Classical Physics

1104 Submissions

[19] viXra:1104.0052 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

Energy Multiplier in Retarded Resonance

Authors: Qichang Liang, Yu Liang, Xiaodong Liu
Comments: 4 pages.

In this work, we describe a wireless power system in which the distance between the source and receiver is 1/4 of wavelength. The induced electromotive force (EMF) from the receiver to the source is phase inverted due to the retardation so that the source absorbs energy instead of output energy. This system is an energy multiplier since both source and receiver gain energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[18] viXra:1104.0051 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

A Physical Model of the Electron According to the Basic Structures of Matter Hypothesis

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 17 pages. The article was published in Physics Essays v. 16, No 2, (2003).

A physical model of the electron is suggested according to the Basic Structures of Matter (BSM) hypothesis (later published as a BSM-SG theory). BSM-SG is based on an alternative concept about the physical vacuum assuming that the space contains underlying superfine structure of nodes formed of super-dens sub-elementary particles, which are also involved in the structure of the elementary particles. The proposed grid structure is formed of vibrating nodes possessing quantum features and energy well. It is admitted that this hypothetical structure could be accounted for the missing "dark matter" in the Universe. The signature of such "dark matter" is apparent in the galactic rotational curves and in the relation between masses of the supermassive black whole in the galactic centre and the host galaxy. The suggested model of the electron possesses oscillation features with anomalous magnetic moment and embedded signatures of the Compton wavelength and the fine structure constant. The analysis of the interactions between the oscillating electron and the nodes of the vacuum grid structure allows obtaining physical meaning for some fundamental constants.
Category: Classical Physics

[17] viXra:1104.0046 [pdf] submitted on 14 Apr 2011

Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory Based on an Alternative Concept of the Physical Vacuum

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 11 pages. Reported and included in Proceedings of the IX Iternational scientific conference, Space, Time, Gravitation, Aug 7-11, 2006, St. Petersburg,Russia.

The Basic Structures of Matter - Super Gravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG) unveils the relation between the forces in Nature by adopting the following framework: - Empty Euclidian space without any physical properties and restrictions - Two fundamental particles of superdense matter with parameters associated with a Planck's scale - A Fundamental law of Super Gravitation (SG) - an inverse cubic law valid in pure empty space.
Category: Classical Physics

[16] viXra:1104.0030 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.4 Quarks

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 15 pages.

A conceptual model is created for the composition of quarks and the internal structure of the proton and neutron. In this model the charge of a quark indicates the number of hyff (force lines) it emits. Cordus also explains the colour and provides a mechanism for the strong interaction (both the attraction and repulsive components). The model also explains why parity violation occurs. A new concept of the 'level of assembly' is introduced and used to explain mass excess and why smaller particuloids have greater mass. Cordus also predicts non-conservation of mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[15] viXra:1104.0029 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.3 Gravitation, Mass and Time

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages.

Gravitation is conceptually problematic to General Relativity and Quantum mechanics in that the fundamental mechanisms are unknown to both, and the theories have different requirements that are difficult to reconcile into a single model. Cordus gravitation offers a solution to the problem. It provides a mechanism whereby gravitation is not continuous but in discrete force (or displacement) increments similar to quanta (but not uniform increments). Also, the closing force between two masses is transient. In this idea, gravitation, and therefore also mass, is a discontinuous property: i.e. a particuloid emits gravity (has mass) at some moments but not others. Thus gravitation is an effect that a mass does to the whole universe, not to targeted other bodies, and in this regard Cordus is consistent with General relativity. Both QM and Cordus agree that gravitation is quantised. Cordus conceptually integrates the different effects of mass: Gravitation is a particuloid contributing hyff to the fabric; Newtonian mass is resistance of the reactive ends to unexpected displacement; Relativistic mass is decreasing efficacy of hyff engagement with the fabric as velocity of the reactive end increases; Momentum is a frequency mechanism that ensures the reactive end re-energises on-time and in-place; particuloids like nucleons have mass to the extent that they have frequency. Furthermore, Cordus offers an explanation of how time arises at a sub-atomic level by the cordus frequency, and how this aggregates to the sense of time that we perceive biologically. Thus Cordus offers a radically new way of thinking about the problem of gravitation, mass and time that is quite unlike conventional physics, yet includes concepts that might be recognisable to those other physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[14] viXra:1104.0028 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.2 Fabric of the Universe

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 8 pages.

The concept of the vacuum is problematic for conventional physics. Electromagnetic wave theory models it as consisting of nothing at all, but yet paradoxically having finite electric and magnetic constants. Quantum mechanics models it as consisting of temporary particles, but no average substance. General Relativity theory includes a spacetime medium, without describing the composition. In all cases the underlying physical mechanisms are obscure. Furthermore, these existing perspectives conflict in their expectations, so the integration is poor. The treatment is not always logical either: conventional theories find the idea of the matterbased aether thoroughly unacceptable, yet ironically all include something that looks conceptually much like a medium. The Cordus conjecture provides a conceptual solution for the composition of the vacuum: it provides a fabric that is granular (similar to quantised) at the smallest scale, scales up to a continuum, provides a medium for propagation of disturbances and waves, provides a medium for electromagnetism and gravitation, is relativistic, is not a matter aether, and includes a time signal. In the cordus solution the vacuum is made of tangled hyff (force lines) from all the surrounding matter particuloids. This cordus fabric concept also provides a descriptive explanation as to why the speed of light is a finite value. The fine structure constant is given a physical interpretation, as a measure of the transmission efficacy of the fabric. Cordus also distinguishes between the fabric that makes up the vacuum of space, as opposed to the void which has neither fabric nor time as we perceive it. This model is radically unorthodox in suggesting that the speed of light is relativistic but not invariant; that it depends fundamentally on the fabric density and hence the accessible mass density of the universe at that locality.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1104.0027 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.1 Electromagnetism

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 17 pages.

The Cordus conjecture is extended to create a conceptual model for electromagnetic fields. The resulting model shows how a cordus particuloid generates small transient units of force at the sub-atomic level, thereby creating the apparently smooth and continuous electric field that we more commonly perceive. Cordus also reconceptualises how magnetism is generated at the sub-atomic level, and likewise explains how the granularity arises. It is shown that the electric field cannot be shielded, only neutralised. Cordus electromagnetism is applied to explain the electric field surrounding a wire carrying current, the locus of moving test charges in a magnetic field, and the mechanism for how force arises in permanent magnets. The contribution made by this paper is a description of electromagnetism that goes to the next deeper level: it explains the underlying mechanisms for how the forces arise. Also, it provides a mechanism for fields to be granular and directional at the small scale, but smooth and continuous at larger scale.
Category: Classical Physics

[12] viXra:1104.0026 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.5 Schrodinger's Cat Reconceptualised

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Quantum mechanics is the dominant conceptual foundation for fundamental physics. Nonetheless there are effects that it does not explain, or explains only by reference to metaphysical effects. While many have wondered whether there could be a more-complete explanation, the solution has been elusive. Cordus suggests that the necessary deeper mechanics is only accessible by abandoning the premise of 'particle', and shows how to achieve this. The resulting Cordus mechanics provides a new way of thinking and a radically different conceptual foundation. This paper primarily contrasts Quantum and Cordus mechanics. In the process, Cordus re-conceptualises Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. It also provides an explanation for the paradox of Schrödinger's Cat, and shows it to be based on unrealistic and unattainable premises.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1104.0025 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.4 Special States of Matter

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 12 pages.

The Cordus principle of complementary frequency states (CoFS) is used to develop a novel descriptive model for the mechanisms underlying superfluidity and superconductivity. In both cases Cordus explains the effects as synchronisation of forces between electrons and atoms. Several associated effects are likewise explained, including quantum vortices, heat conduction in superfluids, and the Meissner effect in superconductors. Cordus also asserts that superposition does not exist, at least not the way QM conceptualises it. In particular, that the mathematics of superposition and the wavefunction are not the reality, only mathematical approximations of deeper effects, and are unreliable qualitative descriptors of those underlying mechanisms. The concept of 'coherence' is reconceptualised and the reasons why that state cannot be readily achieved are discussed. Cordus also explains why Quantum mechanics, which seems to apply at the level of individual particles, does not scale up to macroscopic bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1104.0024 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.3 Energy Cycles Within Matter

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 7 pages.

The interaction of light with electrons is one of the fundamental perceptual realities of what we see. Yet that interaction is only partly understood. Cordus concepts are applied to develop a descriptive model of the mechanisms whereby photons are absorbed into electrons and emitted. From the Cordus perspective, the temperature of a body is primarily a measure of its phonons (lattice-vibrations). Cordus shows why entropy occurs, despite the individual mechanisms being reversible. An understanding of the mechanisms for entropy is relevant to the understanding of coherence, superfluidity and superconductivity. Cordus suggests that a failure to adequately conceptualise entropy leads to misapplication of coherence and ultimately to unreliability in the premise of superposition.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1104.0023 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.2 Matter Particuloids

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 12 pages.

Some of the most enigmatic effects in the physics of electrons are its waveparticle duality and the Aharonov-Bohm and Casimir effects. Even relatively core concepts of atomic physics, like spin and the Pauli exclusion principle, lack satisfactory descriptive explanations. This paper shows that application of the cordus principle can explain these effects in a coherent manner.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1104.0022 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.1 Wider Locality

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 7 pages.

The dominant paradigm in conventional physics is that of a 'particle', which this paper suggests is a badly flawed premise. The cordus particuloid is a more coherent concept in that it offers explanations of phenomena that are otherwise puzzling, and does so with one conceptual consistent framework across a wide variety of phenomena. This paper shows how entanglement is readily explained as a natural consequence of the cordus. It also introduces the principle of complementary frequency state synchronisation (CoFS) as the deeper principle beneath the Pauli exclusion principle, and coherence. It is suggested that Bell's Theorem is only applicable to 1D point particles, and is thus generally irrelevant. Specifically, Bell's Theorem is not an obstacle to models of hidden variables. Furthermore, it is suggested that the principle of locality is not viable in its present form, and a principle of wider locality is proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1104.0021 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.3 Refraction

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 11 pages.

Explaining basic optical effects is not possible with classical particle mechanics, and even with quantum mechanics it is not straight forward and not particularly intuitive. The problem is much simpler when solved in the cordus domain. This paper provides cordus explanations for Snell's Law and Brewster's Angle, and quantitative derivations too. This is significant because the cordus mechanics were derived for single photons, and immediately generalise also to beams of light. Therefore cordus can explain particle behaviour, fringes, and optical effects, using a single coherent mechanics. The cordus explanation does not need the conventional concept of 'interference'.
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1104.0020 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.2 Reflection

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Optical effects such as reflection and refraction are conventionally best described by Electromagnetic Wave theory, at least when they involve beams of light. However that theory does not explain why single photons should also show such behaviour. This paper shows that optical effects can also be explained from a cordus particuloid perspective. Several principles are proposed for the interaction of a cordus photon with an optical surface, and these are used to explain reflection and subsequently refraction. The formula for critical angle is derived from a particuloid basis. The cordus and wave theory perspectives are compared and contrasted. The significance of this work is that the cordus mechanics explains the reflection and refraction behaviour of both single photons as well as beams of light, so it is a more universal explanation.
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1104.0019 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.1 Frequency

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Conventional particle and wave theories struggle to explain the frequency of photons and matter in a coherent manner using natural physics. This paper applies the cordus conjecture to develop a model for frequency of the photon. The interpretation is that there really is a part of the photon cordus that moves with a frequency. The working model is for a reciprocal motion: the energy alternates between the two reactive ends across the span of the cordus, and the hyff represent the observable electric field. This cordus model for frequency readily explains polarisation and tunnelling, and the concept is fundamental to other developments of the cordus mechanics including the reflection and refraction of particuloids. The implications are that frequency is not just an intrinsic variable, but a physical effect within the photon. The cordus frequency is a fundamental conceptual building-block in creating an integrated solution that unifies wave and particle behaviour. It is a powerful concept that is coherent across many other phenomena too, including matter particuloids and it contributes subsequently to the cordus model for granular fields.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1104.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.3 Explanation of Fringes

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 18 pages.

The cordus concept is shown to be able to explain wave behaviour in gaps, and fringes in the double slit device. This is useful because one of the enigmas of the double-slit device is that single photons form fringe patterns. Cordus explains fringes in terms of force lines called hyperfine fibrils (hyff) and their interaction with the edges of the light path. This also explains beam divergence and near-field effects. The results show that it is conceptually possible to create a solution for fringes based on a particuloid interpretation of light, without using the concept of interference. The biggest difference between Wave theory and the cordus explanation is their interpretation of the mechanism for fringes. Wave theory explains fringes as 'interference': two separate waves of light differing by full (half) fractions of wavelengths and thus constructively (destructively) interfering. From the Cordus perspective photons do not actually interfere or add together, and 'interference' is only a convenient analogy. The Cordus explanation is that fringes are caused instead by interaction of the photon hyff with opaque edges. This bracket of papers therefore offers a resolution of wave-particle duality by anticipating the internal cordus structure of the photon and the associated cordus mechanics. From this perspective wave and particle behaviours are simply the different output behaviours that the internal system shows depending on how it is measured. Thus Cordus offers a deeper mechanics that subsumes both quantum mechanics and wave theory. Surprisingly, Cordus suggests that the next deeper level of reality is deterministic.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1104.0017 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.2 Quo Vadis, Photon?

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages.

Photon path dilemmas are a difficult area for conventional physics. Typical situations are the double-slit device and interferometers. The problem manifests as an apparent ability of the photon to simultaneously take all paths through the device, but eventually only appear at one. It is shown that a cordus structure is conceptually able to resolve the path dilemmas in wave-particle duality. Explanations are given for the double-slit device and interferometers. The Cordus conjecture implies there is a deeper, simpler, deterministic, and more elegant reality beneath quantum mechanics and wave theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1104.0016 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.1 Quis es tu Photon?

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 8 pages.

A new conceptual model is proposed for the internal structure of the photon, and the mechanics thereof. This internal structure is called a cordus. The cordus consists of two reactive ends (RE) connected together with a fibril. The fibril connecting the two reactive ends does not interact with other matter. Each of the two reactive ends behaves like a whole photon in its ability to interact with other matter, including reflection, transmission, and the ability to take two paths, though it collapses to only one location. The reactive ends emit hyperfine fibrils (hyff) which are force lines. The cordus structure is neither a particle nor a wave, though can appear as either in certain circumstances.
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1104.0015 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-17 14:16:38

Conceptual Framework for a Novel Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theory of Physics: Overview of the Cordus Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 77 Pages.

PROBLEM- There are many integration problems of fundamental physics that still lack ontologically coherent solutions. NEED- There is a need to find a new theory of physics with wide-ranging logical consistency. The idea that particles could have internal structure has long been a consideration in the development of theories of physics, as evidenced in the EPR criticism (Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen, 1935). DIFFICULTY- However Local hidden-variable solutions are excluded by the Bell-type inequalities and by the empirical evidence of entanglement. The non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) sector is not entirely excluded on theoretical grounds. However, if any solution existed it would have to be counterintuitive as all the obvious candidates have been excluded [4]. Unfortunately the hidden-variable sector has proved incapable of offering suitable solutions. APPROACH- Conceptual design methods were borrowed from engineering design and applied to create an initial conjectural solution for the double-slit device. This was then validated against multiple other phenomena. RESULTS- This paper offers a candidate solution, in the form of a new theory of physics wherein particles have internal structures. This Cordus theory proposes a specific structure for particles, for both the structure internal to the particle and the nature of the external discrete field emissions. FINDINGS- It also has good external construct validity, as it: explains path dilemmas in interferometers; recovers basic laws of optics from first principles (reflection, refraction, Brewster’s angle); identifies the causes of contextual measurement; explains the transition from coherence to discoherence; explains pair-production and annihilation; offers a solution to the asymmetrical baryogenesis and leptogenesis problems; explains time dilation; conceptually unifies the electro-magneto-gravitational forces with the strong interaction; explains the selective spin attributes of the neutrino species; predicts the internal structure of the atomic nucleus and explains the stability, instability and non-existence of the table of nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon. ORGINALITY- The Cordus theory is a novel conceptual framework for fundamental physics. It shows that a specific structure of particles has excellent explanatory power for many phenomena. The strengths of the theory are: Explanatory (ontological) power; Coherent solution across multiple phenomena; Offers candidate solutions to otherwise intractable problems. IMPLICATIONS- The Bell-type inequalities are falsified. Physical realism is re-asserted. The stochastic nature of the wave-function is subsumed in a deeper explanation. The theory is not inimical to quantum mechanics, which it reinterprets as a stochastic approximation of a deeper determinism. The new theory has philosophical implications because it shows that it is possible to conceive of a solution for fundamental physics that is grounded in physical realism. The theory therefore rebuts the idea that the deeper level of physics is purely mathematical, and it rejects the many-worlds interpretation.
Category: Classical Physics