Classical Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1615] viXra:1911.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 15:41:29

New Small Cheap Rocket for Small Payload

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 10 Pages.

Conventional modern rocket has existed for more than a half century. However, there has been little or no significant progress in their basic data. They are very exceedingly complex and generally very expensive to build. Designers ordinarily try to improve them by simplifying in order to reduce the cost payload launches. They try to use the first stagy of rocket sometimes, because the rocket engine and body are expensive. But no significant success. The author offers a new type of rocket which does not have the usual rocket body and engine (only open solid rocket fuel). This new rocket is cheap to fabricate, may be switched on and switched off many times and has specific impulse more than conventional solid fuel engine (i.e., close to liquid fuel). One can be used for launch as well as vector correcting rocket. This method is particularly suitable for micro-spacecraft (up to 1 kg). It allows to reduce the launch weight of the rocket to 50 ÷ 1000 kg.
Category: Classical Physics

[1614] viXra:1911.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 04:45:16

Universe, Multiverse and TIME.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 14 Pages. Reality of our existence in time.

The concept of time in multiverse.
Category: Classical Physics

[1613] viXra:1911.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 09:29:02

Mass Spectrum for Leptons and Quarks

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the mass spectrum of the standard model is infinite, and I try to evaluate a simple formula for the masses.
Category: Classical Physics

[1612] viXra:1911.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 03:37:43

Grand Unified TheorieS

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 439 Pages.

This book contains theories in physics, chemistry, biology, geosciences, and mathematics. Spinity is a force to drag spacetime to rotate around central mass. Rest mass produces gravity, spinning mass produces spinity; rest charge produces electricity, spinning charge produces magnetism. Gravitospinity Maxwell equations can be obtained. Light is also the gravity wave, and light decides time. Space-time has smallest unit as new Planck volume and Planck time. Flight principle is given. Lightity is dark energy. Photon emitted from galaxy expands the universe acceleratedly via light pressure. General relativity suggests mass induces spacetime curvature; charge relativity suggests charge induces spacetime torsion. There is no dark matter, and spiral galaxies are formed due to charge relativity which replaces quantum electrodynamics. Integrating general relativity, charge relativity, and light pressure, we get 4x4 universe field tensor. The birth and end of universe can be deducted. Unified field theory can also be obtained by integrating electric field, magnetic field, gravity field, spinity field, and temperature field. Combining gravitospinity, electromagnetism, and matter standing wave, I deduct a determinative atom model replacing quantum mechanics. In addition, I propose a new chemical bond theory according to the new atom model. Homochirality is due to co-catalysis of L-amino acids and D-sugars. Extinction is due to Milankovitch cycle. Earthquake is caused by abrupt light release from inner earth which explains electromagnetism/ ionosphere anomaly and intra-tectonic earthquakes replacing plate tectonic earthquake theory. Tornado genesis is related to charge relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1611] viXra:1911.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 08:53:23

Galilean Space and the Doppler Effect Галилеево пространство и эффект Доплера

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 19 pages in Russian

In Galilean space 3 (three) metrics describing its geometrical properties in various cases are pos-sible. These are 1) 1-dimensional time interval, 2) 3-dimensional distance and 3) 4-dimensional wave interval. The main question of this work is: will we be able to determine some geometry by wave standards? Suppose there are two researchers (hereinafter-the objects "researcher", "observer", "ex-perimenter" - identify: this is homo sapiens): can we measure the distance between them? Is it possi-ble to measure the mutual velocity and its direction? And is it possible to synchronize his watch with mine? And what is clock synchronization? And in General – is there a synchronization problem? Are there inertial frames of reference outside absolute frames of reference? Is it possible to use wave standards of one ISO in other ISO and how do they differ? The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. This word is the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. Other main word-combinations are connected with the word "wave" - wave in Galilean space, Galilean wave space, wave standard, wave metric. Etc. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is the fixed air medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is the empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference (hereinafter - AISO), but for propagating waves as independent entities it is a real AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate only with one specific velocity – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be viewed separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the AISO. Despite the possibility of independent groundless consideration of the existence of the wave, there is a risk of the existence of this basis. In addition to waves, non-wave objects can exist in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstrac-tion of the independent existence of the wave. В ГП возможны 3 (три) метрики, описывающие ее геометрические свойства в различных случаях. Это 1) 1-мерный промежуток времени, 2) 3-мерное расстояние и 3) 4-мерный волно-вой интервал. Главный вопрос этой работы: сможем ли мы определить какую–то геометрию волновыми эталонами? Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера, аберрации и их использова-ние для локализации в АИСО (далее - АИСО) и взаимной локализации. Предположим, име-ются два исследователя (далее – объекты "исследователь", "наблюдатель", "экспериментатор" – отождествляем: это homo sapiens): можно ли измерить расстояние между ними? Можно ли измерить взаимную скорость и ее направление? И можно ли синхронизировать его часы с моими? И что такое синхронизация часов? И вообще – есть ли проблема синхронизации? Су-ществуют ли инерциальные системы отсчета вне абсолютных систем отсчета? Можно ли вол-новыми эталонами одной ИСО пользоваться в других ИСО и чем они отличаются?
Category: Classical Physics

[1610] viXra:1911.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 14:33:57

Gravity and Spacetime Beyond Einstein

Authors: Anil Gupta
Comments: 28 Pages with illustrations

This paper makes the following predictions: 1. Spacetime is quantum in nature 2. Spactron is the quanta of spacetime 3. A Spactron is made up of three spatial and one time dimension 4. Spacetime, matter, energy, force and everything in our material universe are all made up of Spactrons 5. Gravity is the product of the Spactron density differential between mass and the surrounding spacetime
Category: Classical Physics

[1609] viXra:1910.0655 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 18:15:13

Time Dilation in Classical Physics

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 5 Pages.

'Time dilation' appears to be an experimental fact. We show that if Einstein had not invented the multiple time dimensions and multiple ethers of relativity, time dilation could have been derived from absolute time (defined as universal simultaneity) and the constant speed of light in absolute space.
Category: Classical Physics

[1608] viXra:1910.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 06:27:39

Axial-gap Generator Using Sintered Fe Nano-polycrystalline Body

Authors: T. Saiki, T. Matsuzaki, M. Inada
Comments: 6 Pages.

Reduced iron (Fe) nanoparticles and sintered Fe nano-polycrystalline were used for core inductor of axial-gap generator. Property on magnetization of core inductor at low frequency was investigated. Reduced Fe nanoparticles were produced from iron oxide fine particles by high voltage pulse or laser ablation in liquids. Core inductors with these materials were fabricated. It was clarified from the measurement for magnetization of core inductor that the relative permeability of the sintered Fe nano-polycrystalline was 1 million. These experiments show that core inductor can be thinner and lighter than those using conventional core materials. Using Fe nano-polycrystalline should make axial-gap generator more compact with keeping high efficiency.
Category: Classical Physics

[1607] viXra:1910.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 10:23:01

Antigravity, an Answer to Nature’s Phenomena Including the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: C.K. Gamini Piyadasa
Comments: 13 Pages.

The gravitational attraction force being proportional to the mass has been experimentally shown for several hundred years now, but no gravitational repulsion has been identified within the accepted scientific reasoning. Here, we show that the gravitational repulsion force, similar to the gravitational attraction among particles has also been in existence in nature but, yet to be recognized. The results of experiments are shown in detail and are discussed in the recent series of publications. It is also shown here that this gravitational repulsion force is proportional to the temperature which is an indicator of thermal energy of the particle, similar to the gravitational attraction that is proportional to the mass of the particle. The situations where heavy particles such as iodine, tungsten and thorium in vacuum, moving against gravitational force have already been shown qualitatively. The increase of time-of-fall of water droplets (slowing down of fall) with rise of temperature is also quantitatively discussed. This article discusses two major phenomena, observable in nature; clouds and the expansion of universe, which could be more preciously explained by the concept of antigravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1606] viXra:1910.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 11:07:56

Electronic Data Transmission with Three Times the Speed of Light and Data Rates of 2000 Bits Per Second Over Long Distances in Buffer Amplifier Chains

Authors: Steffen Kuehn
Comments: 6 Pages. Experiments with buffer amplifier chains.

Recently, during the experimental testing of basic assumptions in electrical engineering, it became apparent that ultra-low-frequency (ULF) voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters propagate significantly faster than light. Starting point for this discovery was an experiment in which a two-channel oscilloscope is connected to a signal source via a short coaxial cable and the second input to the same signal source via a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the delay between the two channels can be for short cables and low frequencies so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. In order to test whether the discovered effect can be exploited to transmit information over long distances, a cable was examined in which the signal is refreshed at regular distances by buffer amplifiers. The result was that such an setup is indeed suitable for transmitting wave packets at three times the speed of light and bit rates of about 2 kbit/s over arbitrary distances. The statement that information cannot propagate faster than light is therewith clearly experimentally disproved and can therefore no longer be sustained.
Category: Classical Physics

[1605] viXra:1910.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 16:21:31

Some Thoughts on Negative Mass

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Following the appearance of several recent articles on the topic of negative mass, it is possibly of worth to mention some other work associated with this which appeared some years ago and has been reviewed in a long article which has just appeared on this site1.
Category: Classical Physics

[1604] viXra:1910.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 11:13:20

Gravity

Authors: Richard Lawrence Norman, Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 68 Pages.

Gravitational theory has remained at an impasse for a great many years. Theoretical questions of substantial importance remain unanswered, such as: “Is there coupling of electromagnetic fields and gravitational fields?” This paper will reveal the reasons for the evident difficulty in theoretical advancement and begin to point the way toward needed corrections of gravitational theory with an emphasis placed upon actual experimental results and practical solutions. These recommendations and analyses may in turn allow quick realization of the many benefits now concealed beneath current accepted theory, which include but are not limited to: 1. clean, inexpensive, near limitless energy for industry and the populous, and 2. practical means of utilizing mass as a variable potentially including, industrial applications, space and terrestrial travel. Other means of new energy production based in hadronic science are also specified. The possible validity of Einstein’s Twin Paradox and a conditional solution implying a mechanism of absolute time are discussed. New gravitational theory is proposed. Specific gravity based designs demonstrating over one efficiency are proposed for experimental and practical testing, confirmation and subsequent duplication. Once the private sector and those associated scientific resources are applied toward correction and directed application of gravitational theory in the context of electrical and magnetic effects, we may speak of a new age. Gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1603] viXra:1910.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-19 23:29:24

Information Paradox of the Rectilinear Motion and the Rest State

Authors: Cavași Ioan Abel
Comments: 16 Pages.

Starting from the invaluable mathematical conclusion according to which the torsion of a line is undefined and knowing that the rectilinear motion implies moving on a straight line, we can conclude that a rectilinear motion results in an undefined torsion line. Thus, the information about torsion is not preserved in physical interactions that involves straight lines. Besides that, the information about the curvature of trajectory is also lost for a body that reaches the rest state, due to the fact that the curvature is defined exclusively for non null velocities. To get out of the impasse determined by this paradox I propose, as a possible solution, another law of inertia which generalizes the current law, inherited from Galileo Galilei.
Category: Classical Physics

[1602] viXra:1910.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 12:29:38

Refutation of Negative Mass

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the two assumptions implying the three attributes associated with negative mass which is not tautologous. The conjecture of negative mass is refuted and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Classical Physics

[1601] viXra:1910.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 17:25:54

A Hypothesis on the Number of Generations in the Standard Model

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the number of neutrino types is infinite
Category: Classical Physics

[1600] viXra:1910.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 20:49:22

Negative Mass Can be Positively Thought-Provoking

Authors: Tong Wang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Following up previous discussions, suggestions, and insights about negative mass by other authors, this article further elaborates on systems of combined mass and negative mass. These configurations can be massless and stationary. The external physical effects of such systems are analyzed in detail. Some surprising results arise within the frameworks of Newtonian mechanics and Electromagnetism.
Category: Classical Physics

[1599] viXra:1910.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 04:00:32

Discrete Model of Electron

Authors: José Garrigues Baixauli
Comments: 27 Pages.

An electron model is developed based on a 4D sphere with a diameter of the Planck length. This model allows us to explain and calculate the intrinsic properties of the electron, such as its mass, charge, spin, etc., from the fundamental constants. Using this Planck sphere in four dimensions, we reach the conclusion that the electron particle has a size that is fixed by the Planck dimensions. The rotation of the Planck sphere generates the electron wave, the size of which depends on its wavelength. Our hypothesis is that the universe is composed of Planck spheres in four spatial dimensions, with two possible states: a rest state and rotational movement
Category: Classical Physics

[1598] viXra:1910.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 13:24:41

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part:4 Atomic Structure

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. The suggested structure of electrons formed from disc magnets is expanded to describe atomic structure. The model improvement is the STOE atomic structure is more closely related to observations of Maxwell's Equations, of interference phenomena including those that reject wave models, and of cosmology through common basic components of the universe. The formation of atomic structure by magnetic rather than electric forces suggests all matter is composed of magnetic structures.
Category: Classical Physics

[1597] viXra:1910.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 20:09:03

Absolute & Relative Measurement Leads to no Wave Particle Duality & Gives Orbital Motion

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

ABSTRACT #1 Two types of measurement:- Absolute [mass; charge; temperature] & Relative [time; length] #2 Energy & angular momentum reclassified as absolute values! #3 All matter must have angular momentum. #4 The universe, itself, must be “spinning”! #5 There is a “mass form side” and a “wave form side” to the Schroedinger equation. #6 These swaps between the “mass form” and the “wave form” are at a frequency between a photon’s frequency & Plank’s frequency! #7 For the photon or neutrons, when it is in the “mass form” it is in a fixed, “stationary position”! #8 For the photon or neutrons, when it is in the “wave form” it is moving from its previous mass “stationary position” to its “next mass stationary position” at the speed of light! #9 The difference in “apparent velocity” between a photon and a mass, is that:- {A} a photon spends very little time in the mass “stationary position” and most of its time in the moving at c “wave form”! {B} a mass spends very little time in the moving at c “wave form” velocity and most of its time in the “stationary mass position”! The relative ratio of time spent in the moving at c “wave form” for the mass, will determine the “apparent velocity” of the mass relative to its surroundings! #10 The “moving at c wave form” has a moving electric field. #11 The “stationary position” mass has a rotating (around its direction of travel) magnetic field. #12 The rotating magnetic field creates an electric field. #13 The moving electric field creates a rotating magnetic field. #14 The “swapping” of “previous mass position” & its “next mass position” is what moves the mass / planet / sun around in its orbit; “pushing it along in its “ballistic orbital trajectory” ”, not gravity! #15 This means that the “previous mass position” “needs to know” where the “next mass position” is going to be & when it needs to be there. This means that the “future” is predetermined by the “past”! #16 Predestination would seem to be built into the universe! (but see the end of this!)
Category: Classical Physics

[1596] viXra:1909.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 06:09:45

Proof of the Inconsistency of the Maxwell Equations to the Measurement Result of the Maxwell-Lodge Experiment

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 2 Pages.

This short paper proofs mathematically that the Maxwell equations are not able to explain the Maxwell-Lodge experiment. Not even if the vector potential is used instead of the magnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[1595] viXra:1909.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 11:53:19

Space Launch Vehicle

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this series of papers on Energy Fields, AI has been used to analyze the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields, and to develop advanced proposals for interactions between these energy fields. The proposals are astonishing. Here the team have used the fundamental principles for the interaction of energy fields to devise a novel propulsion system for a SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE. The Patent Application for the Space Launch Vehicle was accepted by WIPO on 13th June 2019.
Category: Classical Physics

[1594] viXra:1909.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 07:12:59

Microchip Nd:YVO4 Lasers Pumped by Wavelength-Stabilized Single-Mode Laser Diode

Authors: Taku Saiki
Comments: 7 Pages.

Laser diode (LD) with stabilized frequency of output light has been developed until now. In this time, we adopted a single-mode, single-wavelength LD with a stabilized frequency for a pumping LD to end-pump microchip Nd:YVO4 lasers. In these experiment, we succeeded in obtaining higher optical-optical conversion efficiency and slope efficiency than when using conventional LD. Output laser power is insensitive to temperature of LD, and output could be kept stable and almost constant until temperature of LD was as high as 35 ℃. In the future, a low-cost end-pump microchip laser that does not require a temperature control mechanism should be developed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1593] viXra:1909.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 13:25:52

Transmission of Gravity by Cable and the Use of This Phenomena in Space.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Everyone knows that electrical voltage and energy can be transmitted through a conductive cable and widely use this phenomenon in engineering. But few people know that gravitational voltage (force and energy) can also be transmitted via a conventional (non-conductive) cable. Apparently, for the first time in 2002 A. Bolonkin drew attention to this possibility and developed a theory of such a transfer in space to change the trajectory of spacecraft. This paper popularly presents some of the ideas of [1]. For full familiarization with theory and calculations cosmic transfer of recommend turn to sources [1] - [3].
Category: Classical Physics

[1592] viXra:1909.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 15:39:53

Physical Definition of Time

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

The physical meaning of time is revealed
Category: Classical Physics

[1591] viXra:1909.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 18:21:03

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part: 3 Electromagnets

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) proposes gravity is an asymmetry (only attraction) in the magnetic field of particles. Differences between the poles of permanent magnets are absent in electromagnets. Therefore, the magnetic field of particles is similar to the magnetic field of permanent magnets. Models suggesting revolving charges causes particle magnetic fields are rejected because of increased complexity and reduced inclusion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1590] viXra:1909.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:06:53

Dimension of Time Minus Two

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 4 Pages. http://nplf.narod.ru/ Белых С.А. Планковская физика, 2008

An approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave an outlet to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. In continuation of the construction, the region containing objects with rest mass was limited by arcs. The ratio of parameters in neighboring Planck points was used to determine the dimensionality of time.
Category: Classical Physics

[1589] viXra:1909.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 13:44:21

Historical Problems of Physics. Description of Rotation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

The specified description of rotary motion is offered
Category: Classical Physics

[1588] viXra:1909.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:21:49

Definition of the DIRECTION

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

One of the initial or primary concepts considered as the "simplest" (not expressed through other concepts) is considered. The structure of this concept is revealed. Algebraic and geometric consequences are found.
Category: Classical Physics

[1587] viXra:1909.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:50:05

Law of Inertia

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

Misconception of the First Law of Motion, so called the Newton's First Law or the Galileo's Law of Inertia, is revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1586] viXra:1909.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:52:16

Irrational Number Problem

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

A solution to the irrational numbers problem is proposed
Category: Classical Physics

[1585] viXra:1909.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 15:04:08

The Non-forced Spherical Pendulum: Semi-numerical Solutions

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classical mechanics models the PLANE pendulum as a point mass fastened to a pole by a cord of fixed length. The mass is released at some distance from the pole. It moves along a section of a circle; the circle lies in a plane defined by the pole, the initial place, and the direction of the gravitational force. This manuscript deals with semi-numerical solutions of the equations of motion of the SPHERICAL pendulum. This pendulum has some azimuthal velocity and non-vanishing angular momentum. The cord restricts the motion to the surface of a sphere. The instantaneous plane of motion of the mass is no longer constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[1584] viXra:1909.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 08:03:22

Speculation on 9/11 WTC Collapse

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 15 Pages.

There have been numerous questions and suspicions against the 9/11 Commission Report, which seems to encourage people to find a possible explanation for the collapse of WTC buildings. The most appallingly perplexing question is how the collapse of 7 WTC building was possible, which was almost like a free falling and also looked like drowning smoothly into a uniform medium like water. Also, with the collapse of WTC buildings many unusual inexplicable phenomena were accompanied at the site of WTC, nearby the WTC, and even at remote area in Alaska. Based on phenomenological facts and in the domain of conventional science, any reasonable explanation for the collapse of WTC buildings cannot be found. However, if the electric interaction is considered below the ground surface, which is accompanied in phenomena as always but ignored in usual, the collapse of WTC buildings can be explained with the interpretation of Hutchison effect in 4-D complex space.
Category: Classical Physics

[1583] viXra:1909.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 12:19:29

On the Role of Mean Proportionals in the Analysis of Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty padyala
Comments: 8 Pages.

Proportionals and mean proportional have been extensively used by Galileo in the analysis of uniformly accelerated motion. Mean proportionals are of special interest in uniformly accelerated motion because they are directly related to relative times of motion. It is, therefore, very important for us to get a clear understanding of the concept and its use in order to follow Galileo’s analysis. We discuss in this article, the concept, the definition, geometric representation and use of mean proportional. We also give two examples, one each, for motion on inclined plane and for projectile motion, that give a feel for the pivotal role played by mean proportional in Galileo’s analysis of uniformly accelerated motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1582] viXra:1909.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 06:11:42

Significant Faster-Than-Light Transmission of Ultra Low Frequency Voltage Signals in Short Coaxial Cables

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recently, during the experimental testing of some basic assumptions in physics which are assumed to be trivial, it became apparent that ULF voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters exhibit very anomalous behavior. In particular, they seem to propagate significantly faster than light. The basic idea of the experiment described in this article was to determine with a dual-channel oscilloscope the phase shift that occurs when the first input is connected to a signal source via a short coaxial cable and the second input to the same signal source via a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the phase shift between the two channels does not only decrease as expected with decreasing cable length, but that when falling below a certain frequency the phase shift becomes so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. It is also remarkable that even band-limited signals such as music tracks can be transmitted several times faster as with the speed of light without noticeable loss of quality. Should the observations described here be confirmed, this would be proof that information can be transmitted faster than light.
Category: Classical Physics

[1581] viXra:1909.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 04:58:00

A New Theory About Light and the Origin of Photonics

Authors: Wim Vegt
Comments: 26 Pages.

Photonics is the physical science of light based on the concept of “photons” introduced by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century. Einstein introduced this concept in the “particle-wave duality” discussion with Niels Bohr to demonstrate that even light has particle properties (mass and momentum) and wave properties (frequency). That concept became a metaphor and from that time on a beam of light has been generally considered as a beam of particles (photons). Which is a wrong understanding. Light particles do not exist. Photons are nothing else but electromagnetic complex wave configurations and light particles are not like “particles” but separated electromagnetic wave packages. This new theory will explain how electromagnetic wave packages demonstrate inertia, mass and momentum and which forces keep the wave packages together in a way that they can be measured like particles with their own specific mass and momentum. All we know about light, and in general about any electromagnetic field configuration, has been based only on two fundamental theories. James Clerk Maxwell introduced in 1865 the “Theory of Electrodynamics” with the publication: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” and Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 the “Theory of Special Relativity” with the publication: “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and in 1913 the “Theory of General Relativity” with the publication ”Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation”. However, both theories are not capable to explain the property of electromagnetic mass and in specific the anisotropy of the phenomenon of electromagnetic mass presented e.g. in a LASER beam. To understand what electromagnetic inertia and the corresponding electromagnetic mass is and how the anisotropy of electromagnetic mass can be explained and how it has to be defined, a New Theory about Light has to be developed. A part of this New Theory about Light, based on Newton’s well known law in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[1580] viXra:1909.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 02:04:52

Using Laser to Realize Quantum Communication

Authors: CuiHailong
Comments: 3 Pages.

using the coherence of laser, superluminal quantum communication is realized at long distance, which opens up a new era of communication.
Category: Classical Physics

[1579] viXra:1908.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 14:44:29

Improving Performance of Tin-Doped-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors by Optimized Structure of Channel

Authors: Zhuofa Chen
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we investigated the performance of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different channel configurations including single-active-layer (SAL) Sn-Zn-O (TZO), dual-active-layers (DAL) In-Sn-O (ITO)/TZO, and triple-active-layers (TAL) TZO/ITO/TZO. The TAL TFTs were found to combine the advantages of SAL TFTs (a low off-state current) and DAL TFTs (a high mobility and a low threshold voltage). The proposed TAL TFTs exhibit superior electrical performance, e.g. a high on-off state current ratio of 2×10^8, a low threshold voltage of 0.52 V, a high saturation mobility of 145.2 cm2/Vs, and a low off-state current of 3.3 pA. The surface morphology and characteristics of the ITO and TZO films were investigated and the TZO film was found to be C-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC). A simplified resistance model was deduced to explain the high channel resistance of TAL TFTs. At last, TAL TFTs with different channel lengths were also discussed to show the stability and the uniformity of our fabrication process. Owing to its low-processing temperature, superior electrical performance, and low cost, TFTs with the proposed TAL channel configuration are highly promising for flexible displays where the use of heat-sensitive polymeric substrates is desirable.
Category: Classical Physics

[1578] viXra:1908.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 15:09:27

From Kirchhoff to Faraday

Authors: Christopher Rodgers
Comments: 4 Pages.

Kirchhoff’s law of voltages is a standard in the education of students learning circuits for the first time. Even when this is done in physics classes, there is no attention paid to the origins of this law. This is a disservice to the students, because this robs them of an opportunity to see a real world application of conservation laws that they don’t need to take on faith. Furthermore, if we introduce a magnetic field to the systems, things get more interesting. This allows the student to see a firsthand application and emergence of a fundamental property of the universe and its effects on everyday things, Faraday’s law. In this work we will be exploring these two phenomena from first principles, and showing how Kirchhoff is a limiting case of Faraday’s Law.
Category: Classical Physics

[1577] viXra:1908.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 12:55:33

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field, Part 2: Particles

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 8 Pages.

The characterization of magnetic fields around elementary particles is an extension of a project to model the gravitational field. The observation that the South Pole is slightly stronger than the North Pole as suggested in a previous experiment is confirmed. Each of the particles has a unique magnetic field lobes structure.
Category: Classical Physics

[1576] viXra:1908.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 23:12:59

Power Transmission with Wire Antennas

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 2 Pages.

A power transfer system is designed with wire antennas. There are three wires, which are transmitter, receiver, and counterpoise. The counterpoise wire is placed between the transmitter and receiver to modify the electric field between transmitter and receiver so that the transmitter current is reduced and the transfer efficiency is increased.
Category: Classical Physics

[1575] viXra:1908.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 22:11:42

Optical Switching Using Free Carrier Effect in Silicon

Authors: M. Omori, Y. Iida, T. Saiki
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recording and operation and control for data processing and are conducted using electricity in conventional computers. Optical computers only work on light. Since amount of data to be processed has dramatically increased in recent years, it is difficult to continue to develop computers only with technology based on the extension of semiconductor electronics. Therefore, it is necessary for the computing technology to be based on a new concept. Concerning about optical information technology increases from such a background. Various proposals for optical switching using various materials have been conducted until now. Our group has proposed an optical switch using the free carrier effect in silicon phonic waveguide by computer simulation. In this time, we report on an experimental succession of optical switching using the carrier effect of silicon. Signal light was switched by injecting violet light for control on silicon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1574] viXra:1908.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 11:30:46

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part:1 Repulsion

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 13 Pages.

Current research enquiry has sought a more primitive explanation for gravity. The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. Four experiments are done to examine the repulsive magnetic force characteristics. Different relations of force to distance were found. A speculation that gravity may be the sum of the poles at the side of photons is formed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1573] viXra:1908.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 14:45:10

Launch and Flight in Space Without Rockets (V.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 370 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc. There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel. The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.
Category: Classical Physics

[1572] viXra:1908.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 21:00:18

Femtotechnologyies and Innovative Projects (V.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 528 Pages.

New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized—that is, fully developed and utilized. Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings; 2) Then methods, estimation and computations of the main system parameters are listed, and 3) A brief description of possible applications—candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings. The first and third parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public, the second part of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students. The book gives the main physical data and technical equations in attachments which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book. The author have published many new ideas and articles and proposed macro-projects in recent years (see: General References). This book is useful as an archive of material from the authors’ own articles published during the last few years. Every chapter is independent. Than why some figures are repited. Copyright @ auther.
Category: Classical Physics

[1571] viXra:1908.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 11:30:15

Redefining Light Density Inverse Squared Law

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to invalidate light density inverse squared law , and solve the problem of light density for distance values beyond its range.
Category: Classical Physics

[1570] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 19:59:03

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in Turbulent Fluid

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an Addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.com/abs/1801,0037".The recent script introduced a sphere with Surface-Tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text Ihave tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1569] viXra:1908.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 02:04:28

Redefining Simple Arithmetic Expressions

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine undefined arithmetic expressions that have been left by great scientists, to solve misunderstanding these expressions cause in physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1568] viXra:1908.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 16:33:40

Wave Propagation Equations in Spaces with Different Metrics

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 17, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

A separate widespread type of motion in any space is the wave motion characterized by some amplitude A, oscillation frequency f of the wave parameter and velocity c = cx of the wave motion along the direction of the x axis. In this paper, the equations of wave motion in spaces with different metrics are considered: in Galilean space, pre-relativistic space of classical mechanics, Minkowski space. Aberration, relativistic and Doppler effects are calculated. Various cases of mutual motion of the source and the receiver and corresponding transformations of coordinates are considered.
Отдельным широко распространенным типом движения в любом пространстве является волновое движение, характеризующееся некоторой амплитудой A, частотой колебаний  параметра волны и скоростью c = cx движения волны вдоль направления оси x. В данной работе рассмотрены уравнения движения волны в пространствах с различной метрикой: в галилеевом пространстве, дорелятивистском пространстве классической механики, пространстве Минковского. Рассчитаны аберрация, релятивистский и Доплера эффекты. Рассмотрены различные случаи взаимного движения источника и приемника и соответствующие им преобразования координат.
Category: Classical Physics

[1567] viXra:1908.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 00:22:08

The Heuristic Model of Energy Propagation in Free Space, Based on the Detection of a Current Induced in a Conductor Inside a Continuously Covered Conducting Enclosure by an External Radio-Frequency Source

Authors: G Piyadasa, UD Annakkage, AM Gole, AD Rajapakse, U Premaratne
Comments: 46 Pages. Supplementary data is attached at the end of the manuscript

The objective of this study is to propose a heuristic model of energy propagation due to an anomaly; electromagnetic-field penetration into a continuously covered conducting enclosure (Faraday shield) from an external radio frequency source, violating the accepted model in electromagnetic-field theory. In this study, at arbitrarily selected frequency, range of 26.965–1800 MHz, of an external frequency source, an electromagnetic field inside the conducting enclosure was observed, contrary to expectations, which was followed by a systematic examination. Although no induced voltage could be expected inside the enclosure according to classical theory, experiment revealed a clear induced voltage inside; An attenuated induced voltage of -18.0dB to -1.0dB (for the range of frequencies 26.965 – 1800MHz) was observed. Hence these results apparently contradict the established notion that an electromagnetic field cannot penetrate a faraday shield. Rationalizing these observations and the results of the investigation leads to an alternative model to the existing models in energy propagation in free space. In this model, novel quantities named ‘ISpin energy’ and ‘ISpin-energy field’ are defined to replace the concept of electric and magnetic fields in classical electromagnetic theory. The proposed ISpin-energy model is capable of explaining the unexpected presence of the electromagnetic field inside the Faraday shield as well as the induction of an alternating current in a conductor placed inside a Faraday shield along with other existing observations in physics such as those in famous Young’s double slit experiment on interference of light - which provided the basis for the wave theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1566] viXra:1908.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 08:13:58

New Recognization for the Newton's Third Law: the Reaction Force is Advanced According to the Mutual Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 10 Pages.

Absorber theory published in 1945 and 1949 by Wheeler and Feynman which tells us that if the sun is put in a empty space where apart from the sun is nothing, the sun cannot shine. That means only with the source, the radiation cannot be produced. The radiation is phenomena of an action-at-a-distance. The action at a distance needs at least two object: the source and the sink or the emitter and the absorber. Only with one charge even it has the acceleration, it still cannot make any radiation. However this result is not reflect at the Maxwell's theory. According to the theory of Maxwell, a single charge can produce the radiation without any help of the absorber. Hence, Maxwell theory is different with the absorber theory of Wheeler and Feynman, this author thought that Wheeler and Feynman is correct. According the absorber theory the source (emitter) sends the retarded wave. The sink (absorber) sends the advanced wave. In the electromagnetic field theory, W. J. Welch introduced the reciprocity theorem in 1960. V.H. Rumsey mentioned a method to transform the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to a new formula in 1963. In early of 1987 Shuang-ren Zhao (this author) introduced the mutual energy theorem in frequency domain. In the end of 1987 Adrianus T. de Hoop introduced the time-domain cross-correlation reciprocity theorem. All these theories can be seen as a same theorem in different domain: Fourier domain or in time domain. The reciprocity theorem of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop has been applied to find out the directivity diagram of receiving antenna from the corresponding transmitting antenna. The mutual energy theorem of Zhao, has been applied to define an inner product space of electromagnetic radiation fields, and hence, to applied to the sphere wave expansion and the plane wave expansion. All these theorems the transmitting antenna sends the retarded waves and the receiving antenna sends the advanced waves. The reciprocity theorems of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop talk about reciprocity theorem in which the two fields one can be real one can be virtual. The mutual energy theorem tell us the two fields the retarded wave sent out from the transmitting antenna and the advanced wave sent out from the receiving antenna are real and are physical waves with energy. After 30 years silence on this topic, finally, this author has introduced the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle which updated the Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and Schrödinger's quantum mechanics. According to the theory of mutual energy principle, the energy of all particles are transferred through the mutual energy flows. The mutual energy flow are inner product of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The retarded wave is the action the emitter gives to the absorber. The advanced wave is the reaction the absorber gives to the emitter. When the absorber received the retarded wave, it received a force from the emitter, that is the action from emitter to the absorber. When the emitter receive the advanced wave, it obtained the reaction from the absorber. This reaction is express as the recoil force of the particle to the emitter. Hence, action is retarded and the reaction is advanced. In this article the action is retarded and the reaction is advanced will be widen to the macroscopic object for example a stone or a piece of wood. Hence, even the waves in water, in air or wood all involve the advanced reaction. The author reviewed the Newton's third law, found that only when the reaction is advanced, the Newton's third law can be applied on arbitrary surface of the object. Hence the reaction is advanced must be correct.
Category: Classical Physics

[1565] viXra:1908.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:12:03

Weak Metric Fields

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 7, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields defined by scalar and vector potential fields and their intensities, it is possible to have force fields defined directly through the metric tensor gij(r,t). The role of the metric tensor in the motion of a material point is that the trajectory between any two points of space–time along the geodesic "line" as the line of the smallest length is determined through it. The length of the "straight" corresponds to the length of the shortest "interval" between these points. The differential equation of this "shortest" condition is expressed by the Christoffel symbols. In this paper we consider the case of weak "metric" fields and velocities of the material point. The Christoffel symbols themselves and the metric field are defined as corresponding fields in Galilean space. Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным и векторным потенциальным полями и их напряженностями, возможно существование силовых полей, определяющихся непосредственно через метрический тензор gij(r,t). Роль метрического тензора в движении материальной точки заключается в том, что через него определяется траектория между любыми двумя точками пространства–времени по геодезической "прямой" как линии наименьшей длины. Длина "прямой" при этом соответствует длине наикратчайшего "интервала" между этими точками. Дифференциальное уравнение этого "наикратчайшего" условия выражается через символы Кристоффеля - В данной работе рассмотрен случай слабых "метрических" полей и скоростей движения материальной точки. Сами символы Кристоффеля и метрическое поле определены как соответствующие поля в галилеевом пространстве
Category: Classical Physics

[1564] viXra:1908.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:14:32

Vector Potential Field

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 8, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields given by the scalar potential field and its intensity, there may be force vector potential fields Vi(r,t), which are converted as a vector. Such fields can directly set the energy K = p0 and the momentum pi (speed) of the motion of a material point in space or their change in contrast to the scalar potential field, which determines the change only of the kinetic energy of the material point. This field is called a vector potential field. Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным потенциальным полем и его напряженностью, возможно существование силовых векторных потенциальных полей Vi(r,t), которые преобразуются как вектор. Такие поля могут непосредственно задавать энергию K = p0 и импульс pi (скорость) движения материальной точки в пространстве или их изменение в отличие от скалярного потенциального поля, задающего изменение только кинетической энергии м.т. Такое поле называется векторным потенциальным полем
Category: Classical Physics

[1563] viXra:1908.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:30:33

Scalar Potential Field φ(t,ri)

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 6, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

This paper deals with the description of the scalar potential field and the motion of a material point in it in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations. Attention is also paid to the existence of such fields in classical physics with the operating principles of relativity. It is shown that such fields can only be stationary, and not stationary can only be in conservative systems. В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярного потенциального поля и движения материальной точки в ней в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях. Также уделено внимание вопросу существования таких полей в классической физике с действующими в ней принципами относительности. Показано, что такие поля могут быть только стационарными, а не стационарными могут быть только в консервативных системах.
Category: Classical Physics

[1562] viXra:1908.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:34:36

Scalar Field of Density ρ

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 3, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the true scalar potential fields that determine the energy of M. O. in space-time or its change, there are other similar to scalar fields that affect M. O. In this paper we consider the description of the scalar fields of density ρ and the strength E of the resistance to the motion of a material point in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations. Кроме истинно скалярных потенциальных полей, определяющих энергию м.о. в пространстве-времени или ее изменение, существуют и другие, похожие на скалярные, поля, которые воздействуют на м.о. В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярных полей плотности ρ и напряженности E сопротивления движению материальной точки в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях.
Category: Classical Physics

[1561] viXra:1907.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 21:44:08

Diffraction Experiment Demonstrates Photon's Path

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

Wave models of light suggest the waves from a slit expand like a fan and interfere with other waves through the slit. A photon model of light with a computer simulation suggests the photons through a slit cross to the other side of centerline to reach the screen. A diffraction experiment is performed with a light filter that reduces the intensity of light on one side of a slit. This experiment demonstrates that the reduced intensity caused by the filter appears on the side of the image opposite to the side with the filter. Therefore, the crossing pattern predicted by a photon computer simulation is supported and the traditional wave models are rejected.
Category: Classical Physics

[1560] viXra:1907.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 05:46:16

Perpetuum Mobile - Vimana Core

Authors: Walter Victor Fuego
Comments: 1 Page.

Your world is a lie: it's all of them. It's a reality few can see. Seek the Truth
Category: Classical Physics

[1559] viXra:1907.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 11:20:42

A Hypothesis in Electrostatic Phenomenon

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to define electrostatic phenomenon being related to space-time curvature
Category: Classical Physics

[1558] viXra:1907.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 12:55:02

Cosmological Constant by Cosmic Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 9 Pages.

The exact cosmological constant is theoretically derived and described as the ratio of Planck length and the particle horizon radius. Additionally, equations relating the sterile neutrino mass, Planck mass and mass of the universe are all created. Furthermore, the mass of the universe can be derived as encoded information located on the cosmic horizon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1557] viXra:1907.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 02:51:47

Gravity the Golden Ratio and Biconical Radiating Structures

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 5 Pages.

The contemporary theory of gravity ignores the presence of the Golden Ratio that is in the structure of atoms, spiral galaxies, our DNA, and many biological forms. There is a lack of convention on how golden ratio plant spirals are described. The difficulty in identifying the mechanism that causes gravity is compounded by not challenging century old theories that were accepted when information about electromagnetic waves and their interaction with particles and plasma were incomplete. Theories concerning electromagnetic waves are being taught without mentioning contemporary research findings, which can influence consideration whether gravity is related to the electromagnetic phenomenon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1556] viXra:1907.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 08:48:04

The Classical Double Slit Interference Experiment: A New Geometrical Approach

Authors: Joseph Ivin Thomas
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in American Journal of Optics and Photonics

The double slit experiment was first conceived of by the English physician-physicist Thomas Young in 1801. It was the first demonstrative proof that light possesses a wave nature. In this experiment, light is made to pass through two very narrow slits that are spaced closely apart and a screen placed on the other side captures a pattern of alternating bright and dark stripes called fringes, formed as a result of the interference of ripples of light emanating from either slit. The relative positions and intensities of the fringes on the screen can be calculated by employing two assumptions that help simplify the geometry of the slit-screen arrangement. Firstly, the screen to slit distance is taken to be larger than the inter-slit distance (far field limit) and secondly, the inter-slit distance is taken to be larger than the wavelength of light. This conventional approach can account for the positions and intensities of the fringes located in the central portion of the screen with a fair degree of precision. It however, fails to account for those fringes located in the peripheral portions of the screen and also, is not applicable to the case wherein the screen to slit distance is made comparable to the inter-slit distance (near field limit). In this paper, the original analysis of Young’s Experiment is reformulated using an analytically derived hyperbola equation, which is formed from the locus of the points of intersections of two uniformly expanding circular wavefronts of light that emanate from either slit source. Additionally, the shape of the screen used to capture the interference pattern is varied (linear, semicircular, semielliptical) and the relative positions of the fringes is calculated for each case. This new approach bears the distinctive advantage that it is applicable in both the far field and the near field scenarios, and since no assumptions are made beyond the Huygens-Fresnel principle, it is therefore, a much more generalized approach. For these reasons, the author suggests that the new analysis ought to be introduced into the Wave Optics chapter of the undergraduate Physics curriculum.
Category: Classical Physics

[1555] viXra:1907.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-21 08:42:45

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 16., Aktualisierte Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 17 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Classical Physics

[1554] viXra:1907.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 06:06:37

High-Energy Independent Plasmoids\\ Высокоэнергетические автономные плазмоиды

Authors: Gennady Rudominsky
Comments: 20 Pages.

The hypothesis of existence of electrodynamic systems with high density of the energy, explaining a natural phenomenon of a ball lightning is presented. Effects of calculation of three variants of an equilibrium state of model of a high-energy independent plasmoid are given. The description of requirements of occurrence and the basic properties is given. Other views of a ball lightning are is short viewed.\\ Представлена гипотеза существования электродинамических систем с высокой плотностью энергии, объясняющая природный феномен шаровой молнии. Приведены результаты расчета трех вариантов равновесного состояния модели высокоэнергетического автономного плазмоида. Дано описание условий возникновения и основных свойств. Кратко рассмотрены другие виды шаровой молнии
Category: Classical Physics

[1553] viXra:1907.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:22:50

The Mystery of Nature Discovered

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article presents the discovery of an error in physics, which has been for over two hundred years passed on to next generations as an irrefutable truth. This error concerns the law of conservation of energy.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[624] viXra:1911.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 17:03:06

Mass Spectrum for Leptons and Quarks

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the mass spectrum of the standard model is infinite, and I try to evaluate a simple formula for the masses.
Category: Classical Physics

[623] viXra:1911.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 06:49:10

Galilean Space and the Doppler Effect Галилеево пространство и эффект Доплера

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 20 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, p.20, russian

In Galilean space 3 (three) metrics describing its geometrical properties in various cases are possible. These are 1) 1-dimensional time interval, 2) 3-dimensional distance and 3) 4-dimensional wave interval. The main question of this work is: will we be able to determine some geometry by wave standards? Suppose there are two researchers (hereinafter-the objects "researcher", "observer", "experimenter" - identify: this is homo sapiens): can we measure the distance between them? Is it possible to measure the mutual velocity and its direction? And is it possible to synchronize his watch with mine? And what is clock synchronization? And in General – is there a synchronization problem? Are there inertial frames of reference outside absolute frames of reference? Is it possible to use wave standards of one ISO in other ISO and how do they differ? The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. This word is the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. Other main word-combinations are connected with the word "wave" - wave in Galilean space, Galilean wave space, wave standard, wave metric. Etc. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is the fixed air medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is the empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference (hereinafter - AISO), but for propagating waves as independent entities it is a real AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate only with one specific velocity – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be viewed separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the AISO. Despite the possibility of independent groundless consideration of the existence of the wave, there is a risk of the existence of this basis. In addition to waves, non-wave objects can exist in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence of the wave. В ГП возможны 3 (три) метрики, описывающие ее геометрические свойства в различных случаях. Это 1) 1-мерный промежуток времени, 2) 3-мерное расстояние и 3) 4-мерный волно-вой интервал. Главный вопрос этой работы: сможем ли мы определить какую–то геометрию волновыми эталонами? Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера, аберрации и их использова-ние для локализации в АИСО (далее - АИСО) и взаимной локализации. Предположим, име-ются два исследователя (далее – объекты "исследователь", "наблюдатель", "экспериментатор" – отождествляем: это homo sapiens): можно ли измерить расстояние между ними? Можно ли измерить взаимную скорость и ее направление? И можно ли синхронизировать его часы с моими? И что такое синхронизация часов? И вообще – есть ли проблема синхронизации? Су-ществуют ли инерциальные системы отсчета вне абсолютных систем отсчета? Можно ли вол-новыми эталонами одной ИСО пользоваться в других ИСО и чем они отличаются? В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – главное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галиллева метрика. Другие главные слово-сочетания связаны со словом "волна" - волна в галилеевом пространстве, галилеево волно-вое пространство, волновой эталон, волновая метрика. И т.д. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосо-четаний является неподвижная воздушная среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распростра-няющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей это настоящее АИСО. Волна в среде в гали-леевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – ско-ростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать от-дельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, ос-тавив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Несмотря на возможность самостоятельного безосновного рассмотрения существования волны, есть риск существования этой основы. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения кото-рых не ограничена скоростью звука. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстракции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Classical Physics

[622] viXra:1911.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 04:20:00

Galilean Space and the Doppler Effect Галилеево пространство и эффект Доплера

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 20 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, p.20, russian

In Galilean space 3 (three) metrics describing its geometrical properties in various cases are pos-sible. These are 1) 1-dimensional time interval, 2) 3-dimensional distance and 3) 4-dimensional wave interval. The main question of this work is: will we be able to determine some geometry by wave standards? Suppose there are two researchers (hereinafter-the objects "researcher", "observer", "ex-perimenter" - identify: this is homo sapiens): can we measure the distance between them? Is it possi-ble to measure the mutual velocity and its direction? And is it possible to synchronize his watch with mine? And what is clock synchronization? And in General – is there a synchronization problem? Are there inertial frames of reference outside absolute frames of reference? Is it possible to use wave standards of one ISO in other ISO and how do they differ? The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. This word is the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. Other main word-combinations are connected with the word "wave" - wave in Galilean space, Galilean wave space, wave standard, wave metric. Etc. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is the fixed air medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is the empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference (hereinafter - AISO), but for propagating waves as independent entities it is a real AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate only with one specific velocity – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be viewed separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the AISO. Despite the possibility of independent groundless consideration of the existence of the wave, there is a risk of the existence of this basis. In addition to waves, non-wave objects can exist in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstrac-tion of the independent existence of the wave. В ГП возможны 3 (три) метрики, описывающие ее геометрические свойства в различных случаях. Это 1) 1-мерный промежуток времени, 2) 3-мерное расстояние и 3) 4-мерный волно-вой интервал. Главный вопрос этой работы: сможем ли мы определить какую–то геометрию волновыми эталонами? Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера, аберрации и их использова-ние для локализации в АИСО (далее - АИСО) и взаимной локализации. Предположим, име-ются два исследователя (далее – объекты "исследователь", "наблюдатель", "экспериментатор" – отождествляем: это homo sapiens): можно ли измерить расстояние между ними? Можно ли измерить взаимную скорость и ее направление? И можно ли синхронизировать его часы с моими? И что такое синхронизация часов? И вообще – есть ли проблема синхронизации? Су-ществуют ли инерциальные системы отсчета вне абсолютных систем отсчета? Можно ли вол-новыми эталонами одной ИСО пользоваться в других ИСО и чем они отличаются? В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – главное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галиллева метрика. Другие главные слово-сочетания связаны со словом "волна" - волна в галилеевом пространстве, галилеево волно-вое пространство, волновой эталон, волновая метрика. И т.д. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосо-четаний является неподвижная воздушная среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распростра-няющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей это настоящее АИСО. Волна в среде в гали-леевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – ско-ростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать от-дельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, ос-тавив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Несмотря на возможность самостоятельного безосновного рассмотрения существования волны, есть риск существования этой основы. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения кото-рых не ограничена скоростью звука. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстракции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Classical Physics

[621] viXra:1910.0655 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 21:59:17

Time Dilation in Classical Physics

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 7 Pages.

'Time dilation' appears to be an experimental fact (2,4). We show that if Einstein had not invented the multiple time dimensions and multiple ethers of relativity, time dilation could have been derived from absolute time (defined as universal simultaneity) and the constant speed of light in absolute space.
Category: Classical Physics

[620] viXra:1910.0416 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-22 15:42:46

Some Thoughts on Negative Mass

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Following the appearance of several recent articles on the topic of negative mass, it is possibly of interest to mention some other work associated with this which appeared some years ago and was reviewed in a long article which has just appeared on this site1.
Category: Classical Physics

[619] viXra:1909.0646 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-01 03:16:15

Proof of the Inconsistency of the Maxwell Equations to the Measurement Result of the Maxwell-Lodge Experiment

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 2 Pages. A sign error was corrected.

This short paper proofs mathematically that the Maxwell equations are not able to explain the Maxwell-Lodge experiment. Not even if the vector potential is used instead of the magnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[618] viXra:1909.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-06 04:05:02

Electronic Data Transmission at Three Times the Speed of Light and Data Rates of 2000 Bits Per Second Over Long Distances in Buffer Amplifier Chains

Authors: Steffen Kuehn
Comments: 6 Pages. Editor changes

Recently, during the experimental testing of basic assumptions in electrical engineering, it has become apparent that ultra-low-frequency (ULF) voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters propagate significantly faster than light. The starting point for this discovery was an experiment in which a two-channel oscilloscope was connected to a signal source via both a short and a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the delay between the two channels for short cables and low frequencies can be so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. To test whether the discovered effect can be exploited to transmit information over long distances, a cable was examined in which the signal was refreshed at regular distances by buffer amplifiers. The results show that such a setup is indeed suitable for transmitting wave packets at three times the speed of light and bit rates of approximately 2 kbit/s over arbitrary distances. The statement that information cannot propagate faster than light is clearly experimentally disproven and can therefore no longer be sustained.
Category: Classical Physics

[617] viXra:1909.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 04:56:45

Experiment Shows, that Group Velocities for Ultra Low Frequency Voltage Signals in Short Coaxial Cables Can be Significantly Faster Than Light

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 3 Pages. Changes due to the first feedback

Recently, during the experimental testing of some basic assumptions in physics, it became apparent that ULF voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters exhibit very anomalous behavior. In particular, they seem to propagate significantly faster than light. The basic idea of the experiment described in this article was to determine with a dual-channel oscilloscope the delay that occurs when the first input is connected to a signal source via a short coaxial cable and the second input to the same signal source via a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the delay between the two channels does not only decrease as expected with decreasing cable length, but that when falling below a certain frequency the delay becomes so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. It is also remarkable that even band-limited signals such as music tracks or speech can be transmitted several times faster as with the speed of light without noticeable loss of quality. Should the observations described here be confirmed, this would be proof that information can be transmitted faster than light.
Category: Classical Physics

[616] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-13 11:59:52

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in a Turbulent Fluid.

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.org/vixra:1801.0037". The recent script introduced a sphere with surface-tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at the publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text I have tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[615] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-27 20:30:08

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in Turbulent Fluid

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.com/vixra.1801.0037". The recent script introduced a sphere with surface-tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at the publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text I have tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[614] viXra:1907.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-21 08:41:01

Emergent Cosmological Constant from a Holographic Mass/Energy Distribution

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 13 Pages.

A new methodology is introduced suggesting that an exact cosmological constant is theoretically and numerically derived and described as the squared ratio of Planck length and the particle horizon radius. Additionally, equations relating the sterile neutrino mass, Planck mass and mass of the universe are established. Furthermore, the mass of the universe can be derived as encoded information located on the cosmic horizon. Finally, a relationship of the Hubble radius and comoving radius is reviewed. This hypothesis is tested for convergence for an overall flat curvature using the Friedmann equations.
Category: Classical Physics