[13] **viXra:1604.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 02:59:36*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The electromagnetic wave is shown to propagate in a charged capacitor with the mathematical description of this wave being a solution to the Maxwell equations. It is demonstrated that there is a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy in the charged capacitor, and the energy accumulated in the capacitor which is known as the potential electric energy, is the electromagnetic energy stored in the capacitor in the form of stationary flow.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1604.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:34:03*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic wave in a spherical capacitor which is included in an alternating current circuit or in an constant current circuit is proposed. A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented on the basis of this solution.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1604.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:32:33*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic wave in a spherical capacitor which is included in an alternating current circuit or in an constant current circuit is proposed. A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented on the basis of this solution. \\ Предлагается решение уравнений Максвелла для электромагнитной волны в сферическом конденсаторе который включен в цепь переменного или постоянного тока. На основе этого решения предлагается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1604.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 12:56:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In a recent theoretical paper, a group from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science in Japan showed that momentum density in non-uniform optical fields has an unusual component, which is orthogonal to the propagation direction of light and is proportional to the optical spin, which means the degree of circular polarization. They predicted that this spin momentum would produce a transverse spin-dependent optical force, a few orders of magnitude weaker than the usual radiation pressure. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1604.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 09:23:47*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

Contains the List 5.2 of Bolonkin’s scientific researches, works, articles and books written or published in 2007-2015 and free links to them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1604.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 06:09:40*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Our project is cheaper that Hawking-Milner project

The motion of the mathematical extra-terrestrial pendulum is considered in the spherical
gravitational field. The potential energy of the pendulum bob is approximated by the linear
term mgh and additional quadratical term in h, where h is height of the pendulum bob over
the reference point. The nonlinear equation of motion of pendulum is solved by the Landau-
Migdal method to obtain the frequency of motion and the swing amplitude. While the
Foucault pendulum bob moves over the sand surface, our pendulum bob moves in ionosphere.
It is not excluded that the pendulum project will be the integral part of the NASA cosmical
physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1604.0278 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-05 18:04:18*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The free-fall time in air was studied using the new dimensionless number GH (here mentioned as the Galilei-Huygens number to commemorate the achievements of Galileo Galilei and Christian Huygens in physics of free fall), a combination of the falling body mass and effective cross-section area, air density, and air drag coefficient. This number equals zero in vacuum and can be interpreted as the ratio of the air drag resistance force, calculated for the final velocity of the freefall in vacuum from the same height, to the gravity force. The free-fall time in air is shown to be a function of two parameters: the free-fall time in vacuum and dimensionless parameter GH . In most practical cases ( ), this function can be closely approximated as the product of the free-fall time in vacuum and a linear function of the parameter GH. To illustrate the accuracy and simplicity of the approximate equation, the free-fall time was calculated for various spherical bodies (ping-pong and tennis balls, hailstones, basketball, and track-and-field men’s shot) if dropped off the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The results obtained are straightforward and traceable and can be of educational value and interest for physics teachers and students.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1604.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 20:00:10*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using a simple mathematical model (with the final quadratic equation), the paper clearly illustrates elevated risks of thermal failure in the electric systems with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (in particular, for the electronics elements made of carbon and semiconductors). If the temperature coefficient of resistance is positive, the thermal equilibrium exists at any temperature below the melting point. But if the temperature coefficient of resistance is negative, there are three potential cases depending on cooling: (1) for a relatively low cooling rate, a thermal equilibrium is not feasible and the temperature goes up unlimitedly; (2) for a relatively high cooling rate, there are two thermal equilibrium states, stable and unstable; (3) in the borderline case, there is just one unstable thermal equilibrium.
As known, the heat produced in an undercooled electric circuit elevates a risk of thermal failure (for instance, Central Processing Units can generate a notable heat and crash if overheated). Such a risk is higher in the electric circuits with negative temperature coefficients of resistance [1-4], in particular for the elements made of semiconductors (silicon, germanium, etc.). The goal is to illustrate the relevant thermal effects using a simple engineering theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1604.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 10:41:25*

**Authors:** Junnichi Fujii

**Comments:** LibreOffice5.0 pdf, 5 pages, 4 figures, Japanese.

現代物理における時間の定義は, フォトンによる電磁相互作用 （光速やセシウムの励起）に依存しているが, 時間の定義としては十分ではない. 4つの仮定のもとで, 時間の定義を, 「時間＝作用可能なボソン数」と定義することで, 時間にまつわる6つの問題を, 解決または説明できることを示す.
1つめは, 時間の逆行を原理的に否定できることである. 2つめは, 相対性理論における重力と加速度の等価性をより簡潔に説明できることである. 3つめは, 重力によって時間が遅れることを, 直接的に説明できることである. 4つめは, 空間の歪みをより簡潔に説明できることである. 5つめは, 一般相対性理論の, 強重力下での計算不可能性に対する提案である. 6つめは, 一般相対性理論の, 量子サイズでの計算不可能性に対する提案である.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1604.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 21:28:11*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A device of power amplifier is invented by coupling a pair of short dipoles or a relay series of short dipoles. The short dipole refers to electric dipole with length less than half wavelength. The short dipole has characteristics of stronger interaction and lower self-resistance. The short dipoles also present complex mutual impedance due to near-field effects. The reflected impedance from the receiver to the transmitter is tuned to pure reactive impedance, which is cancelled out by adding opposite reactive impedance so that the reflected impedance to the transmitter is zero. The induced current in the receiver is larger than the initial current in the transmitter due to the higher mutual impedance and lower self-resistance so that the power is amplified sequentially in relay mode.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1604.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 04:32:48*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A solution to the Maxwell equations for dielectric and magnetic circuit of alternating current is presented. The structure of currents and energy flow is examined.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1604.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 06:34:22*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is shown that in a chargeable capacitor spreads an electromagnetic wave, and the mathematical description of the wave is the solution of Maxwell's equations. It is shown that there in charged capacitor stationary flux of electromagnetic energy exist. The energy contained in the capacitor, which is considered to be the electric potential energy, it is electromagnetic energy, which in the capacitor as a stationary flow is stored. \\ Показывается, что в заряжаемом конденсаторе распространяется электромагнитная волна, а математическое описание этой волны является решение уравнений Максвелла. Показывается, что в заряженном конденсаторе существует стационарный поток электромагнитной энергии, а та энергия, которая содержится в конденсаторе и которую принято считать электрической потенциальной энергией, является электромагнитной энергией, хранящейся в конденсаторе в виде стационарного потока.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1604.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 08:35:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

A solution of Maxwell equations for dielectric and magnetic circuit of alternating current is presented. The structure of currents and energy flows is reviewed. \\ Предлагается решение уравнений Максвелла для диэлектрической и магнитной цепи переменного тока. Рассматривается структура токов и потоков энергии.

**Category:** Classical Physics