXra:1807.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 02:25:42*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

Usando um novo conceito de linguagem variável, já provei anteriormente que P≠NP, mas tal prova não utilizou nenhum dos problemas clássicos conhecidos como NP-completos, a exemplo de SAT (satisfatibilidade, satisfiability), caixeiro-viajante (travelling-salesman), soma de subconjuntos (subset-sum), da mochila (knapsack), programação linear inteira (integer linear programming), etc. Tal prova não implica que sendo P≠NP então devemos ter NP-completo ∉P, ou seja, os mencionados famosos problemas difíceis podem ainda ser resolvidos em tempo polinomial, sem precisar encerrar a pesquisa nesta direção. Tal como ocorre com o método simplex, que pode resolver em tempo polinomial a grande maioria dos problemas de programação linear, também é possível resolver SAT em tempo polinomial na maioria das vezes, que é o que eu mostro neste trabalho.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[232] **viXra:1806.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-19 06:33:05*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[231] **viXra:1805.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 20:28:48*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the equivalent problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer
points in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we show that there exists an NP-hard minimization problem,
equivalent to the original minimization problem, we conclude that P = NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[230] **viXra:1805.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-12 21:38:04*

**Authors:** Bai Yang

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) and micro SOA (Micro Service) have the advantages of high cohesion and low coupling, but at the same time they also bring complicated implementation, maintenance, high network load, and weak consistency. At the same time, they also increase product development and operation costs. This article attempts to use an improved approach by a kind of plug-in isolation mechanism that avoids the above issues as much as possible while preserving the benefits of SOA.
In addition, this paper also proposes a new strong consistent distributed coordination algorithm for improving the low performance and high overhead (at least three network broadcasts and multiple disk I/O requests per request) problem of existing Paxos/Raft algorithms. This algorithm, at the expense of data reliability, completely eliminates the above overhead and provides the same level of strong agreement and high availability guarantees as the Paxos/Raft algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[229] **viXra:1805.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 07:42:44*

**Authors:** IlNam Ri, SongIl Choe, Hun Kim

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In recent years, with the rapid development of cloud computing and IoT, the demand for big data has increased and the need for large data center and enterprise data center has been actively promoted. (1,3)
In this paper, a system design method that integrates and manages various information systems in the data centers of enterprise units is dealt with.
Since the production facilities of medium-scale units are managed by various detention facilities and control devices, an integrated monitoring system should be established to manage them collectively. (2)
Therefore, the paper suggests a standard design for proposing an integrated model face-to-face configuration of various facilities to be managed in enterprise units and an integrated monitoring system for environmental facilities, do.
And we try to evaluate the effectiveness of the system by analyzing the failure information transmission time of the integrated monitoring system.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[228] **viXra:1805.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-02 00:18:33*

**Authors:** IlNam Ri, SongIl Choe, Hun Kim

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Ajax (Asynchronos Javascript And XML), one of the world's most widely used Web 2.0
technologies, is devoid of the traditional Web page approach.(1) This technology is becoming an
indispensable element in Web apps as it supports asynchronous communication that allows the user to
proceed with the conversation.(3,4)
Today 's reality is getting closer to the virtual reality by the dissemination of intelligent devices, the new
Internet of Things, cloud computing and the development of information society.
In the field of business services, we also need to improve the size and service quality of our web apps, and
Ajax technology is constantly expanding.(5)
In the fields of stocks, finance, auctions, etc. that deal with large-scale, real-time data, it is important for
business service providers to transmit information to users as soon as possible.
This Paper describes one way of using Ajax components to realize asynchronous communication of Web
service providers on the Internet.
Ajax components consist of an Ajax core that supports Epoll and an Ajax library that supports asynchronous communication, and provides an application interface to define and implement various push functions.(2)Web service applications developed using Ajax components can provide various push services by using
asynchronous communication with client by using Epoll method.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[227] **viXra:1804.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-22 08:32:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt have now shown how the new model can be used to investigate multiple properties in parallel. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[226] **viXra:1804.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-05 21:48:59*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the equivalent problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer
points in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we show that there exists an NP-hard minimization problem,
equivalent to the original minimization problem, we conclude that P = NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[225] **viXra:1804.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-05 04:11:14*

**Authors:** Stefan Ćertić

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Keywords: internet, 2FA, data security, attacks, breaches.

Corporative giants of the internet, such as Google, Facebook, Various Banks have being using
the two-factor authentication technique to ensure security to its users. Although, this companies don’t make this kind operations by themselves, they hire third part companies to do so, integrating the API products for onwards delivery. Because of this, technique have serious breaches that can be explored by a ill-intentioned company. The third part companies stays between the client and the website being in a privileged place to attack any unsuspecting victim.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[224] **viXra:1803.0673 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-26 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Song−Il Choe, Il−Nam Li, Chang−Su Paek, Jun−Hyok Choe, Su−Bom Yun

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract-Task scheduling is one of the most challenging aspects in cloud computing nowadays,
which plays an important role to improve the overall performance and services of the cloud such
as response time, cost, makespan, throughput etc. Recently, a cloud task scheduling algorithm
based on the Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) not only have fewer specific parameters, but also
take a little time complexity. Symbiotic Organism Search (SOS) is a newly developed metaheuristic
optimization technique for solving numerical optimization problems. In this paper, the basic
SOS algorithm is reduced and a chaotic local search(CLS) is integrated into the reduced SOS to
improve the convergence rate of the basic SOS algorithm. Also, Simulated Annealing (SA) is
combined in order to asist the SOS in avoiding being trapped into local minimum. The performance
of the proposed SA-CLS-SOS algorithm is evaluated by extensive simulation using MATLAB simulation
framework and compared with SOS, SA-SOS and CLS-SOS. Results of simulation showed that improved
hybrid SOS performs better than SOS, SA-SOS and CLS-SOS in terms of convergence speed and makespan
time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[223] **viXra:1803.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-12 09:00:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[222] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 01:14:54*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new technique called the power key, it’s possible to imply P ≠ NP using a proof by logical contradiction.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[221] **viXra:1802.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 03:08:38*

**Authors:** Nicolas Bourbaki, Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We prove that P != NP using a simple and elegant method.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[220] **viXra:1802.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:11:01*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. New system (algorithm) settlement of sports competitions called R-Sport (in Polish).

Celem rozgrywek sportowych jest wyłonienie spośród grupy drużyn, bądź zawodników, drużyny najlepszej, czyli mistrza. Dlatego pomiędzy poszczególnymi drużynami muszą zostać rozegrane mecze. O tym, kto zostanie mistrzem decydują wyniki wszystkich spotkań. Zasady obowiązujące w trakcie sezonu tworzą System Rozgrywek Sportowych.
W dokumencie tym został opisany nowy System Rozgrywek Sportowych. System ten pozwala na sprawiedliwe i efektywne wyłonienie zwycięzcy całego sezonu. Posiada on zalety, których nie posiadają inne, znane i stosowane obecnie Systemy Rozgrywek Sportowych.
R-Sport jest Systemem Rozgrywek Sportowych, który pozwala przeprowadzić rozgrywki ligowe na wiele sposobów.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[219] **viXra:1802.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Bebereche Bogdan-Ionut

**Comments:** 1 Page.

.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[218] **viXra:1801.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 10:09:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

As cloud storage becomes more common, data security is an increasing concern. [34] Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[217] **viXra:1801.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 08:16:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Behind every self-driving car, self-learning robot and smart building hides a variety of advanced algorithms that control learning and decision making. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[216] **viXra:1801.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 13:58:08*

**Authors:** Zhengjun Cao, Jeffrey Uhlmann, Lihua Liu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We remark that Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has confused two unitary transformations: one is performed on a pure state, the other is performed on a superposition. In the past decades, no constructive specifications on the essential unitary operator performed on the superposition have been found. We think the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm needs more constructive specifications so as to check its correctness.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[215] **viXra:1801.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 22:06:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the NP-hard problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points
in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we find a polynomial-time algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem,
we conclude that P = NP

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[214] **viXra:1712.0587 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-23 16:09:27*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Creative Commons 4.0 license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Kalman Folding 5 presents an Extended Kalman Filter in Mathematica. Python is much more accessible to average practitioners. In this follow-up article, we write a very general, foldable EKF in Python, verify it against Mathematica using sympy, Python's package for symbolic mathematics. We apply it to a spinning dashpot and demonstrate both state estimation and system identification from observing only one angle over time. It is remarkable that a complete dynamical description of eight states and parameters can be recovered from measurements of a single, scalar value.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[213] **viXra:1712.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 01:38:25*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An extremely simple, description of Karmarkar's algorithm with very few technical terms is given.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[212] **viXra:1712.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 04:40:22*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Amir Herzberg

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We investigate a new threat: networks of stealthy
routers (S-Routers), communicating across a restricted area. The ‘classical’ approach of transmission-detection by triangulation fails, since S-Routers use short-range, low-energy communication, detectable only by nearby devices.
We investigate algorithms to intercept S-Routers, using one or more mobile devices, called Interceptors. Given a source of
communication, Interceptors find the destination, by intercepting packet-relaying by S-Routers along the path. We evaluate the algorithms analytically and experimentally (simulations), including against a parametric, optimized S-Routers algorithm. Our main result is a (centralized) Interceptors algorithm bounding the outcome to O(Nlog^2(N), where N is the number of S-Routers. We later improve the bound to O(Nlog(N)log(log(N))), for the case where the transmission schedule of the S-Routers is continuous.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[211] **viXra:1712.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 01:25:52*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, ellipsoid method for linear programming is derived
using only minimal knowledge of algebra and matrices.
Unfortunately, most authors first describe the algorithm, then
later prove its correctness, which requires a good knowledge of
linear algebra.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[210] **viXra:1712.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-09 10:21:20*

**Authors:** Steven David Young

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A proposal to Improve Tor Hidden Services

A system that incorporates distributed means of communication as well as steganographic storage techniques while remaining as similar as possible to an existing trusted platform such as Tor could provide a model for a next generation anonymous communication system that is less susceptible to common vulnerabilities, such as an adversarial Global Network Observer.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[209] **viXra:1712.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 14:10:05*

**Authors:** M. J. Dudziak, M. Tsepeleva

**Comments:** 6 Pages. submitted to CoDIT 2018 *Theassaloniki, Greece, April, 2018)

NeoPlexus is a newly established permanent program of international collaborative scientific research and application development. It is focused upon the design, construction and application of a new architecture and family of computing machines that are adept at solving problems of control involving extreme complex systems (XCS) for which conventional numerical computing methods and machines are fundamentally inadequate. The GCM involves a different foundation of computing from classical Turing Machines including qubit-based quantum computers and it incorporates geometrical and specifically topological dynamics. The target for implementation is to construct molecular-scale platform using protein-polymer conjugates and MEMS-type microfluidics.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[208] **viXra:1712.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 07:40:22*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Using simple arithmetic of the prime numbers, a model of nutritional content of food need and content is created. This model allows for the dynamics of natural languages to be specified as a game theoretical construct. The goal of this model is to evolve human culture.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[207] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 14:57:59*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with worst case time complexity of O(n).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[206] **viXra:1710.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:45:18*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. A better translation of the my article published at Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[205] **viXra:1710.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 11:44:37*

**Authors:** Shivam Bansal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are a lot of educational videos online which are in English and inaccessible to 80% population of the world. This paper presents a process to translate a video into another language by creating its transcript and using TTS to produce synthesized fragments of speech. It introduces an algorithm which synthesyses intelligent, synchronized, and easily understandable audio by combining those fragments of speech. This algorithm is also compared to an algorithm from another research paper on the basis of performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[204] **viXra:1710.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 12:57:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization
reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the
integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that
P = NP and a polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization using enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of those two-dimensional rational polyhedron

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[203] **viXra:1710.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 16:11:25*

**Authors:** Eirini Molla, Theodoros Tzouramanis, Stefanos Gritzalis

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 37 figures, 2 tables, 60 references

Due to the increasing demand for cloud services and the threat of privacy invasion, the user is suggested to encrypt the data before it is outsourced to the remote server. The safe storage and efficient retrieval of d-dimensional data on an untrusted server has therefore crucial importance. The paper proposes a new encryption model which offers spatial order-preservation for d-dimensional data (SOPE model). The paper studies the operations for the construction of the encrypted database and suggests algorithms that exploit unique properties that this new model offers for the efficient execution of a whole range of well-known queries over the encrypted d-dimensional data. The new model utilizes wellknown database indices, such as the B+-tree and the R-tree, as backbone structures in their traditional form, as it suggests no modifications to them for loading the data and for the efficient execution of the supporting query algorithms. An extensive experimental study that is also presented in the paper indicates the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed encryption model for real-life d-dimensional data applications.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[202] **viXra:1709.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 10:34:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Max Planck Institutes in Halle and Dresden have discovered a new kind of magnetic nano-object in a novel material that could serve as a magnetic bit with cloaking properties to make a magnetic disk drive with no moving parts - a Racetrack Memory - a reality in the near future. [19]
Jarvis Loh, Gan Chee Kwan and Khoo Khoong Hong from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore, have modeled these minute spin spirals in nanoscopic crystal layers. [18]
Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17]
While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16]
Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[201] **viXra:1708.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 20:26:27*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization
reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the
integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that
P = NP

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[200] **viXra:1708.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-26 08:20:39*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Fischl, Georg Gottlob, Reinhard Pichler

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The authors have recently shown that recognizing low fractional hypertree-width (fhw) is NP-complete
in the general case and that the problem becomes tractable if the hypergraphs under consideration have degree and intersection width bounded by a constant, i.e., every vertex is contained in only constantly many different edges and the intersection of two edges contains only constantly many vertices. In this article, we show that bounded degree alone suffices to ensure tractability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[199] **viXra:1708.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 13:08:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Concepts for information storage and logical processing based on magnetic domain walls have great potential for implementation in future information and communications technologies." [21] Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests it also may be true in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[198] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 01:51:06*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[197] **viXra:1707.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 06:39:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Over millennia, nature has evolved an incredible information storage medium – DNA. It evolved to store genetic information, blueprints for building proteins, but DNA can be used for many more purposes than just that. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[196] **viXra:1707.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-18 07:46:50*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, A. E. Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a two-phase Content-Based Retrieval System for images embedded in the Neutrosophic domain. In this first phase, we extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database. In the second phase, a similarity measurement is used to determine the distance between the image under consideration (query image), and each image in the training database, using their feature vectors constructed in the first phase. Hence, the N most similar images are retrieved.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[195] **viXra:1707.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-06 04:33:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28]
In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27]
When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26]
Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25]
The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24]
One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23]
Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22]
Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21]
At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19]
Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[194] **viXra:1707.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 07:51:08*

**Authors:** Theophanes Raptis

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

We utilize a previously reported methodological framework [5], to find a general set of mappings for any satisfiability (SAT) problem to a set of arithmetized codes allowing a classification hierarchy enumerable via integer partition functions. This reveals a unique unsatisfiability criterion via the introduction of certain universal indicator functions associating the validity of any such problem with a mapping between Mersenne integers and their complements in an inclusive hierarchy of exponential intervals. Lastly, we present means to reduce the complexity of the original problem to that of a special set of binary sequences and their bit block analysis via a reduction of any expression to a type of a Sequential Dynamical System (SDS) using the technique of clause equalization. We specifically notice the apparent analogy of certain dynamical properties behind such problems with resonances and coherencies of multi-periodic systems leading to the possibility of certain fast analog or natural implementations of dedicated SAT-machines. A Matlab toolbox is also offered as additional aid in exploring certain simple examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[118] **viXra:1908.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-18 18:21:44*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 23 Pages. In portuguese.

Introducing firstly the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic and then without using them we presented original proofs of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. These proofs don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[117] **viXra:1907.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-20 17:14:16*

**Authors:** Ortho Flint, Asanka Wickramasinghe, Jay Brasse, Chris Fowler

**Comments:** 40 Pages. The paper found at polynomial3sat.org has been submitted for peer-review

In this paper, we provide a polynomial time (and space), algorithm that determines satisfiability of 3-SAT. The complexity analysis for the algorithm takes into account no efficiency and yet provides a low enough bound, that efficient versions are practical with respect to today's hardware. We accompany this paper with a serial version of the algorithm without non-trivial efficiencies (link: polynomial3sat.org).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[116] **viXra:1903.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-03 16:11:44*

**Authors:** Roman Galay

**Comments:** 14 Pages. roman.galay.2019@gmail.com

As it follows from Gödel's incompleteness theorems, any consistent formal system of axioms and rules of inference should imply a true unprovable statement. Actually this fundamental principle can be efficiently applicable in Computational Mathematics and Complexity Theory concerning the computational complexity of problems from the class NP, particularly and especially the NP-complete ones. While there is a wide set of algorithms for these problems that we call heuristic, the correctness or/and complexity of each concrete algorithm (or the probability of its correct and polynomial-time work) on a class of instances is often too difficult to determine, although we may also assume the existence of a variety of algorithms for NP-complete problems that are both correct and polynomial-time on all the instances from a given class (where the given problem remains NP-complete), but whose correctness or/and polynomial-time complexity on the class is impossible to prove as an example for Gödel's theorems. However, supposedly such algorithms should possess a certain complicatedness of processing the input data and treat it in a certain algebraically “entangled” manner. The same algorithmic analysis in fact concerns all the other significant problems and subclasses of NP, such as the graph isomorphism problem and its associated complexity class GI.
The following short article offers a couple of algebraically entangled polynomial-time algorithms for the graph isomorphism and clique problems whose correctness is yet to be determined either empirically or through attempting to find proofs.
Besides, the paper contains a description of an equation system for elements of a set of groups (which can also be interpreted as an algebraic equation system) that can be polynomial-time reduced to a graph isomorphism problem and, in the same time, is a non-linear extension of a system of modular linear equations where each equation has its own modulus (hence implying the question whether it’s NP-complete).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[115] **viXra:1903.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-16 04:33:43*

**Authors:** Roman Galay

**Comments:** 12 Pages. The following short article offers a couple of algebraically entangled polynomial-time algorithms for the graph isomorphism and clique problems whose correctness is yet to be determined either empirically or through attempting to find proofs.

As it follows from Gödel's incompleteness theorems, any consistent formal system of axioms and rules of inference should imply a true unprovable statement. Actually this fundamental principle can be efficiently applicable in Computational Mathematics and Complexity Theory concerning the computational complexity of problems from the class NP, particularly and especially the NP-complete ones. While there is a wide set of algorithms for these problems that we call heuristic, the correctness or/and complexity of each concrete algorithm (or the probability of its correct and polynomial-time work) on a class of instances is often too difficult to determine, although we may also assume the existence of a variety of algorithms for NP-complete problems that are both correct and polynomial-time on all the instances from a given class (where the given problem remains NP-complete), but whose correctness or/and polynomial-time complexity on the class is impossible to prove as an example for Gödel's theorems. However, supposedly such algorithms should possess a certain complicatedness of processing the input data and treat it in a certain algebraically “entangled” manner. The same algorithmic analysis in fact concerns all the other significant problems and subclasses of NP, such as the graph isomorphism problem and its associated complexity class GI.
The following short article offers a couple of algebraically entangled polynomial-time algorithms for the graph isomorphism and clique problems whose correctness is yet to be determined either empirically or through attempting to find proofs.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[114] **viXra:1903.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-07 08:01:52*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In portuguese.

Introducing the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic we presented original proofs of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. These proofs don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[113] **viXra:1903.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-19 11:15:07*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In portuguese.

Introducing the concepts of variable languages and languages with semantic we presented an original proof of the famous P versus NP problem of Computer Science. This proof don't implies that the NP-complete problems not belongs to P, so the P versus NP-complete problem remains open, as well as it is possible (perhaps) to solve the SAT problem in polynomial time.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[112] **viXra:1903.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-09 07:17:41*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. In Portuguese.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[111] **viXra:1903.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-05 18:30:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Yet in Portuguese.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[110] **viXra:1902.0380 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-19 11:12:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In portuguese.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[109] **viXra:1902.0380 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-24 10:26:32*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Yet in portuguese.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[108] **viXra:1902.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-11 16:18:47*

**Authors:** Hugh Wang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists 3-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, 3-SAT is not in P, and therefore P!=NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[107] **viXra:1902.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-11 09:48:52*

**Authors:** Hugh Wang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists 3-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, 3-SAT is not in P, and therefore P!=NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[106] **viXra:1901.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-23 06:58:33*

**Authors:** Shiran Avasker, Alexander Domoshnitsky, Max Kogan, Oleg Kupervaser, Hennadii Kutomanov, Yonatan Rofsov, Roman Yavich

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this report we describe correct operation of autopilot for supply correct drone flight. There exists noticeable delay in getting information about position and orientation of a drone to autopilot in the presence of vision-based navigation. In spite of this fact, we demonstrate that it is possible to provide stable flight at a constant height in a vertical plane. We describe how to form relevant controlling signal for autopilot in the case of the navigation information delay and provide control parameters for particular case of flight.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[105] **viXra:1901.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-23 15:02:23*

**Authors:** Krystian Zawistowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. fixed some typos

We propose an O(n log n) algorithm for evaluation of bivariate Kolmogorov- Smirnov statistics (n is number of samples). It offers few orders of magnitude of speedup over existing implementations for n > 100k samples of input. The algorithm is based on static Binary Search Trees and sweep algorithm. We share C++ implementation with Python bindings.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[104] **viXra:1901.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-04 08:13:14*

**Authors:** Krystian Zawistowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. fixed typos in abstract.

We propose an O(n log n) algorithm for evaluation of bivariate Kolmogorov- Smirnov statistics (n is number of samples). It offers few orders of magnitude of speedup over existing implementations for n > 100k samples of input. The algorithm is based on static Binary Search Trees and sweep algorithm. We share C++ implementation with Python bindings.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[103] **viXra:1812.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-02 14:44:32*

**Authors:** Rishab Bhattacharyya, Aditya Das, Atanu Majumdar, Pramit Ghosh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most disruptive technologies now- adays which can efficiently connect, control and manage intelligent objects those are connected to the Internet. IoT based applications like smart education, smart agriculture, smart health-care, smart homes etc which can deliver services with- out manual intervention and in a more effective manner. In this work, we have proposed a IoT based smart home automation system using a micro-controller based Arduino board and mobile based Short Message service (SMS) application working functionality. Wi connectivity has been used to establish the communi- cation between the Arduino module and automated home appliances. We have proposed a real-time scheduling strategy that offers a novel communication pro- tocol to control the home environment with the switching functionality. Our sim- ulation results show that the proposed strategy is quite capable to achieve high performance with different simulation scenarios.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[102] **viXra:1811.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-05 06:35:15*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages. fix typos and clarify

We prove that class P ≠ class co-NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[101] **viXra:1807.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-14 00:25:56*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. A primeira versão deste artigo foi meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

Usando um novo conceito de linguagem variável, já provei anteriormente que P ≠ NP, mas tal prova não utilizou nenhum dos problemas clássicos conhecidos como NP-completos, a exemplo de SAT (satisfatibilidade, satisfiability), caixeiro-viajante (travelling-salesman), soma de subconjunto (subset-sum), da mochila (knapsack), programação linear inteira (integer linear programming), etc. Tal prova não implica que sendo P ≠ NP então devemos ter NP-completo ∉ P, ou seja, os mencionados famosos problemas difíceis podem ainda ser resolvidos em tempo polinomial, sem precisar encerrar a pesquisa nesta direção. Tal como ocorre com o método simplex, que pode resolver em tempo polinomial a grande maioria dos problemas de programação linear, também é possível resolver SAT em tempo polinomial na maioria das vezes, que é o que eu mostro neste trabalho.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[100] **viXra:1807.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-09 13:48:59*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. A primeira versão deste artigo foi meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

Usando um novo conceito de linguagem variável, já provei anteriormente que P≠NP, mas tal prova não utilizou nenhum dos problemas clássicos conhecidos como NP-completos, a exemplo de SAT (satisfatibilidade, satisfiability), caixeiro-viajante (travelling-salesman), soma de subconjuntos (subset-sum), da mochila (knapsack), programação linear inteira (integer linear programming), etc. Tal prova não implica que sendo P≠NP então devemos ter NP-completo ∉P, ou seja, os mencionados famosos problemas difíceis podem ainda ser resolvidos em tempo polinomial, sem precisar encerrar a pesquisa nesta direção. Tal como ocorre com o método simplex, que pode resolver em tempo polinomial a grande maioria dos problemas de programação linear, também é possível resolver SAT em tempo polinomial na maioria das vezes, que é o que eu mostro neste trabalho.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[99] **viXra:1807.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-20 12:41:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. A primeira versão deste artigo foi meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

Usando um novo conceito de linguagem variável, já provei anteriormente que P≠NP, mas tal prova não utilizou nenhum dos problemas clássicos conhecidos como NP-completos, a exemplo de SAT (satisfatibilidade, satisfiability), caixeiro-viajante (travelling-salesman), soma de subconjuntos (subset-sum), da mochila (knapsack), programação linear inteira (integer linear programming), etc. Tal prova não implica que sendo P≠NP então devemos ter NP-completo ∉P, ou seja, os mencionados famosos problemas difíceis podem ainda ser resolvidos em tempo polinomial, sem precisar encerrar a pesquisa nesta direção. Tal como ocorre com o método simplex, que pode resolver em tempo polinomial a grande maioria dos problemas de programação linear, também é possível resolver SAT em tempo polinomial na maioria das vezes, que é o que eu mostro neste trabalho.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[98] **viXra:1807.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-12 18:01:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. A primeira versão deste artigo foi meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[97] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 02:39:44*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[96] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 13:36:30*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[95] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 18:50:42*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using sorting keys, we prove that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[94] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 18:57:08*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 05:21:23*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[92] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 14:08:46*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[91] **viXra:1802.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-23 01:14:55*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Karin Meyer, Bruce Tier

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A QR algorithm was designed using sparse matrix techniques for likelihood evaluation in REML. The efficiency of the algorithm depends on how the order of columns in the mixed model array are arranged. Three heuristic orderings were considered. The QR algorithm was tested successfully in likelihood evaluation, but vector processing was needed to finish the procedure because of excess fill-ins. The improvements made for the QR algorithm also applied to the competing absorption approach, and hence absorption was found to be more competitive than the QR algorithm in terms of computing time and memory requirements. Absorption was made 52 times faster than a first generation absorption algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[90] **viXra:1802.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-26 18:26:23*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. New system (algorithm) settlement of sports competitions called R-Sport (in Polish).

Celem rozgrywek sportowych jest wyłonienie spośród grupy drużyn, bądź zawodników, drużyny najlepszej, czyli mistrza. Dlatego pomiędzy poszczególnymi drużynami muszą zostać rozegrane mecze. O tym, kto zostanie mistrzem decydują wyniki wszystkich spotkań. Zasady obowiązujące w trakcie sezonu tworzą System Rozgrywek Sportowych.
W dokumencie tym został opisany nowy System Rozgrywek Sportowych. System ten pozwala na sprawiedliwe i efektywne wyłonienie zwycięzcy całego sezonu. Posiada on zalety, których nie posiadają inne, znane i stosowane obecnie Systemy Rozgrywek Sportowych.
R-Sport jest Systemem Rozgrywek Sportowych, który pozwala przeprowadzić rozgrywki ligowe na wiele sposobów.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[89] **viXra:1712.0407 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 01:10:10*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Minor corrections

In this paper, ellipsoid method for linear programming is derived using only minimal knowledge of algebra and matrices.
Unfortunately, most authors first describe the algorithm, then later prove its correctness, which requires a good knowledge of linear algebra.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[88] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-18 07:09:12*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a non-comparison based sorting algorithm with average case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[87] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 12:58:56*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Hi though sorting is one of the vastly researched area, this paper brings out the best time complexity of them all. My linkedin profile is as follows http://linkedin.com/in/sathish-kumar-b7434579. Please feel free to post your queries.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with average case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[86] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 10:00:49*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Hi though sorting is one of the vastly researched area, this paper brings out the best time complexity of them all. My linkedin profile is as follows http://linkedin.com/in/sathish-kumar-b7434579. Please feel free to post your queries.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with worst case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] **viXra:1708.0373 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-25 09:30:51*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Fischl, Georg Gottlob, Reinhard Pichler

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The authors have recently shown that recognizing low fractional hypertree-width (fhw) is NP-complete
in the general case and that the problem becomes tractable if the hypergraphs under consideration have degree and intersection width bounded by a constant, i.e., every vertex is contained in only constantly many different edges and the intersection of two edges contains only constantly many vertices. In this article, we show that bounded degree alone suffices to ensure tractability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[84] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-09 14:43:44*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Changed Moore's Law from "<" to ">" and changed Fait Accompli to Compte Rendu

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[83] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 22:49:05*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Changed Moore's Law from "<" to ">".

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[82] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 04:03:46*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Cambria Math font

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[81] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-27 17:15:18*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, I investigate a prefix-free universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Omega, the system will follow many laws analogous to the laws of physics. As the scheduler maximizes entropy, the result relies on algorithmic thermodynamics which connects the halting probability of a prefix-free UTM to the Gibb's ensemble of statistical physics (which also maximizes entropy). My goal with this paper is to show specifically, that special relativity and general relativity can be derived from algorithmic thermodynamics under a certain choice of thermodynamic observables applied to the halting probability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[80] **viXra:1707.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-13 18:09:20*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The bordering method of the Cholesky decomposition is backward differentiated to derive a method of calculating first derivatives. The result is backward differentiated again and an algorithm for calculating second derivatives results. Applying backward differentiation twice also generates an algorithm for conducting forward differentiation. The differentiation methods utilize three main modules: a generalization of forward substitution for calculating the forward derivatives; a generalization of backward substitution for calculating the backward derivatives; and an additional module involved with the calculation of second derivatives. Separating the methods into three modules lends itself to optimization where software can be developed for special cases that are suitable for sparse matrix manipulation, vector processing and/or blocking strategies that utilize matrix partitions. Surprisingly, the same derivative algorithms fashioned for the Cholesky decomposition of a positive definite matrix can be used again for matrices that are indefinite. The only differences are very minor adjustments involving an initialization step that leads into backward differentiation and a finalization step that follows forward differentiation.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[79] **viXra:1707.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-11 13:15:48*

**Authors:** Theophanes Raptis

**Comments:** 47 Pages. Typo correction in eq. (29a-b) and (35a-b)

We utilize a previously reported methodological framework [5], to find a general set of mappings for any satisfiability (SAT) problem to a set of arithmetized codes allowing a classification hierarchy enumerable via integer partition functions. This reveals a unique unsatisfiability criterion via the introduction of certain universal indicator functions associating the validity of any such problem with a mapping between Mersenne integers and their complements in an inclusive hierarchy of exponential intervals. Lastly, we present means to reduce the complexity of the original problem to that of a special set of binary sequences and their bit block analysis via a reduction of any expression to a type of a Sequential Dynamical System (SDS) using the technique of clause equalization. We specifically notice the apparent analogy of certain dynamical properties behind such problems with resonances and coherencies of multi-periodic systems leading to the possibility of certain fast analog or natural implementations of dedicated SAT-machines. A Matlab toolbox is also offered as additional aid in exploring certain simple examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms