**Previous months:**

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2012 - 1201(5) - 1202(3) - 1203(2) - 1204(9) - 1205(8) - 1206(4) - 1207(8) - 1208(4) - 1209(5) - 1210(6) - 1211(7) - 1212(9)

2013 - 1301(11) - 1302(9) - 1303(11) - 1304(3) - 1305(10) - 1306(13) - 1307(13) - 1308(4) - 1309(7) - 1310(20) - 1311(14) - 1312(20)

2014 - 1401(24) - 1402(17) - 1403(12) - 1404(15) - 1405(5) - 1406(12) - 1407(18)

Any replacements are listed further down

[483] **viXra:1407.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 16:21:50*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Author offers and develops the theory of a new simple cheap efficient electric (electron) generator. This generator can convert pressure or kinetic energy of any non-conductive flow (gas, liquid) into direct current (DC). The generator can convert the mechanical energy of any engine into high voltage DC. One can covert the wind and water energy into electricity without turbine. One can convert the rest energy of an internal combustion engine or turbojet engine in electricity and increase its efficiency.
-------------------------------------------------
Key words: Jet Electric Generator, Electron generator, AB generator, Wind electric generator, Water electric generator, DC generator, High voltage generator.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[482] **viXra:1407.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 16:24:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 368 Pages.

At present, rockets are used for launches and flights into space. They have been intensively developed since World War II when the German engineer F. Von Braun designed the first long distance rocket FAU-2. In the subsequent 60 years liquid and solid rockets reached the peak of their development. Their main shortcomings are (1) very high cost of space launching $20,000 – 50,000/kg; (2) large fuel consumption; (3) fuel storage problems because the oxidizer and fuel (for example; oxygen and hydrogen) require cryogenic temperatures, or they are poisonous substances (for example; nitric acid, N2O3).
In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[481] **viXra:1407.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 09:47:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We discuss a first-order analysis of eye imaging for digital retinal cameras.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[480] **viXra:1407.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 07:22:18*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[479] **viXra:1407.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 07:24:53*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует объяснение принципа действия генератора Фарадея.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[478] **viXra:1407.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 07:42:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

Here we prove the validity of the assumptions Huber that Huber force has electrodynamic of nature. \\ Доказывается справедливость предположения Губера о том, что сила Губера имеет электродинамическую природу.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[477] **viXra:1407.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 14:28:21*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Previosly was shown on www.ecodowsing.com in 2005. The company was concerned with studying physical bases of Geo-Pathogenic Zones and designing special instrumentation for that.

The paper shows the spinning electric field as an electromagnetic analog of a mechanical gyroscope.
Like a real mechanical gyroscope, its electromagnetic analog has an angular momentum.But quantitatively faster spinning brings qualitatively new phenomena.
This publication is a copy of that shown on site www.ecodowsing.com in 2005.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[476] **viXra:1407.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 02:33:17*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame (rotating or non-rotating) (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[475] **viXra:1407.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 19:05:39*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The joint point of the Light Cone is shown as a virtual particle. Basing on Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and Plank’s length and time, its energy, momentum and mass are calculated. The calculation brings to superluminal speed of the quasi-particle, which is interpreted here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[474] **viXra:1407.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:00:22*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[473] **viXra:1407.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:03:20*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует существование неизвестной ранее силы. Автор приглашает экспериментаторов проверить появление силы Хмельника и дополнить ее название своим именем.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[472] **viXra:1407.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 22:41:04*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract. In this document are first defined the notions of helical impulse and helical force, and after are defined the components of helical force in the form of helical electric, gravitational and magnetic force.
În acest material se definesc întâi noţiunile de impuls elicoidal şi forţă elicoidală, după care se definesc componentele forţei elicoidale sub forma forţei elicoidale electrice, gravitaţionale şi magnetice.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[471] **viXra:1407.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 09:39:08*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that Lorentz Force and Ampere force contradicts the Third Newton Law, but it does not contradict the more general Law of Momentum Conservation, as the electromagnetic field has a momentum. From this it follows that the Lorentz and Ampere forces must be balanced by the flow of electromagnetic momentum. However, as far as the author knows, there is no corresponding quantitative comparison and therefore it is discussed below. In particular, it is shown that some of the corollaries of the Momentum Conservation Law can be found.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[470] **viXra:1407.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 09:42:25*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

It is known that Lorentz Force and Ampere force contradicts the Third Newton Law, but it does not contradict the more general Law of Momentum Conservation, as the electromagnetic field has a momentum. From this it follows that the Lorentz and Ampere forces must be balanced by the flow of electromagnetic momentum. However, as far as the author knows, there is no corresponding quantitative comparison and therefore it is discussed below. In particular, it is shown that some of the corollaries of the Momentum Conservation Law can be found. \\ Известно, что силы Лоренца и Ампера противоречат третьему закону Ньютона, но не противоречат более общему закону сохранения импульса, поскольку электромагнитное поле обладает импульсом. Из этого следует, что эти силы должны уравновешиваться потоком электромагнитного импульса. Однако, насколько известно автору, нет соответствующего количественного сопоставления и поэтому оно рассматривается ниже. При этом, в частности, показывается, что из закона сохранения импульса можно найти некоторые следствия.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[469] **viXra:1407.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 08:25:14*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Extension of Maxwell's equations is proposed to realize charge creation and annihilation.
The proposed equations includes Nakanishi-Lautrup (NL) field, which was introduced to construct Lorentz covariant electromagnetic field model for quantum electrodynamics (QED). The necessity of the extension of Maxwell's equations is shown by the comparison of current values given by Maxwell's and the proposed equations in the simple structure consisting of a silicon sphere surrounded by SiO2. Maxwell's equations give unreasonable currents in SiO2, although the proposed equations give reasonable result. The electromagnetic field energy density is increased by existence of NL field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[468] **viXra:1407.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 15:31:08*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers physical effects, produced by a spinning electromagnetic field. Unlike a traveling wave, all its energy remains in a localized volume, what relates such the system with a mechanical gyroscope. Like the classical gyroscope, the electromagnetic spinning, manifested as a Field Gyroscope, produces a torque in a case of the non-stationary spinning. However, the electromagnetic base of the spinning brings new features, which the mechanical gyroscope does not have. The phenomena of the Filed Gyroscope allow explanation of dangerous atmospheric processes and anomalies of Geo-Pathogenic Zones as well as the possibility of a new type of the propeller.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[467] **viXra:1407.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 20:39:23*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Transmission of high voltage by direct currency (DC) over long distance has big advantages in comparison with the current transmission by alternative current (AC). But about one hundred years ago generating electricity by the magnetic method was easy and development led to a system centered on AC. Now AC is the dominant method. That is only a result of the quirks of electricity’s historical development.
In present time it is possible to research and develop (R&D) high voltage electrostatic generators and inverters of high voltage DC in low voltage DC and in AC and using the old AC lines and devices.
Author offers a cheap high voltage electrostatic generator and transformer of high voltage DC to low voltage DC and DC in AC (any frequency and phases) and back. That may be adopted gradually and it will give significantly savings of electricity and energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[466] **viXra:1407.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 21:00:47*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Aviation, in general, and aerospace in particular needs new propulsion systems which allow a craft to reach high speeds by cheaper and more efficient methods. Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude. The system can use apparatus surface for thrust and braking. For energy the system uses high voltage electricity which is not a problem if you have an appropriate electrostatic generator connected with any suitable engine. The new propulsion system applies to hypersonic long-range aviation, for launch of space craft and as a high efficiency rocket in solar space. This can be actualized using current technology.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[465] **viXra:1406.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 03:24:15*

**Authors:** J. Smulko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The manuscript has been accepted for publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters.

The Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key distribution system provides a way of exchanging theoretically secure keys by measuring random voltage and current through the wire connecting two different resistors at Alice's and Bob's ends. Recently new advanced protocols for the KLJN method have been proposed with enhanced performance. In this paper we analyze the KLJN
system and compare with the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme. That task requires determination
of the applied resistors and identification of various superpositions of known and unknown noise components. Some statistical tools will be explored to determine how the duration of the bit exchange window (averaging time) influences the performance of the secure bit exchange.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[464] **viXra:1406.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-28 14:18:33*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A basic overview of the photon four-frequency is given, demonstrating its use in the explanation of the aberration of starlight and the Doppler shift, at a mathematical level suitable for undergraduate students in the physical sciences.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[463] **viXra:1406.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 03:54:51*

**Authors:** Mende F. F

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The contact potential difference this is the potential difference, which appears between the located in the electrical contact conductors under the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Between two conductors, led to the contact, occur the electron transfer, as a result of which they they are charged (conductor with the smaller work function positively, and with larger - negatively) until electron streams in both directions are balanced also in the entire system the level of electrochemical potential (Fermi level) becomes identical. The established contact potential difference is equal to difference the work function of conductors, referred to the electron charge. But from the attention of researchers slipped off still one type of contact potential difference, which occurs with the flow of the current through the superconductors. This type of contact potential difference is examined in this article

**Category:** Classical Physics

[462] **viXra:1406.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 17:18:39*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that displacement and conductivity currents must be defined as the convective derivative of the induction vector and oppositely directed. Therefore chain AC currents are broken by capacitors and do not form a vortical electric field. It is concluded that the electrodynamics needs revision revision of some of its provisions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[461] **viXra:1406.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 04:20:07*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The electric space-propulsion (EP) bases on the mechanism of ionizing the propellant. The now charged propellant can be influenced by external electric and magnetic fields; with the objective to generate thrust. The ionizing technique differs with the kind of EP. The Radio-Frequency Ion-Thruster (RIT) uses electric eddy-fields for ionization; the eddy-fields accelerate electrons, which transfer their additional kinetic energy to the neutral propellant-particles via collision. If the transferred energy is high enough, the particles are ionized in this way. Origin of the eddy-fields is a coil that surrounds the region of ionization. The interaction of coil and plasma is the core-mechanism of a RIT. This interaction and its effect on the coil behavior are discussed in the following paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[460] **viXra:1406.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 02:27:25*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In classical dynamics binary elastic collision problems are solved using the two laws of conservation – the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of kinetic energy. The requirement of conservation of kinetic energy is less restrictive than the Huygens’ requirement (kinematics model) of reversal of relative velocity for an elastic collision. We demonstrate in this article that the dynamics model breaks symmetry and leads to paradoxical solutions in multi dimensional collisions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[459] **viXra:1406.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-20 10:19:05*

**Authors:** Kiryan D. G., Kiryan G. V.

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Russian

The paper presents the novel results obtained by more comprehensively analyzing well-known and clearly visible physical processes associated with gravitational interaction in the system of material bodies in the medium of non-zero density. The work is based on the statement that the buoyancy Archimed force acting on the material body located in a medium of non-zero density is of the gravitational nature. Due to this approach, we managed, staying in the framework of classical physics and mechanics definitions, to introduce the concept of the body's gravitating mass as a mass determining the gravitational interaction intensity and also to establish an analytical relation between the gravitating and inertial masses of the material body. Combining the direct and indirect (Archimed force) gravitational effect on the material body in the medium, we succeeded in distinguishing from the total gravitational field of this system a structure with a dipole-like field line distribution. This fact allows us to assert that, along with the gravitational attraction, there exists also gravitational repulsion of material bodies, and this fact does not contradict the meanings of existing basic definitions and concepts of classical physics and mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[458] **viXra:1406.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 04:03:27*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The magnetic force can be described very simply as a result of relative velocities of electric charges. Transformations in inertial reference systems are very well described by special relativity. However, magnetism nevertheless is simply regarded as given. There isn't an explanation for the emergence of magnetism yet. I have found a quite simple way to explain the emergence of magnetism, that is, I have discovered, how the electric field changes so that magnetism is created. I would like to introduce this idea here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[457] **viXra:1406.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 14:44:24*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Constructive comments are welcome

An ab initio scrutiny of the structure and genesis of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and a close look into its rare ‘materialization’ to produce a pair of electron (e-) and positron (e+), coupled with the examination of the relationships among their various dynamic parameters, have revealed that just like torque (F x r), angular momentum (mv x r), and spin (m0c x r), the charge interaction (Epot x r) also has a cross product relation between the potential energy and the lever arm of the interacting particles. Further, it has been found that the EM frames of photons and leptons, herein called the ‘Energetic Capsules’, have higher energy with respect to the zero-energy state of the vacuum, determined by the quantum relations: E = ħc/r (photons) and E0 = ħc/2r (leptons). This means that the inner and surface energy potential of these ‘Energetic Capsules’ is higher than that of the normal vacuum and their charge interaction is given by ħc = ie2, the square of the intrinsic charge (ie). Consequently, the ‘Close Contact’ or Strong Force interactions of these ‘Energetic Capsules’ should reflect this difference, when compared with their long-range interactions through the free space / vacuum. Therefore, as the elementary charge interaction (in vacuum) is given by e2, while the ‘Close Contact’ strong force interactions correspond to ħc, the ratio between these two parameters provides the value of alpha, α = e2/ħc = 1/137, which resolves the century-old enigma of the Electromagnetic Coupling Constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[456] **viXra:1406.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:13:14*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Problem of a derivation of the mass density of the E-corona as a function of spherical coordinates was formulated

**Category:** Classical Physics

[455] **viXra:1406.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 03:28:11*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

From the principle of least action the equation of motion for viscous compressible substance is derived. The viscosity effect is described by the 4-potential of the energy dissipation field, dissipation tensor and dissipation stress-energy tensor. In the weak field limit it is shown that the obtained equation is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation. The equation for the power of the kinetic energy loss is provided, the equation of motion is integrated, and the dependence of the velocity magnitude is determined. A complete set of equations is presented, which suffices to solve the problem of motion of viscous compressible and charged substance in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[454] **viXra:1406.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 06:45:44*

**Authors:** F. Ben Adda

**Comments:** 11 Pages. it was impossible to post it in arxiv because of the size of the pictures

In this paper, we reproduce the interference pattern using only space-time geodesics. We prove that fringes and bands can be reproduced by using fluctuating geodesics, which suggests that the interference pattern shown to occur with electrons, atoms, molecules and other elementary particles might be a natural manifestation of the space-time geodesics for the small scale world.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[453] **viXra:1405.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 10:40:27*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

It has been recently demonstrated, [3,11], that according to the principle of release constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-‐viscous version of the Navier-‐Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns. Special attention is paid to transition from laminar to turbulent state. The analytical solution for this transition demonstrates the turbulent mean velocity profile that qualitatively similar to celebrated logarithmic law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[452] **viXra:1405.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 05:14:19*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we configured a system with negative input impedance by a pair of Yagi-Uda antennas. The two Yagi antennas were placed face to face feeding by the same source. The input impedance is the sum of self-impedance and mutual impedance. Since Yagi antenna has significantly reduced self-impedance and amplified mutual impedance, it is anticipated that this system present negative input impedance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[451] **viXra:1405.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 07:42:55*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been published in Prespacetime Journal, ISSN: 2153-8301 (url: http://www.prespacetime.com) 05/2014; 5(5). Comments are welcome

In this paper, I will review some inadequacies of Schrödinger equation. Then I will discuss George Shpenkov's interpretation of classical wave equation and two other authors' wave equations. According to Shpenkov, the classical wave equation can be used to derive a periodic table of elements -which is close to Mendeleyev's periodic table-, and also other phenomena related to the structure of molecules. It is argued here that one may arrive at new energy methods using this classical wave equation as starting point. It is suggested that Shpenkov's interpretation of classical wave equation can complement Schrödinger equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[450] **viXra:1405.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 01:59:06*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Introduces a concept known as Jialency as a form of Enthalpy. Jialency can be used to better understand thermal energy transfer, radiation, time dilation and the nature of entropy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[449] **viXra:1405.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 08:23:20*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

will to write some equations in wich the left side describes a physical force and in the right side the corresponding equation in geometric terms .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[448] **viXra:1404.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-29 00:16:24*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this work, we calculated the input impedance of dipole antenna coupled with two parasitic resonators. It is shown that the input impedance has negative value in specific configurations. The dipole antenna works as a power generator when its input impedance is negative.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[447] **viXra:1404.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-22 08:58:27*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an utterly illogical assumption, used in contemporary physics. In order to reduce irrationality of this assumption, different types of fields are used in explanations of various theories. Generally, these fields are undefined and quite vague in their structures, forms and actions. This essay attempts to briefly describe a real entity, made of matter in definite structural formations and with logical mechanism of actions, which can substitute for various types of undefined fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[446] **viXra:1404.0432 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-20 03:32:54*

**Authors:** Nguyen Ly

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An algorithm is devised to automatically map out and generate the necessary equations to solve any resistor circuit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[445] **viXra:1404.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 14:22:01*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages. in Russian

The riddle of Tolchin’s inertioid exists for almost a century. The paper shows that this riddle can be solved by involving general relativity theory. A method for calculation of the inertioid is given. Some constructive modifications are being offered. // Загадка инерциоида Толчина существует почти век. В статье показывается, что она может быть решена с привлечением общей теории относительности. Дается методика расчета инерциоида. Предлагаются конструктивные модификации.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[444] **viXra:1404.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 14:53:18*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Russian

The cause of unsupported motion in Faraday unipolar motor and similar designs is considered. It is shown that such motion is being generated due to the fact that there, together with the driving impulse there arises a flow of electromagnetic impulse which becomes isolated within the structure. // Рассматривается причина возникновения безопорного движения в униполярном двигателе Фарадея и сходных конструкциях. Показывается, что такое движение возникает благодаря тому, что в них вместе с движущим импульсом появляется поток электромагнитного импульса, замыкающийся внутри конструкции.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[443] **viXra:1404.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 08:39:10*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

While it is a well known fact that the initial and final velocity vectors of an ideal projectile, for a launching angle of 45° to the horizontal, are mutually perpendicular for maximum range; this fact is not that well known in case of other launching angles. In this article we provide three simple methods that show why the two velocities must be orthogonal. The first is based on the fact that the ranges of two projectiles launched from the same point with any speed but complimentary angles of projection have the same value of maximum range. The second deals with the total angle of rotation of the initial velocity vector. The third takes advantage of the similarity between reflection of light at parabolic mirror surfaces and the initial and final tangential velocities of the projectile path.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[442] **viXra:1404.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:20:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 22 Pages. in Russian

Maxwell-similar gravitation equations and the experiments of Samokhvalov are considered. It is noted that the observed effects are so significant, that in order to explain them within the said Maxwell-similar gravitation equations these equations should be supplemented by a certain empirical coefficient that may be named gravitational permeability of the medium. Then it is shown that with such supplement the results of experiments are in good agreement with so modified gravitation equations. A crude estimate of this coefficient is given. Some corollaries of these equations are considered, in particular, the gravitational excitation of electric current, the impact of gravito-magnetic induction on the electric current. Some phenomena that can be explained with the aid of these equations are indicated. // Рассматриваются максвеллоподобные уравнения гравитации и эксперименты Самохвалова. Отмечается, что наблюдаемые эффекты настолько значительны, что для их объяснения в рамках указанных максвеллоподобных уравнений гравитации необходимо дополнить эти уравнения некоторым эмпирическим коэффициентом, который можно назвать гравитационной проницаемостью среды. Далее показывается, что при таком дополнении результаты экспериментов хорошо согласуются с модифицированными таким образом уравнениями гравитации. Дается грубая оценка величины этого коэффициента. Рассматриваются некоторые следствия из указанных уравнений, в частности, гравитационное возбуждение электрического тока, воздействие гравитомагнитной индукции на электрический ток. Указываются некоторые феномены, которые могут быть объяснены с привлечением указанных уравнений.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[441] **viXra:1404.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:54:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian

We are considering some speculative experiments with charges and currents, which demonstrate a breach of Newton's third law, i.e. an opportunity of unsupported movement. It is shown that these experiments do not violate the Law of momentum conservation. We describe a structure in which electric charges are driven into rotation. We show that this structure performs translational unsupported motion. We describe the mathematical model and the experimental results with a mathematical model of this structure. Some recommendations are given for the implementation of the design. // Рассматриваются умозрительные эксперименты с зарядами и токами, которые демонстрируют нарушение третьего закона Ньютона, т.е. возможность безопорного движения. Показывается, что эти эксперименты не нарушают закон сохрания импульса. Описывается конструкция, в которой электрические заряды приводятся во вращение. Показывается, что при этом конструкция совершает поступательное безопорное движение. Описываются математическая модель и результаты эксперимента с математической моделью конструкции. Даются некоторые рекомендации по реализации конструкции.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[440] **viXra:1404.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 12:00:07*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

The discussed experiment demonstrates the preservation of integrity in a prefabricated construction in the absence of visible fastening forces. It is shown that the experiment can be explained by the fact that a flow of electromagnetic energy appears within the construction. We are considering the conditions in which such flow of electromagnetic energy is maintained for an indefinite length of time. // Рассматривается эксперимент, демонстрирующий сохранение целостности сборной конструкции при отсутствии видимых скрепляющих сил. Показывается, что эксперимент объясняется появлением потока электромагнитной энергии внутри конструкции. Рассматриваются условия, при соблюдении которых поток электромагнитной энергии сохраняется сколь угодно долго.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[439] **viXra:1404.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 10:05:23*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 1 Table

From a logical starting point that the whole and parts are immanently depandant on each other, I calculated relations between physical constants. Also, I created a Ttable presenting the possibility of using original formulas obtained in that way for the purpose of calculating more accurate values of physical constants corresponding to the publishing years of CODATA reports.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[438] **viXra:1404.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 10:40:14*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Based on the derivation of the exact formula for the shadow-gravity force the basic objection against the shadow-gravity theory was eliminated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[437] **viXra:1404.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 10:41:00*

**Authors:** Felix Hovsepian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Author shows there are two different time in Nature. One of these times we know very well: this is time on our wristwatches. Time on "wristwatch" harmonic wave is different. When you change the frequency of the oscillation wave automatically changes time of its own "wristwatch", ie speed is constant at any frequency, but on the testimony of its own "wristwatch". It is hard enough to understand as this wave in terms of mathematics is not a function. Author gives design of waves, and in addition to this paper, he gives a mathematical proof of this design. The fallacy of the concept of special relativity follows from the proof and the examples that occur in Nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[436] **viXra:1404.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 06:06:56*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

Given the general physical definition of displacement flow and opened falseness
of attributing Maxwell’s displacement current to a partial derivative from vector of an induction. It is shown that the displacement and conduction currents directed counter, and a chain of alternating currents to the capacitors are not closed and do not form vortex electric field. Concluded on the need to review a number provisions of electrodynamics and physics as a whole

**Category:** Classical Physics

[435] **viXra:1404.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 11:52:15*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Exploitation of the Method and Instruments since 1996 considerably increased a rate of troubleshooting in computer-maintenance company.

The paper considers a physical base of new approach to testing capacitors in-circuit as well as the appropriate instruments.
The method is based on injecting the probing current through an envelope of the capacitors due to polarization processes of associated conducted surface of the circuitry.
This is a first one-probe In-Circuit Method.
Special instruments, realizing the Method are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[434] **viXra:1403.0967 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-29 08:18:54*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

Existence of vector potential of rotating currents and unity of its analytical expression
with other potentials is shown. The sense of this potential as angular speed of rotation of a current is opened and its communication with work is found.
(Показано существование векторного потенциала вращающихся токов и единство его аналитического выражения с другими потенциалами. Вскрыт смысл этого потенциала как угловой скорости вращения тока и найдена его связь с работой)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[433] **viXra:1403.0964 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 23:22:20*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 12 Pages. submitted for publication

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equations but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is impedance-based. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[432] **viXra:1403.0937 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-26 07:13:03*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A series of experiments and hydrodynamic analyses has been conducted to resolve the paradox that a viscous-flow distribution between concentric cylinders can be identical to a potential vortex (inviscid-flow) distribution at steady state. Where a potential vortex or tornado can be described as the flow around and through a drain hole at the bottom of a large container. As an approximation to this phenomenon, an experimental device to simulate a three dimensional potential vortex was fabricated that used a rapidly rotating central cylinder or rotating core located on the axis of a cylindrical basin filled with water. The fluid surface shape and velocity profile of an artificially generated potential vortex or free vortex was experimentally measured and compared with hydrodynamic models to define the viscid and inviscid nature of the potential vortex flow. A new program called VORTEX based on a finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed to determine the transient velocity profile and transient free surface shape of the potential vortex for comparison with experiment. From these experiments it is proposed the paradox is resolved because energy-momentum is conserved in a potential vortex under steady state conditions. This work can be applied to the measurement of the potential vortex flow generated by aircraft wing tips, interior flow of aircraft jet engines, rocket motor propellant tanks and natural phenomena like tornadoes, hurricanes and General Relativity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[168] **viXra:1407.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 07:20:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[167] **viXra:1407.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 16:38:06*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[166] **viXra:1407.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 04:58:02*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует существование неизвестной ранее силы. Автор приглашает экспериментаторов проверить появление силы Хмельника и дополнить ее название своим именем.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[165] **viXra:1406.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 09:08:52*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The contact potential difference this is the potential difference, which appears between the located in the electrical contact conductors under the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Between two conductors, led to the contact, occur the electron transfer, as a result of which they are charged (conductor with the smaller work function positively, and with larger - negatively) until electron streams in both directions are balanced also in the entire system the level of electrochemical potential (Fermi level) becomes identical. The established contact potential difference is equal to difference the work function of conductors, referred to the electron charge. But from the attention of researchers slipped off still one type of contact potential difference, which occurs with the flow of the current through the superconductors. This type of contact potential difference is examined in this article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[164] **viXra:1406.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 16:20:33*

**Authors:** Kiryan D. G., Kiryan G. V.

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 11 Figures, English

The paper presents the novel results obtained by more comprehensively analyzing well-known and clearly visible physical processes associated with gravitational interaction in the system of material bodies in the medium of non-zero density. The work is based on the statement that the "buoyancy" (Archimedes) force acting on the material body located in a medium of non-zero density is of the gravitational nature. Due to this approach, we managed, staying in the framework of classical physics and mechanics definitions, to introduce the concept of the body's gravitating mass as a mass determining the gravitational interaction intensity and also to establish an analytical relation between the gravitating and inertial masses of the material body. Combining the direct and indirect (Archimedes force) gravitational effect on the material body in the medium, we succeeded in distinguishing from the total gravitational field of this system a structure with a dipole-like field line distribution. This fact allows us to assert that, along with the gravitational attraction, there exists also gravitational repulsion of material bodies, and this fact does not contradict the meanings of existing basic definitions and concepts of classical physics and mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[163] **viXra:1404.0433 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-11 12:12:25*

**Authors:** Yu.A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Work is devoted to the development of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field (EMF). Of a single axiom of the existence in nature of the electromagnetic field vector potential deductively constructed the foundations of a coherent and consistent potential electrodynamics. New electrodynamics includes new stress tensor and the equations of motion EMF, tensor and 4 kinds of electromagnetic energy, conservation equations of the electromagnetic energy, tensor and the expression for 20 kinds of dynamic and stationary electromagnetic forces, tensors and equations of motion of charged particles, including the equation of plasma turbulence. An expression for the electromagnetic mass and the relation between EMF with the conservation laws of mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[162] **viXra:1404.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 04:09:48*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The cause of unsupported motion in Faraday unipolar motor and similar designs is considered. It is shown that such motion is being generated due to the fact that there, together with the driving impulse there arises a flow of electromagnetic impulse which becomes isolated within the structure. // Рассматривается причина возникновения безопорного движения в униполярном двигателе Фарадея и сходных конструкциях. Показывается, что такое движение возникает благодаря тому, что в них вместе с движущим импульсом появляется поток электромагнитного импульса, замыкающийся внутри конструкции.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[161] **viXra:1404.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-12 02:01:58*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

The discussed experiment demonstrates the preservation of integrity in a prefabricated construction in the absence of visible fastening forces. It is shown that the experiment can be explained by the fact that a flow of electromagnetic energy appears within the construction. We are considering the conditions in which such flow of electromagnetic energy is maintained for an indefinite length of time. // Рассматривается эксперимент, демонстрирующий сохранение целостности сборной конструкции при отсутствии видимых скрепляющих сил. Показывается, что эксперимент объясняется появлением потока электромагнитной энергии внутри конструкции. Рассматриваются условия, при соблюдении которых поток электромагнитной энергии сохраняется сколь угодно долго.

**Category:** Classical Physics