Classical Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1314] viXra:1807.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 17:22:36

Letter to the Committee “The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics”

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 13 Pages. Robert Yusupov <©> Letter to Yuri Milner June 4, 2018

Found on Wikipedia site https://breakthroughprize.org. There was an explanation posted: “The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics was founded in 2012 by Yuri Milner to recognize those individuals who have made profound contributions to human knowledge. It is open to all physicists — theoretical, mathematical, experimental — working on the deepest mysteries of the Universe”. My "Theory of Nature" revealed many secrets of the Universe, the foundations of nature. Within the framework of the "Theory of Nature" several dozen fundamental problems of physics and cosmology have been solved. "Theory of Nature" is presented in several of my articles (http://vixra.org/author/robert_yusupov). I wrote a letter to this committee (office@breakthroughprize.org) addressed to Mr. Milner with the request to consider one such article of mine.
Category: Classical Physics

[1313] viXra:1807.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 19:55:55

Two Different Types of Magnetic Field

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

Such luminaries as Richard P. Feynman and Albert Einstein have noted an asymmetry in application of Maxwell's Equations. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe are hods and plenum. An experiment to test Ampere's law and the STOE was performed. The data shows the STOE model is very close to the actual measurements and rejects the classical Biot-Savart Law. The results of the experiments suggest a distinction between magnetic fields caused by hods and magnetic fields caused by plenum resolves the asymmetry.
Category: Classical Physics

[1312] viXra:1807.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 22:39:52

Sunset of Physics \\\\\\ Закат физики

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Sunset of Physics July 11, 2018

In present article, in the light of the greatest, ingenious, truly revolutionary achievements and discoveries in physics and cosmology made by the author of the Theory of Nature the question of future existence and the future fate of physics as a science is put in its entirety. ++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье в свете величайших, гениальных, поистине революционных достижений и открытий в физике и космологии, сделанных автором «Теории Природы», ставится во всей свой полноте вопрос о дальнейшем существовании и о дальнейшей судьбе физики, как науки.
Category: Classical Physics

[1311] viXra:1807.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 15:27:13

EUV Transmission Lens Design and Manufacturing Method

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper outlines a design for an EUV transmission lens comprising blazed, phase-Fresnel structures approximated by a stepped profile. The structures can be formed on both sides of a thin silicon substrate, providing many more phase levels than would be possible with one-sided lenses. An e-beam fabrication technique with nanometer-scale patterning accuracy is outlined.
Category: Classical Physics

[1310] viXra:1807.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 03:11:12

Electromagnetism and the Differential Density Field

Authors: Neal Tensor
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this document I explore a new fundamental theory of nature. In this document I describe nature in terms of the density field. The density field, in it's simplest form is a field for which every point has a density.But in my document I describe it as a differentiable field, which means that a density field with point mass is not a possibility. The quest now for me is to derive a set of equations for explaining how motion works in this field, doing so derives many of the laws of physics amongst other interesting results, such as density waves and the aether. My quest continues in a brief explanation of how electromagnetic fields interact with the density field.
Category: Classical Physics

[1309] viXra:1807.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 07:34:51

Pulsing Mass (Once Again About the Matter and Mass) \\\\\ Пульсирующая масса (Ещё раз о материи и массе)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 22 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Pulsing mass 6 July, 2018

В современной физике считается, что масса элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) является неизменной постоянной величиной. Это связано с представлением об элементарной частице (ЭЧ), как статичной материальной тверди. В рамках научного исследования автора настоящей статьи удалось установить факт того, что материя является основой элементарной частицы (ЭЧ). А сама элементарная частица (ЭЧ) является пульсирующей в ритме природы материальной плотью. Пульсирующий характер элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) имеет своим следствием тот факт, что масса элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) также является изменяющейся пульсирующей в ритме природы физической величиной. ----------------------- In modern physics it is considered that the mass of an elementary particle (EP) is a constant. This is connected with the idea of an elementary particle (EP), as a static material solid. In the framework of a scientific study of the author of this article, it was possible to establish the fact that matter is the basis of an elementary particle (EP). And the elementary particle (EP) itself is pulsating in the rhythm of nature with material flesh. The pulsating character of an elementary particle (EP) has as its consequence the fact that the mass of an elementary particle (EP) is also a variable physical quantity pulsating in the rhythm of nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[1308] viXra:1807.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 15:48:20

A New Approach to Human Powered Flight and Beyond

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 42 Pages. Draft finalized in December 30th 2013 but never published, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30180.07043

A New Approach to Human Powered Flight and Beyond
Category: Classical Physics

[1307] viXra:1807.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 20:04:34

Fine Structure Constant as the Polarization of the Quantum Field by a Unit Charge

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

Since it was first discovered, physicists have attempted to find the fundamental physical cause of the fine structure constant. The fine structure constant appears in many different physics relationships and can be expressed in terms of a number of combinations of different physical constants. This leads to some debate over what is the most fundamental representation of the constant. In this paper it is first shown that the unit charge can be viewed as the polarizability of space over a surface area surrounding a unit charge. The polarizability of space is in turn determined by the van der Waals torque of the quantum field. That torque regulates the rate of rotation of the quantum dipoles of standard model quantum field theory as each quantum dipole is polarized. Then, based on the well-known relationship between the charge squared and the fine structure constant, it can be readily shown that the fine structure constant is the total volumetric polarization of the quantum field due to a single unit charge. This shows that the fine structure constant can be fundamentally derived as an effect due to fundamental electrodynamics of the quantum field.
Category: Classical Physics

[1306] viXra:1807.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 07:52:05

The Daon Theory: the Electron

Authors: J.E.S. Gustafsson
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Daon theory is a new general theory of physics, it is a completely new way to approach physics and includes, in principle, all phenomena of nature. The theory is presented in a series of closely related papers treating Electromagnetism, Atomic physics, Particle physics, Gravitation and Cosmology. They should be red in this order for a complete understanding. The numerical value of the main natural constants and parameters are calculated, while the explanation for the various natural phenomena are simple and logical. All the results from this theory agree, as far as we know, with experimental data. The Daon theory makes it possible to give simple explanations to all electromagnetic phenomena. We analyse the electric field, magnetism and explains the electron's associated wave. We find at the same time the dielectric constant, the permeability constant, the Planck's constant and the fine structure constant. It follows an analysis of an electron under acceleration giving the explanations to the phenomenon of the Electro-Magnetic wave. We there after examine the modification of an electron's characteristics at high velocity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1305] viXra:1807.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 05:45:39

The Principle of Discreteness of Time \\\\\ Принцип дискретности времени

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 12 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> The Principle of Discreteness of Time July 4, 2018

In this article, the author gives his understanding of the device of the time of nature on the Planck scale of being. Nature brilliantly united in herself three of its main essences discrete matter, continuous movement and continuous time. The quantum of matter, the quantum of time, and the quantum of action are the three main components of nature at the micro level. The main problem that is solved within the framework of this article can be formulated as follows: "On the permissible intervals of time in nature". ++++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье автор приводит своё понимание устройства времени природы на планковском масштабе бытия. Природа блестяще соединила в себе три свои главные сущности дискретную материю, непрерывное движение и непрерывное время. Квант материи, квант времени, и квант действия вот три главные составляющие природы на микроуровне. Основная проблема, которая решается в рамках настоящей статьи может быть сформулирована так «О допустимых интервалах времени в природе».
Category: Classical Physics

[1304] viXra:1807.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:14:58

The Universe and Large Numbers :Arithmetics of Physical Constants

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 8 Pages.

It’s about the large numbers associated to the field of cosmology and the field of physical constants under an arithmetical point of view . In this paper we have performed an equation that gives an account of some of the previously mentioned concepts . The summarized equation reads : (30[(A-B)+ C])/C=1/α . Inside this equation there are implicitly : the number of photons in the observable universe , the current energy associated to the cosmic microwave backgroud , a parameter that defines a space’s expansion factor , gravitational potential energy of the matter , the number of atoms in the obsevable universe and the energy associated to the electrons of the observable universe . Finally , the arithmetic combination among such topics give a surprising result : the inverse of fine structure constant .
Category: Classical Physics

[1303] viXra:1806.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 21:58:13

Another Experiment Rejects Ampere's Law and Supports the Stoe Model

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe emerge to cause gravity and electromagnetic effects. An experiment to test Ampere's law and the STOE was performed. The data shows the STOE model is very close to the actual measurements. The traditional magnetostatics Biot-Savart Law is rejected. The STOE model of magnetostatics is not rejected and is supported.
Category: Classical Physics

[1302] viXra:1806.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 09:05:05

Solar Still - Improving the Steam Transport

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a humidification-dehumidification desalination system, the steam should be transported to the cooling surface by dry and preheated air. The required air temperature and heating power are calculated.
Category: Classical Physics

[1301] viXra:1806.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 00:34:51

Multi-barycenter Mechanics, N-body Problem and Rotation of Galaxies and Stars

Authors: Hong Lai Zhu
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper, the establishment of a systematic multi-barycenter mechanics is based on the multi-particle mechanics. The new laws reasonably explain the origin and change laws for the rotation angular momentum of galaxies and stars, and uncover that Newton's third law is sometimes established strictly and sometimes it is approximately established. By applying new theory, the N-body problem can be transformed into a special two-body problem and of which a simulation solution method is proposed in appendix.
Category: Classical Physics

[1300] viXra:1806.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 05:43:28

The rope of Time

Authors: Marco De lorenzo
Comments: 45 Pages. A sign convention between Real and Imaginary, Extension and Thought

The "represented" can not and must not modify the "form of representation": the piece of paper on which we choose to draw will keep the mutual distance between its squares unchanged regardless of the speed with which we trace the furrow with the pencil, in how much time is not contemplated in postulated geometry.
Category: Classical Physics

[1299] viXra:1806.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 11:33:56

Theory of Everything Part Four on Gases and Liquids (Continued)

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

continuing in explaining gases and liquids according to my new theory of everything, my theory of everything part three link : http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0157
Category: Classical Physics

[1298] viXra:1806.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 04:47:12

Inverted Dynamics

Authors: Giorgio Capezzali
Comments: 45 Pages. Accepted for publication in Physics Essays, Vol. 29, No. 1 (March 2016)

In the field of faster-than-light motions a new theory is introduced: the inverted dynamics. As we will see, this theory is confirmed by the experiments MINOS, OPERA and Fermilab79. More precisely, in its framework, these three experiments give the same result for the muonic neutrino rest mass in the limit of the measurement uncertainties. This result is also well below the highest probable value of 170 keV experimentally determined by Assamagan. Furthermore, by the inverted dynamics, we are able to explain classically the tunnelling effect.
Category: Classical Physics

[1297] viXra:1806.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 01:59:49

Universe Self Inflation Without Dark Energy

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

The cosmic expansion of our Universe really is accelerating; the mystery is why. The most popular explanation is Hypothesis of Dark Energy, which originates from another supposition – the Big Bang. According to Newton mechanics with corrections of Einstein relativity the velocity of galaxies must slow down or at least remain unchangeable. This article shows that Newton gravitation law causes two distinct phenomena in the Universe: 1. mutual attraction of the bodies and 2. accelerating expansion of the void. No Dark Energy is necessary.
Category: Classical Physics

[1296] viXra:1806.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 18:38:33

A Topological Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 8 Pages.

A mathematical model for interpreting Newtonian gravity by means of elastic deformation of space is given. Based on this model, a possible theory of particle physics, interpreting particles as compact manifold attached to space by means of a connected sum is given. This theory is based on little mathematical ground and should be seen more as a description of the world as we would like to be (being enthusiast of low dimensional manifold topology) then a proper theory. However, we think that this theory is fun and it was worth writing about it!
Category: Classical Physics

[1295] viXra:1806.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 11:28:26

Velocity of an Electric Current

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article argues that the velocity of an electric current in a solid conductive wire most likely equals the orbital velocity of the valence electron(s) in the atom of the matter of the wire.
Category: Classical Physics

[1294] viXra:1806.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 00:37:45

Pioneer Anomaly and Dimensions of Time

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures

The emergence and dimensions of Time are analyzed here on the basis of Newton gravitation law. The new Conception proposes that Time does not exist independently. The Time is the acceleration rate of the Universe expansion. Time has three dimensions: one is in the direction from Past to Future and two dimensions of the Present. The cause of Pioneer anomaly is taking into account only one time dimension of the Present.
Category: Classical Physics

[1293] viXra:1806.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 16:33:18

Theory of Everything Part Four on Gases and Liquids

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

Explaining gases and liquids according to my new theory of everything, my theory of everything part three link : http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0157
Category: Classical Physics

[1292] viXra:1806.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 18:28:14

The Physical Cause of Gravitation

Authors: Glenn Borchardt
Comments: 5 Pages.

The physical cause of gravitation is simple: the collision of one thing with another. Here I propose that the unseen particles involved in these collisions provide the acceleration that drives gravitation. We do not know exactly what these particles are, but it is clear they must be decelerated in the process. Here I assume they are “aether” particles, as distinguished from the anathematic fixed “ether” particles nullified by the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. Having been decelerated, aether particles become lethargic, tending to hang around whatever baryonic matter was involved in the collision. Like the nitrogen in Earth’s atmosphere, these aether particles are entrained, attached to Earth as a far-reaching “dark matter” halo. They provide the physical reason for interpretations of gravity calling for “curved space.” At low altitudes this entrained “aetherosphere” allows little of the “ether wind” that Michelson and Morley tried to measure. The upshot: proximal aether is less active (lower pressure) than distal aether (higher pressure). Things in the vicinity of massive objects receive stronger impacts from the distal side of the halo than from the proximal side. This Aether Deceleration Theory is supported by much of the data generally considered as confirmation of General Relativity Theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1291] viXra:1806.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 18:42:24

Definition in a Little Strict Time

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 2 Pages.

Theoretical ambiguousness is left about the unit of over 7 base units of the system international d'unites and time. Equally, ambiguousness is also left Planck time in Planck unit course. What is time after all for the most important problem? What is meant with time? The point which isn't defined sufficiently about these. So time is defined using a boson and verifies how the definition functions. Physics of existence such as N dynamics and a general relativities doesn't turn big by this. But, more specifically of the behavior when using this definition, which limits the degree of freedom of time, and is time, it can be understood, seem for come. The phenomenon which comes to have the short life of an independent neutron extremely can also be explained naturally.
Category: Classical Physics

[1290] viXra:1806.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 05:47:31

Theory of Everything Part Three on Geiger-Marsden Experiment

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com , my theory of everything link : http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0055

Invalidating Geiger-marsden experiment according to my new theory of everything, my theory of everything link : http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0055
Category: Classical Physics

[1289] viXra:1806.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 01:32:00

Estimated Asteroide Masses Frequently Are Wrong

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages.

Shortcomings of determination of asteroide masses are highlighted. Some help here could come from vortical celestial mechanics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1288] viXra:1806.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 02:42:26

Solution of the Problem of Wave-Particle Duality\\\Решение проблемы корпускулярно-волнового дуализма

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 9 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Solution of the Problem of Wave-Particle Duality, June 12, 2018

The author put forward the model of an elementary particle, as pulsating material flesh. This model proved to be very productive. On its basis, it is perfectly justified and easily explained, for example, such a principle known in physics, as the wave-particle duality of elementary particles. In the pulsating nature of the behavior of the elementary particle is the cause of the particle-wave duality of elementary particles. Great! +++++++++++++++++++ Автором выдвинута модель элементарной частицы, как пульсирующей материальной плоти. Эта модель оказалась очень продуктивной. На её основе прекрасно обосновывается и легко объясняется, например, такой известный в физике принцип, как корпускулярно волновой дуализм ЭЧ. В пульсирующем характере поведения ЭЧ состоит причина корпускулярно-волнового дуализма элементарных частиц. Замечательно!
Category: Classical Physics

[1287] viXra:1806.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 05:02:48

Absorption of Spin by a Conducting Medium

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 6 Pages. Free access at AASCIT Journal of Physics. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 59

Two current concepts of the electrodynamics spin are considered in comparison. Then the original concept, going back to Poynting, was used to demonstrate the transfer of energy and spin from a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a conducting medium. A spin tensor is used. The given calculations show that spin is the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum. The expression for the torque density acting on a conducting medium is given. This expression is an analogy of the Lorentz force density.
Category: Classical Physics

[1286] viXra:1806.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 04:26:39

Is the Earth an Inertial System?

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 1 Page. The reader is cordially invited to comment on this paper.

The earth rotates almost exactly along a circle around the sun, notwithstanding the fact that the sun lies significantly outside the centre of this circle. Assuming a perfect circle, the question is whether the earth in such a situation is an inertial system or not.
Category: Classical Physics

[1285] viXra:1806.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 12:40:31

A Universal Language of Science

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

A specific spoken and written language can be used to describe a physical law but to another culture with a completely different spoken and written form the information contained therein is incomprehensible. There is a method to convey certain types of scientific information by using just dimensions and once the meaning of one key dimension is determined it is possible to extract the information content of other dimensions without ever having to know the authors spoken and written language.
Category: Classical Physics

[1284] viXra:1806.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 14:34:07

Theory Of Everything part two

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

Explaining briefly the theory of everything as well as some explanations of physics , mechanics of material and chemistry phenomena
Category: Classical Physics

[1283] viXra:1806.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 13:41:34

Theory Of Everything

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

Explaining briefly the theory of everything as well as some explanations of physics mechanics of material and chemistry phenomena
Category: Classical Physics

[1282] viXra:1806.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 08:50:41

About the Second Postulate of STR (English Version)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 2 Pages. English

Probably, orthodox physicists will consider the question indecent: Is the second postulate necessary for the construction of a Special theory of Relativity? Nevertheless, this issue was raised and considered by at least two independent authors [1, 2]. This topic is proposed for discussion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1281] viXra:1805.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-27 18:02:13

Letter to the Nobel Committee on Physics

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 13 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Letter to Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences19 May 2018

Letter to the Nobel Committee on Physics Present letter with the attached article was sent on May 19, 2018 to the Nobel Committee on Physics at{1] (kristina.wolff@nobel.kva.se). The address was listed on the website[2] (https://www.kva.se/en/om-oss/ledamoter/kristina-wolff). On this website, Mrs. Wolfe is positioned as follows: Kristina Wolff Member of Nobel Committee for Physics Class for physics Position Administrator, Nobel Committee for Physics Organisation Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Category: Classical Physics

[1280] viXra:1805.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 21:01:21

Magnetostatics Relation to Gravity with Experiment that Rejects Biot-Savart Law

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 8 Pages.

Relating the concept of gravity to electromagnetics has been a goal of physics. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe emerge to cause gravity and electromagnetic effects. The STOE is reviewed to show the gravity action and is extended to model magnetic effects. A fundamental change in the model of the action of magnetism is suggested. An experiment rejects the traditional magnetostatics Biot-Savart Law and does not reject the STOE.
Category: Classical Physics

[1279] viXra:1805.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 05:39:21

Solar Still - Improved Distillation

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

An analysis of the steam cycle in an humidification-dehumidification desalination system shows that reheating of the air can drastically improve the steam absorption in the humidifier. This multiplies the production of potable water and makes the apparatus required for a multi-stage system superfluous.
Category: Classical Physics

[1278] viXra:1805.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 15:24:03

On the Idealism of Igor Stark \\\\\\ Об идеализме Игоря Старка

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 14 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> On the Idealism of Igor Stark May 26, 2018

Настоящая статья посвящена разбору некоторых сообщений Игоря Старка, в которых он представляет свою физику («фарадеевского толка»). Эти сообщения являются прекрасной иллюстрацией того, что физика И. Старка по существу является идеалистической физикой. А любая идеалистическая физика является ложной, несостоятельной, не научной теорией. --------------- Present article is devoted to the analysis of some of the posts of Igor Stark, in which he presents his physics ("Faraday's style"). These posts are an excellent illustration of the fact that the physics of I. Stark is in essence an idealistic physics. And any idealistic physics is a false, untenable, not a scientific theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1277] viXra:1805.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 04:54:06

Measurement Uncertainty in Network Analyzers: Differential Error DE Analysis of Error Models Part 5: Step-by-Step Graphical Construction of Complex DE Regions and Real DE Intervals

Authors: N.I. Yannopoulou, P.E. Zimourtopoulos
Comments: 19 Pages. FunkTechnikPlus # Journal, Issue 16 - Thursday 31 May 2018 - Year 5, CC-BY 4.0, pp v1-7--v1-25

This paper demonstrates the way of how the value of any quantity used in Microwaves and RF and defined, either directly or indirectly, by one ore more complex differentiable functions of one or more Vector Network Analyzer VNA measurements, is affected by its ubiquitous Differential Errors DEs, when these DEs are expressed in terms of the manufacturers' data for both the unavoidable uncertainties of the calibration standards and the inescapable inaccuracies of the VNA indications. This is illustrated by a step-by-step graphical construction of the complex DE Regions DERs and their real rectangular and polar DE Intervals DEIs, which the authors introduced and used in all previous parts of this series. As it is geometrically shown, in order to build the composite figure of any complex DER and then of its DEIs only three basic types of simple figures are needed. These figures result by using combinations of appropriate complex transformations, which are well-known from Complex Analysis, that is: translation, scaling (stretching or shrinking), and rotation. A number of selected applications are presented and some useful, general conclusions are drawn.
Category: Classical Physics

[1276] viXra:1805.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 16:16:03

My Understanding of Physics\\\\\Моё понимание физики

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> My Undestanding of Physics May 24, 2018

In present article, my (author's) understanding of the subject and the foundations of physics is given. Physics is a theory that studies nature. The theory may be true, or it may be false. Categories truth and falsehood reflect the fact of the correspondence or inconsistency of the theory to nature itself. The verification of the correspondence or inconsistency of the theory, its positions and conclusions to nature is carried out through practice, through experiment. Modern physics is not science. The main argument of this statement is the fact (which is verified practically) that the matter of nature is not reflected in modern physics in an adequate quality, that is, as the base physical quantity. +++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье приводится моё (авторское) понимание предмета и основ физики. Физика – это теория, изучающая природу. Теория может быть истинной, а может быть ложной. Категории истина и ложь отражают факт соответствия или несоответствия теории самой природе. Проверка соответствия или несоответствия теории, её положений и выводов природе осуществляется через практику, через опыт, через эксперимент. Современная физика наукой не является. Основным доводом этого утверждения является тот факт, который проверяется практически, что материя природы не отражена в современной физике в адекватном качестве, то есть в качестве основной физической величины.
Category: Classical Physics

[1275] viXra:1805.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 00:26:01

On Tensors and Equations of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yuriy A. Spirichev
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is completely described by an asymmetric tensor of the second rank, which is a four-dimensional derivative of the electromagnetic potentialThis tensor can be decomposed into the canonical antisymmetric and the new symmetric EMF tensor. From this tensor, in the form of its complete divergence, the EMF equations follow. One of them is an electromagnetic analog of the Lame equation for an elastic medium. It is shown that the longitudinal waves of the divergence of the vector potential propagate at a speed greater than the speed of light and do not have a magnetic component.
Category: Classical Physics

[1274] viXra:1805.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 06:41:21

The Unique Constant of Nature

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 18 Pages. Robert Yusupov © The Unique Constant of Nature May 21, 2018

In this article, the author shows that the basis of the universe is one constant dimensionless quantity. Everything in nature is connected with this constant. The author proposes a materialistic YRA - a model of the universe, the foundations of nature, the structure and algorithm of the evolution of the Universe. In the foundations of nature there is only one this constant. And the diversity of the foundations of nature is linked together by this one-of-a-kind nature constant. This is a unique constant of nature, the Universe. We can say that this is the magic constant of the Universe. But do not fall into mysticism, believe in magic, indulge in exoteric or esotericism and preach idealism. The origin and magnitude of this constant find their simple and natural explanation in material nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[1273] viXra:1805.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 16:22:23

Proposed Experiment for Finite Energy in Gravity and Electromagnetism Finite Cycle Through Heat

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

this paper is an attempt to find whether or not there is nothing but gravity heat motion and electromagnetism
Category: Classical Physics

[1272] viXra:1805.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-20 09:50:22

A Brief History of Gravity from Newton to the Present

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: 4 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation (20-3-2018 )

We live in a 'physical universe' where bodies follow mathematical laws, and not in a 'mathematical universe'. So the concepts in physics should be inferred from observations, not from equations. Equations come only when we quantify things to verify the concepts. Newtonian gravity, though it contains some gaps, require only 'physical' bodies to explain gravity. But General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics require mathematical-artifacts inferred from equations (like 'spacetime' and 'virtual particles') to explain gravity. This seems unscientific; so let us go back to Newtonian concepts. The following assumptions can fill the gaps in Newtonian concepts, and give a clear and complete picture of gravity: (i). Motion is a fundamental property of bodies (ii). Gravity is reaction to motion
Category: Classical Physics

[1271] viXra:1805.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 01:51:45

Does Matter Attract or Repel Antimatter?

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is quite clear that the heteronymous charged particles and charged material bodies are attracted to each other and the homonymous charged are repelled. So the positively charged protons repel the other protons, while the negatively charged electrons are also repelled between each other. However, pro-tons and electrons, because they have heteronymous charges are attracted. The same happens to the positively or negatively charged material bodies. Something similar is also happened with the charged particles and bodies of the antimatter. But when we have neutral particles, such as neutrons and atoms, or uncharged bodies of matter or antimatter, this state is reversed by neutrons to attract the other neutrons, –strong nuclear force–, atoms to attract other atoms, and the material bodies to be attract-ed between them, –gravitation–. The above properties of the charged particles and bodies and the reversal of these properties to neutral particles and uncharged bodies lead us to a new rule that “neutral particles and uncharged bodies of matter are attracted to one another but they are repelled by neutral particles and uncharged bodies of antimatter”.
Category: Classical Physics

[1270] viXra:1805.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 15:56:37

A Corrected Reanalysis of the Two Swimmers Problem, as Frequent Model of Michelson’s Interferometric Experiment.

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has
Comments: 14 Pages. Utilized our previous works are cited and commented. Utilized other works are cited and quoted then commented

The article initially reviews various works describing the physical model (PM) of Michelson’s interferometric experiment (ME) represented by the race between two swimmers Sw1, Sw2 (or boats, or planes, or sound signals etc.). The two swimmers must each swim the same distance, but Sw1 will go downstream the river flow, and Sw2 will go perpendicularly to this direction. In all such works, it is considered that Sw2’s path will require less time and that it will reach the first the start point. However, it is found that, in order to make this possible, Sw2 must not observe the orthogonality rule of his start direction, an action which is actually a deceit of the arbiters, and, hence, this will be a non-fair-play action towards Sw1. The article proves by calculus that if the fair-play rules are observed, then the correct crosswise path is a right triangle instead of isosceles triangle considered by Michelson. And as consequence the two times shall be perfectly equal and the race ends in a tie, and the Sw2 myth of race winner shall be dashed to the ground. Note that the same result shall also be applicable to Michelson’s interferometric experiment (ME) as well as to any similar experiment. As consequence, utilising the isosceles triangle for transversal path in PM and also in ME is an error.
Category: Classical Physics

[1269] viXra:1805.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 16:21:06

Analysis of Electric Dipoles Interaction Forces as a Function of the Distance and of the Form of Electrical Force Law.

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has
Comments: 10 Pages. Our previous works and other works utilized are cited and commented.

Here, we initially introduced and demonstrated two principles: orientation OR principle and attraction AT principle of electrical dipoles. The OR principle stipulates that any two electrical dipoles P1A, P1B, from two bodies A and B, at any distance in the free state each, will be reciprocally oriented parallel and in the same sense if the electrical interaction forces F between them are of decreasing type with distance. If the electrical interaction forces F are of increasing type with distance, the two dipoles will be reciprocally oriented parallel but on the opposite sense. The AT principle stipulate that any two electrical dipoles P1A, P1B, at any distance in the free state each, will present always a reciprocal force of attraction FD in both cases of orientation accordingly to OR principle in case of any type of electrical force F decreasing or increasing with distance. These findings may complete our previous work [10] where we found that FD force, between two electrical dipoles P1A, P1B considered at atomic and nuclear level, is in fact the actual gravitation Newton force FN. The paper [10] must be considered together with this work for more consistencies
Category: Classical Physics

[1268] viXra:1805.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 17:09:07

An Alternative Approach to the Calculation of Mechanical Torque, Developed by the Localized Spinning Electromagnetic Field – the Field Gyroscope.

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper considers an alternative approach (when compared to the previous author's approach) on calculating the torque, developed by a localized spinning electric field. The displacement current, developed by the spinning vector, is shown as a cross product of the angular velocity and the spinning field. Analysis of the developed force is based on the Poynting vector, crossing the involved area A. The final result looks strange, but can be explained basing on the dominating role of the rotation process.
Category: Classical Physics

[1267] viXra:1805.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 08:23:36

A Concentric Solar Still - Details

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

The yield of potable water in a still can be increased when the saturated steam layer over all surfaces is blown away. In a concentric distiller, this task may be achieved by natural convection without any external energy. The necessary temperature difference is generated by optimized components, which are separated from the distiller (boiler).
Category: Classical Physics

[1266] viXra:1805.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 09:49:00

Li\'{e}nard's Generalisation: a Direct Derivation

Authors: Anindya Kumar Biswas
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this pedagogical article, we elucidate on direct derivation of total power emitted by an accelerating charged particle, known as Li\'{e}nard's generalisation.
Category: Classical Physics

[1265] viXra:1805.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-17 16:02:19

The Unique Constant of Nature \\\\\\ Уникальная константа природы

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 17 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> The Unique Constant of Nature May 18, 2018

In this article, the author shows that the basis of the universe is one dimensionless constant. Everything in nature is connected with this constant. The author proposes a materialistic YRA-model of the universe, the foundations of nature, the structure and algorithm of the evolution of the Universe. In the foundations of nature there is only one this constant. And the diversity of the foundations of nature is linked together by this one-of-a-kind nature constant. This is a unique constant of nature, the Universe. We can say that this is the magic constant of the Universe. But do not fall into mysticism and believe in magic. The origin and magnitude of this constant find their simple and natural explanation in material nature. +++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье автор показывает, что в основе мироздания лежит одна постоянная безразмерностная величина. Всё в природе связано с этой константой. Автором предложена материалистическая YRA-модель мироздания, основ природы, структуры и алгоритма эволюции Вселенной. В основах природы лежит только одна эта константа. И всё многообразие основ природы связано воедино этой единственной в своём роде константой природы. Это уникальная константа природы, Вселенной. Можно сказать, что это магическая константа Вселенной. Но не стоит впадать в мистику и верить в магию. Происхождение и величина этой константы находят своё простое и естественное объяснение в материальной природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[1264] viXra:1805.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-16 06:51:23

Illusion Of Light

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 22 Pages.

Besides energy, light presents us fastest and most details of the universe. It made us obsessively visual. It controls our understanding as well as misunderstanding of the universe. We, too, are creatures of motion. Speed is our obsession too. Light and it's speed might seem magical to us. However, what we see is only broadcasting of physical reality in the form of radiations delivered to us in high speed. We only see the visible part of radiations that stands out from the background and perceive it as information. It does not mean background contains less significant information than foreground revealed by light. Additionally, speed of light is no more important than other speed. Say, slow gentle motion can be more beneficial for building structures. To me, light and it's speed do not have any power to alter the fundamentals of the universe. To the contrary, it is the universe in charge of light and speed. No matter how fast the light, space does not allow it to go to next location instantly. The question is, can we be fooled by information in the form of light delivered at light speed, or by our obsession?
Category: Classical Physics

[1263] viXra:1805.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-16 08:59:23

Recent Experiments Have Found that Magnetic Fields Can Also Attract Shredded Paper

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 2 Pages.

We have always believed that only charge can attract light and small objects. In recent experiments, however, I discovered that permanent magnets and electromagnets can attract light and small objects without charge. This can lead us to rethink the phenomenon of frictional electrification.
Category: Classical Physics

[1262] viXra:1805.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-16 09:00:41

New Discovery of Current, Magnetic Field and Electromagnetic Radiation in Electrostatic Phenomenon

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 2 Pages.

We have always believed that stationary charges generate an electrostatic field. A moving charge generates a current and a magnetic field. A changing magnetic field produces electromagnetic radiation. Frictional electrification is the generation of electrostatic charge and an electrostatic field through friction. The charge does not move. It has no current, magnetic field and Electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latest experiments we found that a rubbed rule can cause small magnetic needle deflection and electromagnetic radiation. This shows that the rubbed ruler can produce current, magnetic field and electromagnetic radiation. This can lead us to rethink traditional electrostatics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1261] viXra:1805.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 22:37:03

List of Solved Problems of Physics

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 24 Pages. Robert Yusupov © List of Solved Problems of Physics May 15, 2018

This article presents a list of the problems solved within the framework of the “Theory of Nature” by author. “Theory of Nature” is the materialistic physics and cosmology. These are problems of fundamentals of the physics and cosmology. These are problems of fundamentals of the universe, nature and the Universe. These are problems of fundamentals of the dialectical materialism. These are problems of the matter and mass, the elementary charge, the natural units, the fine structure constant, the structure and the evolution of the Universe. These are problems of the insufficiency and discreteness of nature (the Universe).
Category: Classical Physics

[1260] viXra:1805.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 05:39:02

Axiomatic Theory of Physics \\\\\ Аксиоматическое построение физики

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 17 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Axiomatic Theory of Physics 06.06.2015

In this paper, the author considers the approach and the justification in the axiomatic construction of the theory of physics and cosmology. Both of these disciplines and sciences are closely related and therefore are considered together. This approach is based on the dialectical materialist understanding of nature, which arms the scientific theory of dialectical materialism to any researcher of nature. According to the views of the dialectical materialism, the basis of nature is moving matter. Matter and motion are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality existing outside and independent of our consciousness. The author made a step from the abstract definition of matter in the theory of the dialectical materialism to the concrete manifestation of matter in nature. Matter is a unique substance of nature. +++++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье автором рассматривается подход и обоснование в аксиоматическом построении теории физики и космологии. Обе эти дисциплины, науки тесно связаны между собой и поэтому рассматриваются совместно. В основе такого подхода лежит диалектико-материалистический понимание природы, которым вооружает любого исследователя природы научная теория диалектического материализма. Согласно воззрениям диамата в основе природы лежит движущаяся материя. Материя и движение неразрывны. Материя – это объективная реальность, существующая вне и независимо от нашего сознания. Автором сделан шаг от абстрактного определения материи в теории диамата к конкретному проявлению материи в природе. Материя – это уникальная субстанция природы.
Category: Classical Physics

[1259] viXra:1805.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-12 03:49:13

Список решённых проблем\ \\\\ List of Solved Problems

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 12 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> List of Solved Problems May 12, 2018

В настоящей статье представлен список проблем, решённых в рамках «Теории Природы» автора. ================= This article presents a list of problems solved within the framework of Theory of Nature by the author.
Category: Classical Physics

[1258] viXra:1805.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 20:02:55

The Law of Nature or Chance \\\\\ Закономерность или случайность

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 3 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Закономерность или случайность 11.05.2018

В настоящей статье определяется расстояние между соседними атомами идеального газа. Оказывается, что числовое значение обратной величины этого расстояния приблизительно равно числовому значению скорости света в вакууме 299 792 458. ------------------------- In this paper, the distance between neighboring atoms of an ideal gas is calculated. It turns out that the numerical value of the inverse of this distance is approximately equal to the numerical value of the speed of light in a vacuum 299 792 458.
Category: Classical Physics

[1257] viXra:1805.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 20:04:55

The Law of Nature or Chance

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 3 Pages. Robert Yusupov © The Law of Nature or Chance May 11, 2018

In this paper, the distance between neighboring atoms of an ideal gas is calculated. It turns out that the numerical value of the inverse of this distance is approximately equal to the numerical value of the speed of light in a vacuum 299 792 458.
Category: Classical Physics

[1256] viXra:1805.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 04:15:10

Principle of Independently Established Co-Determinism: Parsimony & Physical Law in Nature; Ubiquitiousness and Quintescence

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 112 Pages. In difference of a mean; the measure of 'what;' is in what of one part the 'if' as to an any either it's included of 'the' to what in exclusive difference is the summed; relates.

To a mind the one known consideration of yet to be found in life as from afar is love; as from yet in the eye of the witness of the bearer of a message; the trust of one in an other is a given alone; one; when two so as whom agree that what in this is a departure is it's considerateness in word's as one; expressed as from an other to their's of whom so expressly and articulately share a human relation find in the other of life what so in their's is a heart in each beat so shared as in one togetherness we find what an other is attractive to the mind; of what in the heart is the secret to a loving choice.
Category: Classical Physics

[1255] viXra:1805.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 04:25:45

Spatial Dimensions

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 7pages, 3 figures

Here is analyzed the dimensionality of our universe on the basis of multi space conception. The new space conception proposes that space is the manifestation of a force field. Space does not exist independently from a force field. Hence each forcefield has its own eigenspace with different dimensionality.
Category: Classical Physics

[1254] viXra:1805.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 20:24:39

Letter to Physicist

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Letter to Physicist 8 May 2018

In this article I present a letter addressed to all physicists. The author refers to all physicists. The author provides them with a solution to the problem of natural units of mass, length and time. This problem was dealt with by many physicists of the past. This problem stirs the minds and consciousness of modern researchers of nature, natural scientists and physicists. I believe that my solution to the problem of natural units of mass, length and time is correct and the only correct, accurate and absolutely true, complete and final. As a dialectical materialist, I am firmly convinced of the correctness and truth of my "Theory of Nature". I present it to your court, dear readers.
Category: Classical Physics

[1253] viXra:1805.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 22:36:01

Letter to Physicist\\\\\Письио физику

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Letter to Physicist 8 May 2018

В настоящей статье представлено письмо адресованное физикам. Автор обращается ко всем физикам. Автор предоставляет им на суд своё решение проблемы натуральных единиц массы, длины и времени. Этой проблемой занимались многие физики прошлого. Эта проблема будоражит умы и сознание современных исследователей природы, естествоиспытателей и физиков. Считаю, что моё решение проблемы натуральных единиц массы, длины и времени является единственно правильным и верным, аккуратным и абсолютно истинным, полным и окончательным. Я как диалектический материалист, твёрдо уверен в правоте и истинности своей «Теории Природы». Выставляю её на ваш суд, уважаемые читатели.
Category: Classical Physics

[1252] viXra:1805.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 04:57:11

Professor Gian-Luca Oppo -ats- Mr. Ivor Catt: A Case Study in Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 12 Pages.

Digital electronic systems involve voltage pulses along USB cables. These pulses are more often than not, not periodic, and behave in a fashion that does not appear to accord with Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Digital electronics, with its nanosecond switching, did not exist in Maxwell's time, so related phenomena were not available to Maxwell and his contemporaries. Electrical engineer Ivor Catt is a pioneer in the development of digital electronic hardware. His work over several decades in industry has revealed issues with classical electromagnetic theory. Theoretical physicists are yet to acknowledge their theoretical shortcomings. Professor Gian-Luca Oppo, a theoretical physicist at the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, represented classical electromagnetic theory in contrast to the evidence and arguments presented by Mr. Catt from real world digital hardware engineering. Catt's findings are however quite compelling.
Category: Classical Physics

[1251] viXra:1805.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 01:12:14

Principle of Independently Established Co-Determinism; (2.0) Parsimony & Physical Law in Nature

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 112 Pages. Equivalence in two; is the consideration of what in numberless infinitives differently knowable extremes is it's minimization independently inclusive to consideration conclusive of a given.

As any true principle of science is established by it's only one priorly known given, as derived factual meaning is only as of what in any yet established relation is a conclusion to a then hypothetical foundation of fact, a factually considered conclusion; as meaning only derives from it's priorly one given known; that of any true principle is only exclusively it's one then given to that of what in one is the understood of all and a one as in a prior relation then reconsidered; a known relation is two; to that of each.
Category: Classical Physics

[1250] viXra:1805.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 07:41:11

In Defence of Classical Physics

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract Classical physics seeks to find the laws of nature. I am of the opinion that classical Newtonian physics is “real” physics. This is in the sense that it relates to mechanical physics. I suggest that if physics is ever to succeed in determining a theory of everything it needs to introduce a more satisfactory invariant medium in order to do this. This is describing the laws of nature and retain the elementary foundational conditions of universal symmetry. conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Classical Physics

[1249] viXra:1805.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 09:24:20

Introducing Light Force

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 7 Pages.

Why Earth momentum keeps same angle to the orbit, but moment of momentum changes its angle to the orbit (and to the momentum)? Both momentums behave like vectors (if no reflections) in an inertial coordinate system.
Category: Classical Physics

[1248] viXra:1805.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 12:14:52

Generation of Endfire Radiations out of an Spoof-surface Plasmon Polariton E-plane Transmission Line

Authors: Louis WY LIU
Comments: 12 Pages. 2018 IEEE INDIAN CONFERENCE ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION (InCAP)

This presentation is related to an E-plane endfire antenna capable of generating an endfire electromagnetic radiation out of a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) with substantially enhanced gain. The core of the said antenna is a printed circuit vertically mounted in the center E-plane of a rectangular waveguide. The printed circuit is continuous metal pattern comprising three sections: a tapered section serving as a waveguide-to-SSPP transition, a corrugated transmission media for propagation of an SSPP and another tapered section for impedance matching between the corrugated transmission line and free space. The antenna accepts electromagnetic energy through the waveguide-to-SSPP transition in the input end of a waveguide, propagates the electromagnetic energy in the form of surface waves along the corrugated edge of the E-plane transmission line over 1-quarter or 3-quarter wavelengths and generates an endfire radiation through the SSPP-to-free-space transition in the other end of the same. The said antenna generates a near endfire radiation beam with a substantially enhanced gain, wherein the gain of the endfire radiation can be maximized by maintaining the slot depth to half of the waveguide height.
Category: Classical Physics

[1247] viXra:1805.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 12:22:45

Generation of Frequency Steerable Endfire Radiations out of an Spoof-surface Plasmon Polariton E-plane Transmission Line

Authors: Louis WY LIU
Comments: 11 Pages. 2018 IEEE INDIAN CONFERENCE ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION (InCAP)

This paper presents an antenna that generates a frequency steerable endfire electromagnetic radiation out of a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) transmission line mounted in the center E-plane of a rectangular waveguide. The SSPP transmission has both its upper edge and lower edge patterned with corrugated metal slot/gap arrays of the same period. However, the slot depth on the corrugated pattern along the upper edge is different from the slot depth on the corrugated pattern along the lower edge. This arrangement creates a difference in surface impedance between the upper corrugated edge and the low corrugated edge on the SSPP transmission line, thus allowing the angle of the endfire radiation to be shifted upwards and downwards. According to our simulation, the angle of endfire radiation can be shifted by at least 10 degree simply by varying the operating frequencies.
Category: Classical Physics

[1246] viXra:1804.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 00:25:45

Law of the Existence of Elementary Particles\\\\\Закон существования элементарных частиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Law of the Existence of Elementary Particles 30 APR 2018

In this article, which is an integral part of the "Theory of Nature", the author gives an explanation of one of the most important laws of nature - the law of the existence of elementary particles (EP). Elementary particles are neutrons, protons, electrons, photons, etc. These are elementary and minimal material formations in nature. These are well-known facts. The author believes that each EP consists of one and the same minimum in nature amount of matter. This fact should be adequately reflected in physics: matter must be introduced into the bosom of physics as the main physical quantity. The author believes that all elementary particles have the shape of balls and, therefore, have their own diameter and have their own mass. The law of the existence of EP states that the product of the mass of EP by its diameter is a constant value equal to the minimum amount of matter in nature. +++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье, являющейся неотъемлемой частью «Теории Природы», автор даёт разъяснение одного важнейшего закона природы – закона существования элементарных частиц (ЭЧ). Элементарными частицами считаются нейтроны, протоны, электроны, фотоны и др. Это элементарные и минимальные материальные образования в природе. Это общеизвестные факты. Автор считает, что каждая ЭЧ состоит из одного и того же минимального в природе количества материи. Этот факт должен быть адекватно отражён в физике: материя должна быть введена в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Автор считает, что все элементарные частицы имеют форму шариков и, значит, имеют свой собственный диаметр и имеют свою собственную массу. Закон существования ЭЧ гласит: произведение массы ЭЧ на её диаметр есть величина постоянная, равная минимальному количеству материи в природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[1245] viXra:1804.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 06:00:38

A Method of Real Time Quantitative Supply of Cosmetic Raw Materials Using Weight Sensor

Authors: Kwang Bok Han, Kwang Ho Ri, Chen Il Jo, Yu Chol Kim, Pong Ryol Jang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we have discussed a method of real time quantitative supply of cosmetic raw materials using weight sensor. In addition, the technical characteristics of the system were clarified and introduced to the production process, contributing to the automation of cosmetic compounding process. We have tested the measuring and supply about 6 liquid materials (water, glycerin, propylene, milistynic acid, squalene, liquid paraffin) with this device. According to the measuring results, we have verified supply error is below 0.5% on the average.
Category: Classical Physics

[1244] viXra:1804.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 20:02:56

Solving the Problem of Natural Units \\\ Решение проблемы натуральных единиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Solving the Problem of Natural Units 29/04/2018

The present article raises the question of the existence in nature of natural units of mass, length and time, and proposes its solution. In the past, many physicists have addressed the problem of finding natural units. His solution to this question was provided by Irish physicist G. J. Stoney and German physicist M. Planck. The author of this article provides his own solution to this problem. The author believes that his solution of the problem of natural units is complete and final and removes this question from the agenda. +++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье ставится вопрос о существовании в природе натуральных единиц массы, длины и времени и предлагается его решение. К вопросу отыскания натуральных единиц в прошлом обращались многие физики. Своё решение этого вопроса предоставили ирландский физик Дж. Стони и немецкий физик М. Планк. Автор настоящей статьи предоставляет своё собственное решение этой проблемы. Автор считает, что его решение проблемы натуральных единиц является полным и окончательным и снимает этот вопрос с повестки дня.
Category: Classical Physics

[1243] viXra:1804.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 15:01:54

Об инерции \\\ About Iiertia (About One Refinement of Concepts Inertia and Momentum)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> About Inertia and Momentum Apr 24 2018

In this article, an attempt is made to clarify the concepts of inertia and momentum in terms of the author's understanding of the universe. This understanding is given in the "Theory of Nature" (TP) of the author, which should be considered a new materialistic physics and cosmology. The author stands on the platform of dialectical materialism. According to this solely scientific philosophy, our world is material. All things, bodies and objects in nature are material. Processes and phenomena in nature are caused by matter, its movement. In nature, there is nothing that is not matter or its various forms of motion. Matter is the basis, essence, substance of nature. Studying nature, we must adequately reflect matter in the conceptual apparatus of the theory of nature. Modern physics is the basic science of nature. But in its conceptual apparatus there is no adequate reflection of matter. The basis of physics is the concept of physical quantity. An adequate reflection of the matter of nature in the conceptual apparatus of physics can only be its reflection as the basic physical quantity. This is exactly what is done in TP. Matter in TP is elevated to the rank of the basic physical quantity. This is the essence of the revolution in science that the "Theory of Nature" realized. ++++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье предпринята попытка дать разъяснение понятий инерция и импульса с точки зрения авторского понимания мироздания. Это понимание дано в «Теории Природы» (ТП) автора, которую следует считать новой материалистической физикой и космологией. Автор стоит на платформе диалектического материализма. Согласно этой единственно научной философии наш мир материален. Все предметы, вещи, тела и объекты в природе материальны. Процессы и явления в природе обусловлены материей, её движением. В природе нет ничего, чтобы не было материей или её различными формами движения. Материя – это основа, сущность, субстанция природы. Изучая природу, мы должны адекватным образом отражать материю в понятийном аппарате теории о природе. Современная физика является основной наукой о природе. Но в её понятийном аппарате нет адекватного природе отражения материи. Основой физики является понятие физической величины. Адекватным отражением материи природы в понятийном аппарате физики может быть только её отражение в качестве основной физической величины. Именно так и сделано в ТП. Материя в ТП возведена в ранг основной физической величины. В этом суть той революции в науке, которую осуществила «Теория Природы».
Category: Classical Physics

[1242] viXra:1804.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 17:59:39

High-rise and Space Towers (Masts, Space Elevator, Motionless Satellites)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 177 Pages.

A lot of new concepts, ideas, and innovation in high altitude and space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on. Given book summarizes there researches and gives the detail description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
Category: Classical Physics

[1241] viXra:1804.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 14:36:50

Beyond Miner’s Rule Free Energy Damage Equivalence

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 5 Pages. Reference Terms in the book Thermodynamic Degradation Science

In this paper, we extend the concept of damage which was original developed empirically by Miner using the concept of thermodynamic work and free energy. We first explain the equivalency of free energy to damage. Then we develop ways to measure the free energy in products to help assess the amount of damage that a product can experience prior to failure. The main approach is to use product’s ultimate work energy. Although Miner’s rule and the cumulative damage concept is typically thought of as specific for cyclic work, we note that in most cases, damage accumulates during a product useful life prior to failure.
Category: Classical Physics

[1240] viXra:1804.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 21:29:02

Мой ответ Игорю Старку \\\ my Reply to Mr. I. Stark

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 23 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> My reply to Mr. I. Stark 22 April 2018

In my reply to Mr. I. Stark, I sought to justify my position and my view of nature. All this or almost everything is set out in my articles on "Theory of Nature". My understanding is that in the study of Nature, it is first and foremost necessary to identify a specific manifestation of matter in nature, to establish minimal, then not crushing, carriers of matter. And the next step is to study the interaction of material bodies on the Planck scale of the universe. This is the natural logic of knowing nature. The concept of the field refers to the category of concepts describing the interaction of material bodies. The logic of nature itself and the logic of cognition of nature are simple: first, material bodies, and then their interaction, and not vice versa. Material bodies interact with each other, but they are not generated by interaction, field. Field, interaction does not generate matter. Material bodies are primary, and their interaction is secondary. +++++++++++++++++++++ В своём ответе И. Старку я стремился дать обоснование своей позиции и своему взгляду на природу. Всё это или почти всё изложено в моих статьях по «Теории Природы». Моё понимание состоит в том, что при изучении Природы надо в первую очередь выявить конкретное проявление материи в природе, установить минимальные, далее не дробимые, носители материи. А уже следующим шагом должно стать изучение взаимодействия материальных тел на планковском масштабе мироздания. Это естественная логика познания природы. Понятие поле относится к категории понятий описывающих взаимодействие материальных тел. Логика самой природы и логика познания природы просты: сначала материальные тела, а потом их взаимодействие, а не наоборот. Материальные тела взаимодействуют между собой, но они не порождаются взаимодействием, полем. Поле, взаимодействие не порождает материю. Материальные тела первичны, а их взаимодействие вторично.
Category: Classical Physics

[1239] viXra:1804.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 11:00:03

Space Equation – Basic Equation of Unified Field Theory

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure

Since Maxwell successfully unified previously separated electrical and magnetic fields in a new electromagnetic field, the idea of theory common for all physical force fields became apparent. Until now the attempts to bind together separate equations of all physical force fields have been unsuccessful. All forces act in space. Space is a common attribute of all interactions. Here we show that unification is possible on the basis of a new space conception. In contemporary physics the force field is part of space where force acts. In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics, we here propose a new concept that space and physical force fields are mutually dependent entities of the same phenomena. If a force field does not exist, then the corresponding space does not exist either. And vice versa, if space does not exist, there is no force field present. Change of the force field physics assumption yields into the possibility to describe any known physical force field and the corresponding space by a uniform equation, which we call Space Equation. Therefore the Space Equation represents the basic equation of the Unified Field Theory (UFT).
Category: Classical Physics

[1238] viXra:1804.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 22:02:08

Тайна крупицы материи \\\\\ Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Что такое крупица материи? Какую тайну скрывает в себе крупица материи? О чём эта тайна? Какую информацию хранит в себе крупица материи?! Вопросы правильные, вопросы интересные, вопросы по существу. Вот об этом, об ответах на эти вопросы и будет идти речь в настоящей статье. Это ещё одна статья по «Теории Природы» автора. А «Теория Природы» и есть современная материалистическая физика и космология. +++++++++++++++++++++++++ What is a crupitsa (atom) of matter? What secret hides in itself acrupitsa (atom) of matter? What is this secret? What kind of information is stored in a crupitsa (atom) of matter? Questions are correct, interesting questions, questions on the merits. That's about this, the answers to these questions will be discussed in this article. This is another article on "Theory of Nature" by the author. And "Theory of Nature" is modern materialistic physics and cosmology.
Category: Classical Physics

[1237] viXra:1804.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 12:11:39

Experiment Supports Stoe Model and Rejects the Traditional Model of a Coulomb Field

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of the coulomb field is of vortices in the plenum. An experiment is proposed that forces a spark of electrons to flow outside the volume between a positive--negative electrode pair. This experimental observation rejects the traditional source--sink pair model of the coulomb field and does not reject the STOE model of the coulomb field and the mechanism of electric attraction and repulsion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1236] viXra:1804.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 20:27:45

Newton’s First Law Revisited

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Newton’s first law is expressed in textual form. It states that, unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force, an object will remain at rest, or move uniformly forward in a straight line. Accordingly, “inertial motion” means uniform rectilinear motion, while uniform circular motion is considered to be a noninertial, accelerated motion. This differentiation between the two types of motion has resulted in the aftermath in different analytical treatments of the two types, both in classical and relativistic kinematics. In this short note, we show, based on Newton’s kinematics, that, contrary to the conventional differentiation between rectilinear and circular systems of motion, the two are dynamically equivalent, such that the set of laws describing the dynamics of one system correspond to an identical set of laws describing the dynamics of the second. An immediate corollary for the special case of uniform motion is that Newtonian kinematics are inconsistent with Newton’s first law and are, instead, consistent with Galileo’s definition of inertial motion. To rectify the apparent inconsistency, we propose a natural modification of the first law, which incorporates the case of uniform circular motion. We formulate the modified law textually and mathematically and comment briefly on the implication of our modification to the theory and education of classical and relativistic physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1235] viXra:1804.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 07:12:23

The Natural System of Units of Robert Yusupov***\\\***Натуральная система единиц Роберта Юсупова.

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 46 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Units of the Nature <©> 15 April 2018

This article was conceived as an article devoted to the solution of the question (problem) of natural units. Many people, physicists and philosophers, naturalists were engaged in this problem (question). The names of many researchers remained unknown and forgotten, sunk into oblivion. The Irish physicist G. J. Stoney and the German physicist M. Planck left their mark on the solution of the problem of searching for and finding natural units. The author of this article also has a solution to this problem. This problem was solved by the author in 2013. The article provides a comparison of all three options for solving this problem. The author believes that his decision is the final solution to the problem of natural units. Absolute knowledge is achieved. Absolute truth is known. ++++++++++++++++++ Настоящая статья задумывалась, как статья посвящённая решению вопроса (проблемы) натуральных единиц (природы). Этой проблемой (вопросом) занимались многие люди, физики и философы, естествоиспытатели. Имена многих исследователей остались неизвестными и забытыми, канули в лету. Свой след в решении проблемы поиска и отыскания натуральных единиц (природы) оставили ирландский физик Дж. Стони и немецкий физик М. Планк. Автор настоящей статьи, также имеет своё решение этой проблемы. Эта проблема решена автором в 2013 году. В статье приводится сопоставление всех трёх вариантов решения этой проблемы. Автор считает, что его решение является окончательным решением проблемы натуральных единиц. Достигнуто абсолютное знание. Познана абсолютная истина.
Category: Classical Physics

[1234] viXra:1804.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 01:03:37

Confusions in Modern Physics.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. New physics.

Some clarifications in the concept of inertia and mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[1233] viXra:1804.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 01:44:50

The Nature of Gravity

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any two masses will experience gravitational attraction between them that draws them together. In an energy-conserving universe as they accelerate towards each other there must be some energy system losing mass/energy to balance the increase in kinetic energy of the two objects. Now it is received wisdom that mass is inviolate and never changes even when falling into a gravitational well, but the increase in kinetic energies of two bodies falling together under gravitational attraction would then violate the Principle of Conservation of Energy, as the only possible source of mass/energy is a reduction in the effective combined mass as two objects come together. Logically, therefore, there must be an effective reduction of mass, as seen from the greater universe, when two objects approach each other and thus increase the local spacetime dilation. The energy balance of the universe requires that dilating space reduces the effective mass as seen from the greater universe outside that dilation. However, once we accept this proposition we have to reconsider Einstein’s concept that if enough mass comes together space would be breached to create a singularity. He envisaged a linear process whereby adding mass upon mass together resulted eventually in too much mass for local space to support, but from the previous sentences we can see that such a linear process violates the Principle of Conservation of Energy. This leads us to consider an alternative solution based of the fact that a local observer sees the same nature of space around him no matter how deep his gravitational well.
Category: Classical Physics

[1232] viXra:1804.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:26:54

The Theory of Everything-What Kind of Resistance Inertia of an Object Is?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article aims to clarify briefly and explain what kind of resistance inertia is and approaching a theory of everything as well.
Category: Classical Physics

[1231] viXra:1804.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 13:20:09

Is Potential Energy Equation for a Mass at Infinity Correct?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page.

Correct calculation for potential energy for masses at infinity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1230] viXra:1804.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 13:27:36

Do Accelerating Charged Particles Really Radiate?

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a particle accelerator charged particles radiate when they pass through beam-bending magnets that give them a centripetal acceleration. This is commonly put down to acceleration-induced radiation, but the fact that there are several different detailed theories to explain this phenomenon suggests that it is not well understood. In addition electrons orbiting a nucleus also have centripetal acceleration and do not radiate, so we have the problem that accelerating electrons radiate only sometimes. This suggests that it is not the acceleration per se that creates the radiation but some other factor that exists only in the beam-bending scenario. This paper goes further, and shows that the general concept of acceleration-induced radiation is a violation of the Principle of Conservation of Energy, so that in an energy-conserving universe another cause must be found for the radiation from accelerating charged particles where it occurs.
Category: Classical Physics

[1229] viXra:1804.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 01:00:22

The Free Electron's Magnetic Dipole

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 12 Pages.

To quote J. Van Huele and J. Stenson, in their paper “Stern-Gerlach experiments: past, present, and future” (J. Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters, 2004, 81, 206-212) “Spin is a non-classical duplicity useful for classifying atomic states but not observable with free electrons”. So why is it not observable? Pauli claimed that the interaction of the charged particle with the magnetic field causes an incompressible blurring of the trajectories at least as great as the separation between the spin components. However, free electrons twist and turn in the focussing and directing electromagnetic fields of electron microscopes to give precise focussing to a single dot of less than 22nm.With modern technology Pauli’s claim seems difficult to justify. This paper follows the evidence that spin does not exist in free electrons and considers the consequences that alternative decision. Some further theoretical work is required, but it nevertheless demonstrates that the approach ultimately takes us to a precise value for the neutron’s electric field strength and to the beginnings of an understanding of atomic orbitals and transitions.
Category: Classical Physics

[1228] viXra:1804.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 15:26:33

About Photon

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The paper argues the conclusion that the photon has rest mass equal with a half of its moving mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[1227] viXra:1804.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 12:08:02

Effect of Magnet Geometry on the Magnetic Component of the Lorentz Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 13 Pages.

All forces in the universe are created from changes in energy levels that result from changes in the separation of bodies, whether electromagnetic or otherwise. For example, two electrons separated by a finite distance will experience repulsive forces that urge them to separate further. When they are free to move this will cause them to accelerate away from each other, replacing part of the original energy levels with kinetic energy. Even when they are constrained so that they cannot move they still experience those same forces, but there is no energy exchange. Either way, for the force to exist the energy system must exist, even if only potentially. Now consider the second part of the Lorentz Force Equation, which looks at the forces experienced by an electron travelling through a fixed magnetic field. Here there is a lateral force on the electron normal to the direction of travel, and the electron’s path is deflected into a curve, with no change in energy levels. However, the existence of the force requires an energy mechanism and in this paper I set out to identify it. There are enough clues to reach a sound conclusion, such as the fact that a neutron, with a bounded electric field, is not deflected, whereas an electron, with an infinite electric field, is deflected. With the energy mechanism clearly defined, we find that the Lorentz Force Equation fails to take in an important aspect of geometry and hence if we use electron deflection measurement and this Equation as a means of determining magnetic field strength we will virtually always calculate a field strength that is lower than the actuality.
Category: Classical Physics

[1226] viXra:1804.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 02:06:29

Pluto Should be Planet Again Discovery of Principial Error in Astronomical Calculations

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages.

Popular investigation of biggest methodic blunder of astronomy- how to obtain masses from orbital geometry- and how it helped to “disqualify” Pluto as a planet. In reality Pluto should be several times heavier than Eris.
Category: Classical Physics

[1225] viXra:1803.0739 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 20:59:35

Solution of the Fne Structure Constant Problem /// Решение проблемы постоянной тонкой структуры

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Solution of the Fine Structure Constant Problem

Настоящим сообщаю всем интересующимся и заинтересованным гражданам всех стран и народов, что решена фундаментальная проблема физики, проблема постоянной тонкой структуры. Выяснен физический смысл постоянной тонкой структуры. Найдена определяющая формула для постоянной тонкой структуры. ++++++++++++++++++ I hereby inform all interested and interested citizens of all countries and peoples that the fundamental problem of physics, the problem of the fine structure constant has been solved. The physical meaning of the fine structure constant is determined. A defining formula for the fine structure constant is found.
Category: Classical Physics

[1224] viXra:1803.0716 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 03:08:08

How Variable Earth-Moon Distance Really Could Be?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

New understanding of physical background of “Newton’s modification of Kepler’s Third law” allows us revisit significantly variable prehistoric lunar distance idea.
Category: Classical Physics

[1223] viXra:1803.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 06:09:42

Photon. Shape, Internal Arrangement and Physical Properties.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

An attempt has been made to explain theoretically the properties of a photon from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[1222] viXra:1803.0667 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 17:37:40

Possible Maximum Volume of the Universe and Amount of Volume of the Masses(matter and Antimatter) in the Whole Universe0

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 5 Pages.

Warning! important finished paper!possible maximum volume of the universe and amount of volume of the masses(matter and antimatter) in the whole universe
Category: Classical Physics

[1221] viXra:1803.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:56:10

The Nuclear Force and Limitations to the Lorentz Electrostatic Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 16 Pages.

In Electromagnetic Field Theory it is the interaction of distributed electrostatic fields that leads to the forces between charged particles. The field of an electron spreads across all space, so the interaction between two electrons covers all of space. If we calculate the point energy densities of the interaction between these two electrons and sum them over all space, then differentiate it with respect to separation to get the force, it is no surprise that we end up with the electrostatic component of the Lorentz Force Equation. An interesting part of the interaction is that not only do the two electrons have field lines that are broadly aligned and thus create increased energy densities and repulsive forces, but there is a region between the two electrons where the field lines oppose each other, reducing the energy density and giving rise to attractive forces. With the electron – whose field extends to infinity – the repulsive forces dominate at all separations. But now consider the neutron whose electric field is bounded at a miniscule radius. There are obviously no forces between two neutrons outside twice the radius as there is no overlap in the fields. As they close there is a limited range over which the repulsive forces are not in play and the attractive region dominates. This leads to an attractive force between neutrons for separations of two and one times the radius, inside of which repulsive forces finally take over.
Category: Classical Physics

[1220] viXra:1803.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:51:15

Criteria for Fundamental Physics Principles

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 9 Pages.

What makes a description more fundamental than other descriptions? More fundamental descriptions are simpler, more useful, and apply to the entire universe including areas of mathematics, physical sciences, life, and society. For example, if a principle appears simpler for the data in physics but fails in life and society observations, then the principle is false. Human survival requires creativity for advancement and adapting to a changing environment. Creativity's essence appears to be the synthesis of a large diversity of observational types. The amount of unexplained observational data is huge. We need to think about it. We need to form a new, more inclusive paradigm.
Category: Classical Physics

[1219] viXra:1803.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:49:20

Matter and Mass ///// Материя и масса

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Matter and Mass

Matter and mass. In this article, the principle "nature is finite" and the consequences that follow from it are discussed. The author states the presence in nature of a minimal fundamental particle (FP) – an atom of matter (AM). An atom of matter is a real natural standard, a material carrier of two basic properties: the minimum amount of matter in nature and the minimum length in nature (the diameter of an atom of matter). These properties are reflected in physics in the form of basic physical quantities of matter and length. Matter is naturally introduced into physics as the basic physical quantity. Then the mass of an atom of matter (a fundamental particle) is defined as the ratio of physical quantities of matter and length (diameter of AM or FP). +++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье обсуждается принцип «природа конечна» и вытекающие из него следствия. Автор констатирует наличие в природе минимальной элементарной частицы – крупицы материи. Крупица материи является реальным природным эталоном, материальным носителем двух основных свойств: минимального количества материи в природе и минимальной длины в природе (диаметр крупицы материи). Эти свойства отражаются в физике в виде основных физических величин материя и длина. Материя естественным образом вводится в физику в качестве основной физической величины. Тогда масса крупицы материи (элементарной частицы) определяется, как отношение физических величин материи и длины (диаметр КМ или ЭЧ).
Category: Classical Physics

[1218] viXra:1803.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:55:41

Stoe Electric Charge

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of hods and plenum is extended to model charge and electric fields. The hods' movements are generating vortices in the plenum. These vortices are the electric charge and also cause the coherent ripples postulated in the Hodge Experiment simulation. Free hods are the electromagnetic signal. Gauss's Law is a simplification of the STOE model.
Category: Classical Physics

[1217] viXra:1803.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 06:21:19

Discussion About the Interaction Between Current Elements Proposal of a New Force Law

Authors: Sánchez Uriarte Óscar, Sánchez Cánovas Julio
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, a new force law between current elements is proposed which holds the 3rd Newton's Law and concides with known experimental measurements avoiding the contradictions of Ampère and Grassman expressions. Likewise, an interaction expression between point charges is postulated which satisfies action reaction principle and is Galileo Invariant. This opens the way to a revision of the concept of magnetic field and a further study of the interaction between moving charged bodies. Keywords: Grassman, Ampère, Whittaker, Maxwell, Lorentz Force, Third Newton's Law, Action-Reaction Principle, Magnetic Field.
Category: Classical Physics

[1216] viXra:1803.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 05:00:44

Full Answer to Mr. Igor Stark //// Ответ Игорю Старку

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Full Answer to Mr. Igor Stark

The article touches upon the question of the correlation between the concepts of matter and mass in physics and gives a dialectical-materialistic scientific solution to this question. At the same time, this article is a complete answer to the leading participant of the runet's physical forum Mr. Igor Stark on one of his replicas during his speech at the site of the physical forum sciteclibrary.ru. The answer is given in a style characteristic of the style of communication on this forum. The author of the answer addresses both Mr. Stark and all participants in the dialogue and conversation. +++++++++++++++++ В статье затрагивается вопрос о соотношении понятий материя и масса в физике и даётся диалектико-материалистическое научное решение этого вопроса. В то же время эта статья есть полный ответ ведущему участнику физического форума сети рунет г. Игорю Старку на одну из его реплик в ходе его выступления на площадке физического форума sciteclibrary.ru. Ответ дан в стиле характерном для стиля общения на этом форуме. Автор ответа обращается и к г. Старку и ко всем участникам диалога, разговора.
Category: Classical Physics

[1215] viXra:1803.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 05:58:43

Masses and Diameters of Five Fundamental Particles///Таблица масс и диаметров пяти элементарных частиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Masses and Diameters of five Fundamental Particles

To the attention of readers in this article we offer a table of values of masses and diameters of the five most known fundamental particles: tau particle, neutron, proton, muon, and electron. The physical quantities are presented in the table in SI units (m, kg) and in units of the absolute system of units. In this article two graphs are also presented, indicating the location of fundamental particles on a single hyperbola. ++++++++++ Вниманию читателей в настоящей статье предлагаются таблица значений масс и диаметров пяти самых известных элементарных частиц: тау-частицы, нейтрона, протона, мюона и электрона. Физические величины представлены в таблице в единицах СИ (m, kg) и в единицах абсолютной системы единиц. В настоящей статье представлены также два графика с указаниями мест размещения на гиперболе элементарных частиц.
Category: Classical Physics

[1214] viXra:1803.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:15:03

Objects Spending Zero Time Interval

Authors: Yahya Sharif
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article aims to analyze mathematically objects spending zero time interval in reality.
Category: Classical Physics

[1213] viXra:1803.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 03:30:05

Astronomers do not Know, How to Calculate Masses

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Shortcomings of lucky guess of Newton, that central mass can be calculated, using orbital parameters of secondary celestial body are highlighted. Analysis of calculation from the point of vortical physics is made. Results support low viscosity Sun and semi-liquid Earth concepts.
Category: Classical Physics

[1212] viXra:1803.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 13:03:33

Liar Paradox and Completeness of Theory

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 10 Pages.

Let us define the completeness of the complex system as a state where all individual components composing the system are in equilibrium. Mathematically it can be expressed as the case when the sum of systems constituents is equal to zero. Any deviation from the completeness state would be consequently defined as the incompleteness of the system. Here we postulate that the incompleteness of the system whether it is the formulation of any logical conclusion, the technical construction or physical law leads to paradoxes or instabilities of the system itself.
Category: Classical Physics

[1211] viXra:1803.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:43:13

СУДЬБА Электромагнитная механика Вселенной Начала теории материи –––––– Виталий Парпура –––––– Аннотация В своей научно-популярной теории (гипотезе – по-научном

Authors: Vitaliy Parpura
Comments: 105 Pages. Русский

СУДЬБА Электромагнитная механика Вселенной Начала теории материи –––––– Виталий Парпура –––––– Аннотация В своей научно-популярной теории (гипотезе – по-научному) я изложил несколько иной взгляд на устройство мира, нежели принят ныне. Используя, как основу, старую добрую древ-негреческую идею эфира, вместо него, вводится понятие поля материи Вселенной как единст-венного источника бытия. Как единственной среды, которая создаёт всё в нашем мире, вклю-чая и духовный мир. Создаёт посредством силы материи (силы поля материи), также единой и единственной силы в Природе. Создаёт с помощью своих вихрей материи, идею которых наи-более подробно развил давно ещё Рене Декарт. Вихри материи – это кирпич и цемент Вселен-ной. Всё из материи! (Мечта Декарта). В этой работе даётся простое, и немного неожиданное, понимание сущности времени в физическом и пространственном аспектах. Даётся простое и наглядное толкование спина системы. Имеют место рассуждения об инерции, фотоне и электромагнитных волнах. Ут-верждается, что весь наш мир – это электромагнитный мир, созданный стоящими и бегущи-ми электромагнитными колебаниями плотности поля материи Вселенной. И в заключение предпринята попытка ввести в науку понятие Судьбы – судьбы человека, судьбы всего человечества и Судьбы Вселенной, как единой и единственной всеобщей электро-магнитной структуры поля материи Вселенной, виртуальное существование которой (одно-временно во всех временах) создаёт всеобщую предопределённость событий в Мире. Всё едино! – главная идея этой теории.
Category: Classical Physics

[1210] viXra:1803.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 22:40:27

An Experimental Measurement of Power Amplification Effect Via Parasitic Dipole Inside Waveguide

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, transmission coefficient S21 was measured through a waveguide. The electromagnetic wave entered into a waveguide through a horn at one end and it was measured at the other end. By inserting a parasitic dipole inside the waveguide, the wave amplitude at lower adjacent frequency of dipole resonant was amplified. This effect is similar to that of Yagi-Uda antenna in open space. It is stated in textbook that a Yagi-Uda antenna can diffract the electromagnetic wave in open space and focus the power in forward direction. However, a dipole inside a waveguide cannot diffract electromagnetic wave from the open space. The observation in this work indicated that the wave was amplified by the parasitic dipole.
Category: Classical Physics

[1209] viXra:1802.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 23:11:46

The Inner Workings of Reality

Authors: RN Boyd, A Klein
Comments: Pages.

The SubQuantum microscope constructed in Serbia has made images of entities as small as 10e-95cm., well smaller than the Planck length. From the evidence provided by various direct instrumented observations, there is no lower bound to the small. The entire of all the sciences, including all of the physics, are described by and are originating from agglomerations and activities of SubQuantum Infinitesimals. SubQuantum Infinitesimal-based physics unifies all the sciences under one "umbrella", correcting the anomalies and paradoxes of QM and eliminating the mathematical fantasies of Einstein's version of relativity, while restoring Galilean relativity. All matter at all scales, all fields and forces, the life sciences and Consciousness physics are contained by the understandings inherent in the SubQuantum Infinitesimals, which are the smallest unit of matter, and at the same time, the smallest unit of Consciousness. This implies that everything has Consciousness and as well, memories of all that the given entity has ever experienced. That each infinitesimal has a memory, is implied by experimental results which have physically proved that the "vacuum" (actually a SubQuantum plenum)has memory, and by the experimentally observed vast arrays of information which are conveyed by the various vector potentials, which information is conveyed by the groups of infinitesimals which are causing the vector potentials. These experimental results, and others, imply that everything has some form of Experiential Consciousness. In addition, it has been shown that infinitesimals can traverse vast distances with velocities ranging up to an infinite velocity. This is the basis for all experimentally proven behaviors of quantum mechanics, including "non-local" phenomena, such as the quantum information field. The infinitesimals form a bipartite aether, composed of free aether entities traveling with velocities up to infinity and captive aether entities which are constrained to "clouds" surrounding and interpenetrating existing matter and by the local conveyances of the various forces. All existing matter constantly radiates and absorbs information-bearing infinitesimals, which process results in local and non-local experiential and emotional communications between all observables. Empirically, experiential and emotional information forms the entire basis of an undivided and Intelligent Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[1208] viXra:1802.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 11:43:44

A Casimir Effect-Based Propeller. A Possible Relation with the Cavity Structural Effect.

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 3 Pages.

The paper considers origination of a thrust, basing on the Casimir Effect, by means of developing an angle between the resonator plates.
Category: Classical Physics

[1207] viXra:1802.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 15:22:14

Substantiation Without Substance, A Perspective on the Incredible Intensity of the Inertial Force

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 16 Pages.

The acceleration of an object in response to an external force is opposed by an inertial reaction force of the inertial field that is equal and opposite in direction to the external force. The inertial field applies this reaction force only throughout the volume of the object itself. The resistance to acceleration of a superdense object, such as a neutron star, demands a superdense particle density of the inertial field to support the enormous resistance to acceleration of the superdense object. To illustrate the intensity of the inertial reaction force, a thought experiment is conducted in space, free of gravitational forces, in which the motion of a small sample of neutron star material in response to an applied force is calculated. A sample mass of a neutron star of one cubic centimeter has a mass of 500 million metric tons. Apply a force of one thousand metric tons to this sample and it accelerates at 1 / 500,000 g. The sample appears immoveable. The inertial reaction force of one thousand metric tons is applied by the inertial field in opposition to the acceleration of the sample mass. The space, or rather what’s in the space that pervades the volume of the sample mass itself, is responsible for the resistance of the sample mass to acceleration. This space is not empty, but permeated with particles of the inertial field. Nothing outside the volume of the sample affects the acceleration of the sample mass. One cubic centimeter of what appears to be empty space applies an inertial reaction force of one thousand metric tons! By earthly standards this is colossal; by astronomical standards it’s commonplace. A real life counterpart to the thought experiment exists in a pair of neutron stars in orbit about their barycenter.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[512] viXra:1807.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-16 02:43:58

EUV Transmission Lens Design and Manufacturing Method

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 9 Pages. v2: Revised discussion of manufacturing method.

This paper outlines a design for an EUV transmission lens comprising blazed, phase-Fresnel structures approximated by a stepped profile. The structures can be formed on both sides of a thin silicon substrate, providing many more phase levels than would be possible with one-sided lenses. An e-beam fabrication technique with nanometer-scale patterning accuracy is outlined.
Category: Classical Physics

[511] viXra:1806.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-20 17:48:04

A Topological Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 10 Pages.

A mathematical model for interpreting Newtonian gravity by means of elastic deformation of space is given. Based on this model, a possible theory of particle physics, interpreting particles as compact manifold attached to space by means of a connected sum is given. Although the analogy between elasticity and gravity is based on a mathematical fact, the rest of the theory is based on little mathematical ground and, although we think it may be worth of further investigations, it should not be taken too seriously.
Category: Classical Physics

[510] viXra:1805.0464 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-29 11:56:25

Solar Still - Improved Distillation

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

An analysis of the steam cycle in an humidification-dehumidification desalination system shows that the yield of potable water increases when the steam is transported by dry and preheated air. The system can distill 86% of the theoretically possible maximum amount.
Category: Classical Physics

[509] viXra:1805.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-08 13:08:57

On Tensors and Equations of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yuriy A. Spirichev
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is completely described by an asymmetric tensor of the second rank, which is a four-dimensional derivative of the electromagnetic potential. This tensor can be decomposed into the canonical antisymmetric and the new symmetric EMF tensor. From this tensor, in the form of its complete divergence, the EMF equations follow. One of them is an electromagnetic analog of the Lame equation for an elastic medium. It is shown that the longitudinal waves of the divergence of the vector potential propagate at a speed greater than the speed of light and do not have a magnetic component.
Category: Classical Physics

[508] viXra:1805.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-06 00:25:23

On Tensors and Equations of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yuriy A. Spirichev
Comments: 11 Pages.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is completely described by an asymmetric tensor of the second rank , which is a four-dimensional derivative of the electromagnetic potential. This tensor can be decomposed into the canonical antisymmetric and the new symmetric EMF tensor. From this tensor, in the form of its complete divergence, the EMF equations follow. One of them is an electromagnetic analog of the Lame equation for an elastic medium. It is shown that the longitudinal waves of the divergence of the vector potential propagate at a speed greater than the speed of light and do not have a magnetic component.
Category: Classical Physics

[507] viXra:1805.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-03 01:34:21

Introducing Light Force

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 10 Pages.

Why Earth momentum keeps same angle to the orbit, but moment of momentum changes its angle to the orbit (and to the momentum)? Both momentums behave like vectors (if no reflections) in an inertial coordinate system.
Category: Classical Physics

[506] viXra:1805.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 21:14:49

Frequency Steerable Endfire Antenna based on an Spoof-surface Plasmon Polariton E-plane Transmission Line

Authors: Louis WY LIU
Comments: 11 Pages. 2018 IEEE INDIAN CONFERENCE ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION (InCAP)

This paper presents an antenna that generates a frequency steerable endfire electromagnetic radiation out of a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) transmission line mounted in the center E-plane of a rectangular waveguide. The SSPP transmission has both its upper edge and lower edge patterned with corrugated metal slot/gap arrays of the same period. However, the slot depth on the corrugated pattern along the upper edge is different from the slot depth on the corrugated pattern along the lower edge. This arrangement creates a difference in surface impedance between the upper corrugated edge and the low corrugated edge on the SSPP transmission line, thus allowing the angle of the endfire radiation to be shifted upwards and downwards. According to our simulation, the angle of endfire radiation can be shifted by at least 10 degree simply by varying the operating frequencies.
Category: Classical Physics

[505] viXra:1804.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 22:14:08

Newton’s First Law Revisited

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 10 Pages.

Newton’s first law is expressed in textual form. It states that, unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force, an object will remain at rest, or move uniformly forward in a straight line. Accordingly, “inertial motion” means uniform rectilinear motion, while uniform circular motion is considered to be a noninertial, accelerated motion. This differentiation has resulted in the aftermath in different analytical treatments of the two types, both in classical and relativistic physics. In this short note, we show, based on Newton’s laws, that, contrary to the conventional differentiation between rectilinear and circular systems of motion, the two are dynamically equivalent, such that the set of laws describing the dynamics of one system correspond to an identical set of laws describing the dynamics of the second. An immediate corollary for the special case of uniform motion is that Newtonian physics is inconsistent with his first law and is, instead, consistent with Galileo’s definition of inertial motion. To rectify the apparent inconsistency, we propose a natural modification of the first law, which incorporates the case of uniform circular motion. By means of this inclusion, the first law can retain its unique standing, as a separate law that could not be deduced from the second law as a special case. We formulate the modified law textually and mathematically and comment briefly on the implication of the proposed modification to the theory and education of classical, and relativistic physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[504] viXra:1804.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 09:54:53

Effect of Magnet Geometry on the Magnetic Component of the Lorentz Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 9 Pages.

All forces in the universe are created from changes in energy levels that result from changes in the separation of bodies, whether electromagnetic or otherwise. For example, two electrons separated by a finite distance will experience repulsive forces that urge them to separate further. When they are free to move this will cause them to accelerate away from each other, replacing part of the original energy levels with kinetic energy. Even when they are constrained so that they cannot move they still experience those same forces, but there is no energy exchange. Either way, for the force to exist the energy system must exist, even if only potentially. Now consider the second part of the Lorentz Force Equation, which looks at the forces experienced by an electron travelling through a fixed magnetic field. Here there is a lateral force on the electron normal to the direction of travel, and the electron’s path is deflected into a curve, with no change in energy levels. However, the existence of the force requires an energy mechanism and in this paper I set out to identify it. There are enough clues to reach a sound conclusion, such as the fact that a neutron, with a bounded electric field, is not deflected, whereas an electron, with an infinite electric field, is deflected. With the energy mechanism clearly defined, we find that the Lorentz Force Equation fails to take in an important aspect of geometry and hence if we use electron deflection measurement and this Equation as a means of determining magnetic field strength we will virtually always calculate a field strength that is lower than the actuality.
Category: Classical Physics

[503] viXra:1803.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-14 12:42:13

The Nuclear Force and Limitations to the Lorentz Electrostatic Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 11 Pages.

If we need to find the total electric field vector from multiple charges at a point in space we add the vectors to get the resultant vector. When we do this for two electrons near to each other we find that the field vectors oppose in a region between the electrons. This tells us that there is partial field cancellation there. Field cancellation reduces the field energy density leading to attractive forces in this region. With two electrons the net effect of all of space is one of increased energy density and hence net repulsion, so the attractive forces in the region between the electrons is overcome by greater repulsive forces elsewhere. However, with the bounded electric fields of neutrons this attractive region dominates over a limited region leading to first attractive then repulsive forces as the neutrons approach closer and closer to each other. This suggests in turn that the Lorentz Force Equation is limited to particles whose electric fields are not truncated but extend to infinity.
Category: Classical Physics

[502] viXra:1803.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 09:40:11

The Nuclear Force and Limitations to the Lorentz Electrostatic Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 11 Pages.

In Electromagnetic Field Theory it is the interaction of distributed electrostatic fields that leads to the forces between charged particles. The field of an electron spreads across all space, so the interaction between two electrons covers all of space. If we calculate the point energy densities of the interaction between these two electrons and sum them over all space, then differentiate it with respect to separation to get the force, it is no surprise that we end up with the electrostatic component of the Lorentz Force Equation. However, an interesting part of the interaction is that not only do the two electrons have field lines that are broadly aligned and thus create increased energy densities and repulsive forces, but there is a region between the two electrons where the field lines oppose each other, reducing the energy density and giving rise to attractive forces. With the electron – whose field extends to infinity – the repulsive forces dominate at all separations. But now consider the neutron whose electric field is bounded at a miniscule radius. There are obviously no forces between two neutrons outside twice the radius as there is no overlap in the fields. As they close there is a limited range over which the repulsive forces are not in play and the attractive region dominates. This leads to an attractive force between neutrons for separations from twice the radius down to the radius, inside of which repulsive forces finally take over.
Category: Classical Physics