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Any replacements are listed further down

[972] **viXra:1612.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:55*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we outline methods for calculating the pressure field inside flow conduits in the one-dimensional flow models where the pressure is dependent on the axial coordinate only. The investigation is general with regard to the tube mechanical properties (rigid or distensible), and with regard to the cross sectional variation along the tube length (constant or variable). The investigation is also general with respect to the fluid rheology as being Newtonian or non-Newtonian.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[971] **viXra:1612.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 16:25:37*

**Authors:** Curtis J. Forsythe

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I propose a theoretical model of Universal Gravitation based upon hypothetical mass/energy resonance waves, the intensities of which I propose to be casually analogous with those of electromagnetic waves. Using said model, I derive the Newtonian gravitational expression, from which the Newtonian gravitational constant G factors as a combination of other physical constants, resulting in an apparent value of 6.662936 x 10-11m3/kg s2. A second resultant of the theory is a demonstration that the quantum energy states of the hydrogen atom appear related to the length of these waves, shown equal to twice the ground state orbital radius in a Bohr hydrogen atom. Additionally, I have determined apparent values for the Planck mass, length, and time independently of any determination of G.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[970] **viXra:1612.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 01:29:02*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[969] **viXra:1612.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:41:42*

**Authors:** Mohsen Lutephy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. this is answer for pendulums mysteries

The explanation of the eclipse effect by reality that the pendulums are electrified in the eclipse time and affected by sun electric charge in agreement with Nipher experiments and Erwin Saxl experiments and flying saucers mysterious anti gravity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[968] **viXra:1612.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[967] **viXra:1612.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[966] **viXra:1612.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24*

**Authors:** Ioan Has1, 2, Simona Miclaus1 1Land Forces Academy, st. Revolutiei. 3-5, 550170 Sibiu, Romania, email: simo.miclaus@gmail.com 2 st. Rapsodiei 6B, bl. Sof 1, sc. B, Ap. 9, 240240 Rm. Valcea, Romania, Email: Ioan.has@gmail.com

**Comments:** 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions.
For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile.
The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature.
A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether.
It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law.
The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[965] **viXra:1611.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-23 11:44:25*

**Authors:** Valery P. Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I made a lapse in my surname :(

It is shown the cause of the invariant value of the light speed on the ground of 4D model.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[964] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 10:02:11*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. untranslated and still in german

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[963] **viXra:1611.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-18 12:59:54*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

When a timeline was established related to events that lead to and following Heinrich Hertz's discovery that electromagnetic waves can propagate through the air, a potentially fatal chronology was identified. It is quite possible that the cause of Hertz's early death was exposure to damaging levels of electromagnetic radiation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[962] **viXra:1611.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-15 12:16:02*

**Authors:** Slobodan Nedic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Newtonian mechanic and contemporary physics model the non-circular orbital systems on all scales as
essentially conservative, closed-path zero-work systems and circumvent the obvious contradictions (rotor-free
‘field’ of ‘force’, in spite of its inverse proportionality to squared time-varying distance) by exploiting both
energy and momentum conservation, along specific initial conditions, to be arriving at technically more or less
satisfactory solutions, but leaving many of unexplained puzzles. In sharp difference to it, in recently developed
thermo-gravitational oscillator approach movement of a body in planetary orbital systems is modeled in such
a way that it results as consequence of two counteracting mechanisms represented by respective central forces,
that is gravitational and anti-gravitational accelerations, in that the actual orbital trajectory comes out through
direct application of the Least Action Principle taken as minimization of work (to be) done or, equivalently,
a closed-path integral of increments (or time-rate of change) of kinetic energy. Based on the insights gained,
a critique of the conventional methodology and practices reveals shortcomings that can be the cause of the
numerous difficulties the modern physics has been facing: anomalies (as gravitational and Pioneer 10/11),
three or more bodies problem, postulations in modern cosmology of dark matter and dark energy, the quite
problematic foundation of quantum mechanics, etc. Furthermore, for their overcoming, indispensability of the
Aether as an energy-substrate for all physical phenomena is gaining a very strong support, and based on recent
developments in Aetherodynamics the Descartes' Vortex Physics may become largely reaffirmed in the near
future.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[961] **viXra:1611.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-11 13:16:13*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. submetted to all scientific journals

We demonstrate the fulfilment of the conservation laws with respect to fluxes of momentum, energy, spin, and photons when a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave reflects from a receding mirror at normal incidence

**Category:** Classical Physics

[960] **viXra:1611.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 13:19:32*

**Authors:** Heyfetz Eduard

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author made conclusion about internal infinity of any physical object. He proposes a simple mathematical tool for its analysis and conclusions from the latter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[959] **viXra:1611.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 13:09:29*

**Authors:** Jimmy Chiehmei Yang

**Comments:** 12 pages

Introduce a new concept of MS(motion in space) charges, this charge is fill up all the space move in all direction with speed C, when single direction charged to mass it create motion, when charge density changes it cause gravity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[958] **viXra:1611.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 22:48:11*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The Chinese

The traditional concept of space is three-dimensional, with a time dimension, that is, four-dimensional space. That is, time is one-dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[957] **viXra:1610.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 09:23:06*

**Authors:** Vladislav Mirkin, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article shows that almost "negative" results of the Michelson-Morley-Miller and all subsequent experiments due to the fact that the selected standards of measurement of the size and time have changed almost simultaneously with the measured parameters. That means that all the "old" and modern experiments could not answer the question of the existence of the ether in principle. Furthermore, even in the first experiments the result was already present, which should be interpreted as the presence of the ether.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[956] **viXra:1610.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-28 06:21:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Nadya Amalia

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Conference paper, 11 figures, 3 tables

In this work simple model based on definition of shear modulus to produce bending of wire is proposed. Several results are discussed only for constant shear modulus and diameter, but the model can be extened to non-constant shear modulus and diameter. For arbitrary parameters the model can show bending of wire which epends on shear modulus, wire mass, initial angle, and number of segments. Unfortunatey, it does not give fully agreement for nanowire system, which produces higher value than expected.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[955] **viXra:1610.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 05:09:20*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

After introduction of vortical repulsion in celestial mechanics it turned out, that gravity should act non-linear. Some points for Einstein. Real weight of gravity theory of Nordstrom should be determined.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[954] **viXra:1610.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-24 17:45:21*

**Authors:** J.F. Cuderman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A co-field to Newton's gravitational field is derived and its properties defined. It is applied
to explain "Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies" discovered during deep space missions launched
between 1990 and 2006. The Flyby anomaly has been considered a major unresolved problem in
astrophysics.
Keywords: Gravitational Co-Field, Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies, Space Physics, Classical Physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[953] **viXra:1610.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-23 10:53:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[952] **viXra:1610.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-23 09:29:27*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The principles of the conservation of ‘Linear momentum’ and the conservation of “energy” are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have however never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibnitz and D’Alembert had long discussions whether ‘kinetic energy’ or ‘linear momentum’ was the true property that is considered by the conservation laws.
In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion.
In this paper the author reveals the true physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[951] **viXra:1610.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-23 09:35:35*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concept of ‘force’, which finds its origin in Newton’s laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, because it is the basic concept of the fundamental notions of ‘work’ and ‘energy’. The problem is that the present concept of ‘force’, which is in a general way defined as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature.
On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, In which I demonstrated that the ‘linear momentum’ of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its total amount of congruent translational motion, I will reveal in this paper the physical meaning of the ‘force’ exerted between two colliding bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[950] **viXra:1610.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-23 09:42:40*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The principle of conservation of ‘energy’ is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what ‘energy’ really is and how and where it is physically stored.
On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: “The true physical nature of force” in which I have demonstrated that ‘force’ is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of ‘work’, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force times its displacement and of the true physical nature of ‘kinetic energy’ of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[949] **viXra:1610.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-20 09:35:57*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to generalize the well-known expression of the gravitational potential for more than three dimensions. We used the Sneddon-Thornhill approach of the Newton’s theorem and then the results are passed through the filter of Poisson’s equation. The comparison with other theories implies some restrictions, but the overall results are valid until the experiment will disprove them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[948] **viXra:1610.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-20 12:50:37*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 33 Pages. In Romanian. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” by the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[947] **viXra:1610.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:02*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new theory about the Eötvös effect. We develop a mathematical model which aloud us a better understanding of this effect. From the equation of motion the Eötvös term could arise naturally without supplementary assumptions. The Eötvös force and the Coriolis force are the vertical and horizontal projections of a force generated by the circular motion. Under these circumstances we can conceive the Eötvös effect like a vertical Coriolis effect. In addition we have deduced the Eötvös term from centrifugal force, classic hypothesis. The cosine function appears only due to spherical coordinates and express the variation of centrifugal force with altitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[946] **viXra:1610.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 21:41:44*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper the spatial two-body problem in a Newtonian non-inertial frame of reference is analyzed. The Lagrange’s equations of elliptical movement are established and applied to estimate the advance of perihelion in this case. Finally the theoretical results are compared with the observational results.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[945] **viXra:1610.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 21:51:08*

**Authors:** MUGUR B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By using an unexpected approach it results a general form for the electric field lines equation. It is a general formula, a derivative-integral equation structured as a multi-pole expansion series. By solving this equation we can find the electric field lines expressions for any type of an axially symmetric multi-pole continuous electric charge distributions we interested in, without the need to take again the calculus from the beginning for each case particularly, for instance as in discrete charge distribution case.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[944] **viXra:1610.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 10:56:02*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[943] **viXra:1610.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 10:59:00*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate how the energy minimization principle may be considered as a governing rule for the physical equilibrium that determines the flow fields in tubes and networks. We previously investigated this issue using a numerical stochastic method, specifically simulated annealing, where we demonstrated the problem by some illuminating examples and concluded that energy minimization principle can be a valid hypothesis. The investigation in this paper is more general as it is based to a certain extent on an analytical approach.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[942] **viXra:1610.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 11:01:37*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[941] **viXra:1610.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 11:28:21*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson non-Newtonian fluids is investigated using a variational principle to optimize the total stress. The variationally-obtained solutions are compared to the analytical solutions derived from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney equation and the results are found to be identical within acceptable numerical errors and modeling approximations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[940] **viXra:1610.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 21:49:10*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to establish a synthetic form for Bernoulli’s law concerning an adiabatic ideal gas flow and to apply it to the expanding universe. Unfortunately, the obtained law is not applicable to the expansion of the universe, but it is applicable only to ordinary cases of fluid mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[939] **viXra:1610.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-15 05:45:29*

**Authors:** Pragyaditya Das, Prateek Agrawal.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Your constructive input is very much welcome.

This paper explores the use of a light based measurement technique for the level measurement of cryogenic
liquids. Differential pressure transmitters are commonly used to measure the levels of cryogenic liquids such as liquid
nitrogen and liquid oxygen in cryogenic tanks. They require the liquid inside the temperature controlled tank to be drawn
out into impulse lines. This causes a number of problems, one of the most common one is Chocking of the impulse lines,
which ultimately results in a significant loss of material.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[938] **viXra:1610.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 23:05:47*

**Authors:** S Hussainsha

**Comments:** 11 Pages. AN ELCETRON IS ASSUMED AS A MAGNETIC MONOPOLE

The principal objective of this paper is, finding a way to discover magnetic monopole or an isolated magnetic charge in a theoretical manner. This paper discusses only theory with the support of Special Theory of Relativity. In future, if we found magnetic monopole, this theory is unaltered. In this theory I state Gauss law for magnetic charge. So, I modify Maxwell’s equation by using Gauss law and mathematical procedure called Gauss divergence theorem. The result of this paper gives Equivalence of coulombs and webers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[937] **viXra:1610.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-09 03:42:34*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of energy, law of conservation of momentum, and law of conservation of angular momentum in the traditional viewpoints. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern physics; and they are all widely used in physics. The different points: the law of conservation of energy is derived by the time translation-invariant, the law of conservation of momentum is derived by the space translation-invariant, and the law of conservation of angular momentum is derived by the space rotation-invariant; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. With the comparative method, the above traditional viewpoints are re-discussed. According to the principle of uniqueness of truth, the law of conservation of energy should be considered as the unique truth, and establish the science of conservation of energy; accordingly, within the whole physics range, the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum are not forever right, namely these two laws are correct only in some conditions (for instance, we can give the examples that these two laws are not correct as considering the actions of the friction and the like), therefore these two laws cannot be taken as the fundamental conservation laws in the field of physics; furthermore, in the case of no external force, the law of conservation of momentum may not be correct, and in the case of no external moment, the law of conservation of angular momentum may be not correct too. Finally, the improvements of the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[936] **viXra:1610.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-05 08:03:56*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We analyze arithmetically the value of the fine structure constant .As we show , it’s appropiate to write such constant using natural numbers only .On condition that such natural numbers are properly sorted . Namely , we make several simple series of natural numbers .Each series is a sum of different numbers . The second condition is to apply physical units .We use LT^(-1),i.e. speed units .Since fine structure constant is a dimensionless number , we must to search the ratio between two speed values : speed of light in vacuum with respect to the sum of velocities expressed as a series of natural numbers added correctly .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[935] **viXra:1610.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-04 14:23:50*

**Authors:** Trevor Borocz Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following paper proposes some answers to some common physics questions like the mechanism behind gravity, energy, and magnetism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[934] **viXra:1610.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-01 11:24:12*

**Authors:** Gao Peng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract-This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[933] **viXra:1609.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 08:20:02*

**Authors:** Reuven Ianconescu, Vladimir Vulfin

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

There are three kind of losses in transmission lines: ohmic, dielectric and radiation losses. While the first two are local phenomena which are easy to model, the radiation losses lack a simple model. This work analyzes the radiation losses from two conductors transmission lines in free space, and derives a radiation model within the RLCG transmission lines model.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[932] **viXra:1609.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 10:40:12*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 31 Pages. In Russian. © «Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики». Конгресс – 2016, Материалы. Фундаментальные проблемы естествознания и техники. Серия: «Проблемы исследования Вселеннй». Санкт-Петербург 2016, том37, №1, С. 202 – 231. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. Graviton is an elementary quantum of energy when it is in state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass when it is in state of rest. Mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons which gave to mass their kinetic energy of motion. It is possible to explain scientifically many physical phenomena that classical physics cannot explain them or explain them naive, if at the basis of physics put the existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and mass created by gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field: where does the energy of the stars come from? Why are the planets nuclei hot? What kind of relation is there between the potential and thermal energy in any point inside the mass? What is the propagation medium of the electromagnetic field? Why is the mass accelerating when a constant force acts upon it? Why is the mass moving by inertia? What is the maximum speed at which the given mass can move by inertia? Why do fluxes and refluxes take place on the Earth? The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field (distorted by the masses) compress the masses. The compression of masses by the gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named Universal Compression of Masses. Universal Compression of Masses by Gravitational Field (distorted by the masses) is the first fundamental law of Physics ZMV. The thermal energy of the mass (received from the gravitational field at the mass penetration) heats the mass. Heating of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the second fundamental law of Physics ZMV. That part of gravitons, which gave up their energy to the mass and contributed to the creation of the potential energy of the gravitational field and the thermal energy of mass, remain in the mass and increase the amount of the mass. Growth of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the third fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Motion of Mass by Inertia Energy of Gravitational Field is the fourth fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Flux and Reflux of Mass, as a result of rectilinear and rotational motion of the mass is the fifth fundamental law of Physics ZMV.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[931] **viXra:1609.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 20:11:08*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Document is in Spanish

This document attempted to obtain analytical solutions for the "Falling Slinky" in three ways. The first two, which used the wave equation, failed for different reasons.
The first attempt used Fourier series, which could not satisfy the initial and boundary conditions. The second attempt used Laplace transforms; this method did give a solution, which correctly predicted the acceleration of the center of mass, but which predicted that the upper part of the Slinky should "fall through" the lower part, which is impossible. This false prediction is not a defect of the use of Laplace transforms, but an artifact of the use of the wave equation to treat the falling Slinky, which is a shock-wave phenomenon.
The third attempt at a solution used the impulse-momentum theorem, obtaining a result whose predictions are internally consistent, as well as agreeing with empirical results.
However, we must point out that the model used here treats only the Slinky's longitudinal behavior, ignoring its torsional behavior.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[930] **viXra:1609.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 04:08:46*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

Three forces, which according to author determine orbital distances of rocky planets are sufficiently deciphered here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[929] **viXra:1609.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 13:04:27*

**Authors:** Prado, Pf

**Comments:** 1 Page.

tmeptive of oscilator model

**Category:** Classical Physics

[928] **viXra:1609.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 14:03:15*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Russian

Comparision of oddities in equations of electrostatic interaction of two charges and gravitational interaction of two masses show a mess in both.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[927] **viXra:1609.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 13:34:09*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 37 Pages. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-0300.

Abstract
The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” in the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[926] **viXra:1609.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:34:35*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

External-jet propulsion uses a narrow jet of high velocity water or conceptually a bank of high power lasers to “blast” vehicles to high velocity. The original goal of this work was to create a design analogy for launching micro-sized laser-propelled probes to 20 percent of the speed of light to the nearest stars. This work also resulted in the practical capability to launch micro-craft on external jets of high velocity water having a mass of only 0.7 grams, which represents the smallest known reusable jet propelled vehicle in history. A sphere-cone projectile having a hollow interior shaped like a diverging nozzle demonstrated the concept of propelling projectiles to high velocity using the principal of conservation of linear momentum. An extremely narrow streamtube of high velocity water directed into the interior of a sphere-cone successfully demonstrated stable flight and high acceleration for an inherently unstable projectile.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[925] **viXra:1609.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 13:22:00*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

Considerations about radial strenghts of vortices of solar system and counteracting gravity

**Category:** Classical Physics

[924] **viXra:1609.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 06:25:59*

**Authors:** Brazhnik Gennadyi

**Comments:** 183 Pages.

Сравнение эзотерических знаний и законов физического взаимодействия материализма дает порой неожиданные результаты восприятия реалий окружающей действительности. В рамках рубрики философии бытия настоящая книга, возможно, позволит читателю определиться с основными направлениями развития и совершенствования Сознания его Души.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[923] **viXra:1608.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 07:22:40*

**Authors:** Joseph Palazzo

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Three laws of kinematics are identified. The first two were already known, and are presented with a slightly different perspective. However, the third law of kinematics is a new law of nature. And it states: for every elastic collisions, a free body with the higher kinetic energy can only gain energy from another body with lower kinetic energy, and the lower kinetic energy body will always gain energy from the higher kinetic energy body. Moreover, under general considerations from the theory of Special Relativity, a particle can decay into other particles only if there is a source of positive energy necessary to insure that the new particles have positive kinetic energy, which is why E=mc2 provides the source of this positive energy in the form of mass conversion into energy. Also this new kinematics leads to the reformulation of the 2nd law of thermodynamics which can now explain why heat only flows from a hot body to a cold body, and never the other way around, that a system left on its own will see its disorder increase in time, and that the entropy as defined according to Boltzmann tends to increase. The insight that we gain from this deeper concept which underlies the new law of kinematics and the reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics is that vacuum energy is a necessary condition for particles to pop out of the vacuum. However, this spells trouble for Hawking radiation as it has been formulated - it would lead to a violation of this new kinematics law. Surprisingly this new law of kinematics also sheds new insights into Planck’s ad hoc hypothesis, E = ħω, and why energy must be quantized. As a general conclusion, every dynamical theory must reconcile with this new kinematics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[922] **viXra:1608.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 12:02:33*

**Authors:** Junnichi Fujii

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a
definition in time and concern in time can be settled. This definition isn't inconsistent with general relativity.
4 are supposed. This isn't also inconsistent with general relativity. Mystery in the life expectancy of the
neutron can be settled by this. Several dilemmas which concern at time can be settled. It's possible to deepen
the understanding simpler than the one of the general relativity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[921] **viXra:1608.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-16 04:48:50*

**Authors:** L. A. N. de Paula, M. Goryachev, M. E. Tobar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Microwave reentrant cavities are used for many applications in sciences and engineering. The potential for high mechanical tunability and high electric quality factors make them important tools in many areas. They are usually resonant cylindrical cavities with a central post which makes a small gap spacing with
the cavity wall. By adding an arbitrary number of extra posts, they are generalized to a type of multiple posts reentrant cavity. This new approach has been theoretically studied but no experimental results have been presented. The main purpose of this work is to compare experimental modes with simulation ones from a reentrant cavity made of forty nine cylindrical posts . Each post could be moved using a screw in order to make a tunable gap spacing between the post top and the cavity cover. Eight different gap setups have been made making it possible to investigate thirty six different reentrant modes at room temperature.
The lowest frequency percentage agreement between experiment and simulation was 91.31 % and the best one was 99.92 %. Taking into account all the modes, 94.44 % of them had agreement above 96 %. For the first time, an experimental check has been made. This makes the experimental procedure adopted
here suitable to investigate the reentrant modes from multiple posts cavities. This new sort of cavities stands for a new technology and can have a wide range of applications once they can gather features of conventional cavities and extra ones.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[920] **viXra:1608.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-12 12:54:05*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Russian

Interaction of two masses has been analysed within general frame of physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[919] **viXra:1608.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 08:07:12*

**Authors:** Anuj Kumar Dubey

**Comments:** 196 Pages.

I have been involved from more than ten years in teaching as physics faculty for engineering and medical entrance exam such as IIT (Mains and Advanced)/AIPMT and foundation batch at +2 levels in India. During my interaction with engineering and medical aspirants I, realized that most feared topics in physics is geometrical optics especially in case of solving the numerical problems. Keeping this in mind, i have covered in general the syllabus of geometrical optics, especially for IIT (Mains and Advanced) entrance exam, in these Lecture Notes on “Geometrical Optics”. These lectures contains the topics such as; Basics of optics, laws of reflection and refraction, reflection from spherical mirrors, velocity of image in the plane and spherical mirror, refraction at plane surfaces, prism theory, refraction from curved surfaces, cut lenses, silvered lenses and combination of lenses and mirrors. I have given various numerical problems (fully solved) to discuss the concepts. Very little of these Lecture notes are wholly original. When I drew up notes, I decided from outset that I would collect together the best approaches to the material known to me. So fact is that many of approaches in these Lecture notes have been borrowed from one author or another, there is a little that I have written completely afresh. My intention has been to organize the material in such a way that it is the more readily accessible to majority of the students.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[918] **viXra:1608.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 16:38:39*

**Authors:** Bengt Månsson

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Free fall through the Earth, considered as a sphere of radially symmetric mass density, along the axis of rotation, is calculated using a general differential equation in newtonian gravity theory. The passage time is calculated and, further, the shape of the tunnel required if the fall is started at an arbitrary point other than a pole, so that the rotation of the Earth comes into play, is determined. Also a general relativistic case with constant density along the axis is considered. -- In this general form the article may also be of some pedagogical value.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[917] **viXra:1607.0565 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 11:57:29*

**Authors:** Vladislav Mirkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There is very clear physical interpretation of this formula if we imagine that the space contains the ether moving between the particles of the matter. The ether fills the space between particles like water fills the any hole.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[916] **viXra:1607.0562 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-30 17:17:54*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** 08 Pages. 01 Figure

The mass of the electron is an invariant , i.e., it does not change with its velocity . We introduce the concept of variability of the electric charge to replace the old-fashioned concept of changing mass . We propose a thought experiment to prove this variability of the electric charge of the electron in a changing magnetic field .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[915] **viXra:1607.0489 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-26 09:35:30*

**Authors:** Aritra Sinha

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The report aims to provide an introductory review on network science and a few particular
networks. We emphasize on percolation through small world network where we look into the
case of disease spreading through small world network.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[914] **viXra:1607.0486 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-26 02:06:40*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. FOR PUBLICATION PLEASE

New physics and gravity due to FERMION GRAVITON with mass and BOSON GRAVITON WITH ZERO MASS.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[913] **viXra:1607.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-24 01:13:03*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 5 Pages. philosophy of physics, free fall, freefall, superconductivity, inertia, gravitation, gravity

A seemingly empty relation of physical law implicates a testable hypothesis of physics by contradiction in relation to the test of WEP.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[912] **viXra:1607.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-23 18:52:40*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Currently accepted theories of the structure of macroscopic matter fail to explain the transmission of gravity and of electro-magnetic radiation.
These theories are therefore, in some fundamental aspects, false.
Technologies available today demonstrate that the structure of solid matter is not one of discontinuous atoms.
This paper suggests that they are not, as postulated, composed of almost entirely a "perfect vacuum" and are not separated by large volumes of 'empty space'.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[911] **viXra:1607.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-22 13:07:00*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 146 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc. is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution.
The solution offered:
•Describes wave in vacuum and wave in wire;
•Complies with the energy conservation law in each moment of time, i.e. sets constant density of electromagnetic energy flux;
•Reveals phase shifting between electrical and magnetic intensities;
•Explains existence of energy flux along the wire that is equal to the power consumed.
The work offers some technical applications of the solution obtained. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[910] **viXra:1607.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-21 13:35:03*

**Authors:** Frank Edughom Ekpar

**Comments:** 91 Pages. International Application Number: PCT/US2012/066159; International Publication Number: WO 2014/081420 A1

The present invention discloses an arbitrary dimensional graphical user interface permitting the display or presentation of one or more instances of the user interface on one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped surfaces with each instance comprising one or more arbitrary dimensional background elements each of which is divided into one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped arbitrary dimensional partitions, wherein each partition may contain one or more user interface elements and is associated with one or more sets of rules that define rendering, positioning, element placement and other relevant attributes and behaviors, wherein said rules can be specified in such a way as to enable said arbitrary dimensional background to assume any desired arbitrary shape and to facilitate expansion to any desired arbitrary size without distortion or loss in quality. In this context, an instance of a graphical user interface is any display or presentation of any representation of any aspect of the user interface. Furthermore, the present invention discloses automatic, semi-automatic or manual processing systems for arbitrary dimensional graphical user interfaces based on the principles of the present invention.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[909] **viXra:1607.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-21 10:02:22*

**Authors:** Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Russian

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach is based on the interrelation between the densities of a sequence of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, size and distance from the Observer. Each gravitating system undergoes modifications and evolves from its initial state, namely, a kind of a gas-dust formation almost constant in density over the entire volume, to a certain nearly terminating phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to that of a planetary one (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal in the gravitating system rotation plane the character of the matter density radial distribution, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium where the gravitating system under consideration is located, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an unordinary distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[908] **viXra:1607.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-17 21:31:31*

**Authors:** Valery Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. It is on Russian and it is the third version of the paper.

Forthe model of 4D medium it was obtained the expressions compatible to those of Special Relativity. Also the common formulae for force fom which follows the paradox of braking. The body moving with the velocity close to the light speed can't decerate.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[907] **viXra:1607.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-15 03:43:11*

**Authors:** Frank Edughom Ekpar

**Comments:** 30 Pages. United States Patent Application Number 13/ 674,035: Publication Number US 2014/0135642 A1

The present invention establishes the foundational principles and practice for a unified theory of arbitrary information management by disclosing systems, devices and methods for the management of substrates or biological substrates. In this
context, a substrate or biological substrate is any aspect of any entity that is capable of responding to or emitting or transmitting stimuli irrespective of Whether the stimuli actually emanate or originate from any aspect of the entity or not. Management of substrates or biological substrates could be
achieved through the management of stimuli that modulate or moderate or influence any aspect of the substrate or biological substrate as well as through the management of any stimuli emanating from the substrate or biological substrate.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[906] **viXra:1607.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-10 22:03:41*

**Authors:** Gao Peng

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Scalar wave was found and used at first by Nikola
Tesla in his wireless energy transmission experiment. Prof.K.Meyl
extended the Maxwell equation and found the lost scalar wave
part. The scalar wave theory proposed by Prof.K.Meyl indicates
that the torsion field is the nature of scalar wave. This work
attempts to detect the torsion field nature of scalar wave generated
by the dual Tesla coil system, using the torsion balance consisting
of a wooden frame. The result is positive and two kinds of torsion
field including left-handed and right-handed are detected in dual
Tesla coil system.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[905] **viXra:1607.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 05:20:36*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The subject of this article is the dependence of observation results of the transverse Doppler effect on relative speed ascribed by an observer to himself.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[904] **viXra:1607.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-04 10:05:01*

**Authors:** Vladislav Mirkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The transformation mechanism of principles of classical mechanics in statistical
interpretation of the quantum theory are shown. Physical interpretation of the principle
of uncertainty and the dimension of Planck’s constant (J/Hz instead J∙s) is given.
Inexplicable before phenomenon, taking place in experiments and supervision, are
explained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[903] **viXra:1607.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-02 02:27:24*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A possible cause of the finiteness of the velocity of tangible objects is demonstrated without reference to the provisions of the special theory of relativity. A condition is formulated on the basis of which the assumption of the movement of tangible objects at any prescribed velocities proves to be self-contradictory in instances when the prescribed velocities of the objects exceed a certain value. This condition consists of the presence of interaction signals and carrier particles in material bodies that are propagated at a velocity greater than any prescribed velocity of the material bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[902] **viXra:1606.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-30 09:26:08*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. nobody wants to know the difference between vector and covector.

There are different fields in electrodynamics: vector fields and covector fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[901] **viXra:1606.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 10:40:05*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 7 Pages. available also in English language

Durch elektrostatische Kraft werden Ionen an die Oberfläche von Elektroden gebunden, wodurch der Salzgehalt der Elektrolytflüssigkeit sinkt. Eine mehrstufige Entsalzungskaskade kann das Salz vollständig entfernen. Das Verfahren verwendet keine chemischen Umwandlungen und kann mit handelsüblichen Bauelementen gebaut werden.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[900] **viXra:1606.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 10:14:57*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

By electrostatic force, ions are bound to the surface of electrodes, whereby the salt content of the electrolyte liquid decreases. A multistage cascade desalination can remove the ions completely. The process uses no chemical transformations and requires only conventional components.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[899] **viXra:1606.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-18 22:01:39*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To increase a signal to noise ratio in Torsion Field Communication Sessions, the emitted spinning signal proposed to form directly from video signals of images of transmitter and receiver. The receiver contains a mixer/multiplier fed with an identical reference video signal and the signal of the sensor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[898] **viXra:1606.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 18:07:43*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The experiments with the Spinning Electric Vector Analyzer, SEVA, have revealed an integration-like process of gradual driving a localized spinning electromagnetic field up to speed. The spinning process was induced both incandescent and gas-discharge lamps in vicinity of the SEVA sensor. The experiments can be explained as manifestation of G.I. Shipov’s field of inertia associated with the Physical Vacuum. An original electromagnetic spinning field drives its vacuum partner up to speed, having a characteristic time constant which depends on the conditions of experiments. The similar driving-up-to-speed processes were noted for a wide class of other phenomena. The quantum nature of FG is obviously seen on the images from a screen of the oscilloscope as a manifestation of discrete orbits.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[407] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 14:19:40*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. replace r with c

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[406] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-20 13:44:33*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. fix sign-error

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[405] **viXra:1610.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-08 19:52:48*

**Authors:** Gao Peng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[404] **viXra:1609.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 12:56:09*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 37 Pages. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, the gravitons that gave to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” in the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. The inertia energy of the gravitational field is equal to the difference between the potential energy of the gravitational field in the back and in the front side of the mass in motion. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[403] **viXra:1609.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 08:21:11*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

External-jet propulsion uses a narrow jet of high velocity water or conceptually a bank of high power lasers to “blast” vehicles to high velocity. The original goal of this work was to create a design analogy for launching micro-sized laser-propelled probes to 20 percent of the speed of light to the nearest stars. This work also resulted in the practical capability to launch micro-craft on external jets of high velocity water having a mass of only 0.7 grams, which represents the smallest known reusable jet propelled vehicle in history. A sphere-cone projectile having a hollow interior shaped like a diverging nozzle demonstrated the concept of propelling projectiles to high velocity using the principal of conservation of linear momentum. An extremely narrow streamtube of high velocity water directed into the interior of a sphere-cone successfully demonstrated stable flight and high acceleration for an inherently unstable projectile.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[402] **viXra:1607.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-08 14:29:41*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 164 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc. is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution.
The solution offered:
•Describes wave in vacuum and wave in wire;
•Complies with the energy conservation law in each moment of time, i.e. sets constant density of electromagnetic energy flux;
•Reveals phase shifting between electrical and magnetic intensities;
•Explains existence of energy flux along the wire that is equal to the power consumed.
The work offers some technical applications of the solution obtained. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[401] **viXra:1607.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-11 04:18:08*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc. is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution.
The solution offered:
•Describes wave in vacuum and wave in wire;
•Complies with the energy conservation law in each moment of time, i.e. sets constant density of electromagnetic energy flux;
•Reveals phase shifting between electrical and magnetic intensities;
•Explains existence of energy flux along the wire that is equal to the power consumed.
The work offers some technical applications of the solution obtained. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[400] **viXra:1607.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-02 16:03:16*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[399] **viXra:1607.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-19 18:36:02*

**Authors:** Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 9 Figures, 3 Tables, English

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach relies on the interrelation between densities of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, time scale and distance from the ground-based Observer. The gravitating systems undergo modifications and evolve from their initial state, namely, a gas-and-dust formation of almost constant density over the entire volume, to a certain terminal phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to the planetary system (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the system center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal for the gravitating system the character of radial distribution of matter density in the system symmetry plane, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium containing the gravitating system under consideration, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an "unordinary" distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[398] **viXra:1607.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-23 16:26:42*

**Authors:** Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 9 Figures, 3 Tables, Russian

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach is based on the interrelation between the densities of a sequence of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, size and distance from the Observer. Each gravitating system undergoes modifications and evolves from its initial state, namely, a kind of a gas-dust formation almost constant in density over the entire volume, to a certain nearly terminating phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to that of a planetary one (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal in the gravitating system rotation plane the character of the matter density radial distribution, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium where the gravitating system under consideration is located, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an unordinary distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[397] **viXra:1607.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-18 08:06:02*

**Authors:** Valeriy Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Устранена ошибка

В модели четырехмерной среды определена функция Лагранжа для вихря, которая имеет тот же вид, что и функция Лагранжа свободной частицы в теории относительности. В дополнении приведена формула для общего выражения силы.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[396] **viXra:1606.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-03 07:07:15*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The paper considers observations of the transverse Doppler effect by an observer located in the center of a circle with a large diameter and observers, who are in motion at relativistic velocity around a circle.
Keywords: special relativity, transverse Doppler effect, aberration of light, blueshift, redshift

**Category:** Classical Physics

[395] **viXra:1606.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-03 03:06:42*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian

В статье рассматривается зависимость результатов наблюдения поперечного эффекта Доплера от приписанной себе наблюдателем относительной скорости.
The article discusses the dependence of the results of observation of the transverse Doppler effect from attributed to an observer relative velocity .

**Category:** Classical Physics