[24] **viXra:1610.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 09:23:06*

**Authors:** Vladislav Mirkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article shows that almost "negative" results of the Michelson-Morley-Miller and all subsequent experiments due to the fact that the selected standards of measurement of the size and time have changed almost simultaneously with the measured parameters. That means that all the "old" and modern experiments could not answer the question of the existence of the ether in principle. Furthermore, even in the first experiments the result was already present, which should be interpreted as the presence of the ether.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[23] **viXra:1610.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-28 06:21:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Nadya Amalia

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Conference paper, 11 figures, 3 tables

In this work simple model based on definition of shear modulus to produce bending of wire is proposed. Several results are discussed only for constant shear modulus and diameter, but the model can be extened to non-constant shear modulus and diameter. For arbitrary parameters the model can show bending of wire which epends on shear modulus, wire mass, initial angle, and number of segments. Unfortunatey, it does not give fully agreement for nanowire system, which produces higher value than expected.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22] **viXra:1610.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 05:09:20*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

After introduction of vortical repulsion in celestial mechanics it turned out, that gravity should act non-linear. Some points for Einstein. Real weight of gravity theory of Nordstrom should be determined.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1610.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-24 17:45:21*

**Authors:** J.F. Cuderman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A co-field to Newton's gravitational field is derived and its properties defined. It is applied
to explain "Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies" discovered during deep space missions launched
between 1990 and 2006. The Flyby anomaly has been considered a major unresolved problem in
astrophysics.
Keywords: Gravitational Co-Field, Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies, Space Physics, Classical Physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1610.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-23 10:53:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1610.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-16 14:45:22*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Since all macroscopic matter is made of extremely small particles (electrons, protons, neutrons), all macroscopic bodies are in reality multi-particle systems that are built up from an extremely large number of particles. The present physics defines the linear momentum of such a multi-particle system as the mathematical product of its total mass times the velocity of its center of mass, and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion. In this paper the author reveals the physical nature of the velocity of a particle system, as the congruent translational velocity with which all the particles of the particle system move in unison, that is with exactly the same speed in exactly the same direction. This allows him to demonstrate that the ‘linear momentum’ of a moving particle system is a mathematical expression of its total amount of congruent translational velocity. This leads to the conclusion that the conservation of linear momentum of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of the physical fact that a particle system cannot change its congruent velocity by its own.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1610.0267 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 14:17:41*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concept of the ‘force’ as the vector product of mass times acceleration, finds its origin in Newton’s second law of motion and is the fundamental concept of classical physics, since it is the basis of the other fundamental notions such as ‘work’ and ‘energy’. The problem is that this classic concept of a force covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs its true nature.
In this paper the author analyses the physical nature of the impulsive force exerted between colliding bodies and of the repetitive impulsive forces, such as the tensile force on a rigid wall and the driving force on a free body. This allows him to define ‘force’ in a general way as the rate at which linear momentum flows, which is a mathematical expression of the transfer rate of congruent translational motion from one body to another.
In the light of the particle nature of matter, this means that the ‘force’ exerted between two particle systems can be expressed as the transfer of congruent translational motion per impulse, times the impulse frequency. This demonstrates that ‘force’ has fundamentally a dynamic character, and that there are no such things as ‘static’ forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1610.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 14:12:03*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the present textbooks the concept of ‘work’ is mathematically defined as the product of a force times its displacement, and the concept of the ‘kinetic energy’ of a moving body is in defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity.
In this paper the author demonstrates that ‘work’ is the total amount of congruent translational motion that is reversibly transferred between particle systems at different velocity levels (in a given reference frame).
This means that the ‘kinetic energy’ of a body with a given velocity in a given reference frame is a mathematical expression of its total amount of reversibly transferable congruent translational motion at the given velocity level, with regard to any free body that is at rest in that same reference frame.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1610.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-20 09:35:57*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to generalize the well-known expression of the gravitational potential for more than three dimensions. We used the Sneddon-Thornhill approach of the Newton’s theorem and then the results are passed through the filter of Poisson’s equation. The comparison with other theories implies some restrictions, but the overall results are valid until the experiment will disprove them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1610.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-20 12:50:37*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 33 Pages. In Romanian. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” by the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1610.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:02*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new theory about the Eötvös effect. We develop a mathematical model which aloud us a better understanding of this effect. From the equation of motion the Eötvös term could arise naturally without supplementary assumptions. The Eötvös force and the Coriolis force are the vertical and horizontal projections of a force generated by the circular motion. Under these circumstances we can conceive the Eötvös effect like a vertical Coriolis effect. In addition we have deduced the Eötvös term from centrifugal force, classic hypothesis. The cosine function appears only due to spherical coordinates and express the variation of centrifugal force with altitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1610.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 21:41:44*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper the spatial two-body problem in a Newtonian non-inertial frame of reference is analyzed. The Lagrange’s equations of elliptical movement are established and applied to estimate the advance of perihelion in this case. Finally the theoretical results are compared with the observational results.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1610.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 21:51:08*

**Authors:** MUGUR B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By using an unexpected approach it results a general form for the electric field lines equation. It is a general formula, a derivative-integral equation structured as a multi-pole expansion series. By solving this equation we can find the electric field lines expressions for any type of an axially symmetric multi-pole continuous electric charge distributions we interested in, without the need to take again the calculus from the beginning for each case particularly, for instance as in discrete charge distribution case.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1610.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 10:56:02*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1610.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 10:59:00*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate how the energy minimization principle may be considered as a governing rule for the physical equilibrium that determines the flow fields in tubes and networks. We previously investigated this issue using a numerical stochastic method, specifically simulated annealing, where we demonstrated the problem by some illuminating examples and concluded that energy minimization principle can be a valid hypothesis. The investigation in this paper is more general as it is based to a certain extent on an analytical approach.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1610.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 11:01:37*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1610.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 11:28:21*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson non-Newtonian fluids is investigated using a variational principle to optimize the total stress. The variationally-obtained solutions are compared to the analytical solutions derived from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney equation and the results are found to be identical within acceptable numerical errors and modeling approximations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1610.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 21:49:10*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to establish a synthetic form for Bernoulli’s law concerning an adiabatic ideal gas flow and to apply it to the expanding universe. Unfortunately, the obtained law is not applicable to the expansion of the universe, but it is applicable only to ordinary cases of fluid mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1610.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-15 05:45:29*

**Authors:** Pragyaditya Das, Prateek Agrawal.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Your constructive input is very much welcome.

This paper explores the use of a light based measurement technique for the level measurement of cryogenic
liquids. Differential pressure transmitters are commonly used to measure the levels of cryogenic liquids such as liquid
nitrogen and liquid oxygen in cryogenic tanks. They require the liquid inside the temperature controlled tank to be drawn
out into impulse lines. This causes a number of problems, one of the most common one is Chocking of the impulse lines,
which ultimately results in a significant loss of material.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1610.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 23:05:47*

**Authors:** S Hussainsha

**Comments:** 11 Pages. AN ELCETRON IS ASSUMED AS A MAGNETIC MONOPOLE

The principal objective of this paper is, finding a way to discover magnetic monopole or an isolated magnetic charge in a theoretical manner. This paper discusses only theory with the support of Special Theory of Relativity. In future, if we found magnetic monopole, this theory is unaltered. In this theory I state Gauss law for magnetic charge. So, I modify Maxwell’s equation by using Gauss law and mathematical procedure called Gauss divergence theorem. The result of this paper gives Equivalence of coulombs and webers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1610.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-09 03:42:34*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of energy, law of conservation of momentum, and law of conservation of angular momentum in the traditional viewpoints. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern physics; and they are all widely used in physics. The different points: the law of conservation of energy is derived by the time translation-invariant, the law of conservation of momentum is derived by the space translation-invariant, and the law of conservation of angular momentum is derived by the space rotation-invariant; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. With the comparative method, the above traditional viewpoints are re-discussed. According to the principle of uniqueness of truth, the law of conservation of energy should be considered as the unique truth, and establish the science of conservation of energy; accordingly, within the whole physics range, the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum are not forever right, namely these two laws are correct only in some conditions (for instance, we can give the examples that these two laws are not correct as considering the actions of the friction and the like), therefore these two laws cannot be taken as the fundamental conservation laws in the field of physics; furthermore, in the case of no external force, the law of conservation of momentum may not be correct, and in the case of no external moment, the law of conservation of angular momentum may be not correct too. Finally, the improvements of the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1610.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-05 08:03:56*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We analyze arithmetically the value of the fine structure constant .As we show , it’s appropiate to write such constant using natural numbers only .On condition that such natural numbers are properly sorted . Namely , we make several simple series of natural numbers .Each series is a sum of different numbers . The second condition is to apply physical units .We use LT^(-1),i.e. speed units .Since fine structure constant is a dimensionless number , we must to search the ratio between two speed values : speed of light in vacuum with respect to the sum of velocities expressed as a series of natural numbers added correctly .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1610.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-04 14:23:50*

**Authors:** Trevor Borocz Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following paper proposes some answers to some common physics questions like the mechanism behind gravity, energy, and magnetism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1610.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-08 19:52:48*

**Authors:** Gao Peng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.

**Category:** Classical Physics