Data Structures and Algorithms

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[177] viXra:1608.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 03:30:25

Hamiltonian Paths in Graphs

Authors: Atul Mehta
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the connections between graphs and Turing machines. A method to construct Turing machines from a general undirected graph is provided. Determining whether a Hamiltonian cycle does exist is now shown to be equivalent to solving the halting problem. A modified version of Turing machines is now developed to solve certain classes of computational problems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[176] viXra:1608.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 11:20:24

Computer Information Library Clusters

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on creating generalized and hybrid set and library with neutrosophy and quad-stage method, this paper presents the concept of "computer information library clusters" (CILC). There are various ways and means to form CILC. For example, CILC can be considered as the "total-library", and consists of several "sub-libraries". As another example, in CILC, a "total-library" can be set up, and a number of "sub-libraries" are side by side with the "total-library". Specially, for CILC, the operation functions can be added; for example, according to "natural science computer information library clusters" (natural science CILC), and applying "variation principle of library (or sub-library)", “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far” with different degrees can be established. Referring to the concept of “natural science CILC”, the concepts of “social science CILC”, “natural science and social science CILC”, and the like, can be presented. While, referreing to the concept of “computer information library clusters”, the concepts of “computer and non-computer information library clusters”, “earth information library clusters”, “solar system information library clusters”, “Milky Way galaxy information library clusters”, “universe information library clusters”, and the like, can be presented.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[175] viXra:1608.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 15:04:41

Asymmetric Quicksort

Authors: Leorge Takeuchi
Comments: 16 Pages.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant, deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well- known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[174] viXra:1608.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 22:35:27

A 0-1 Integer Programming Algorithm:

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 10 Pages.

Documented is an algorithm, It is intimately related to a question about piecewise linear cobordisms. IF the conjecture is true then this algorithm is polynomial time. IF it is not, the this algorithm "might be" but probably won't be. Contact a local topologist for updates in this computational crisis.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[173] viXra:1607.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:42:26

Technologies to Support, Enhance and Protect Social Networking Freedoms During Periods of Social Unrest and Political Disruption

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 22 Pages.

We address the topic of internet and communications integrity and continuity during times of social unrest and disturbance where a variety of actions can lead to short-term or long-term disruption of conventional, public and private internet and wireless networks. The internet disruptions connected with WikiLeaks in 2010, those in Egypt and Libya during protests and revolution commencing in January of 2011, and long-standing controls upon internet access and content imposed within China and other nations, are considered as specific and contemporary examples. We examine alternatives that have been proposed by which large numbers of individuals can maintain “connectivity without borders.” We review the strengths and weaknesses of such alternatives, the countermeasures that can be employed against such connectivity, and a number of innovative measures that can be used to overcome such countermeasures.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[172] viXra:1607.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 09:09:27

P vs NP ... Are They Same ?

Authors: Hemant Pandey
Comments: 13 Pages. With drawl paper due to technical reasons.

P vs NP is possibly one of the most crucial problems’s of our era owing to the fact that it directly affects one of the most 8 basic things of our modern day survival, the Internet security. The proof will be surely a big blow to the RSA ciphering– 9 deciphering technology but it the way it is! Genuine apologies for P = NP. As for as mathematical gain is concern it is a 10 result that opens a search for solution of those 300 plus NP complete problems and much more. The present proof resolves 11 P = NP by the solution of NP complete Hamiltonians path problem in polynomial time. The proof is using topology and 12 simple geometry. Hence P = NP; solved for the Hamiltonians path problem or Traveling salesman problem as it is called 13 so. NP complete Hamiltonian’s path problem has a polynomial time solution, i.e. P =CN 4 for HPP. 14 2006 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[171] viXra:1607.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 15:52:42

Kalman Folding 4: Streams and Observables

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 11 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. In that paper, all examples folded over arrays in memory for convenience and repeatability. That is an example of developing filters in a friendly environment. Here, we prototype a couple of less friendly environments and demonstrate exactly the same Kalman accumulator function at work. These less friendly environments are - lazy streams, where new observations are computed on demand but never fully realized in memory, thus not available for inspection in a debugger - asynchronous observables, where new observations are delivered at arbitrary times from an external source, thus not available for replay once consumed by the filter
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[170] viXra:1607.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 08:03:25

Multistep Transformation Method for Discrete and Continuous Time Enzyme Kinetics

Authors: Z. Vosika, G. Lazović
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we develop the new physicalmathematical time scale kinetic approach-model applied on organic and non-organic particles motion. Concretely, here, at first, this new research approach is based on enzyme particles dynamics results. At the beginning, a time scale is defined to be an arbitrary closed subset of the real numbers R, with the standard inherited topology. Mathematical examples of time scales include real numbers R, natural numbers N, integers Z, the Cantor set (i.e. fractals), and any finite union of closed intervals of R. Calculus on time scales (TSC) was established in 1988 by Stefan Hilger. TSC, by construction, is used to describe the complex process. This method may utilized for description of physical (classical mechanics), material (crystal growth kinetics, physical chemistry kinetics - for example, kinetics of barium-titanate synthesis), (bio)chemical or similar systems and represents major challenge for contemporary scientists. In this sense, the MichaelisMenten (MM) mechanism is the one of the best known and simplest nonlinear biochemical network which deserves appropriate attention. Generally speaking, such processes may be described of discrete time scale. Reasonably it could be assumed that such a scenario is possible for MM mechanism. In this work, discrete time MM kinetics (dtMM) with time various step h, is investigated. Instead of the first derivative by time used first backward difference h. Physical basics for new time scale approach is a new statistical thermodynamics, natural generalization of Tsallis non-extensive or similar thermodynamics. A reliable new algorithm of novel difference transformation method, namely multi-step difference transformation method (MSDETM) for solving system of nonlinear ordinary difference equations is proposed. If h tends to zero, MSDETM transformed into multi-step differential transformation method (MSDTM). In the spirit of TSC, MSDETM describes analogously MSDTM.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[169] viXra:1607.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 09:50:50

Kalman Folding 5: Non-Linear Models and the EKF

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 11 Pages.

We exhibit a foldable Extended Kalman Filter that internally integrates non-linear equations of motion with a nested fold of generic integrators over lazy streams in constant memory. Functional form allows us to switch integrators easily and to diagnose filter divergence accurately, achieving orders of magnitude better speed than the source example from the literature. As with all Kalman folds, we can move the vetted code verbatim, without even recompilation, from the lab to the field.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[168] viXra:1607.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 09:52:55

Kalman Folding 7: A Small Streams Library

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 9 Pages.

In Kalman Folding 5: Non-Linear Models and the EKF, we present an Extended Kalman Filter as a fold over a lazy stream of observations that uses a nested fold over a lazy stream of states to integrate non-linear equations of motion. In Kalman Folding 4: Streams and Observables, we present a handful of stream operators, just enough to demonstrate Kalman folding over observables. In this paper, we enrich the collection of operators, adding takeUntil, last, and map. We then show how to use them to integrate differential equations in state-space form in two different ways and to generate test cases for the non-linear EKF from paper 5.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[167] viXra:1607.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:28:11

Kalman Folding 3: Derivations

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 14 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present mathematical derivations of the basic, static filter. These are semi-formal sketches that leave many details to the reader, but highlight all important points that must be rigorously proved. These derivations have several novel arguments and we strive for much higher clarity and simplicity than is found in most treatments of the topic.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[166] viXra:1606.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 20:27:15

Kalman Folding 2: Tracking and System Dynamics

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present a dynamic Kalman filter in the same, functional form. This filter can handle many dynamic, time-evolving applications including some tracking and navigation problems, and is easilly extended to nonlinear and non-Gaussian forms, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) respectively. Those are subjects of other papers in this Kalman-folding series. Here, we reproduce a tracking example from a well known reference, but in functional form, highlighting the advantages of that form.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[165] viXra:1606.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 14:21:33

Kalman Folding, Part 1 (Review Draft)

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Kalman filtering is commonplace in engineering, but less familiar to software developers. It is the central tool for estimating states of a model, one observation at a time. It runs fast in constant memory. It is the mainstay of tracking and navigation, but it is equally applicable to econometrics, recommendations, control: any application where we update models over time. By writing a Kalman filter as a functional fold, we can test code in friendly environments and then deploy identical code with confidence in unfriendly environments. In friendly environments, data are deterministic, static, and present in memory. In unfriendly, real-world environments, data are unpredictable, dynamic, and arrive asynchronously. The flexibility to deploy exactly the code that was tested is especially important for numerical code like filters. Detecting, diagnosing and correcting numerical issues without repeatable data sequences is impractical. Once code is hardened, it can be critical to deploy exactly the same code, to the binary level, in production, because of numerical brittleness. Functional form makes it easy to test and deploy exactly the same code because it minimizes the coupling between code and environment.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[164] viXra:1606.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:40:41

Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (DSAA)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[163] viXra:1606.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:29:20

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - 2

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[162] viXra:1606.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:30:06

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - Two

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[161] viXra:1606.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 00:16:12

Universal Natural Memory Embedding

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[160] viXra:1605.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 18:39:09

FPGA Programming Step by Step

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 8 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think. Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to. Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers and form the basis of many embedded systems. The first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately 10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[159] viXra:1605.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 18:44:43

FPGA Design from the Outside In

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 10 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer. This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip. When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions. In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also forces you to think through the use of each pin...
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[158] viXra:1605.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 06:12:52

Sequential Ranking Under Random Semi-Bandit Feedback

Authors: Hossein Vahabi, Paul Lagree, Claire Vernade, Olivier Cappe
Comments: 19 Pages.

In many web applications, a recommendation is not a single item sug- gested to a user but a list of possibly interesting contents that may be ranked in some contexts. The combinatorial bandit problem has been studied quite extensively these last two years and many theoretical re- sults now exist : lower bounds on the regret or asymptotically optimal algorithms. However, because of the variety of situations that can be considered, results are designed to solve the problem for a specific reward structure such as the Cascade Model. The present work focuses on the problem of ranking items when the user is allowed to click on several items while scanning the list from top to bottom.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[157] viXra:1605.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 02:37:54

Optimising Linear Seating Arrangements with a First-Principles Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Robert A. Martin
Comments: 21 Pages.

We discuss the problem of finding an optimum linear seating arrangement for a small social network, i.e. approaching the problem put forth in XKCD comic 173 – for a small social network, how can one determine the seating order in a row (e.g at the cinema) that corresponds to maximum enjoyment? We begin by improving the graphical notation of the network, and then propose a method through which the total enjoyment for a particular seating arrangement can be quantified. We then discuss genetic programming, and implement a first-principles genetic algorithm in python, in order to find an optimal arrangement. While the method did produce acceptable results, outputting an optimal arrangement for the XKCD network, it was noted that genetic algorithms may not be the best way to find such an arrangement. The results of this investigation may have tangible applications in the organising of social functions such as weddings.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[156] viXra:1605.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 01:44:47

Abordarea Ierarhizata a Deciziilor de Grup

Authors: Marian Dragoi, Ciprian Palaghianu
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, language: Romanian (abstract in English)

Group decision makers making process - an analytic hierarchy approach The paper deals with a step-wise analytic hierarchy process (AHP) applied by a group of decision makers wherein nobody has a dominant position and it is unlikely to come to terms with respect to either the weights of different objectives or expected utilities of different alternatives. One of the AHP outcomes, that is the consistency index is computed for each decision maker, for all other decision makers but that one, and for the whole group. Doing so, the group is able to assess to which extent each decision maker alters the group consistency index and a better consistency index could be achieved if the assessment procedure is being resumed by the most influential decision maker in terms of consistency. The main contribution of the new approach is the algorithm presented in as a flow chart where the condition to stop the process might be either a threshold value for the consistency index, or a given number of iterations for the group or decision maker, depending on the degree to which the targeted goal has been decomposed into conflictual objectives.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[155] viXra:1605.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 12:46:50

Cloud Computing IAAS

Authors: Slim hannachi
Comments: 133 Pages. Cloud Computer

IAAS
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[154] viXra:1605.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 07:29:37

Neutrosophic Image Retrieval with Hesitancy Degree

Authors: A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of Neutrosophic set. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[153] viXra:1605.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 04:38:44

Neutrosophic Features for Image Retrieval

Authors: A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy
Comments: 6 Pages.

The goal of an Image Retrieval System is to retrieve images that are relevant to the user's request from a large image collection. In this paper we present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain. The aim is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[152] viXra:1604.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-28 09:08:34

E-Bots Vs. P-Bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (Partial) Silence Supplementary Information :Technichal Report

Authors: Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic
Comments: 1 Page. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[151] viXra:1603.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 13:36:36

Communication Optimization of Parallel Applications in the Cloud

Authors: Carreño ED, Diener M, Cruz EHM, Navaux POA
Comments: 24 Pages.

One of the most important aspects that influences the performance of parallel applications is the speed of communication between their tasks. To optimize communication, tasks that exchange lots of data should be mapped to processing units that have a high network performance. This technique is called communication-aware task mapping and requires detailed information about the underlying network topology for an accurate mapping. Previous work on task mapping focuses on network clusters or shared memory architectures, in which the topology can be determined directly from the hardware environment. Cloud computing adds significant challenges to task mapping, since information about network topologies is not available to end users. Furthermore, the communication performance might change due to external factors, such as different usage patterns of other users. In this paper, we present a novel solution to perform communication- aware task mapping in the context of commercial cloud environments with multiple instances. Our proposal consists of a short profiling phase to discover the network topology and speed between cloud instances. The profiling can be executed before each application start as it causes only a negligible overhead. This information is then used together with the communication pattern of the parallel application to group tasks based on the amount of communication and to map groups with a lot of communication between them to cloud instances with a high network performance. In this way, application performance is increased, and data traffic between instances is reduced. We evaluated our proposal in a public cloud with a variety of MPI-based parallel benchmarks from the HPC domain, as well as a large scientific application. In the experiments, we observed substantial performance improvements (up to 11 times faster) compared to the default scheduling policies.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[150] viXra:1603.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-07 05:49:11

Variables Languages in Time and the Problem P x NP

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[149] viXra:1603.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 18:18:57

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v1

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be re-examined.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[148] viXra:1603.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 18:32:49

Two Problems Proving P <> NP

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be reviewed.

Is proved that P ≠ NP, showing 2 problems that are executed in constant complexity time O(1) in a nondeterministic algorithm, but in exponential complexity time related to the length of the input (input size) in a deterministic algorithm. These algorithms are essentially simple, so they can not have a significant reduction in its complexity, what could cause the proofs shown here to become invalid.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[147] viXra:1603.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 18:45:49

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v2

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be re-examined. It is an enhancement over version 1.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[146] viXra:1603.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 18:59:21

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v3

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be reviewed.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[145] viXra:1603.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 19:18:09

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v4

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be re-examined. It is an enhancement over version 3.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[144] viXra:1602.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 10:52:47

Social Networks Based e-Learning Systems Via Review of Recommender Systems Techniques

Authors: A. A. Salama, M.M.Eisa, S.A.EL-Hafeez, M.M. Lotfy
Comments: 28 Pages.

e-Learning has turned to be a necessity for everyone, as it enables continuous and life-long education. Learners are social by nature. They want to connect to othersand share the same interests. Online communities are important to help and encourage learners to continue education. Learners through social capabilities can share different experiences.Social networks are cornerstone for e-Learning. However, alternatives are many. Learners might get lost in the tremendous learning resources that are available. It is the role of recommender systems to help learners find their own way through e-Learning. We present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[143] viXra:1602.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-20 09:00:12

Thoughts about Modular Programming

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Modular programming is a very efficient way of system creation. By reducing the number of relevant relations the method diminishes the complexity of configuring and supporting modular systems. The method uses the available resources in an optimal way. The current way of software generation uses an object oriented way of system construction that does not encapsulate the objects, such that their internals are effectively hidden and guarded against obstructive access by external objects. This paper introduces a new way of notation that enforces this encapsulation. Many programming languages already implement part of the required methodology. An example is the razor language. This paper extends these ideas to a modular way of programming. The approach makes from every relational database a modular database and from every file system a modular file system. It makes from every communication service a modular communication service and it standardizes programming such that reuse can be optimized in a global way. It will improve the robustness and reliability of software and enables to a large extent automated system configuration.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[142] viXra:1602.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 18:19:36

Woodcoin a Peer to Peer Electronic Currency Designed for Stability and Longevity

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 4 Pages. Published Oct. 2014

We outline here the design considerations and implementation of woodcoin, in particular those which separate it from other cryptocurrencies. Woodcoin is a cryptocurrency very much like bitcoin. However the design of bitcoin explicitly models a non-renewable resource: gold. For woodcoin we more closely model a sustainable resource. In particular woodcoin avoids the time asymmetries of the bitcoin release model, maximizing the incentive to participate and the longevity of the coin at the same time. Our solution is logarithmic growth of the money supply. In addition, we outline the design considerations behind two other changes to the core protocol: mining with the Skein hash function and securing digital ownership with the X9_prime256v1 curve using ECDSA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[141] viXra:1602.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 10:52:44

Non-Newtonian ai for Solving NP-Complete Problems.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 11 Pages.

A new kind of dynamics for simulations based upon quantum-classical hybrid is discussed. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen potentials. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum- inspired information processing. In this paper, the retrieval of stored items from an exponentially large unsorted database is performed by quantum-inspired resonance using polynomial resources due to quantum-like superposition effect.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[140] viXra:1601.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-24 10:49:06

Sisyphus Work

Authors: Pavlova Sobakevich
Comments: 2 Pages.

We show that Albert Camus was right when depicting modern people work as a Sisypus work. Data structures and algorithms can be used in different directions. One direciton is to create imitation of a "work" by this raising the suffer and noise of everyone. Another direction is to not imitate any work because no one can walk against the river too long but rather go straight to the point - lessening suffer and then raising the pleasure. In ther words, the first thing should be always first: pamper yourself and then help others. It was needed to pass several thousands years till it is now proved mathematically so that there is no one now who can create so much chaotical noise in the people's mind and vision of the reality that noone sees anything anymore. This article is a cleaning instrument that helps to overcome this confuse happened due to a mischief. Dr. Watson (recall computer project called Watson) can learn from Sherlock and do not seat in prostration anymore. If any questions Dr. Watson the address of Sherlock: B 221.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[139] viXra:1601.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 18:07:24

Information = Energy

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Richard P. Feynman in His book "Six easy steps" was telling about energy supplies in the nature and finally He wrote “Therefore it is up to the physicists to figure out how to liberate us from the need for having energy. It can be done”. This article suggests a way for such liberation. The opposite is well-known - the delta of information is always a money that used only for one goal - create more money. "Those who own the delta of information own the World".
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[138] viXra:1601.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:08:59

Preserving Privacy in Data Mining using Data Distortion Approach

Authors: Mrs. Prachi Karandikar, Sachin Deshpande
Comments: 8 Pages.

Data mining, the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases, is nothing but discovering hidden value in the data warehouse. Because of the increasing ability to trace and collect large amount of personal information, privacy preserving in data mining applications has become an important concern. Data distortion is one of the well known techniques for privacy preserving data mining. The objective of these data perturbation techniques is to distort the individual data values while preserving the underlying statistical distribution properties. These techniques are usually assessed in terms of both their privacy parameters as well as its associated utility measure. In this paper, we are studying the use of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) with sparseness constraints for data distortion.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[137] viXra:1601.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:10:00

Secured Transfer of Messages Against Malicious Attacks Using Efficient Algorithm

Authors: F. Emily Manoz, Priya, P.s. Ramesh, B.shanthi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a new class of networking technology .When we use sensor network in brutal environment, security is most important concern. The technology may face against various attacks. These attacks produce vulnerability against authentication, confidentiality and trustworthiness. This paper introduces an adaptive method for securing the transformation of messages in wireless sensor networks in the harsh environment. The light weight protocols are highly suitable for achieving authentication. The efficient matching algorithm will be used for performing packet matching and also it detects the malicious attack efficiently within the transformation of data. Finally, the encryption/decryption algorithm secures our original data.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[136] viXra:1601.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:12:21

Human Head Effects on the Planar Inverted-F Antenna Performances

Authors: Saida Ibnyaich, Raefat Jalila El Bakouchi, Samira Chabaa, Abdelilah Ghammaz, Moha M’rabet Hassani
Comments: 8 Pages.

With the current expansion and the anticipated further increase in the use of cellular telephones and other wireless communication devices, considerable research effort is devoted to investigations of interactions between antennas on handsets and the human body. This interaction significantly changes the antenna characteristics from that in free space or even on the device (handset, laptop). In this paper and in order to study this problem, firstly a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) was designed and simulated to operate over the frequency 2,45 GHz , then the influence of the human head on the return loss and on the radiation efficiency of the antenna has been studied.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[135] viXra:1601.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:13:17

Study of Route Reconstruction Mechanism in DSDV Based Routing Protocols

Authors: Sharma Shelja, Kumar Suresh, Rathy R. K.
Comments: 13 Pages.

Ad hoc networks are infrastructure-less collection of mobile nodes, characterized by wireless links, dynamic topology and ease of deployment. Proactive routing protocols maintain the network topology information in the form of routing Tables, by periodically exchanging the routing information. Mobility of nodes leads to frequent link breaks, resulting in loss of communication and thus the Information in the Table may become stale after some time. DSDV routing protocol follows proactive approach for routing and uses stale routes in case of link break, which is the major cause of its low performance as mobility increases. We have focused on two variants of DSDV namely Eff-DSDV and I-DSDV, which deals with the broken link reconstruction and discussed in these protocols, the process of route reconstruction due to broken links. To analyze this route reconstruction mechanism, we have used a terrain of size 700m × 800 m with 8 nodes placed randomly. Analysis shows that both Eff-DSDV & I-DSDV, perform better than DSDV in Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss with slight increase in Routing Overheads.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[134] viXra:1601.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:14:17

Synthesizable Implementation of Safety Fuzzy Logic Controller of 1oo2 Architecture in Fpga

Authors: Mohammed Bsiss, Amami Benaissa
Comments: 8 Pages.

Currently, the achievements of security systems is becoming more and more ground in different areas not only through the development of new technologies of programmable circuits, with the ability to achieve very complex systems in a single chip but thanks also a common and coherent organization of the different safety standard.This paper describes the implementation for a safety fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) on the basis of Safety Norm 61508. The SFLC is programmed with the hardware description language VHDL and implemented in FPGA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[133] viXra:1601.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:15:09

Vectored Interrupt Controller Implementation of Advanced Bus Architecture on FPGA

Authors: Vasanth H, Dr.A.R.Aswath
Comments: 8 Pages.

Interrupt controller is designed with the concept of priority based selection of peripherals which requires immediate attention or service. Here AHB is optimized to interface with VIC to initiate data transfer on the AHB. Both read and write cycles are designed with AHB bus.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[132] viXra:1601.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:15:59

A Comparative Analysis of GA-PID, Fuzzy and PID for Water Bath System

Authors: Sarita Rani, Sanju Saini, Sanjeeta Rani
Comments: 6 Pages.

Temperature is a very important parameter in industrial production. Recently, lots of researches have been investigated for the temperature control system based on various control strategies. This paper presents the comparison of GA-PID, fuzzy and PID for temperature control of water bath system. Different control schemes namely PID, PID tuning using Genetic Algorithms(GA-PID), and Fuzzy Logic Control, have been compared through experimental studies with respect to set-points regulation, influence of impulse noise and sum of absolute error. The new algorithm based on GA-PID improve the performance of the system. Also, it's fit for the complicated variable temperature control system. The simulation results show that the validity of the proposed strategy is more effective to control temperature.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[131] viXra:1601.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:17:06

Envision of Student’s Concert Using Supervised Learning Techniques

Authors: S. Anupama Kumar, Vijayalakshmi M.N
Comments: 7 Pages.

Educational data mining is an emerging technology concerned with developing methods for exploring the various unique data that exists in the educational settings and uses them to understand the students as well as the domain in which they learn. Educational domain consists of a lot of data related to students, teachers and other learning strategies. Classification algorithms can be used on various educational data to mine the academic records. It can be used to predict student‘s outcome based on their previous academic performance. The various predictive algorithms like, C4.5, Random tree are applied on student‘s previous academic results to predict the outcome of the students in the university examination. The prediction would help the tutor in understanding the progress and attitude of the student towards the studies. It would also help them to identify the students who are constantly improving in their studies and help them to achieve a higher percentage. It also helps them to identify the underperformers so that extra effort can be taken to achieve a better result. The algorithms are analyzed based on their accuracy of predicting the result, the recall and the precision values. The accuracy of the algorithm is predicted by comparing the output generated by the algorithm with the original result obtained by the students in the university examination.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[130] viXra:1601.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:17:56

Propagation Assessment of MB-OFDM Ultrawide Band (UWB) MIMO Based Communication in Fading Channels

Authors: Affum Emmanuel, Edward Ansong
Comments: 14 Pages.

Ultra wideband (UWB) technology is one of the promising solutions for future short-range communication which has recently received a great attention by many researchers. However, interest in UWB devices prior to 2001 was primarily limited to radar systems, mainly for military applications due to bandwidth resources becoming increasingly scarce and also its interference with other commutation networks. This research work provides performance analysis of multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) UWB MIMO system in the presence of binary phase-shift keying time-hopping (BPSK-TH) UWB or BPSKDS UWB interfering transmissions under Nakagami-m and Lognormal fading channels employing various modulation schemes using MATLAB simulations. The research work indicates that it is totally impossible to predict the performance of UWB system in Lognormal channel.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[129] viXra:1601.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:32:00

Fault Tolerant Hierarchical Interconnection Network for Parallel Computers (FTH)

Authors: Rajashree Sukla, Chinmaya Kumar Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new interconnection network Fault Tolerant Hierarchical Interconnection network for parallel Computers denoted by FTH(k, 1).This network has fault tolerant hierarchical structure which overcomes the fault tolerant properties of Extended hypercube(EH).This network has low diameter, constant degree connectivity and low message traffic density in comparisons with other hypercube type networks like extended hypercube and hypercube. In this network we proposed the fault tolerant algorithm for node fault and also we introduce the hamiltonian Circuit for the proposed network FTH(k,2).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[128] viXra:1511.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-21 13:52:54

The Impact of Computer Engineering

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 6 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[127] viXra:1510.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:24:58

Secure Data Compression using Chaotic Images

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 10 Pages.

A Chaos based embedding process for textual data offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained using a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which textual data is embedded. The decryption and subsequent performance analyses reveal a high fidelity with a mean square error of around 0.0009 percent and a compression ratio increasing nonlinearly with text size, with ratio values more than 150:1 obtained for significantly large texts. Moreover, a very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[126] viXra:1510.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:36:00

Genome Data Compression using Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

Efficient techniques of Genome Data handling and storage are the need of the hour in the present genetic engineering era. The present work purports to the design and implementation of a Genome Sequence Data Compression Technique without the use of references and lookup. This is achieved by first generating a digital chaotic bit stream, formed by performing XOR operations on three square waves with mismatched frequencies. The generated bit stream is XORed with the Genome Sequence bit stream after necessary data conditioning, and the result is stored as a 2D array (image). The png format is chosen, owing to its inherent lossless properties. It is seen that the perfectly reversible operations of compression and decompression result in compression ratios of around 2.6-3.5 being achieved with absolute zero error. The use of digital chaos provides an additional layer of security, since the frequencies of the input square wave signals form a secure key, which when mismatched during decompression even by 1 percent, can result in error rates of upto 60 percent.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[125] viXra:1510.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 03:15:36

A Still Simpler Way of Introducing the Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Kurt Mehlhorn, Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 16 Pages. Also as arXiv:1510.03339 [cs.DS]

Linear programming is now included in algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for computer science majors. We show that it is possible to teach interior-point methods directly to students with just minimal knowledge of linear algebra.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[124] viXra:1510.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 09:23:57

A Secure Technique for Data Compression and Supercompression using Frequency Dependent Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

A Chaos based compression technique offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained by reshaping the signal representing a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which data from the file to be compressed is embedded. Implementation of the algorithm is carried out in MATLAB and Python platforms for various filetypes such as txt, png, pdf, mp3, 3gp and rar formats. A comparative performance analysis reveals a high fidelity with a mean square errors of less than 0.0009 percent as well as a relatively high compression ratio value of 5-6. A very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The execution times for the implementations are obtained reasonably at around 5 seconds. A new compression technique, termed ‘supercompression’ consisting of repeated application of the compression technique is proposed. A proof-of-concept implementation achieved extremely high compression ratios of around 40000. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[123] viXra:1510.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-23 09:24:11

Transformation Through Information – Secure Big Data for Men and Machines

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy
Comments: 14 Pages.

The current era of data explosion entails the necessity of high efficiency in terms of data capacity and data security. This scenario of Big Data inevitably leads to the technology of Internet of Things (IoT) in the future. The present project purports to the effective harnessing of nonlinear signal processing principles leading to enhanced security of data without compromising on capacity. The advantage of using nonlinear signal processing lies in the fact that the nonlinearity of a single NMOS transistor is able to provide robust security by generation of chaotic signals. This results in low power dissipation and simplicity of circuitry. The enhanced secure communication techniques are then studied giving importance to the phase variations in the signal and are then applied to real world information systems. Also, the possibility of introducing such techniques in conventional big data systems such as RDBMS and Hadoop are considered. After significantly demonstrating the capabilities of the nonlinear signal processing approach in terms of fidelity, capacity and robustness, the techniques are extended even further to include an Internet of Things (IoT) based environment. The implementation of nonlinear signal processing techniques to IoT based systems such as RFID are explored. At the final stage, the change in the managerial perspective required to handle the IoT dominated environment is discussed. The business level implications of such a technology shift are studied. This study of IoT is termed as “Management of Things” (MoT). The principal aim of this project is to provide a feasible, efficient, innovative yet costeffective solution to the biggest problems of the telecommunication world today – data capacity and data security. This project thus follows from the motto “Transformation through Information” and leads us gently to become effective citizens of a smarter planet.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[122] viXra:1510.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 16:01:11

Multi-label Methods for Prediction with Sequential Data

Authors: J. Read, L. Martino, J. Hollmén
Comments: 26 Pages.

The number of methods available for classification of multi-label data has increased rapidly over recent years, yet relatively few links have been made with the related task of classification of sequential data. If labels indices are considered as time indices, the problems can often be seen as equivalent. In this paper we detect and elaborate on connections between multi-label methods and Markovian models, and study the suitability of multi-label methods for prediction in sequential data. From this study we draw upon the most suitable techniques from the area and develop two novel competitive approaches which can be applied to either kind of data. We carry out an empirical evaluation investigating performance on real-world sequential-prediction tasks: electricity demand, and route prediction. As well as showing that several popular multi-label algorithms are in fact easily applicable to sequencing tasks, our novel approaches, which benefit from a unified view of these areas, prove very competitive against established methods.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[121] viXra:1509.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-27 17:00:53

Random-Resistor-Random-Temperature KLJN Key Exchange

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 8 Pages. first version

We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes, which are the generalization of the original KLJN version. The first system, the Random-Resistor (RR-) KLJN scheme is using random resistors chosen from a quasi-continuum set of resistance values. It is well known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such system could work because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements; however, it has not been addressed in publications as it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it is the second scheme, the Random-Resistor-Random-Temperature (RRRT-) KLJN key exchanger inspired by a recent paper of Vadai-Mingesz-Gingl where security was maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT-KLJN secure key exchanger scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT-KLJN system can be maintained at non-zero power flow thus the physical law guaranteeing the security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. Knowing their own resistance and temperature values, Alice and Bob can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end from the measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are 4 unknown quantities, while she can set up only 3 equations. The RRRT-KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all the existing former attacks invalid or incomplete.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[120] viXra:1509.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 04:02:48

Job Shop Scheduling Using ACO

Authors: Ms. K. Sathya Sundari
Comments: 09 Pages. Figures :4 Tables : 0, IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Job shop scheduling using ACO(Ant Colony Optimization) approach. Different heuristic information is discussed and three different ant algorithms are presented. State transition rule and pheromone updating methods are given. The concept of the new strategy is highlighted and template for ACO approach is presented.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[119] viXra:1509.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 03:45:27

Implementation of Privacy-Preserved Personalized Web Search based on Fully Homomorphic Encryption over Integers

Authors: Akhila G.S, Prasanth R.S
Comments: 7 Pages.

Using Personalized Web Search (PWS) we can improve the quality of search results in the Internet. The existing UPS based Personalized Web Searching has many drawbacks. First, there may be a chance of eavesdropping when generalized profile forwarded to the server. Second, web server is vulnerable to web attacks like URL manipulation attacks. The impact of these attacks will affect user’s personal information. So we introduce a new framework called UPES. Here, the data stored in the server-side and request from user will be in encrypted form. Fully Homomorphic Encryption over Integers (FHEI) is used for encrypting data. The experimental results show that this framework functioned in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[118] viXra:1509.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 03:56:22

Detection System Tajwid Al Quran on Image Using Bray Curtis Distance

Authors: Rizal; Fadlisyah; Muhathir; Al Muammar Akfal
Comments: 08 Pages. Figures :10 Tables : 01; IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Al Quran is the Muslim holy book written in Arabic. To read the Quran recitation necessary knowledge of the guidelines. In the context of everyday people find difficulty in recitation of the Quran. Therefore, the detection system tajwid needed to help users find the recitation of the Quran. In this study, the method of Bray Curtis Distance is used to detect the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. The test results show that the accuracy of the system is 60% to 90%. The percentage of detection rate shows that the method can be used Bray curtis as one approach to detection at the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. This system has several drawbacks that have a high false positive rate, or an error about a 40% chance. To improve the performance of this recitation detection system, can be done by providing further training with additional training data more and more varied. However, this recitation detection system does not deny the importance of teachers in learning how to read in accordance with the rules of recitation is right.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[117] viXra:1509.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-10 08:53:01

A Formula Based Approach to Arithmetic Coding

Authors: Arundale Ramanathan
Comments: 6 Pages. License: CC 4.0 Attribution

The Arithmetic Coding process involves re-calculation of intervals for each symbol that need to be encoded. This article discovers a formula based approach for calculating compressed codes and provides proof for deriving the formula from the usual approach. A spreadsheet is also provided for verification of the approach. Consequently, the similarities between Arithmetic Coding and Huffman coding are also visually illustrated.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[116] viXra:1508.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-23 01:20:59

Implementation of STL Vector Class in Reproducing Results from "An Improved Algorithm for Generation of Attack Graph Based on Virtual Performance Node" Through Random ip Determination

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Tito Waluyo Purboyo
Comments: 18 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables, supported by RIK-ITB b-II 2015

Solving problem using C++ language requiring dynamic size variable can be easier performed using STL vector class. How to reproduces statuses from the article "An Improved Algorithm for Generation of Attack Graph Based on Virtual Performance Node" is traced back in this work by implementing the vector class. A random function in C++ rand() is also used in determining IP for attacker and also the target, imitating guessing from attacker.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[115] viXra:1507.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-12 11:47:40

A (Bash) Shell Script for Creating LATEX-based Book of Abstract in Supporting SeminarPress Application Version 1.31 (July 2015)

Authors: S. Viridi, A. Suroso, F. T. Akbar, Novitrian, T. D. K. Wungu, S. Pramuditya, D. Irwanto, N. Asiah, A. Pramutadi, K. Basar, F. D. E. Latief, S. Permana, I. D. Aditya, H. Mahardika, A. H. Aimon, A. Waris, Khairurrijal
Comments: 8 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables, technical report

In preparing the 6th Asian Physics Symposium on 19-20 August 2015 in Bandung, Indonesia, a conference management system (CMS) known as SeminarPress is used. This CMS already has a lot of features but not in generating Book of Abstract (BoA) directly. In order to support the CMS a shell script named as mkboa.sh is developed and the results of executing it is discussed in this work. Some limitations due to LATEX restrictions in using some characters are also emphasized.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[114] viXra:1506.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-15 09:45:39

Viterbi Classifier Chains for Multi-Dimensional Learning

Authors: L. Martino, J. Read, F. Louzada
Comments: 11 Pages.

Multi-dimensional classification (also known variously as multi-target, multi-objective, and multi-output classification) is the supervised learning problem where an instance is associated to qualitative discrete variables (a.k.a. labels), rather than with a single class, as in traditional classification problems. Since these classes are often strongly correlated, modeling the dependencies between them allows MDC methods to improve their performance -- at the expense of an increased computational cost. A popular method for multi-label classification is the classifier chains (CC), in which the predictions of individual classifiers are cascaded along a chain, thus taking into account inter-label dependencies. Different variant of CC methods have been introduced, and many of them perform very competitively across a wide range of benchmark datasets. However, scalability limitations become apparent on larger datasets when modeling a fully-cascaded chain. In this work, we present an alternative model structure among the labels, such that the Bayesian optimal inference is then computationally feasible. The inference is efficiently performed using a Viterbi-type algorithm. As an additional contribution to the literature we analyze the relative advantages and interaction of three aspects of classifier chain design with regard to predictive performance versus efficiency: finding a good chain structure vs.a random structure, carrying out complete inference vs. approximate or greedy inference, and a linear vs. non-linear base classifier. We show that our Viterbi CC can perform best on a range of real-world datasets.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[113] viXra:1505.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-29 01:56:46

P vs NP. the Most Effective Algorithm for the Hamilton Problem.

Authors: Grzegorz Ileczko
Comments: 14 Pages.

This arcle is a short demonstraon of computaonal possibilies of the extreme effecve algorithm for the Hamilton problem. In fact, the algorithm can fast solve a few similar problems, well-known in literature as: Hamilton path Hamilton cycle and Hamilton longest path Hamilton longest cycle
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[112] viXra:1505.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-23 18:53:26

Integer Factorization is in P

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factOrization reduced to a convex polynomial-time integer minimization problem.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[111] viXra:1504.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-28 12:22:52

Spiral Hashed Information Vessel

Authors: Suraj Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, it has been tried to provide an insight into the information system of Universe as a whole comparing it with the information system in our local reference frame of observables. With the conservation of information been carried out by the SU (1) gauge symmetry group of Universe, it explains how the same information is decoded in two different ways by respective information system mentioned above. It also provide with an introduction of different information processing methodology of the Universe and how their is loss of information by different dynamical changes in Universe including red shift.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[110] viXra:1504.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 08:19:42

My-Search Algorithm to Search an Element

Authors: Bishnu Charan Behera
Comments: 2 Pages.

THIS IS A ALGORITHM WHICH HAS THE SAME TIME COMPLEXITY AS THAT OF LINEAR SEARCH OF O(n).BUT STILL IT IS BETTER THAN LINEAR SEARCH IN TERMS OF EXECUTION TIME. LET A[ ] BE THE THE ARRAY OF SOME SIZE N. IF THE ELEMENT WHICH WE WANT TO SEARCH IS AT ANY POSITION BEFORE N/2 THAN MY-SEARCH AND LINEAR-SEARCH BOTH WILL HAVE EXECUTION TIME , BUT THE MAGIC HAAPENS WHEN THE SEARCH ELEMENT IS AFTER N/2 POSITION.SUPPOSE THE ELEMENT WANT TO SEARCH IS AT Nth POSITION, THEN USING THE LINEAR SEARCH WILL FIND THE ELEMENT AFTER Nth ITERATION,BUT USING MY-SEARCH WE CAN SEARCH THE ELEMENT AFTER 1st ITERATION ITESELF. WHEN WE ARE DEALING WITH A SITUTATION WHEN SIZE IS SOMETHING 10 OR 15 ITS OK. BUT CAN YOU IMAGINE THE CASE WHEN THE SIZE IS “100000000” OR EQUIVALANENT.IF WE USE THIS LINEAR SEARCH TECHINIUQE THAN THE TOTAL EXPENDITURE YOU CAN THINK OFF TO CONTINUE THE LOOP FOR 100000000 TIMES.BUT RATHER IF USE MY-SEARCH U GET THE DESIRED SEARCH JUST AFTER 1 ITERATIONS. SO ,NOW YOU CAN IMAGINE HOW WE CAN PREVENT SUCH A BIG LOSS THROUGH MY-SEARCH. THANK YOU
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[109] viXra:1504.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 11:10:18

Single Window Performing Multiple Tax Operations

Authors: M.pooja, S.k Manigandan
Comments: 7 Pages.

This project income tax deals with computerizing the process of tax payment. The entire process of tax payment will be maintained in an automated way. The main objective of this project is to reduce the time consumption. The income tax system has been categorized into three groups according to the mode of payment to the central government, state government, and the municipality. The online tax payment system will be helpful for paying the money from anywhere and at any time. Earlier it was impossible to pay the money online using Debit card / Credit card. The main objective of our system is; we can pay the money use of Debit card / Credit card. Our project has included the concept of paying money through card number which is provided by the bank. It is very secure and easy to reimburse. Through the card security code providing secure money transaction in the system .in other hand through account number and bank name user has to pay the tax in the system. User has to viewing their tax calculation and money transaction status whether payment succeeds or not user has to monitor their entire tax calculation through the tax view module in the system. Admin login is used to login in admin side. Admin side has a security of Money Transaction and confidentiality of user information. Admin provides the security to their users. Admin view is used to view the Tax payments of the login User. Admin monitoring the user activities through admin view module.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[108] viXra:1504.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 09:40:48

“The Majority is Enough” a Rebuttal of Two Proposed Vulnerabilities of Bitcoin Mining

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 4 Pages.

About a year after Ittay Eyal published two papers claiming vulnerabilities in the bitcoin mining protocol, we have seen that the network is still strong (it has grown in hashpower many times over) and is unaffected by the supposed problems. I show here the biggest reasons the two vulnerability analyses were flawed. The attacks appear to hinder other miners who are competitors. However, both of the attacks harm the attacker's bottom line more than any harm to the competitors can emerge as profits for the attacker.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[107] viXra:1503.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 06:17:24

Geometry Inspired Algorithms for Linear Programming

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 17 pages.

In this paper we discuss some novel algorithms for linear programming inspired by geometrical considerations and use simple mathematics related to finding intersections of lines and planes. All these algorithms have a common aim: they all try to approach closer and closer to “centroid” or some “centrally located interior point” for speeding up the process of reaching an optimal solution! Imagine the “line” parallel to vector C, where CTx denotes the objective function to be optimized, and further suppose that this “line” is also passing through the “point” representing optimal solution. The new algorithms that we propose in this paper essentially try to reach at some feasible interior point which is in the close vicinity of this “line”, in successive steps. When one will be able to arrive finally at a point belonging to small neighborhood of some point on this “line” then by moving from this point parallel to vector C one can reach to the point belonging to the sufficiently small neighborhood of the “point” representing optimal solution.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[106] viXra:1503.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 19:59:36

Fusion D'images Par la Théorie de Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) en Vue D'applications en Télédétection (Thèse Doctorale)

Authors: Azeddine Elhassouny
Comments: 120 Pages.

Thèse dirigée par Pr. Driss Mammass, préparée au Laboratoire Image et Reconnaissance de Formes-Systèmes Intelligents et Communicants IRF-SIC, soutenue le 22 juin 2013, Agadir, Maroc. L'objectif de cette thèse est de fournir à la télédétection des outils automatiques de la classification et de la détection des changements d'occupation du sol utiles à plusieurs fins, dans ce cadre, nous avons développé deux méthodes générales de fusion utilisées pour la classification des images et la détection des changements utilisant conjointement l'information spatiale obtenue par la classification supervisée ICM et la théorie de Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) avec des nouvelles règles de décision pour surmonter les limites inhérentes des règles de décision existantes dans la littérature. L'ensemble des programmes de cette thèse ont été implémentés avec MATLAB et les prétraitements et visualisation des résultats ont été réalisés sous ENVI 4.0, ceci a permis d'effectuer une validation des résultats avec précision et dans des cas concrets. Les deux approches sont évaluées sur des images LANDSAT ETM+ et FORMOSAT-2 et les résultats sont prometteurs. The main objective of this thesis is to provide automatic remote sensing tools of classification and of change detection of land cover for many purposes, in this context, we have developed two general methods used for classification fusion images and change detection using joint spatial information obtained by supervised classification ICM and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) with new decision rules to overcome the limitations of decision rules existing in the literature. All programs of this thesis have been implemented in MATLAB and C language and preprocessing and visualization of results were achieved in ENVI 4.0, this has allowed for a validation of the results accurately and in concrete cases. Both approaches are evaluated on LANDSAT ETM + and FORMOSAT-2 and the results are promising.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[105] viXra:1503.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-02 20:41:52

Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion. Collected Works. Volume 4

Authors: editors Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 504 Pages.

The fourth volume on Advances and Applications of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for information fusion collects theoretical and applied contributions of researchers working in different fields of applications and in mathematics. The contributions (see List of Articles published in this book, at the end of the volume) have been published or presented after disseminating the third volume (2009, http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/DSmT-book3.pdf) in international conferences, seminars, workshops and journals. First Part of this book presents the theoretical advancement of DSmT, dealing with Belief functions, conditioning and deconditioning, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Making, Multi-Criteria, evidence theory, combination rule, evidence distance, conflicting belief, sources of evidences with different importance and reliabilities, importance of sources, pignistic probability transformation, Qualitative reasoning under uncertainty, Imprecise belief structures, 2-Tuple linguistic label, Electre Tri Method, hierarchical proportional redistribution, basic belief assignment, subjective probability measure, Smarandache codification, neutrosophic logic, Evidence theory, outranking methods, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayes fusion rule, frequentist probability, mean square error, controlling factor, optimal assignment solution, data association, Transferable Belief Model, and others. More applications of DSmT have emerged in the past years since the apparition of the third book of DSmT 2009. Subsequently, the second part of this volume is about applications of DSmT in correlation with Electronic Support Measures, belief function, sensor networks, Ground Moving Target and Multiple target tracking, Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device, Belief Interacting Multiple Model filter, seismic and acoustic sensor, Support Vector Machines, Alarm classification, ability of human visual system, Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning Evaluation Framework, Threat Assessment, Handwritten Signature Verification, Automatic Aircraft Recognition, Dynamic Data-Driven Application System, adjustment of secure communication trust analysis, and so on. Finally, the third part presents a List of References related with DSmT published or presented along the years since its inception in 2004, chronologically ordered.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[104] viXra:1502.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 04:57:01

A Swot Analysis of Instruction Sequence Theory

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 23 Pages.

After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory (IST) writing a SWOT analysis about that project is long overdue. The paper provides a comprehensive SWOT analysis of IST based on a recent proposal concerning the terminology for the theory and applications of instruction sequences.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[103] viXra:1502.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 17:47:05

A Terminology for Instruction Sequencing

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 19 Pages.

Instruction sequences play a key role in computing and have the potential of becoming more important in the conceptual development of informatics in addition to their existing role in computer technology and machine architectures. After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory a more robust and outreaching terminology is needed for it which may support further development. Instruction sequencing is the central concept around which a new family of terms and phrases is developed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[102] viXra:1502.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-05 23:42:58

Simple Proof that P=NP

Authors: Phil Ascio
Comments: 1 Page.

We shall reassess the simplex algorithm by observing an injective semi-separable morphism. Recent interest in affine, geometric functionals has centered on studying linearly n-dimensional, minimal random variables in NP. In contrast, we shall show that there exists a combinatorially Cauchy projective set acting algebraically on P to demonstrate that P=NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[101] viXra:1502.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-01 04:19:35

An Interesting Perspective to the P Versus NP Problem

Authors: Wenming Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages. This is a short and interesting paper.

We discuss the P versus NP problem from the perspective of addition operation about polynomial functions. Two contradictory propositions for the addition operation are presented. With the proposition that the sum of k (k<=n) polynomial functions on n always yields a polynomial function, we prove that P=NP, considering the maximum clique problem. However, we also get a contradiction if we accept the proposition. So, we conclude that the sum of k polynomial functions may yield a exponential function. Accepting this proposition, we prove that P!=NP by constructing an abstract decision problem.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[100] viXra:1501.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 18:32:38

A Nopreprint on Algebraic Algorithmics: Paraconsistency as an Afterthought

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 23 Pages.

Algebraic Algorithmics, a phase taken from G.E. Tseitlin, is given a specific interpretation for the line of work in the tradition of the program algebra and thread algebra. An application to algebraic algorithmics of preservationist paraconsistent reasoning in the style of chunk and permeate is suggested and discussed. In the first appendix nopreprint is coined as a tag for new a publication category, and a rationale for its use is given. In a second appendix some rationale is provided for the affiliation from which the paper is written and posted.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[99] viXra:1501.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 05:15:50

On the Completely Integrable Calogero Type Discretizations of Nonlinear Lax Integrable Dynamical Systems and the Related Markov Type co-Adjoint Orbits

Authors: Anatolij K. Prykarpatski
Comments: 7 Pages. a new approach to constructing a priori integrable discretizations of nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems

The Calogero type matrix discretization scheme is applied to constructing the Lax type integrable discretizations of one wide enough class of nonlinear integrable dynamical systems on functional manifolds. Their Lie-algebraic structure and complete integrability related with co-adjoint orbits on the Markov co-algebras is discussed. It is shown that a set of conservation laws and the associated Poisson structure ensue as a byproduct of the approach devised. Based on the Lie algebras quasi-representation property the limiting procedure of finding the nonlinear dynamical systems on the corresponding functional spaces is demonstrated.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[98] viXra:1412.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:53

General Solution of the Problem of Class (P Vs. NP).

Authors: Grzegorz Ileczko
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article demonstrates a general solution for the problems of class (P vs.NP). Peculiarly for the problems of class (P=NP). Presented solution is quite simple and can be applicable in many various areas of science. At general, (P=NP) it’s a class of problems which possess algorithmic nature. The algorithms should contains one or more of logical operations like (if...then) instruction, or Boolean operations. The proper proof for this thesis with a new formula was presented. Except formula, one proper example was presented for the problem (P=NP). Exists a lot of problems for which P class problems are equivalent with the NP problems (P=NP). Millions, I think. For example, I discovered extremely effective algorithm for the “Hamiltonian Path Problem”. Algorithm can find the proper solution for 100 cities at very short time. Solution time for old laptop is less than two seconds. Classical solution for that problem exists, but is extremely difficult and computer’s time is huge. Algorithm for the Hamilton problem, will be presented at separate article (needs more paper).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[97] viXra:1412.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-03 19:14:19

A Method of Compression Through Variability Exploitation and Bit Substitution

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright Sidharth Ghoshal

A high performance file compression algorithm
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[96] viXra:1411.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-29 06:43:39

Still Simpler Way of Introducing Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 8 Pages.

Linear Programming is now included in Algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for Computer Science majors. It is possible to teach interior-point methods directly with just minimal knowledge of Algebra and Matrices.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[95] viXra:1410.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-29 16:10:28

High Availability-Aware Optimization Digest for Applications Deployment in Cloud

Authors: Manar Jammal, Ali Kanso, Abdallah Shami
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cloud computing is continuously growing as a business model for hosting information and communication technology applications. Although on-demand resource consumption and faster deployment time make this model appealing for the enterprise, other concerns arise regarding the quality of service offered by the cloud. One major concern is the high availability of applications hosted in the cloud. This paper demonstrates the tremendous effect that the placement strategy for virtual machines hosting applications has on the high availability of the services provided by these applications. In addition, a novel scheduling technique is presented that takes into consideration the interdependencies between applications components and other constraints such as communication delay tolerance and resource utilization. The problem is formulated as a linear programming multi-constraint optimization model. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the availability of the scheduled components compared to OpenStack Nova scheduler.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[94] viXra:1410.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 17:29:34

Distances, Hesitancy Degree and Flexible Querying via Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa
Comments: 6 Pages. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance an

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] viXra:1410.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-21 10:02:06

Analysis of the Attenuator-Artifact in the Experimental Attack of Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the KLJN System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 7 Pages. first draft

After briefly summarizing our general theoretical arguments, we show that, the experienced strong information leak at the Gunn-Allison-Abbott attack [Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme, resulted from a serious design flaw of the system. The attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops. This is an illegal operation because the single loop is essential for the security, thus the observed leak is obvious. We demonstrate this by cracking the system with an elementary current comparison attack yielding close to 1 success probability for Eve even without averaging within a sub-correlation-time measurement window. A fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function, at all, due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[92] viXra:1409.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-29 21:02:39

Cellular Automaton Graphics(4)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 406 Pages.

We fill three-dimensional space up regularly using painting algorithms.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[91] viXra:1409.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 05:40:42

MetaData Visualization :

Authors: Samit Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Purposeful Information can be represented in a hierarchical manner using basic Data originating from digitally connected sources. Such hierarchical represented data highlights the precarious state .
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[90] viXra:1409.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-20 13:41:49

On KLJN-Based Secure Key Distribution in Vehicular Communication Networks

Authors: X. Cao, Y. Saez, G. Pesti, L.B. Kish
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted for publication to Fluct. Noise Lett. on September 20, 2014

In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett., 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles and give an upper limit for the lifetime of this key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[89] viXra:1409.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-10 14:26:01

Anima: Adaptive Personalized Software Keyboard

Authors: Panos Sakkos, Dimitrios Kotsakos, Ioannis Katakis, Dimitrios Gunopoulos
Comments: 4 Pages.

We present a Software Keyboard for smart touchscreen de- vices that learns its owner’s unique dictionary in order to produce personalized typing predictions. The learning pro- cess is accelerated by analysing user’s past typed communi- cation. Moreover, personal temporal user behaviour is cap- tured and exploited in the prediction engine. Computational and storage issues are addressed by dynamically forgetting words that the user no longer types. A prototype implemen- tation is available at Google Play Store.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[88] viXra:1408.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-21 18:55:42

Enhanced Usage of Keys Obtained by Physical, Unconditionally Secure Distributions

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 3 Pages. submitted for publication

Unconditionally secure physical key distribution is very slow whenever it is undoubtedly secure. Thus it is practically impossible to use a one-time-pad based cipher to guarantee perfect security be-cause using the key bits more than once gives out statistical information, such as via the known-plain-text-attack or by utilizing known components of the protocol and language statistics. Here we outline a protocol that seems to reduce this problem and allows a near-to-one-time-pad based communication with unconditionally secure physical key of finite length. The unconditionally secure physical key is not used for communication; it is use for a secure communication to generate and share a new software-based key without known-plain-text component, such as keys shared via the Diffie-Hellmann-Merkle protocol. This combined physical/software key distribution based communication looks favorable compared to the physical key based communication when the speed of the physical key distribution is much slower than that of the software-based key distribution. The security proof of this scheme is yet an open problem.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[87] viXra:1408.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 13:06:44

Facts, Myths and Fights About the KLJN Classical Physical Key Exchanger

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen
Comments: 4 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[86] viXra:1408.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-08 23:27:58

Trillion by Trillion Matrix Inverse: not Actually that Crazy

Authors: Alexander Fix, Misha Collins
Comments: 3 Pages.

A trillion by trillion matrix is almost unimaginably huge, and finding its inverse seems to be a truly im- possible task. However, given current trends in com- puting, it may actually be possible to achieve such a task around 2040 — if we were willing to devote the the entirety of human computing resources to a single computation. Why would we want to do this? Perhaps, as Mallory said of Everest: “Because it’s there”.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] viXra:1407.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 21:22:50

Cellular Automaton Graphics(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 92 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(3).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[84] viXra:1407.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-08 22:02:18

Polynomial Time Integer Factorization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a convex polynomial-time integer minimization problem
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[83] viXra:1407.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-01 21:16:24

A Lower Bound of 2^n Conditional Jumps for Boolean Satisfiability on A Random Access Machine

Authors: Samuel C. Hsieh
Comments: 13 Pages.

We establish a lower bound of $2^n$ conditional jumps for deciding the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from a set called a full representation of Boolean functions of n variables - a set containing a Boolean formula to represent each Boolean function of n variables. The contradiction proof first assumes that there exists a RAM program that correctly decides the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from such a set by following an execution path that includes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. By using multiple runs of this program, with one run for each Boolean function of n variables, the proof derives a contradiction by showing that this program is unable to correctly decide the satisfiability of the conjunction of at least one pair of Boolean formulas from a full representation of n-variable Boolean functions if the program executes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. This lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps holds for any full representation of Boolean functions of n variables, even if a full representation consists solely of minimized Boolean formulas derived by a Boolean minimization method. We discuss why the lower bound fails to hold for satisfiability of certain restricted formulas, such as 2CNF satisfiability, XOR-SAT, and HORN-SAT. We also relate the lower bound to 3CNF satisfiability.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[82] viXra:1406.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-16 18:39:38

Methodology for Sensor Data Forecast.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 46 Pages.

One of the fundamental objectives of mathematical modeling is to interpret past and present, and, based upon this interpretation, to predict future. The use at time t of available observations from a time series to forecast its value at some future time t+l can provide basis for 1) model reconstruction, 2) model verification, 3) anomaly detection, 4) data monitoring, 5) adjustment of the underlying physical process. Forecast is usually needed over a period known as the lead time that is problem specific. For instance, the lead time can be associated with the period during which training data are available. The accuracy of the forecast may be expressed by calculating probability limits on either side of each forecast. These limits may be calculated for any convenient set of probabilities, for example, 50% and 90%. They are such that the realized value of the time series, when it eventually occurs, will be included within these limits with the stated probability.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[81] viXra:1406.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-07 20:34:41

Cellular Automaton Graphics(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 120 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(2).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[80] viXra:1405.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-29 05:46:55

On Information Hiding

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

Information hiding is not programming hiding. It is the hiding of changeable information into programming modules.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[79] viXra:1405.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:58:11

Conversion of P-Type to N-Type Conductivity in Zno Thin Films by Increasing Temperature

Authors: Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit
Comments: 10 Pages.

ZnO thin films with the thickness of about 15nm on (0001) substrates were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both as grown and then annealed ZnO thin films were oxygen rich. Hydrogen (H2) sensing measurements of the films indicated that the conductivity type of both the unannealed and annealed ZnO films converted from p-type to n-type in process of increasing the operating temperature. However, the two films showed different conversion temperatures. The origin of the p-type conductivity in the unannealed and annealed ZnO films should be attributed to oxygen related defects and Zinc vacancies related defects, respectively. The conversion of the conductivity type was due to the annealing out of the correlated defects. Moreover, p-type ZnO films can work at lower temperature than n-type ZnO films without obvious sensitivity loss.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[78] viXra:1405.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:02:40

Hierarchical Importance Indices Based Approach for Reliability Redundancy Optimization of Flow Networks

Authors: Kumar Pardeep
Comments: 15 Pages.

In flow networks, it is assumed that a reliability model representing telecommunications networks is independent of topological information, but depends on traffic path attributes like delay, reliability and capacity etc.. The performance of such networks from quality of service point of view is the measure of its flow capacity which can satisfy the customers demand. To design such flow networks, hierarchical importance indices based approach for reliability redundancy optimization using composite performance measure integrating reliability and capacity has been proposed. The method utilizes cardinality and other hierarchical importance indices based criterion in selecting flow paths and backup paths to optimize them. The algorithm is reasonably efficient due to reduced computation work even for large telecommunication networks.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[77] viXra:1405.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-06 23:30:29

Design & Simulation of 128x Interpolator Filter

Authors: Rahul Sinha, A. Sonika
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design consideration and simulation of interpolator of OSR 128. The proposed structure uses the half band filers & Comb/Sinc filter. Experimental result shows that proposed interpolator achieves the design specification, and also has good noise rejection capabilities. The interpolator accepts the input at 44.1 kHz for applications like CD & DVD audio. The interpolation filter can be applied to the delta sigma DAC. The related work is done with the MATLAB & XILINX ISE simulators. The maximum operating frequency is achieved as 34.584 MHz.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[76] viXra:1405.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-06 23:35:59

A New Optimization of Noise Transfer Function of Sigma-delta-modulator with Supposition Loop Filter Stability

Authors: Saman Kaedi, Ebrahim Farshidii
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper a discrete time sigma-delta ADC with new assumptions in optimization of noise transfer function (NTF) is presented, that improve SNR and accuracy of ADC. Zeros and poles of sigma-delta’s loop filter is optimized and located by genetic algorithm with assumption loop filter stability and final quantization noise density of modulator will be significantly decrease. Supposition density of quantization noise as default of optimization result without need to additional circuit or filter, the folded noise in pass band due to down sampling, has been minimized so SNR will be more increase. The circuit is designed and implemented using MATLAB. The simulator result of sigma-delta ADC demonstrates this methodology has 7db (equivalent more than 1bit) improvement in SNR.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[75] viXra:1405.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-06 23:37:04

Analysis of Relative Importance of Data Quality Dimensions for Distributed Systems

Authors: Gopalkrishna Joshi, Narasimha H Ayachit, Kamakshi Prasad
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Increasing complexity of the processes and their distributed nature in enterprises is resulting in generation of data that is both huge and complex. And data quality is playing an important role as decision making in enterprises is dependent on the data. This data quality is a multidimensional concept. However, there does not exist a commonly accepted set of the dimensions and analysis of data quality in the literature by the concerned. Further, all the dimensions available in literature may not be of relevance in a particular context of information system and not all of these dimensions may enjoy the same importance in a context. Practitioners in the field choose dimensions of data quality based on intuitive understanding, industrial experience or literature review. There does not exist a rigorously defined mechanism of choosing appropriate dimensions for an information system under consideration in a particular context. In this paper, the authors propose a novel method of choosing appropriate dimensions of data quality for an information system bringing in the perspective of data consumer. This method is based on Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP) popularly used in multi-criterion decision making and the demonstration of the same is done in the context of distributed information systems
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[74] viXra:1405.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-06 23:38:30

.Concurrent Adaptive Cancellation of Quantization Noise and Harmonic Distortion in Sigma–Delta Converter

Authors: Hamid Mohseni Pour, Ebrahim Farshidi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) technique can removes thermal and shaped wideband quantization noise from the output of sigma-delta modulator and improves SNR and SFDR ratios. ANC filter more than desired signal passes harmonics of input signal caused by analog element such as operational amplifier of the integrator without any suppression and this issue causes less increment in SNR and SFDR of analog to digital converter. This paper presents a technique by adding an adaptive harmonic canceller filter in the front of ANC filter addresses this issue and improves considerably performance of the ADC. The simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of this combination technique in first order sigma-delta converter.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[73] viXra:1405.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:24:58

An Investigation on Project Management Standard Practices in IT Organization

Authors: Pecimuthu Gopalasamy, Zulkefli Mansor
Comments: 12 Pages.

In many organizations, project management is no longer a separately identified function, but is entrenched in the overall management of the business. The typical project management environment has become a multi - project. Most of the project decisions require consideration of schedule, resource and cost concerns on other project work, necessitating the review and evaluation of multi-project data. Without good project management standard practices the organization very hard to reach their target. The research problem of this study is to assess how project management standard practices in the IT Organizations are using it. The research method employed was to first identify the best practices of project management, by focusing on generally accepted standards and practices are particularly effective in helping an organization achieve its objectives. It also requires the ability to manage projects in today’s complex, fast-changing organizations, its people, processes and operating systems which all work together in a collaborative, integrated fashion.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[72] viXra:1405.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:31:32

Software Maintenance of Deployed Wireless Sensor Nodes for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

Authors: S.A.Quadri, Othman Sidek
Comments: 28 Pages.

The decreasing cost of sensors is resulting in an increase in the use of wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring. In most applications, nodes are deployed once and are supposed to operate unattended for a long period of time. Due to the deployment of a large number of sensor nodes, it is not uncommon for sensor nodes to become faulty and unreliable. Faults may arise from hardware or software failure. Software failure causes non-deterministic behavior of the node, thus resulting in the acquisition of inaccurate data. Consequently, there exists a need to modify the system software and correct the faults in a wireless sensor node (WSN) network. Once the nodes are deployed, it is impractical at best to reach each individual node. Moreover, it is highly cumbersome to detach the sensor node and attach data transfer cables for software updates. Over-the-air programming is a fundamental service that serves this purpose. This paper discusses maintenance issues related to software for sensor nodes deployed for monitoring structural health and provides a comparison of various protocols developed for reprogramming.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[71] viXra:1405.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:32:37

A Study of Information Security in E- Commerce Applications

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hussain
Comments: 9 Pages.

Electronic Commerce (Ecommerce) refers to the buying and selling of goods and services via electronic channels, primarily the Internet. The applications of E- commerce includes online book store, e- banking, online ticket reservation(railway, airway, movie, etc.,), buying and selling goods, online funds transfer and so on. During E commerce transactions, confidential information is stored in databases as well communicated through network channels. So security is the main concern in E commerce. E commerce applications are vulnerable to various security threats. This results in the loss of consumer confidence. So we need security tools to counter such security threats. This paper presents an overview of security threats to E commerce applications and the technologies to counter them.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[70] viXra:1405.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:34:19

Minimizing Clock Power Wastage By Using Conditional Pulse Enhancement Scheme

Authors: A.saisudheer, V. Murali Praveen, S.jhansi Lakshmi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, a low-power pulse-triggered flip-flop (FF) designed and a simple two-transistor AND gate is designed to reduce the circuit complexity. Second, a conditional pulse-enhancement technique is devised to speed up the discharge along the critical path only when needed. As a result, transistor sizes in delay inverter and pulsegeneration circuit can be reduced for power saving. Various post layout simulation results based on UMC CMOS 50-nm technology reveal that the proposed design features the best power-delay-product performance in several FF designs under comparison. Its maximum power saving against rival designs is up to 18.2% and the average leakage power consumption is also reduced by a factor of 1.52
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[69] viXra:1405.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:35:18

SSBD: Single Side Buffered Deflection Router for On-Chip Networks

Authors: V.Sankaraiah, V.Murali Praveen
Comments: 6 Pages.

As technology scaling drives the no.of processors upward, current on-chip routers consume substantial portions of chip area, performance, cost & power budgets. Recent work proposes to apply well-known routing technique, which eliminate buffers & hence buffers power (static & dynamic) at the cost of some misrouting or deflection called bufferless deflection routing. While bufferless NoC design has shown promising area and power reductions and offers similar performance to conventional buffered for many workloads. Such design provides lower throughput, unnecessary networkhops and wasting power at high network loads. To address this issue we propose an innovative NoC router design called Single Side Buffered Defection (SSBD)router. Compared to previous bufferless deflection router SSBD contributes (i) a router microarchitecture with a double-width ejection path and enhanced arbitration with in-router prioritization. (ii)small side buffers to hold some traffic that would have otherwise been deflected.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] viXra:1405.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:36:50

Information & Communication Technology for Improving Livelihoods of Tribal Community in India

Authors: Vinay Kumar, Abhishek Bansal
Comments: 9 Pages.

Development level of a society is a measure of how efficiently the society is harnessing the benefits of different developmental and welfare programs initiated by the government of the day. Tribal in India have been deprived of opportunities because of many factors. One of the important factor is unavailability of suitable infrastructure for the development plan to reach to them. It is widely acknowledged that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have potential to play a vital role in social development. Several projects have attempted to adopt these technologies to improve the reach, enhance the coverage base by minimizing the processing costs and reducing the traditional cycles of output deliverables. ICTs can be used to strengthen and develop the information systems of development plans exclusively for tribal and thereby improving effective monitoring of implementation. The paper attempts to highlight the effectiveness of ICT in improving livelihood of tribals in India.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[67] viXra:1405.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:37:39

Implementation of Distributed Canny Edge Detector on FPGA

Authors: T.Rupalatha, G.Rajesh, K.Nandakumar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Edge detection is one of the basic operation carried out in image processing and object identification .In this paper, we present a distributed Canny edge detection algorithm that results in significantly reduced memory requirements, decreased latency and increased throughput with no loss in edge detection performance as compared to the original Canny algorithm. The new algorithm uses a low-complexity 8-bin non-uniform gradient magnitude histogram to compute block-based hysteresis thresholds that are used by the Canny edge detector. Furthermore, an FPGA-based hardware architecture of our proposed algorithm is presented in this paper and the architecture is synthesized on the Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed distributed Canny edge detector. The FPGA simulation results show that we can process a 512×512 image in 0.28ms at a clock rate of 100 MHz.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[66] viXra:1405.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:38:30

Enhanced Face Recognition System Combining PCA, LDA, ICA with Wavelet Packets and Curvelets

Authors: N.Nallammal, V.Radha
Comments: 11 Pages.

Face recognition is one of the most frequently used biometrics both in commercial and law enforcement applications. The individuality of facial recognition from other biometric techniques is that it can be used for surveillance purposes; as in searching for wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. The steps in a face recognition steps are preprocessing (image enhancement), feature extraction and finally recognition. This paper identifies techniques in each step of the recognition process to improve the overall performance of face recognition. The proposed face recognition model combines enhanced 2DPCA algorithm, LDA, ICA with wavelet packets and curvelets and experimental results proves that the combination of these techniques increases the efficiency of the recognition process and improves the existing systems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[65] viXra:1405.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:39:33

An Efficient Carry Select Adder with Reduced Area Application

Authors: Ch. Pallavi, V.swathi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Design of area, high speed and power-efficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data-processing processors to perform fast arithmetic functions. From the structure of the CSLA, it is clear that there is scope for reducing the area and delay in the CSLA. This work uses a simple and an efficient gate-level modification (in regular structure) which drastically reduces the area and delay of the CSLA. Based on this modification 8, 16, 32, and 64-bit square-root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) architectures have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design has reduced area and delay to a great extent when compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. This work estimates the performance of the proposed designs with the regular designs in terms of delay; area and synthesis are implemented in Xilinx FPGA. The results analysis shows that the proposed SQRT CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] viXra:1405.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:40:47

A Technique of Image Compression Based on Discrete Wavelet Image Decomposition and Self Organizing Map

Authors: Megha Sharma, Rashmi Kuamri
Comments: 12 Pages.

Image compression is the growing research area for the real world applications which is spreading day by day by the explosive growth of image transmission and storage. This paper presents the algorithm for gray scale image compression using self organizing map (SOM) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Self organizing map network is trained with input patterns in the form of vectors which gives code vector (weight matrix) and index values as the output. The discrete wavelet transform is applied on the code vectors and storing only the approximation coefficients (LL) and the index values obtained from the self organizing map. The result obtained shows the better compression ratio as well as better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) in comparison with the existing techniques.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[63] viXra:1405.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:42:04

Adaptive Duty-Cycle-Aware Using Multihopping in WSN

Authors: J. V. Shiral, J. S. Zade, K. R. Bhakare, N. Gandhewar
Comments: 15 Pages.

A wireless sensor network consists of group of sensors, or nodes, that are linked by a wireless medium to perform distributed sensing tasks. The sensors are assumed to have a fixed communication and a fixed sensing range, which can significantly vary depending on the type of sensing performed. Duty cycle is the ratio of active time i.e the time at which the particular set of nodes are active to the whole scheduling time. With duty cycling, each node alternates between active and sleeping states, leaving its radio powered off most of the time and turning it on only periodically for short periods of time. In this paper, an ADB protocol is used to manage and control duty cycles as well as regulate , monitor on going traffic among the nodes by using adaptive scheduling. Thus congestion, delay can be controlled and efficiency and performance of overall network can be improved.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[62] viXra:1405.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:43:45

Memory Centered Recognition of Fir Numerical Filter by Lut Optimization

Authors: A. Saisudheer
Comments: 12 Pages.

Finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is widely used in signal processing and image processing applications. Distributed arithmetic (DA)-based computation is popular for its potential for efficient memory-based implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter where the filter outputs are computed as inner-product of input-sample vectors and filter-coefficient vector. In this paper, however ,we show that the look-up-table(LUT)-multiplier-based approach, where the memory elements store all the possible values of products of the filter coefficients could be an area-efficient alternative to DA-based design of FIR filter with the same throughput of implementation.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[61] viXra:1405.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:44:44

Transmission of Image using DWT-OFDM System with Channel State Feedback

Authors: Lakshmi Pujitha Dachuri
Comments: 16 Pages.

In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted .OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms. In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels. such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors .we consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] viXra:1405.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:53:06

Object Tracking System Using Stratix FPGA

Authors: A. Saisudheer
Comments: 9 Pages.

Object tracking is an important task in computer vision applications. One of the crucial challenges is the real time speed requirement. In this paper we implement an object tracking system in reconfigurable hardware using an efficient parallel architecture. In our implementation, we adopt a background subtraction based algorithm. The designed object tracker exploits hardware parallelism to achieve high system speed. We also propose a dual object region search technique to further boost the performance of our system under complex tracking conditions. For our hardware implementation we use the Altera Stratix III EP3SL340H1152C2 FPGA device. We compare the proposed FPGA-based implementation with the software implementation running on a 2.2 GHz processor. The observed speedup can reach more than 100X for complex video inputs.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] viXra:1405.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:55:43

Smart Phone as Software Token for Generating Digital Signature Code for Signing In Online Banking Transaction

Authors: A. Saisudheer
Comments: 4 Pages.

Nowadays, Online banking security mechanisms focus on safe authentication mechanisms, but all these mechanisms are rendered useless if we are unable to ensure the integrity of the transactions made. Of late a new threat has emerged known as Man in the Browser attack, it’s capable of modifying a transaction in real time without the user’s notice, after the user has successfully logged in using safe authentication mechanisms. In this paper we analyze the Man in the Browser attack and propose a solution based upon digitally signing a transaction and using the mobile phones as a software token for Digital Signature code generation. Two factor authentication solutions like smartcards, hardware tokens, One Time Password’s or PKI have long been considered sufficient protection against identity theft techniques. However, since the MITB attack piggybacks on authenticated sessions rather than trying to steal or impersonate an identity, most authentication technologies are incapable of preventing its success. In this paper we take a brief look into how the MITB attack takes place how it is capable of modifying an online transaction. We propose a solution based on using mobile phones as software token for Digital signature code generation. Digital signature is known to ensure the authenticity and integrity of a transaction. Mobile phones have become a daily part of our life, thus we can use the mobile phone as software token to generate Digital Signature code.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[58] viXra:1405.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:56:28

Facial Expression Recognition System by Using AFERS System

Authors: A. Saisudheer
Comments: 7 Pages.

Heightened concerns about the treatment of individuals during interviews and interrogations have stimulated efforts to develop "non-intrusive" technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals in a variety of sensitive environments. Methods or processes that have the potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial expressions have the ability to communicate emotion and regulate interpersonal behavior. Over the past 30 years, scientists have developed human-observer based methods that can be used to classify and correlate facial expressions with human emotion. However, these methods have proven to be labor intensive, qualitative, and difficult to standardize. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen is the most widely used and validated method for measuring and describing facial behaviors. The Automated Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT Automated Facial Image Analysis System (AFA) system developed by Dr. Jeffery Cohn and his colleagues at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. This portable, near real-time system will detect the seven universal expressions of emotion providing investigators with indicators of the presence of deception during the interview process. In addition, the system will include features such as full video support, snapshot generation, and case management utilities, enabling users to re-evaluate interviews in detail at a later date.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[57] viXra:1405.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 01:58:08

An Effective GLCM and Binary Pattern Schemes Based Classification for Rotation Invariant Fabric Textures

Authors: R. Obula Konda Reddy, B. Eswara Reddy, E. Keshava Reddy
Comments: 16 Pages.

Textures are one of the basic features in visual searching, computational vision and also a general property of any surface having ambiguity. This paper presents a novel texture classification system which has a high tolerance against illumination variation. A Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and binary pattern based automated similarity identification and defect detection model is presented. Different features are calculated from both GLCM and binary patterns (LBP, LLBP, and SLBP). Then a new rotation-invariant, scale invariant steerable decomposition filter is applied to filter the four orientation sub bands of the image. The experimental results are evaluated and a comparative analysis has been performed for the four different feature types. Finally, the texture is classified by different classifiers (PNN, KNN and SVM) and the classification performance of each classifier is compared. The experimental results have shown that the proposed method produces more accuracy and better classification rate over other methods.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] viXra:1405.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-03 20:37:05

Cellular Automaton Graphics

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 387 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithm.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[55] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-10 23:52:54

On the "Cracking" Experiments in Gunn, Allison, Abbott, "A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System"

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[54] viXra:1404.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-09 06:17:49

Building of Networks of Natural Hierarchies of Terms Based on Analysis of Texts Corpora

Authors: D.V. Lande
Comments: 5 Pages. Russian language

The technique of building of networks of hierarchies of terms based on the analysis of chosen text corpora is offered. The technique is based on the methodology of horizontal visibility graphs. Constructed and investigated language network, formed on the basis of electronic preprints arXiv on topics of information retrieval.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[53] viXra:1404.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-07 14:21:35

Securing Vehicle Communication Systems by the KLJN Key Exchange Protocol

Authors: Y.Saez, X. Cao, L.B. Kish, G. Pesti
Comments: 13 Pages. Paper submitted for publication

We review the security requirements for a vehicle communication network. We also provide a critical assessment of the security communication architectures and perform an analysis of the keys to design an efficient and secure vehicular network. We propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] viXra:1403.0957 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 08:51:39

A Novel Model for Implementing Security over Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Function

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Mobile adhoc network is a special kind of wireless networks. It is a collection of mobile nodes without having aid of establish infrastructure. In mobile adhoc network, it is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired network due to its limited physical security, Securing temporal networks like Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) has been given a great amount of attention recently, though the process of creating a perfectly secured scheme has not been accomplished yet. MANETs has some other features and characteristics those are together make it a difficult environment to be secured. The bandwidth of MANET is another challenge because it is unlikely to consume the bandwidth in security mechanisms rather than data traffic. This paper proposes a security scheme based on Public Key infrastructure (PKI) for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using intuitionistic fuzzy logic manipulation. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself according to the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Finally the Experimental results shows that the using of intuitionistic fuzzy based security can enhance the security of (MANETs).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[51] viXra:1403.0956 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:16:01

Neutrosophic Relations Database

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 13 Pages.

The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [9, 10] and Salama et al. in [4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. In this paper we introduce and study new types of neutrosophic concepts "  cut levels , normal neutrosophic set, convex neutrosophic set". Added to we will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study its main properties. Some types of neutrosophic relations and neutrosophic database are gevine. Finaly we introduce and study neutrosophic database (NDB for short). Some neutrosophic queries are gevine to a neutrosophic database .
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[50] viXra:1403.0940 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 11:19:44

Critical Considerations for Developing MIS for NGOs

Authors: Kailash Ch. Dash, Umakant Mishra
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although Information Systems and Information Technology (IS & IT) has become a major driving force for many of the current day organizations, the NGOs have not been able to utilize the benefits up to a satisfactory level. Most organizations use standard office tools to manage huge amount for field data and never feel the need for a central repository of data. While many people argue that an NGO should not spend too much money on information management, it is a fact that organizing the information requires more of a mindset and an organized behavior than a huge financial investment.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[49] viXra:1312.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-01 20:47:05

Times in Noise-Based Logic: Increased Dimensions of Logic Hyperspace

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

Time shifts beyond the correlation time of the logic and reference signals create new elements that are orthogonal to the original components. This fact can be utilized to increase the number of dimensions of the logic space while keeping the number of reference noises fixed. Using just a single noise and time shifts can realize exponentially large hyperspaces with large numbers of dimensions. Other, independent applications of time shifts include holographic noise-based logic systems and changing commutative operations into non-commuting ones. For the sake of simplicity, these ideas are illustrated by deterministic time shifts, even though random timing and random time shifts would yield the most robust systems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] viXra:1311.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-26 18:09:43

Solution of Extreme Transcendental Differential Equations

Authors: S J Nettleton
Comments: 6 Pages.

Extreme transcendental differential equations are found in many applications including geophysical climate change models. Solution of these systems in continuous time has only been feasible with the recent development of Runge−Kutta sampling transcendental differential equation solvers with Chebyshev function output such as Mathematica 9's NDSolve function. This paper presents the challenges and means of solving the widely used DICE 2007 integrated assessment model in continuous time. Application of the solution technique in a mobile policy tool is discussed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[47] viXra:1310.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-25 09:15:15

Learning Markov Networks with Context-Specific Independences

Authors: Alejandro Edera, Federico Schlüter, Facundo Bromberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Learning the Markov network structure from data is a problem that has received considerable attention in machine learning, and in many other application fields. This work focuses on a particular approach for this purpose called independence-based learning. Such approach guarantees the learning of the correct structure efficiently, whenever data is sufficient for representing the underlying distribution. However, an important issue of such approach is that the learned structures are encoded in an undirected graph. The problem with graphs is that they cannot encode some types of independence relations, such as the context-specific independences. They are a particular case of conditional independences that is true only for a certain assignment of its conditioning set, in contrast to conditional independences that must hold for all its assignments. In this work we present CSPC, an independence-based algorithm for learning structures that encode context-specific independences, and encoding them in a log-linear model, instead of a graph. The central idea of CSPC is combining the theoretical guarantees provided by the independence-based approach with the benefits of representing complex structures by using features in a log-linear model. We present experiments in a synthetic case, showing that CSPC is more accurate than the state-of-the-art IB algorithms when the underlying distribution contains CSIs.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[46] viXra:1310.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-24 17:13:30

Neutrosophic Relations

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A. Albolwi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we will introduce and study neutrosophic relations, which can be discussed as generalization of fuzzy relations and intuitionistic fuzzy relations. We will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study the main properties. In addition, we will discuss reflexive, symmetric and transitive neutrosophic relations. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] viXra:1310.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 21:36:42

An Extension Collaborative Innovation Model in the Context of Big Data

Authors: Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Haolan Zhang, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: Pages.

The process of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts which are usually unavailable and with uncertainty. Computer science and information technology is changing the innovation environment and accumulating big data from which a lot of knowledge is discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and still remains several challenge problems to integrate multi-information and lots of rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation. Based on the new cross discipline Extenics, we present a collaborative innovation model in the context of big data. The model transforms collected data into a knowledge base in a uniform basic-element format, and then we explore the innovation paths and its solutions by a formularized model based on Extenics. Finally we score and select all possible solutions by 2D dependent function. The model can collaborate different departments to put forward the innovation solutions with support of big data. The model is proved useful by a practical innovation case in management.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[44] viXra:1310.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 22:00:31

Impact of Social Media on Youth Activism and Nation Building in Pervasive Social Computing Using Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMS)

Authors: A.Victor Devadoss, M. Clement Joe Anand
Comments: 6 Pages.

Youth is the major assets of a nation, we need to channel their energy accordingly and dissipate it appropriately for the benefits of a nation and humanity as a whole. Social media has how become indispensable in our societies. Most of the major social media are predominated by the youth, exploiting it for one purpose or the other. In this paper we analyzed how youth could constructively, the role of social media and it’s how it build a nation and achieve a promising future not only for themselves but equality for the upcoming generations using Neutrosophic cognitive maps. This paper has four sections. In section one, we give an introduction about Pervasive social Media, Section two we recall the definition of Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs) Section three is deals with the methods of finding the hidden pattern in NCMs and analysis of Features or Characters of Youth and Youth Activism. In final section we give the conclusion based on our study.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[43] viXra:1309.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-16 15:52:30

On the Security of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Communicator

Authors: L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist
Comments: 4 Pages. submitted for publication

A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 14:33:49

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages.

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity than in the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] viXra:1306.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-26 04:41:30

Information Hiding and Modula

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

The information hiding principle can be applied completely using the Modula language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] viXra:1306.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-22 15:24:38

Log N Algorithm for Search from Unstructured List

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] viXra:1306.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 01:49:37

Analysis of Point Clouds Using Conformal Geometric Algebra

Authors: Dietmar Hildenbrand, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 6 Pages. 6 figures, 1 table. In Braz, J. (ed.), GRAPP 2008, 3rd Int. Conf. on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications. Proc.: Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 22-25, 2008, Porto: INSTICC Press, pp. 99-106 (2008). DOI: 10.1.1.151.7539

This paper presents some basics for the analysis of point clouds using the geometrically intuitive mathematical framework of conformal geometric algebra. In this framework it is easy to compute with osculating circles for the description of local curvature. Also methods for the fitting of spheres as well as bounding spheres are presented. In a nutshell, this paper provides a starting point for shape analysis based on this new, geometrically intuitive and promising technology. Keywords: geometric algebra, geometric computing, point clouds, osculating circle, fitting of spheres, bounding spheres.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] viXra:1306.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 03:19:30

The GeometricAlgebra Java Package – Novel Structure Implementation of 5D Geometric Algebra R_4,1 for Object Oriented Euclidean Geometry, Space-Time Physics and Object Oriented Computer Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Ginanjar Utama
Comments: 13 Pages. 3 figures, 5 tables. Mem. Fac. Eng. Univ. Fukui 53(1), pp. 47-59 (2005).

This paper first briefly reviews the algebraic background of the conformal (homogeneous) model of Euclidean space in Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1= Cl(4,1), concentrating on the subalgebra structure. The subalgebras include space-time algebra (STA), Dirac and Pauli algebras, as well as real and complex quaternion algebras, etc. The concept of the Horosphere is introduced along with the definition of subspaces that intuitively correspond to three dimensional Euclidean geometric objects. Algebraic expressions for the motions of these objects and their set theoretic operations are given. It is shown how 3D Euclidean information on positions, orientations and radii can be extracted. The second main part of the paper concentrates on the GeometricAlgebra Java package implementation of the Clifford geometric algebra R_4,1 = Cl(4,1) and the homogeneous model of 3D Euclidean space. Details are exemplified by looking at the structure and code of the basic MultiVector class and of the 3D Euclidean object model class Sphere. Finally code optimization issues and the ongoing open source project implementation are discussed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] viXra:1306.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-11 02:23:10

Understanding the LivMach Framework

Authors: Shreyak Chakraborty
Comments: 4 Pages.

We introduce the alpha version of a C++ Computational Framework to simulate life processes in the body of a living multicellular organism by virtually replicating the data flow of the actual living being in real time. LivMach Framework is an open source project on Sourceforge.net We use various data structures to effectively simulate all components of a living organism 's body. Due to the absence of a Graphical User Interface(GUI), we use special indicator statements to display the flow of data between various parts of the virtual body. Using this code,one can simulate the complete physical,mental and psychological behaviour of simple and complex multicellular organisms on low cost machines.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-09 11:36:09

Cracking the Bennett-Riedel Secure Scheme and a Critical Analysis of Their Claims About the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 32 Pages. First draft; to be disseminated at seminar at Uppsala University, Sweden

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435) has claimed that, in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential and that the KLJN scheme provides no security. They attempt to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. After showing that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of the assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications, we crack their system by passive attacks in eight different ways, with 100% success probability, and show that the same cracking methods do not work against the KLJN scheme due to Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We critically analyze the other claims of BR; among others, we prove that their equations (1-3) describing zero security are incorrect for the KLJN scheme. We give mathematical security proofs for each BR attack type and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not successfully been challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-11 21:47:07

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

Replacements of recent Submissions

[71] viXra:1608.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-11 23:42:15

Asymmetric Quicksort

Authors: Leorge Takeuchi
Comments: 16 Pages. Two link addresses (URI) were wrong.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant, deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well- known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[70] viXra:1607.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 11:01:24

Kalman Folding 3: Derivations

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 14 Pages. Minor corrections to original version

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present mathematical derivations of the basic, static filter. These are semi-formal sketches that leave many details to the reader, but highlight all important points that must be rigorously proved. These derivations have several novel arguments and we strive for much higher clarity and simplicity than is found in most treatments of the topic.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[69] viXra:1606.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 16:57:41

Kalman Folding 2: Tracking and System Dynamics

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present a dynamic Kalman filter in the same, functional form. This filter can handle many dynamic, time-evolving applications including some tracking and navigation problems, and is easilly extended to nonlinear and non-Gaussian forms, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) respectively. Those are subjects of other papers in this Kalman-folding series. Here, we reproduce a tracking example from a well known reference, but in functional form, highlighting the advantages of that form.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] viXra:1604.0366 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-15 21:49:27

E-Bots Vs. P-Bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (Partial) Silence Supplementary Information :Technichal Report

Authors: Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic
Comments: 6 Pages. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[67] viXra:1604.0366 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-09 19:41:31

E-Bots Vs. P-Bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (Partial) Silence Supplementary Information :Technichal Report

Authors: Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic
Comments: 3 Pages. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[66] viXra:1603.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-15 08:00:02

Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages. In english and portuguese.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[65] viXra:1603.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-09 10:07:13

Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 6 Pages. An original proof of P <> NP. In english and portuguese.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] viXra:1603.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-08 06:32:39

Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 6 Pages. An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[63] viXra:1603.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-05 21:50:57

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v3

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[62] viXra:1603.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-07 10:35:28

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v4

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[61] viXra:1603.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-05 23:49:34

Dois Problemas Provando P <> NP - v4

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] viXra:1511.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-03 16:02:24

The Impact of Computer Engineering

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 8 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] viXra:1511.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-30 12:35:23

The Impact of Computer Engineering

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 6 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[58] viXra:1510.0473 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-15 06:17:06

A Still Simpler Way of Introducing Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Kurt Mehlhorn, Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 18 Pages.

Linear programming is now included in algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for computer science majors. We give a self-contained treatment of an interior-point method which is particularly tailored to the typical mathematical background of CS students. In particular, only limited knowledge of linear algebra and calculus is assumed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[57] viXra:1509.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-01 16:55:57

Random-Resistor–random-Temperature Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (RRRT-KLJN) Key Exchange

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 8 Pages. submitted for journal publication

We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR–) KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR–KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random-Resistor–Random-Temperature (RRRT–) KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT–KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT–KLJN scheme can prevail at non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation–Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT–KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] viXra:1504.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-09 12:56:05

“The Majority is Enough” a Rebuttal of Two Proposed Vulnerabilities of Bitcoin Mining

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 4 Pages. Couple of typos and a simplification

About a year after Ittay Eyal published two papers claiming vulnerabilities in the bitcoin mining protocol, we have seen that the network is still strong (it has grown in hashpower many times over) and is unaffected by the supposed problems. I show here the biggest reasons the two vulnerability analyses were flawed. The attacks appear to hinder other miners who are competitors. However, both of the attacks harm the attacker's bottom line more than any harm to the competitors can emerge as profits for the attacker.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[55] viXra:1503.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-03 12:52:40

Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion. Collected Works. Volume 4

Authors: editors Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 504 Pages.

The fourth volume on Advances and Applications of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for information fusion collects theoretical and applied contributions of researchers working in different fields of applications and in mathematics. The contributions (see List of Articles published in this book, at the end of the volume) have been published or presented after disseminating the third volume (2009, http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/DSmT-book3.pdf) in international conferences, seminars, workshops and journals. First Part of this book presents the theoretical advancement of DSmT, dealing with Belief functions, conditioning and deconditioning, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Making, Multi-Criteria, evidence theory, combination rule, evidence distance, conflicting belief, sources of evidences with different importance and reliabilities, importance of sources, pignistic probability transformation, Qualitative reasoning under uncertainty, Imprecise belief structures, 2-Tuple linguistic label, Electre Tri Method, hierarchical proportional redistribution, basic belief assignment, subjective probability measure, Smarandache codification, neutrosophic logic, Evidence theory, outranking methods, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayes fusion rule, frequentist probability, mean square error, controlling factor, optimal assignment solution, data association, Transferable Belief Model, and others. More applications of DSmT have emerged in the past years since the apparition of the third book of DSmT 2009. Subsequently, the second part of this volume is about applications of DSmT in correlation with Electronic Support Measures, belief function, sensor networks, Ground Moving Target and Multiple target tracking, Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device, Belief Interacting Multiple Model filter, seismic and acoustic sensor, Support Vector Machines, Alarm classification, ability of human visual system, Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning Evaluation Framework, Threat Assessment, Handwritten Signature Verification, Automatic Aircraft Recognition, Dynamic Data-Driven Application System, adjustment of secure communication trust analysis, and so on. Finally, the third part presents a List of References related with DSmT published or presented along the years since its inception in 2004, chronologically ordered.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[54] viXra:1502.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-07 06:24:59

An Interesting Perspective to the P Versus NP Problem

Authors: Wenming Zhang
Comments: 5 Pages. This is a short and interesting paper.

We discuss the P versus NP problem from the perspective of addition operation about polynomial functions. Two contradictory propositions for the addition operation are presented. With the proposition that the sum of k (k<=n+1) polynomial functions on n always yields a polynomial function, we prove that P=NP, considering the maximum clique problem. And with the proposition that the sum of k polynomial functions may yield an exponential function, we prove that P!=NP by constructing an abstract decision problem. Furthermore, we conclude that P=NP and P!=NP if and only if the above propositions hold, respectively.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[53] viXra:1411.0592 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-29 07:41:07

Still Simpler Way of Introducing Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 10 Pages. Corrected Arithmetic Errors. A full/more complete version of this is viXra:1510.0473

Linear Programming is now included in Algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for Computer Science majors. It is possible to teach interior-point methods directly with just minimal knowledge of Algebra and Matrices.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] viXra:1411.0592 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-07 02:16:04

Still Simpler Way of Introducing Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 10 Pages. Section on initialisation, rewritten

Linear Programming is now included in Algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for Computer Science majors. It is possible to teach interior-point methods directly with just minimal knowledge of Algebra and Matrices
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[51] viXra:1411.0592 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-01 02:00:15

Still Simpler Way of Introducing Interior-Point Method for Linear Programming

Authors: Sanjeev Saxena
Comments: 8 Pages. Corrected some typos

Linear Programming is now included in Algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for Computer Science majors. It is possible to teach interior-point methods directly with just minimal knowledge of Algebra and Matrices.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[50] viXra:1410.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-04 01:53:29

Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages. Accepted for Publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters (November 3, 2014)

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[49] viXra:1410.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 05:44:46

Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages. Equation double-number fixed. In editorial process at a journal.

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] viXra:1410.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-23 09:34:22

Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages. Polished and many typos fixed. Submitted for publication

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[47] viXra:1409.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-05 22:20:46

Cellular Automaton Graphics(4)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 408 Pages.

We fill three-dimensional space up regularly using painting algorithms.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[46] viXra:1409.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-07 15:20:02

On KLJN-Based Secure Key Distribution in Vehicular Communication Networks

Authors: X. Cao, Y. Saez, G. Pesti, L.B. Kish
Comments: 13 Pages. Accepted for Publication at Fluctuation and Noise Letters

In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett., 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] viXra:1407.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 14:06:07

A Lower Bound of 2^n Conditional Jumps for Boolean Satisfiability on A Random Access Machine

Authors: Samuel C. Hsieh
Comments: 13 Pages. This version corrects a few typing errors found in the previous version.

We establish a lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps for deciding the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from a set called a full representation of Boolean functions of n variables - a set containing a Boolean formula to represent each Boolean function of n variables. The contradiction proof first assumes that there exists a RAM program that correctly decides the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from such a set by following an execution path that includes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. By using multiple runs of this program, with one run for each Boolean function of n variables, the proof derives a contradiction by showing that this program is unable to correctly decide the satisfiability of the conjunction of at least one pair of Boolean formulas from a full representation of n-variable Boolean functions if the program executes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. This lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps holds for any full representation of Boolean functions of n variables, even if a full representation consists solely of minimized Boolean formulas derived by a Boolean minimization method. We discuss why the lower bound fails to hold for satisfiability of certain restricted formulas, such as 2CNF satisfiability, XOR-SAT, and HORN-SAT. We also relate the lower bound to 3CNF satisfiability.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[44] viXra:1406.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-27 23:38:47

Elimination of a Second-Law-Attack, and All Cable-Resistance-Based Attacks, in the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 9 Pages. Accepted for publication in Entropy (open access)

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system. This attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium in practical applications and is based on cable resistance losses and the fact that the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security when such losses are present. The new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, but it puts more stringent demands on the security/privacy enhancing protocol than for any earlier attack. In this paper we present a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this new attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the smaller resistance value over the noise-temperature at the at the side with the greater resistance. It is shown that this simple protocol totally removes Eve’s information not only for the new attack but also for the old Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv attack. The presently most efficient attacks against the KLJN scheme are thereby completely nullified.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[43] viXra:1406.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-20 01:40:38

Second-Law-Attack, and Eliminating All Cable Resistance Attacks in the Johnson Noise Based Secure Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 4 Pages. vixra hyperlink added

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger. The attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium at practical applications due to the cable resistance loss. Thus the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security. While the new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, due to its more favorable properties for Eve, it requires higher requirements for the security/privacy enhancing protocol than any earlier versions. We create a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the lower resistance value. We show that, this simple defense protocol totally eliminates Eve's information not only in this but also in the old (Bergou)-Scheuer-Yariv attack. Thus the so far most efficient attack methods become useless against the KLJN scheme.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] viXra:1406.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-13 19:56:25

Cellular Automaton Graphics(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 129 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(2).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] viXra:1405.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-06 08:25:56

On Information Hiding

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

Information hiding is not programming hiding. It is the hiding of changeable information into programming modules.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] viXra:1405.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-21 05:47:47

Transport Catastrophe Analysis as an Alternative to a Monofractal Description: Theory and Application to Financial Time Series

Authors: Sergey A. Kamenshchikov
Comments: 12 Pages. Journal of Chaos, Volume 2014, Article ID 346743. Author: ru.linkedin.com/pub/sergey-kamenshchikov/60/8b1/21a/

The goal of this investigation was to overcome limitations of a persistency analysis, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot for monofractal Brownian processes: nondifferentiability, Brownian nature of process and a linear memory measure. We have extended a sense of a Hurst factor by consideration of a phase diffusion power law. It was shown that pre-catastrophic stabilization as an indicator of bifurcation leads to a new minimum of momentary phase diffusion, while bifurcation causes an increase of the momentary transport. An efficiency of a diffusive analysis has been experimentally compared to the Reynolds stability model application. An extended Reynolds parameter has been introduces as an indicator of phase transition. A combination of diffusive and Reynolds analysis has been applied for a description of a time series of Dow Jones Industrial weekly prices for a world financial crisis of 2007-2009. Diffusive and Reynolds parameters shown an extreme values in October 2008 when a mortgage crisis was fixed. A combined R/D description allowed distinguishing of market evolution short-memory and long memory shifts. It was stated that a systematic large scale failure of a financial system has begun in October 2008 and started fading in February 2009.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] viXra:1405.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-05 22:16:53

Cellular Automaton Graphics

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 402 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] viXra:1405.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-16 21:20:59

Cellular Automaton Graphics

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 402 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-15 23:12:47

On the “cracking” Scheme in the Paper “A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System” by Gunn, Allison and Abbott

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Göran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 11 Pages. missing/incorrect abstract fixed; extended (second) version

Recently, Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. We proved in a former paper [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1404.4664] that GAA’s mathematical model is unphysical. Here we analyze GAA’s cracking scheme and show that in the cable loss free case it serves less eavesdropping information than the old mean-square based attack, while in the loss-dominated case it offers no information. We also investigate GAA's experimental claim to be capable of distinguishing, with a poor statistics over a few correlation times, the distributions of two Gaussian noises with a relative variance difference of less than 10–8. Normally such distinctions would require hundreds of millions of correlations times to be observable. We identify several experimental artifacts due to poor design that can lead to GAA’s assertions; deterministic currents due to spurious harmonic components ground loop, DC offset; aliasing; non-Gaussian features including non-linearities and other non-idealities in the generators; and the time-derivative nature of their scheme enhancing all these aspects.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-15 06:52:11

On the “cracking” Scheme in the Paper “A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System” by Gunn, Allison and Abbott

Authors: Hsien P. Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 11 Pages. second draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [1] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [2], we proved that the wave claims in the GAA’s attack are heavily unphysical, since the quasi-static limit holds for the KLJN scheme, implying that physical waves do not exist in the wire channel. The assumption of existing wave modes in the short cable at the low frequency limits violates a number of laws of physics including the Second Law of Thermodynamics. One aspect of the mistakes is that in electrical engineer jargon all oscillating and propagating time functions are called waves while in physics the corresponding retarded potentials can be wave-type of non-wave type. Physical waves involve two dual energy forms that are regenerating each other during the propagation, such as the electrical and magnetic fields are doing (similarly kinetic and potential energy in elastic waves); while non-wave-type retarded potential effects in the quasi-static regime, such as in KLJN, have negligible crosstalk between these energy forms and the energy exchange takes place between them and the generators [2].
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] viXra:1404.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 08:37:35

On the "Cracking" Experiments in Gunn, Allison, Abbott, "A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System"

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 4 Pages. second draft

Recently Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. In a former paper [http://vixra.org/pdf/1403.0964v4.pdf], we proved that CAA's wave-based attack is unphysical. Here we address their experimental results regarding this attack. Our analysis shows that GAA virtually claim that they can identify, in a few correlation times that, from two Gaussian distributions with zero mean, which one is wider when their relative width difference is <10^-4. Normally, such decision would need millions of correlations times to observe. We identify the experimental artifact causing this situation: existing DC current and/or ground loop (yielding slow deterministic currents) in the system. It is important to note that, while the GAA's cracking scheme, the experiments and the analysis are invalid, there is an important benefit of their attempt: our analysis implies that, in practical KLJN systems, DC currents ground loops or any other mechanisms carrying a deterministic current/voltage component must be taken care of to avoid information leak about the key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] viXra:1404.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 09:47:54

Securing Vehicle Communication Systems by the KLJN Key Exchange Protocol

Authors: Y. Saez, X. Cao, L.b. Kish, G. Pesti
Comments: 12 Pages. Paper accepted for publication at FNL on May 19, 2014

We review the security requirements for vehicular communication networks and provide a critical assessment of some typical communication security solutions. We also propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-07 13:23:57

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 13 Pages. Accepted for publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[32] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-02 10:24:11

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 12 Pages. author's name corrected; link added

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-31 13:41:15

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: H.P. Chan, L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist, G. Schmera
Comments: 12 Pages. revised

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-14 13:37:44

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-10 10:04:57

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[28] viXra:1308.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-22 11:49:06

Current and Voltage Based Bit Errors and Their Combined Mitigation for the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist
Comments: 9 pages, submitted for publication

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[27] viXra:1306.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-28 01:21:51

Log N Algorithm for Search from Unstructured List

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 4 pages. Sorting algorithm is added.

The unstructured search problem asks for search of some predefined number, called target, from given unstructured list of numbers. In this paper we propose a novel classical algorithm with complexity ~O(Log N) for searching the target from unstructured list of numbers. We propose a new algorithm, which achieves improvement of exponential order over existing algorithms. Suppose N is the largest number in the list then we consider N dimensional vector space with Euclidean basis. With each of the numbers in the given unstructured list we associate the unique basis vector among the vectors that form together the Euclidean basis. For example suppose j is a number in the list then we associate with this number j the unique basis vector in the above mentioned N-dimensional vector space, namely, |j> = transpose(0, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, … , 0, 0, 0), where the there is entry 1 only at j-th place and every where else there is entry 0. We then divide the given list of numbers in two roughly equal parts (i.e. we divide the given bag containing scrambled numbers in two roughly equal parts and put them in two separate bags, Bag 1 and Bag 2). We represent the list of numbers in Bag 1, Bag 2 in the form of equally weighted superposition of basis vectors associated with the numbers contained in these bags, namely, we represent list in Bag 1 (Bag 2) as a single state formed by equally weighted superposition using orthonormal states forming Euclidean basis corresponding to numbers in the bag B1 (bag B2), namely, |Psi-1> (|Psi-2>). Let t be the target number. It will be represented as |t>. We then find the value of scalar product of target state |t> with |Psi-1> (or Psi-2>). It will revel us whether t belongs to Bag 1 (or Bag 2) which essentially enables us to carry out the binary search and to achieve above mentioned ~O(Log N) complexity!Also, representing list as superposition provides sorting of numbers instantly! One needs to read vector from left to right and prepare the desired sorted list!
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-20 14:40:22

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 33 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-14 10:27:03

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 33 Pages. expanded, in response to Charles Bennett: sec. 1.1.4

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically-unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-08 16:02:35

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. small but important corrections

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[23] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-10 22:03:20

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. some typos fixed

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[22] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-02 02:11:52

Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on the Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions Via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 31 Pages. typo in abstract corrected

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to prove this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR’s scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attacks against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] viXra:1306.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-17 11:43:33

Cracking the Bennett-Riedel “secure” Scheme and Critical Analysis of Their Claims About the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 34 Pages. corrected, expanded

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) claimed that thermodynamics (statistical physics) is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method, and they also asserted that the KLJN scheme does not provide security. They attempted to prove the no-thermodynamics view by proposing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches (a scheme that was earlier patented by Davide Antilli). In the present paper, we first show that the BR scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communications. Furthermore we crack the BR system with 100% success by passive attacks in ten different ways and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme, which is based on Johnson noise and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also provide a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply for the KLJN scheme. Finally we provide mathematical security proofs for each of the attacks on the BR scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] viXra:1305.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-20 15:31:49

Errors and Their Mitigation at the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 19 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The most interesting finding is that the error probability decays exponentially with the duration of the time window of single bit exchange. The results indicate that it is feasible to have so small error probabilities of the exchanged bits that error correction algorithms are not required. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] viXra:1305.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 06:44:51

Errors and Their Mitigation at the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 18 Pages. submitted for publication

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[18] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-26 18:31:54

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 9 Pages. clarifications/enhancements; in publication process

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce an "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] viXra:1305.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 04:40:40

Physical Uncloneable Function Hardware Keys Utilizing Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise Secure Key Exchange and Noise-Based Logic

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan
Comments: 8 Pages. submitted for publication

Weak physical uncloneable function (WPUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong physical uncloneable function (SPUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms