[24] **viXra:1710.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:04:07*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A solar-sail spacecraft propulsion concept uses a large Fresnel lens to concentrate radiation onto one or two small beam-steering mirrors. The lens itself does not effect significant momentum transfer from the photon flux; it only functions as a condenser, which allows the use of much smaller mirrors as momentum-transfer elements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[23] **viXra:1710.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:14:08*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper was earlier saved in academia.com. site. But it might be also interesting to multiple readers on vixra.com.
The sound transmission loss of windows at very low frequencies cannot be interpreted by the theory of infinitely large partitions. Here, the bending wave resonances are essential but not the only contributors. The low sound radiation coefficient and “niche effect” are also important. The goal is to illustrate such phenomena via simplified theoretical models and experimental results. In particular, the role of low sound radiation is interpreted using the sound radiation model of a piston inside the aperture cut in a rigid baffle between the source and receiving rooms. The “niche effect” is compared to the low-frequency sound transmission via symmetric triple windows (where the middle element is the real window and the role of the edge leaves is played by the air masses entrained at the aperture edges). In addition to the previously published results, the new experimental data are provided to support this theory in the “double-niche” case: the aperture consists of two in-series halves with different areas, and the window is installed in the smaller one. Such simple models can also be utilized to interpret the experimental sound transmission data for relatively small partitions mounted in the aperture made in a thick wall between two rooms. The paper may be helpful for students and engineers engaged in measurements of the sound transmission loss.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22] **viXra:1710.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 09:45:35*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

The drift (directed downward) and diffusive (directed upward) streams of
molecules of ideal gas in the gravitational field were considered. It is shown that in
the Boltzmann distribution of concentration of molecules on a height these streams
are not equal to each other. They try to create quasi Boltzmann distribution. But
such distribution can not be carried out.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1710.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:26:44*

**Authors:** Sergey Bilyk

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Basic complete ultimate knowledge about the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1710.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 09:51:42*

**Authors:** Vladimir Vasilenko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7 p., Russian

The hypothesis of real acceleration of time was proposed to explain a subjective acceleration of time at strong psychological stresses. The using of the single physical parameter k of acceleration of time of local system allow us to explain some of well known experimental date. It was shown due to principle of simultaneously, that the time of local system must be two-dimensional.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1710.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:15:19*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, I.Yu. Obuhovskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

Glaciologists and historians of architecture discovered that at the end of the last freezing, the North geographical pole of Earth moved approximately to 20o from territory of Greenland to modern position. Our model allowed to estimate the depth of immersion of locality in an ocean in Portugal (near 4км) and in Mesopotamia (about 500 м). Results well comport with the conclusions of ДНК-genealogy on Turkey and biology on Crimea.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1710.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 00:18:18*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 6

For the first time it is shown that diffusion and drift of ideal gas molecules
in the gravitational field create a temperature gradient on altitude, not
equalize temperature over all volume. The case of heat-insulated gas with
default both convection and adiabatic expansion was considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1710.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 15:27:42*

**Authors:** V.S.Vasilenko, P.I.Kohanovskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 р. Russian. Odessa State Enveronmental University

The new method of the high-fidelity measuring of resistances was proposed. A Wheatstone bridge was used with two unknown base resistors of R1 and R2 in one branch, the resistance decade boxes and unknown resistance Rx was plugged in other branch. By the selection of Rm1 of resistance decade boxes bridge was balanced. R1 and R2 switched places then. By the selection of Rm2 of resistance decade boxes the bridge was balanced in second times. Unknown resistance settled accounts on the formula of Rx=(Rm1•Rm2)1/2.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1710.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 03:53:33*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 28 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work claims to be a theory of everything (theory of everything, ToE or TOE). This is not a mathematical fake with fifteen dimensions, but a real concept, based on a hypothetical model-medium with which all physical phenomena in the universe can be linked and explained. With the presented hypothetical model medium the forces of gravitation and mass inertia can be put on a common base. This also clarifies the presence of dark matter. The relativistic mass results as an inevitable consequence. Electrostatic force and magnetic force can be explained with the same concept without a distance force. For the Atomic model, there is a logical improvement.
This work is based on the findings made during the assignment of a real variable for the Coulomb charge unit. "What is Behind Coulomb" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211
The free course for those thoughts with a model medium is given from the findings in "Mistakes and Contradictions in the Michelson Morley Experiment" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211. There the heavy mistakes of the Michelson Morley experiment are proved and therefore the results of this experiment and the conclusions drawn from them are untenable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1710.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 09:46:07*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

In the following, it is shown that the Michelson & Morley experiment is subject to heavy mistakes. All considerations are based on the original publication, »AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, ARTICLE XXXVI On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, by ALBERT A. MICHELSON and EDWARD W. MORLEY".
1. The experiment presents measurements and expects results in the evening at around 18:00. This is wrong! Anyone with a knowledge of the earth's rotation and the course around the sun can see that the Michelson and Morley experiment makes sense only at the high noon and at midnight. The "ether wind" is only at this time in the measurable direction to the measuring device. In the evening and in the morning, the ether wind is in any case perpendicular (from top to bottom or from bottom to top) to the horizontal measuring device.
2. The light path, as described, cannot be correct. The perpendicular deflected light path can never be against the "ether wind".
3. Intellectual bases for the experiment are incomplete and therefore incorrect. The assumptions and conditions do not correspond with the mathematics for this experiment.
At the end is only one conclusion possible: The Michelson and Morley experiment is very roughly mistaken and therefore the results must be considered irrelevant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1710.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 13:34:47*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

Starting from the deviation «of the good order» that Coulomb / Ampere disappears in energies, it was shown that behind the in the abstract unit Coulomb is a real value, composed of kilograms, meters and seconds. This gives the field equations a real substance which can represent power and energy in real terms. The results are indicative of a (forbidden) "model medium" without concluding that a medium exists in reality. The logic and physical beauty of this system is overwhelming.
Ausgehend von der stossenden Abweichung «von der guten Ordnung», dass Coulomb/Ampere bei Energierechnungen verschwindet wurde aufgezeigt, dass hinter der abstrakten Einheit Coulomb ein realer Wert, zusammengesetzt aus Kilogramm, Metern und Sekunden zu finden ist. Dadurch bekommen die Feldgleichungen eine reale Substanz welche Leistung und Energie real darstellen kann.
Die Resultate ergeben Indizien auf ein (verbotenes) "Modell-Medium", ohne zu folgern, dass ein Medium in Realität existiert. Die Logik und physikalische Schönheit dieser Systematik ist überwältigend.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1710.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:03:46*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1710.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:07:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Russian

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given. \\ Приводится решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением, которое является развитием непротиворечивого (соответствующего закону сохранения энергии) решения уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Показано, что в электромагнитной волне, распространяющейся через конденсатор, поток электромагнитной энергии не изменяется во времени. Показано, что существует продольная (вдоль радиуса) стоячая электромагнитная волна.
Для простой проверки полученных выводов приводится подробное доказательство.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1710.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 15:01:31*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 22 Pages. (RUS)

The article is devoted to Mach's "many-sided" principle and relativity principle, which are considered from the point of view of the energy theory, in which all changes and interactions (including gravitational ones) are viewed not as power interactions and manifestations of space-time curvature, but as manifestations and consequences of motion matter, which occurs as a drain and the source of matter and is described as the movement of energy. The article gives an overview of the primary sources of these principles, created by the founders. In the course of the famous thought experiment with two bodies, along with the principle of Mach and the principle of relativity, which are surprisingly interconnected and intertwined, the energy dynamics of moving bodies and such a mysterious phenomenon as the mechanical motion of material bodies in space and time are explored.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1710.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 03:32:34*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Adrian Dube, Godwin Musosi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Accepted to Prespacetime Journal

As is well known – Newton's corpuscular model of light can explain the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law of Refraction. Sadly and regrettably – its predictions about the speed of light in different mediums runs contrary to experience. Because of this, Newton's theory of light was abandoned in favour of the wave theory. It [Newton's corpuscular model of light] predicts that the speed of light is larger in higher density mediums. This prediction was shown to be wrong by Foucault's 1850 landmark-ing experiment that brought down Newton's theory. The major assumption of Newton's corpuscular model of light is that the corpuscles of light have an attraction with the particle of the medium. When the converse is assumed, i.e., the corpuscles of light are assumed to not have an attraction-effect, but a repulsion-effect with the particles of the medium, one obtains the correct predictions of the speed of light in denser mediums. This assumption of Newton's corpuscles repelling with the particles of the medium – this, might explain why light has the maximum speed in any given medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1710.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 07:40:37*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .The fruitful formula of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle allow us to explore some issues concerning the observable universe . One of them is the possible topology of the universe according to recent cosmological data . The other one is the cosmological constant value , arising numerically from the Heisenberg principle . Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter and the surface area of the observable universe as the universe’s event horizon .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1710.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work provides the long-sought explanation for the heat transportation between matter.
Outgoing from the fact that degrees Kelvin disappears in heat-energy calculations and easily transforms into Energy-units it has been recognized that for Kelvin there must be a physical base consisting of a certain quantity defined by the units of kg, m, s.
The solution is old and long known. The Bolzmann constant is 1.38064*10^-23 J/K
The exact statement of this constant is: The kinetic energy per degree Kelvin per atom of different kind (or per particle) is always 1.38064*10^-23 J. The full interpretation of the physical statement of this constant is not obvious: Each atom, each particle, has the same kinetic energy at the same temperature, which is 1.38064*10^-23 J per degree Kelvin.
This explanation provides the detailed explanation for heat transfer. From the results the physical explanations for the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube and for "friction generates heat" is given.
Diese Arbeit liefert die seit langem gesuchte Erklärung für den Wärmetransport zwischen Materie. Ausgehend von der Tatsache, dass Grad Kelvin bei der Berechnung der Wärmeenergie verschwindet und sich in Energieeinheiten umwandelt, wurde erkannt, dass es für Kelvin eine physikalische Grösse geben muss, die aus Wert und durch die Einheiten kg, m, s definiert ist. Die Lösung ist alt und seit langem bekannt. Die Bolzmann-Konstante ist 1.38064*10^-23 J / K. Die genaue Aussage dieser Konstante lautet: Die kinetische Energie pro Grad Kelvin pro Atom verschiedener Art (oder pro Teilchen) beträgt immer 1.38064*10^-23 J. Die vollständige Interpretation der physikalischen Aussage dieser Konstante ist nicht offensichtlich: Jedes Atom, jedes Teilchen hat dieselbe kinetische Energie bei der gleichen Temperatur, die 1,38064*10^-23*J pro Grad Kelvin ist. Diese Einsicht liefert eine detaillierte Erklärung für die Wärmeübertragung. Aus den Ergebnissen werden die physikalischen Grundlagen für das Ranque-Hilsch-Wirbelrohr und für "Reibung erzeugt Wärme" erklärbar.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1710.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 22:40:39*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Is shown the solution the problem scalar longitudinal waves without introducing any additional members in the canonical Lagrangian of the field or in the Maxwell equations that ensure the existence of a longitudinal wave component. The Lame equation for the electromagnetic field is obtained, which describes transverse and longitudinal waves, as well as the Fock-Podolsky wave equation for longitudinal electroscalar waves that do not have a magnetic component. It is shown that the terms of the Lorentz gauge condition describe a four-dimensional volume deformation of the electromagnetic field

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1710.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 23:58:28*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und der Graviationskraft zur Gewinnung von elektr. Energie, Michelson- Experiment und die Realativitätstheorie

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:35:51*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Completion of the universal gravitation law (Sir Isaac Newton, 1687)

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1710.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 06:45:37*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A better and symmetric new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is exactly the same as that derived from the first variation’s Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. Although the better new Hamiltonian functional is off that derived from the first variation by a factor of two, it symmetric than in the previous paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1710.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 13:50:32*

**Authors:** Luca Nascimbene

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The elementary particles that make up the universe can distinguish in particle-matter, of a fermionic type (quark, neutrino and neutrino, mass-equipped) and force-particles, bosonic type, carrying the fundamental forces in nature (photons and gluons, , And the W and Z bosons, endowed with mass). The Standard Model contemplates several other unstable particles that exist under certain conditions for a variable time, but still very short, before decaying into other particles. Among them there is at least one Higgs boson, which plays a very special role. The bosonic N, is an elementary discovery discovery thanks to various electronic devices and sensors. All this is a physical-electronic theoretical study. This particle seen on the oscilloscope has a different shape from the other, in particular it moves by looking at the oscilloscope and has a round shape.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1710.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 05:42:55*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is almost same as that of the conventional Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. The new Hamiltonian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has also been derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1710.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 06:37:59*

**Authors:** Popov Boris

**Comments:** 68 Pages. language Russian

Nebow of this book, the author, guided by the installation of Isaac Newton, that nature all around is very simple and economical and, if she than and gave body in the process of their generation, one only by force of inertia, the fundamental principle of the action of gravity considering inertia. Thanks to the approach based on such a setting, the law of gravity and the other three of Newton's law reduced to one law – the law of inertia, formulated and substantiated long before Newton, Galileo Galilei. This allowed, based on the fundamental principle of action, known since the times of Euler as the conservation of angular momentum, to give a constructive definition of gravity, namely to offer the technology to any group of physical bodies localized in the free space gravitating Association. The reality of the technology is grounded in controlled experiments that the reader can easily repeat yourself. In the metaphysical aspect, without going beyond the main provisions of classical mechanics, we consider the nature itself and inertia, and the Foundation of stability and the principle of the existence of real entities, methods of imparting substances not only gravitational abilities, but also the electromagnetic.

**Category:** Classical Physics