Classical Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[807] viXra:1602.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 06:39:29

On the Gravitational Force

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

The gravitational force would be transmitted through a polarization of the vacuum.
Category: Classical Physics

[806] viXra:1602.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 06:44:42

On the Existence of the Black Holes

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note, it is shown that the black holes can exist but also can lose mass and stop being it.
Category: Classical Physics

[805] viXra:1602.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-07 04:51:04

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.
Category: Classical Physics

[804] viXra:1602.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-05 08:34:28

Studies on the Accuracy of the Results Predicted by the Simple Beam Theory in the case of Short Beams that are Fixed at Both the Ends

Authors: Kirana Kumara P
Comments: 4 Pages. Accepted for presentation at National Conference on "Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Applied Sciences (AMEAS-2016)", to be held on 19th - 20th February 2016, at Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

The simple beam theory can predict the deflection of beams that are fixed at both the ends, with a high level of accuracy if the length-to-diameter ratios for the beams are high. Hence the readily available formula (which is based on the simple beam theory) for beams may be used with confidence when the length-to-diameter ratios are high. However, studies on the accuracy of the results predicted by the simple beam theory are not common when the length-to-diameter ratios are small. Hence the present work compares the results obtained through the use of the well- known formula (based on the simple bending theory) with the results obtained by making use of the well-known commercial finite element software ANSYS, for beams of different length-to-diameter ratios and circular and square cross section, in order to get an idea of the accuracy of the results that are obtained by making use of the well-known formula. All these results are tabulated. The present study is restricted to beams that are fixed at both the ends and only those cases where a single concentrated load is applied at the midpoint between the two ends. The present study would be of use to designers who are concerned over the accuracy of the results that are obtained through the use of the well-known analytical formula. The present study is a continuation of the work presented in the author's earlier work "Kirana Kumara P, Studies on the Accuracy of the Results Predicted by the Simple Beam Theory in the case of Short Cantilever Beams, National Conference on: Role of Mechanical Engineering and Computational Science for a Sustainable Future (NCAME-2015), September 25th & 26th, 2015, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India", and hence the present work -- wherever useful -- borrows ideas and sentences from the said reference.
Category: Classical Physics

[803] viXra:1602.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-04 12:20:52

Метафизика эфира Metaphysics Ether

Authors: Gennady Brazhnik Gennadiy Braznik
Comments: 256 Pages.

Современная концепция мироздания основана на теории Большого взрыва, которая, в совокупности с общей и специальной теорией относительности А. Эйнштейна, определяет материалистическую научную парадигму знаний. Идеалистическое направление отождествляется с эзотерикой и теософским научным наследием предыдущих поколений. В книге представлена философская версия природных импульсных взаимодействий на основании физических законов классической механики И. Ньютона, объединяющая материалистическое и идеалистическое мировоззрение в единую эфиродинамическую картину мира окружающего нас Бытия. Предназначена для читателей, следующих наставлению древнегреческих философов: «Смотря на Мир — открой глаза!».
Category: Classical Physics

[802] viXra:1602.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 08:17:55

Remote Sensing Through Stratified Random Media Using Pupil-Plane Interferometry

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 9 Pages.

We investigate a novel method for the retrieval of an arbitrary amplitude-object which is illuminated from the far-field and sampled through a stratified random medium of unknown statistics. The setup includes two observation paths, a CCD-based imaging system and a multi-aperture interferometer placed in a plane conjugate to the entrance pupil of the imaging system. The interferometric baselines are arranged in closed loops to make the closure phase insensitive to random refractive fluctuations. The method may be beneficial to applications such as surveillance, speckle interferometry and biomedical imaging.
Category: Classical Physics

[801] viXra:1601.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 10:44:35

Optical Biopsy with Long-Range Nondiffracting Beams

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

Most current configurations for optical biopsy contain fiber optic bundles at both the delivery and receiving ends of the optical system. Some layouts include distal lenses to either collimate or focus the incident light at various depth locations across the tissue. The inherent beam divergence, along with the highly scattering nature of the living tissue, is known to limit the penetration depth of the probe and the spatial or temporal resolution of the detected signal. In this work we study a novel modality for tissue illumination based on the use of long-range nondiffracting beams (LRNB). LRNB represent narrow-width light pencils with a constant or linearly varying axial intensity that propagate over large distances without diffractive spreading. Recent tests have demonstrated that LRNB exhibit insignificant intensity distortions when operated as beacon beams through atmospheric turbulence. Our numerical and software simulations show that LRNB may offer the potential for larger penetration depth and enhanced contrast over setups using conventional laser beams. Clinical applications include diagnosis, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy.
Category: Classical Physics

[800] viXra:1601.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-30 08:09:21

New Concept for a Photonic Switch

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 12 Pages.

The paper reveals a new operating principle for a planar photonic transistor in which no electronic components or nonlinear optical modules are used for digital switching.
Category: Classical Physics

[799] viXra:1601.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-29 22:22:21

Curvature Sensing from a Single Defocused Image in Partially Coherent Light

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages.

Curvature sensing is an intensity-based technique for wavefront reconstruction using two defocused images located on the opposite sides of the focal plane. It requires either one detector placed at two consecutive axial locations or a dual path with a pair of detectors from which the sensor signal is obtained. The method yields sensitivity comparable to that of the Hartmann test in the adjustment and evaluation of ground-based optical telescopes. We introduce the analytical framework underlying the function of a curvature sensor which operates from a single defocused image. A series of twin images is computed from the propagation law of the mutual intensity along the optical axis. The polynomial decomposition of the wavefront allows retrieval of Zernike coefficients by means of the standard least-squares algorithm. The paper concludes with a review of image sampling requirements and a discussion on the signal-to-noise ratio.
Category: Classical Physics

[798] viXra:1601.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-28 06:12:45

The Experiment Confirming the Existence of the Fourth Electromagnetic Induction

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages.

The presented experiment is a proof of the fact that a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates electromagnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[797] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-26 14:08:50

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations \\ Второе решение уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 12 Pages. in Russian

We give a new solution of Maxwell's equations for vacuum. Pre notes that the evidence of the only known solution is based on the law of conservation of energy, which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in a known solution. The proposed solution does not violate the law of conservation of energy. Moreover, in this solution the electric and magnetic components of the stress in the electromagnetic wave shifted in phase. We give a detailed proof for the interested reader. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics

[796] viXra:1601.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 22:32:04

Opened a New Type 3D Printing, Resolution 3D Printing Increased by 1000 Times.

Authors: Andrea Lenz, Korolev Daniil Leonidovich.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Today, there are a lot of projects equipment and products in the field of nanotechnology, but modern technology cannot adequately implement them because of the impossibility of creating high 3D nanostructures, despite all the advances in 2D technology. Modern technology spend hundreds minutes for creating a structure of thin layer. Consequence: the creation of high 3D nanostructures with good resolution will go for decades. However, it is these structures are necessary for many products. Conventional 3D printing also cannot solve these problems. Minimum resolution of modern 3D printers 30 micrometers. We developed a 3D printer based on the assembly from ion beams with a resolution better than 30 nanometers, and without limitation in the used materials. Progress by 1000 times. This printer removes the drawbacks of modern technology. This fact and self-assembly of this printer open the way to new types of technology.
Category: Classical Physics

[795] viXra:1601.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 07:57:26

The Experiment Confirming the Existence of the Fourth Electromagnetic Induction \ Эксперимент, подтверждающий существование четвертой электромагнитной индукции

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

We consider the experiment, which is proof that the stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates an electromagnetic induction. \ Рассматривается эксперимент, являющийся доказательством того, что стационарный поток электромагнитной энергии создает электромагнитную индукцию.
Category: Classical Physics

[794] viXra:1601.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-13 10:56:59

Em Drive Theory

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 5 Pages.

EM drive is an object composed by a Magnetron, a microwave generator, feeding a tapered resonant cavity whose area is greater at one end. Both ends of the cavity are sealed. When the Magnetron is turned on, the EM drive manifest a thrust towards the smaller end of the cavity. Nothing is emitted outside. Mainstream Physics is reluctant to recognise the EM drive as valid as it appears to break the law of conservation of momentum For this reason EM drive caused discussions, theories more or less exotic, and skepticisms. But the experiments seem to confirm it works. Here I discuss a simple theory in the framework of classical physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[793] viXra:1601.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:36:05

Electrical Solitons and Their Application to Communication Systems

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 61 Pages.

The following are learnt and achieved: 1. A robust electrical soliton oscillator/ generator was designed. 2. Soliton and similariton pulses propagated with far less distortion than their square counterparts. 3. Soliton trains could be implemented effectively in digital communication techniques with better results than sinusoidal waves. 4. Soliton modulation could be used in optical communication, leading to a cost effective yet powerful laser.5. Chip to chip communication is successfully implemented using solitons.
Category: Classical Physics

[792] viXra:1601.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 05:36:34

Эфирное устройство Мира.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 97 Pages.

УДК 053 Акованцев Пётр Иванович, сменный мастер ВПАТП №3, г.Воронеж, Российская Федерация. Эфирное устройство Мира. Аннотация: В статье изложено описание устройства Мира с помощью одной сущности-Эфира. Впервые даны представления о структурах электрона и протона. Дана природа основных физический явлений, как гравитация, электростатические и электромагнитные взаимодействий. Описана природа возникновения центробежной силы. Даны описания экспериментов, проведение которых, покажет наличие Эфира вокруг нас. Дано представление о формировании элементов таблицы Менделеева, показаны взаимодействия на уровне атомов и молекул. На космологическом уровне показаны этапы развития Вселенной. Я оперирую не символами, а образами и математику не привлекаю для доказательства своих выводов. Для доказательства я привлекаю эксперимент и наблюдения астрономии и астрофизики. По моим понятиям природа силы заложена в движении Эфира. В основе всех явлений Природы лежит СВЕТОЭфиродинамика. Во Вселенной происходит только один процесс перехода Эфира в СВЕТ. Все явления в Природе предназначены для обеспечения этого процесса или являются следствием этого процесса. Ключевые слова: Эфир, Свет, СветоЭфиродинамика. UDC 053 Akovantsev Peter Ivanovich, shift foreman MTE №3, Voronezh, Russian Federation. The essential structure of the world. Abstract: The article described a device description of the world through a single entity-ether. For the first time we are given insight into the structure of electron and proton. Given the nature of the basic physical phenomena such as gravity, electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions. It described the nature of occurrence of the centrifugal force. The descriptions of experiments conducted which show the presence of ether around us. The representation of the formation of the elements of the periodic table, showing the interaction at the level of atoms and molecules. On the cosmological level shows the stages of development of the universe. I do not operate on symbols, and images, and do not attract the math to prove their conclusions. To prove this I draw the experiment and observation of astronomy and astrophysics. According to my notions of the nature of power lies in the motion of the ether. The basis of all the phenomena of Nature is SVETOEfirodinamika. In the universe takes only one transition in the light of Aether. All phenomena in nature are intended to ensure that the process or are a consequence of this process. Keywords: Ether, Light, SvetoEfirodinamika.
Category: Classical Physics

[791] viXra:1601.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-10 14:35:45

Время в капле воды / Time in a Drop of Water

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian: Yusupov Robert © Time in the drop of water

Согласно учебникам физика является наукой о природе, физика изучает природу. В физике считается, что природа материальна. Из естествознания и философии мы знаем, что понятия материя и время являются фундаментальными понятиями природы и мироздания. Время широко используется в физике. Но в теории современной физики не определены физические величины материя и время. Это нонсенс. Что такое время? Как время соотносится с природой, с реальностью и материей? В предлагаемой вниманию статье предпринята попытка решения проблемы времени с позиции диалектического материализма. Для решения используется простая модель, представленная в природе примитивным процессом свободного истечения воды из резервуара по каплям. ------------------------------- According to the textbooks the physics is the science of nature, the physics studies nature. In the physics it is believed that the nature of the material. Because of the natural sciences and philosophy we know that the concepts of matter and time are the fundamental concepts of the nature and the universe. Time is widely used in physics. But in the theory of modern physics the physical quantities matter and time are not determined. This is nonsense. What is time? How time is related to the nature, reality and the matter? The attention of the proposed article is an attempt to solve the problem of time from a position of dialectical materialism. For solution using a simple model presented in the nature by the primitive process of the free expiration of the water from the reservoir dropwise.
Category: Classical Physics

[790] viXra:1601.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-01 02:07:25

EUV Plasma Source with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 7 Pages.

Laser power requirements for an EUV laser-produced plasma source can be reduced by using power-recycling optics to reflect plasma-scattered IR radiation back onto the plasma. Previously proposed spherical retro-reflective mirrors can be used to form an inverted image of the plasma on itself, but an erect (non-inverted) image would be more tolerant of positional alignment errors. Erect-imaging optical design alternatives for power recycling are described in this paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[789] viXra:1512.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-22 02:31:47

Multi-wavelength, Tabletop EUV Microscope

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 13 Pages.

A compact and inexpensive EUV source using high harmonic generation can provide illumination for a tabletop EUV microscope, but such microscopes typically use only one of the source’s available harmonic wavelengths. This paper outlines a microscopy system that focuses multiple harmonic wavelengths onto distinct, spatially-separated focal spots on an inspection sample, which is scanned to generate multi-spectral, diffraction-limited EUV images of the sample. The system uses diffraction optics to separate the EUV harmonics and also to separate the source’s IR wavelength out of the EUV illumination.
Category: Classical Physics

[788] viXra:1512.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 05:41:42

Equation of Energy Conversion

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 15 Pages. Classical mechanic, energy, conservation of energy, equation of motion

We have obtained the equation of energy conversion, an alternative equation to the equations of motion, from the total time derivative of energy. Using this equation, we solved some familiar cases, including gravitational rotation, coupled pendula and Lorenz force. In these familiar cases, we obtained the same results as the Euler-Lagrange equations, except for the Lorenz force in the time-dependent situation. We also obtained Jefimenko equations for electric and magnetic field in time-dependent case and we showed that these can not be obtained from Euler-Lagrange equations. Jefimonko equations describe the electromagnetic interaction in the time-dependent situation and the general case for electromagnetic interaction can be obtained by using these equations. So obtaining them in a correct way is important for the generalization and this work can be a step towards the generalization.
Category: Classical Physics

[787] viXra:1512.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-14 06:51:22

Science the Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows that Certainty Does not Exist

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 143 Pages.

Subaltern notable – built on the work of the great astronomers Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus (who took the details of Ptolemy, and found a way to look at the same construction from a slightly different perspective and discover that the Earth is not the center of the universe) and Johannes Kepler – which take us on a journey from the time when Aristotle and the world of that era believed that Earth was the center of the universe and supported on the back of a giant tortoise to our contemporary age when we know better − regards body of knowledge as painterly truth. Rather it is absolutely-absolutely false. The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term. The history of science, from Copernicus and Galileo to the present, is replete with examples that belie the charge of uncertainism in science. Despite the fact that science (which is guided by natural law and is testable against the empirical world) has revolutionized every aspect of human life and greatly clarified our understanding of the world, it has weighty limitations and it’s a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. And it's our main ingredient for understanding − a means of accepting what we've learned, challenging what we (a hoard of talking monkeys who’s consciousness is from a collection of connected neurons − hammering away on typewriters and by pure chance eventually ranging the values for the (fundamental) numbers that would allow the development of any form of intelligent life) think, and knowing that in some of the things that we think, there may be something to modify and to change. We now have considerable empirical data and highly successful scientific interpretations that bear on the question of certainty. The time has come to examine what those data and models tell us about the validity of the scientific hypothesis.The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term which confirm the Richard Feynman’s statement: “Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, none absolutely certain.” In fact, science can never establish "truth" or "fact" in the sense that the investigation of scientific equations provides unwitting support for the assertion that science is dogmatically correct. If a plausible scientific model or an equation consistent with all existing knowledge can be found, then the above claim fails. That model or equation need not be proven to be correct, just not proven to be incorrect. In the end, all of our scientific implications are an attempt to make sense of this fabulous and fleeting existence we find ourselves in. However, science is guided by natural law; has to be explained by reference to natural law; testable against the empirical world; its conclusions are tentative, that is, are not necessarily the final word; it can be falsifiable.
Category: Classical Physics

[786] viXra:1512.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 16:19:58

General Classical Electrodynamics, a New Foundation of Modern Physics and Technology

Authors: Koen J. van Vlaenderen
Comments: 31 pages, 2 figures, 45 references, English

Maxwell's Classical Electrodynamics (MCED) shows several related inconsistencies, as the consequence of a single false premise. The Lorentz force law of MCED violates Newton's Third Law of Motion (N3LM) in case of General Magnetostatics (GMS) current distributions, that are not necessarily divergence free. A consistent GMS theory is defined by means of Whittaker's force law, which requires a scalar magnetic force field, $B_L$. The field $B_L$ mediates a longitudinal Ampère force, similar to the vector magnetic field, $\B_T$, that mediates a \textit{transverse} Ampère force. The sum of transverse- and longitudinal Ampère forces obeys N3LM for stationary currents in general. The scalar field, $B_\Phi$, is also a physical, as a consequence of charge continuity. MCED does not treat the induction of the electric field, $\E_L$, by a time varying $B_L$ field, so MCED does not cover the reason for adding $E_L$ to the superimposed electric field, $E$. The exclusion of $E_L$ from $E$ simplifies MCED to Classical Electrodynamics (CED). The MCED Jefimenko fields show a far field contradiction, that is not shown by the CED fields. CED is based on the Lorentz force and therefore violates N3LM as well. Hence, we define a General Classical Electrodynamics (GCED) as a generalization of GMS and CED. GCED describes three types of far field waves: the longitudinal $\Phi$-wave, the longitudinal electromagnetic (LEM) wave and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, with vacuum phase velocities respectively $a$, $b$ and $c$. GCED power- and force theorems are derived. The general force theorem obeys N3LM only if the three phase velocities satisfy the Coulomb premise: a >> c and b=c. GCED with Coulomb premise is far field consistent, and resolves the classical $\frac{4}{3}$ energy-momentum problem of a moving charged sphere. GCED with the Lorentz premise (a=c and b=c) reduces to the inconsistent MCED. Many experimental results verify GCED with Coulomb premise, and falsify MCED. GCED can replace MCED as a new foundation of modern physics (relativity theory and wave mechanics). It might be the inspiration for new scientific experiments and electrical engineering, such as new wave-electronic effects based on $\Phi$-waves and LEM waves, and the conversion of natural $\Phi$-waves and LEM wave energy into useful electricity, in the footsteps of Nikola Tesla and Thomas Henry Moray.
Category: Classical Physics

[785] viXra:1512.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-12 02:22:05

EUV Spectral Purity Filter for Full IR-to-VUV Out-of-Band Rejection, with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 10 Pages.

A plasma light source for EUV lithography can be spectrally filtered by a phase-Fresnel collector mirror to reject all out-of-band radiation in the IR-to-VUV spectral range, leaving only pure EUV in the filtered output. EUV collection efficiency is not significantly compromised, and EUV conversion efficiency can be enhanced by recycling rejected or uncollected IR back to the plasma via retroreflection.
Category: Classical Physics

[784] viXra:1512.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 19:09:56

Vacuum Partition Theory Putting A Limit On Energy In Space

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 9 Pages. Putting a theoretical limit on vacuum energy

A theory is published for partition of vacuum energy into different types of energy that oppose each other in control of curvature in space. Both general relativity and quantum field theory are accommodated by allowing the energy in space to be large, but finite while the cosmological constant is small. Partition puts a limit on the energy in vacuum space, large enough for quantum mechanics, but not infinite. An argument is made that part of the energy can be borrowed according to Heisenberg Uncertainty, but must be repaid promptly one way or another. The result leads to modification of polarizable vacuum theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[783] viXra:1512.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 11:30:55

Current Injection Attack Against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Muneer Mohammad, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system's unconditional security.
Category: Classical Physics

[782] viXra:1512.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-07 21:40:45

A Simple Derivation of the Stationary Action Formulation of Classical Mechanics Using Differential Forms

Authors: Andrew Grieco
Comments: 9 Pages.

This manuscript describes the stationary action formulation of classical mechanics as a constrained extremization problem using differential forms. The general method entails treating the parameterization relationship as a constraint applied to the action integral, and the conditions that arise from writing the equivalent unconstrained action are then associated with the force law to derive the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian terms.
Category: Classical Physics

[781] viXra:1512.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 10:58:04

Coplanar Forces

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract: All physical actions are caused, initiated and accomplished by work. Relation between magnitude of work, done about a macro body and its displacement during work is ‘force’. Hence, ‘force’ is a mathematical aspect related to work and work is the real entity. However, the term ‘force’ is usually understood as a ‘cause’ or ‘effort’ required for an action. Actions are effects of efforts due to causes. Action by an effort results in definite effect on or about a 3D matter-body. Certain mechanism is essential to perform an action. Generally, all physical actions are understood by displacement (motion) of macro bodies in space. ‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an impossible proposition. To accomplish motion in space, four things are essential. They are; a macro body that is being moved, an entity that is instrumental to the motion, a mechanism of motion and a reason or cause for the motion. Although mechanism of motion is basically the same in all conditions, there are slight differences in its actions, when causes of motion are in different relative directions or in different planes. This article briefly describes mechanism of motion (by universal medium that is instrumental to motion of a macro body), when causes in a plane are involved.
Category: Classical Physics

[780] viXra:1512.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-05 12:51:39

Расшифруя силы небесной механики / Deciphering Forces of Celestial Mechanics

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian

Draft calculation of balance of forces, which determine mean orbital distances of rocky planets in the spirit of Beeckman, Bullialdus, DesCartes and Newton lead to logical results. Short history of topic is discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[779] viXra:1512.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 09:56:09

On An Apparent Resolution of the Catt Question

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 3 Pages.

Over a number of years there have been some attempts to answer the Catt Question within the context of classical electromagnetic theory. None of the authors of these attempts agree on the answer to the Catt Question, even though they all invoke the very same theory. An attempt at answering the Catt Question appeared in the journal Physics Education in 2013, penned by M. Pieraccini and S. Selleri. The explanation by these two Authors contains violations of classical electromagnetic theory, although they claim to have satisfactorily answered the Catt Question by means of classical electromagnetic theory. The arguments adduced by Pieraccini and Selleri are therefore invalid.
Category: Classical Physics

[778] viXra:1512.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-01 13:28:41

Sagnac Experiment Analyzed with the "Emission & Regeneration" Uft

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The results of the Sagnac experiment analyzed with the Standard Model (SM) are easily explained with non relativistic equations assuming that light moves with light speed independent of its source, but the results are not compatible with Special Relativity. The Sagnac results analyzed with the ``Emission \& Regeneration'' UFT present no incompatibilities within the theory which postulates that light is emitted with light speed relative to the emitting source and, that light is absorbed by lenses and electric antennas of the measuring instruments and subsequently emitted with light speed, explaining the constancy of light speed in all inertial frames. Special Relativity derived in the frame of the ``E \& R'' UFT has absolute time and absolute space resulting in a theory without paradoxes..
Category: Classical Physics

[777] viXra:1511.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 03:13:01

О лимитах эманации ,,поля заряда" из материи. About a Limits for Emanation of Charge Field from Matter

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page. In Russian

Celestial body emits field proportionally to it's surface area
Category: Classical Physics

[776] viXra:1511.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-26 08:13:16

Paralogisms of the Electromagnetics Theory of Light

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The critical analysis of the postulates laid in the basis of the Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light is given, also it is opened them inadequacy. It is drawn a conclusion about an indispensability of construction not electromagnetic theory of light which are not leaning postulates
Category: Classical Physics

[775] viXra:1511.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-26 04:47:02

Permanent Magnet Generator – The Energy Source of the Future

Authors: Laszlo Varadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

The permanent magnet generator is a special transformer that contains a ferrite magnet. It converts the static magnetic field of the permanent magnet to time-varying magnetic field, thereby producing electric energy without moving parts. Due to their compact size and long service time, permanent magnet generators may replace the energy sources known currently.
Category: Classical Physics

[774] viXra:1511.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-25 09:49:10

Interactions in Many-Body Systems and the Concept of Chain-Formation

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 6 pages - The thirteenth paper based on reality

It is proposed that force is finite and remains completely used at any given instant. So, distance between bodies is not arbitrary, and the interactions in many-body systems can be interpreted in a simple way by taking that force exists between immediate neighbours only, forming chains. The nature of interactions and force-constants in different types of many-body systems are explained in this paper. This has much significance in condensed matter physics, which deals with many-body systems made up of atoms.
Category: Classical Physics

[773] viXra:1511.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-25 10:07:27

Mathematical Model of the Taylor Vortices \\ Математическая модель вихря Тейлора

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages. in Russian

We consider the theoretical basis of the Taylor vortex. The proposed mathematical model allows to build a structure of the flow between the cylinders, where arise regularly alternating vortices. \\ Рассматривается теоретическое обоснование вихря Тейлора. Предлагаемая математическая модель позволяет построить структуру течения между цилиндрами, где возникают правильно чередующиеся вихри с правым и левым вращением и с осями, параллельными направлению окружной скорости вращающегося цилиндра.
Category: Classical Physics

[772] viXra:1511.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-21 14:30:57

The Second Structure of Constant Current \\ Вторая структура постоянного тока

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.
Category: Classical Physics

[771] viXra:1511.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 17:44:45

Singularity, Universe, Matter, Time / Сингулярность, Вселенная, материя, время

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Singularity, Universe, Matter, Time

This paper considers the model of a universe, YRA-model. The Universe, according to this model is the cosmological material object. The Universe has a center. In the center of the Universe there is a "massive" matter’s core, called the Singularity. The Singularity in the rhythm of nature "emits" a matter in the form of the atom of the matter. The radiating matter Singularity is reduced in size (diameter). The quantity of matter in the Singularity is also reduced. The atoms of the matter come into the Universe. The Universe grows in size (diameter) and the quantity of contained matter. This expansion of the Universe and the reduction of the Singularity are synchronized in tempo of the rhythm of the nature or figuratively speaking in the "speed of light". The author examines the Universe and Singularity as the inseparable couple, a tandem of the "Singularity – Universe" (SU)./ В настоящей статье представлена авторская модель мироздания, YRA-модель. Вселенная, согласно этой модели, представляет собой материальный космологический объект. Вселенная имеет центр. В центре Вселенной находится «массивное» материальное ядро, которое называется Сингулярностью. Сингулярность в ритме природы, «излучает» материю в виде крупиц материи. Сингулярность, излучая материю, уменьшается в размерах (в диаметре). Количество материи в Сингулярности также уменьшается. Крупицы материи поступают во Вселенную. Вселенная увеличивается в размерах (в диаметре) и по количеству содержащейся материи. Это расширение Вселенной и уменьшение Сингулярности идет синхронно в темпе ритма природы, образно выражаясь «со скоростью света». Автор рассматривает Вселенную и Сингулярность, как неразрывную пару, тандем «Сингулярность – Вселенная» (СВ).
Category: Classical Physics

[770] viXra:1511.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 01:10:15

An Estimation of Power-Consumption and Thrust-Generation at a Medium-Sized Thruster of Helios-Type

Authors: Danny Kirmse
Comments: 15 Pages.

The following paper is not a complete self-sustained model of the electromagnetic system of a plasma-thruster. It is just an estimation of inputted energy and outputted thrust. The points of the ionization system where transfer of electrical energy mainly occurs are highlighted by a mathematical treatment to estimate the power consumption. The formation of the charge-density as basis for the electric field that generates the repulsion-force by extraction and acceleration of the ionized fuel-gas was analyzed in order to estimate the thrust generation. Nevertheless, this approach could be used to be a basis of a self-sustained model. Since it was planned to obtain an estimation of the needed electrical input energy, the pure electric thruster of the two Helios concepts [1] was chosen as model-type.
Category: Classical Physics

[769] viXra:1511.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-18 11:25:01

Spatial Expansion :: Compression & Tension

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Can a particle field push or pull matter?
It would have to be pushing or pulling on all sides

Stuff cannot compress to infinity or infinite density.
Matter is particles. Whatever gravity is... it is also connected particles.

There are supposedly 100 billion stars in the galaxy. So that means there are 100 billion things pulling on a common center. There actually doesn't have to be anything there.
Category: Classical Physics

[768] viXra:1511.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-17 07:41:41

The Principle of Least Action

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 3 Pages. In Spanish.

In classical mechanics, this article obtains the principle of least action in a didactic and simple way for a single particle.
Category: Classical Physics

[767] viXra:1511.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 10:07:26

Zero-Aberration, Actinic, EUV Mask Inspection Microscope with High Defect Sensitivity

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper describes an EUV spot-scanning microscope, which performs actinic, through-pellicle photomask inspection for EUV lithography. A primary benefit of spot-scanning microscopy is that it provides access to each illuminated spot’s angular reflectance spectrum, which is sensitive to pure-phase mask defects. Additionally, the spot generation and detection optics can entirely nullify geometric aberrations in the imaging system, potentially resulting in simplified, lower-cost and higher-performing imaging optics.
Category: Classical Physics

[766] viXra:1511.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 11:09:04

The Nonlinear Universe – Solitons and Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 34 Pages.

In this article, two of the pinnacles of nonlinear science – solitons and chaos, are discussed giving importance to the philosophy behind these concepts, and highlighting the ubiquity of the duo in real life phenomena. It is seen that solitons and chaos are prevalent in nature much more than one would expect, and are much wider in scope than the restrictive mathematical equations usually seen in literature. While solitons are a representation of the fundamental life cycle of birth, growth, zenith, decay and death, chaos is seen as a representation of the amount of information an observer possesses, and the interconnectedness between everything and everything else. Various applications of the soliton in communications and computing are discussed. The smoothness and compactness of the soliton give rise to its involvement in various phenomena in nature, along with the genesis of the ‘solitary wavelet’. With the characteristic signatures of determinism and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, chaos theory forms the hallmark of nonlinear science. The present work stresses on and elaborates various techniques on achieving an easy-to-tune signal based chaos, with the help of standard circle maps, mathematical functions and digital circuits. Following this various applications of chaos theory are discussed, culminating in a chaotic interpretation of quantum mechanics and Theory of Everything. Finally, nonlinear analysis and its significance in various real time data are outlined with suitable examples and illustrations.
Category: Classical Physics

[765] viXra:1511.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 07:32:04

Asteroide Threat and Astronomical Pseudoscience

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 14 Pages.

Популярно изложена история странностей, заблуждений и лжи астрономии, начиная с Кеплера Popular history of oddities, errors and lies of astronomy, starting from Kepler
Category: Classical Physics

[764] viXra:1511.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 04:59:00

Electromagnetic Energy Flow in the Wire and Milroy Engine

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is shown show that the current in the wire has a complex structure, and inside the wire a flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading. The functioning of Milroy engine can be explained by the existence of circular current and energy flow in the conductor. Based on this fact perform the calculation of Milroy engine can be performed.
Category: Classical Physics

[763] viXra:1511.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-15 09:01:54

Here and Now

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 33 Pages.

In this paradigm shifting paper, we show that the physical world is manifestation of a non-physical objective reality that exists absolutely, manifests relatively, and behaves relationally. We show that all the phenomena observed in the quantum world manifest themselves more eloquently even in the macro world. Things do not have any pre-existing values even in the macro world, but things do have predictable values even in the quantum world.
Category: Classical Physics

[762] viXra:1511.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-13 21:36:33

Universal Automatic Arrangement

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Universe and everything in it had to form automatically by itself (it doesn't have a formation instruction manual).
There is not anything that is complex and there is not a way for things to be complex and also work automatically (which everything must be doing).
Category: Classical Physics

[761] viXra:1511.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-10 15:43:18

My Universe / Моя Вселенная

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 54 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov © My Universe

This article represents the author's views on the nature and on the basis of the universe, that the author had in 2013, that is two years ago. It would be possible to name this article “Theory of the nature 2013”. Then “Theory of the nature 2014» it is necessary to consider article viXra:1510.0523. “Theory of the nature 2015” it is necessary to consider two articles viXra:1509.0038 and viXra:1509.0216. Настоящая статья представляет собой взгляды автора на природу, на основы мироздания, которые автор имел в 2013 году, то есть два года назад. Можно было бы назвать эту статью «Теория природы 2013». «Теорией природы 2014» тогда следует считать статью viXra:1510.0523, а «Теорией природы 2015» две статьи viXra:1509.0038 и viXra:1509.0216.
Category: Classical Physics

[760] viXra:1511.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-10 07:45:11

About the Theoretical Rationale of the Ranque Effect \\ О теоретическом обосновании эффекта Ранка

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 11 Pages. by Russian

We consider a new theoretical rationale of Ranque effect. From this it follows that in the Ranque tube the internal energy of central flow significantly less than the internal energy of external flow. \\ Рассматривается новое теоретическое обоснование эффекта Ранка. Из него следует, что в трубе Ранка внутренняя энергия центрального потока существенно меньше внутренней энергии внешнего потока.
Category: Classical Physics

[759] viXra:1511.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-07 17:06:00

Radio Waves – Part IV: on the False Electric Waves of Delusional Heinrich Hertz

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 15 Pages.

After writing a paper critical to Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, it is only natural to continue with an article critical to Hertz’s work. This is because every physics textbook today claims that Hertz demonstrated experimentally Maxwell’s theory. This claim amounts to saying that Hertz demonstrated experimentally that radio waves and light are electromagnetic, i.e. that they are made up of entangled electric and magnetic fields that oscillate and induce one another. In this work it will be shown that Hertz’s claim of having verified experimentally Maxwell’s theory is an exaggeration simply not true. Although Hertz did confirm the existence of a certain wave propagating in air, it cannot be said that his verification that the waves were composed of magnetic and electric oscillations is correct. And Hertz explicitly stated that he did not offer a direct verification that light itself is electromagnetic. I only wish more physicists read Hertz’s works before believing Maxwell’s theory or that it has been confirmed experimentally through Hertz’s works or otherwise.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[342] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-07 04:48:32

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations \\ Второе решение уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics

[341] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-31 11:11:22

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations \\ Второе решение уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 14 Pages.

We give a new solution of Maxwell's equations for vacuum. Pre notes that the evidence of the only known solution is based on the law of conservation of energy, which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in a known solution. The proposed solution does not violate the law of conservation of energy. Moreover, in this solution the electric and magnetic components of the stress in the electromagnetic wave shifted in phase. We give a detailed proof for the interested reader. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics

[340] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-27 03:05:21

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations \\ Второе решение уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

We give a new solution of Maxwell's equations for vacuum. Pre notes that the evidence of the only known solution is based on the law of conservation of energy, which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in a known solution. The proposed solution does not violate the law of conservation of energy. Moreover, in this solution the electric and magnetic components of the stress in the electromagnetic wave shifted in phase. We give a detailed proof for the interested reader. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics

[339] viXra:1601.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-07 02:11:53

EUV Plasma Source with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 10 Pages.

Laser power requirements for an EUV laser-produced plasma source can be reduced by using power-recycling optics to reflect plasma-scattered IR radiation back onto the plasma. Previously proposed spherical retroreflective mirrors can be used to form an inverted image of the plasma on itself, but an erect (non-inverted) image would be more tolerant of positional alignment errors. Erect-imaging optical design alternatives for power recycling are described in this paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[338] viXra:1512.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-18 11:45:02

Electromagnetic Radiation Can Affect the Lift Force

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we show that, under certain circumstances, electromagnetic radiations can strongly reduce the lift force. An aircraft for example, can be shot down when reached by a flux of specific electromagnetic radiation. This discovery can help the aircraft pilots to avoid regions where there are electromagnetic radiations potentially dangerous. Not only the flight of the aircrafts are affected by the electromagnetic radiation, but also the flight of any flying object whose flight depends on the lift force, including birds and flying insects.
Category: Classical Physics

[337] viXra:1512.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-22 02:11:49

EUV Spectral Purity Filter for Full IR-to-VUV Out-of-Band Rejection, with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 23 Pages. New material: Ref. 17 and associated discussion

A plasma light source for EUV lithography can be spectrally filtered by a phase-Fresnel collector mirror to reject all out-of-band radiation in the IR-to-VUV spectral range, leaving only pure EUV in the filtered output. EUV collection efficiency is not significantly compromised, and EUV conversion efficiency can be enhanced by recycling rejected or uncollected IR back to the plasma via retroreflection.
Category: Classical Physics

[336] viXra:1512.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-17 02:24:30

EUV Spectral Purity Filter for Full IR-to-VUV Out-of-Band Rejection, with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 22 Pages. This version also supersedes viXra 1601.0001.

A plasma light source for EUV lithography can be spectrally filtered by a phase-Fresnel collector mirror to reject all out-of-band radiation in the IR-to-VUV spectral range, leaving only pure EUV in the filtered output. EUV collection efficiency is not significantly compromised, and EUV conversion efficiency can be enhanced by recycling rejected or uncollected IR back to the plasma via retroreflection.
Category: Classical Physics

[335] viXra:1511.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-30 10:58:50

Permanent Magnet Generator - The Energy Source of the Future

Authors: Laszlo Varadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

The permanent magnet generator is a special transformer that contains a ferrite magnet. It converts the static magnetic field of the permanent magnet to time-varying magnetic field, thereby producing electric energy without moving parts. Due to their compact size and long service time, permanent magnet generators may replace the energy sources known currently.
Category: Classical Physics

[334] viXra:1511.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-27 17:07:37

Permanent Magnet Generator – The Energy Source of the Future

Authors: Laszlo Varadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

The permanent magnet generator is a special transformer that contains a ferrite magnet. It converts the static magnetic field of the permanent magnet to time-varying magnetic field, thereby producing electric energy without moving parts. Due to their compact size and long service time, permanent magnet generators may replace the energy sources known currently.
Category: Classical Physics

[333] viXra:1511.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-26 11:12:52

Mathematical Model of the Taylor Vortices \\ Математическая модель вихря Тейлора

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 9 Pages.

We consider the theoretical basis of the Taylor vortex. The proposed mathematical model allows to build a structure of the flow between the cylinders, where arise regularly alternating vortices. \\ Рассматривается теоретическое обоснование вихря Тейлора. Предлагаемая математическая модель позволяет построить структуру течения между цилиндрами, где возникают правильно чередующиеся вихри с правым и левым вращением и с осями, параллельными направлению окружной скорости вращающегося цилиндра.
Category: Classical Physics

[332] viXra:1511.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-28 11:35:42

The Second Structure of Constant Current \\ Вторая структура постоянного тока

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.
Category: Classical Physics

[331] viXra:1511.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-23 06:15:59

The Second Structure of Constant Current \\ Вторая структура постоянного тока

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.
Category: Classical Physics

[330] viXra:1511.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-22 14:20:32

The Second Structure of Constant Current \\ Вторая структура постоянного тока

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages. in Russian

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.
Category: Classical Physics

[329] viXra:1511.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-25 13:18:52

Zero-Aberration, Actinic, EUV Mask Inspection Microscope with High Defect Sensitivity

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper describes an EUV spot-scanning microscope, which performs actinic, through-pellicle photomask inspection for EUV lithography. A primary benefit of spot-scanning microscopy is that it provides access to each illuminated spot’s angular reflectance spectrum, which is sensitive to pure-phase mask defects. Additionally, the spot generation and detection optics can entirely nullify geometric aberrations in the imaging system, potentially resulting in simplified, lower-cost and higher-performing imaging optics.
Category: Classical Physics

[328] viXra:1511.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-14 19:38:40

Universal Automatic Arrangement

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Universe and everything in it had to form automatically by itself (it doesn't have a formation instruction manual).
There is not anything that is complex and there is not a way for things to be complex and also work automatically (which everything must be doing).
Category: Classical Physics