[14] **viXra:1702.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-22 13:11:13*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** Pages.

While all objects having mass also possess energy, energy itself has no rest mass. But both mass and energy interact gravitationally. Therefore, the real gravitational constant is G/c4, instead of simple G, while the interacting partners are represented by their respective energy (Mc2, mc2). The new formulation leads to some interesting results, which are derived and discussed in the pdf of this communication.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1702.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 15:07:31*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers a physical process inside EM Drive. According to the proposed conception, there is an electromagnetic field gyroscope, EMFG, originated due to superposition of straight and reflected flows of the electromagnetic energy inside the resonant chamber. The considered model comes to conclusion of existence of a narrow area inside the EMFG where its mass-function experiences a break and even becomes negative. There are 3 models which deduce origination of the thrust of EM Drive on a base of the considered properties of the EMFG.
The first considered model states that there is a gradient of the gravitational potential inside the originated narrow area due to its heavy non-linear electromagnetic mass. Interaction of the originated gradient of the gravitational potential and the mass of the EM Drive results in origination of a net force, which is the thrust of the EM Drive. This thrust is furnished by the axial gradient of the gravitational potential inside the EM Drive.
The second model projects a property and theory of 4D gyroscope, developed by G.I.Shipov, onto EMFG. Operation of the mechanical 4D gyroscope results in the reactionless motion, due to a time-varying and frequency-dependable mass of the gyroscope. The EMFG has the time and frequency dependable mass and fits the above condition for the mechanical 4D gyroscope.
The third model considers a behavior of the EMFG in frames of N.A. Kozyrev’s Casual Mechanics. The EMFG is a quantum object and its C2 indicator of movement of time trends to zero as well as the external force 0. The considered limit of their ratio brings a finite force which is a trust developed by the EM Drive.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1702.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:35:07*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Maxwell equations are not causal, says Oleg Jefimenko. In this paper, the causality of the Maxwell equations is explored and explained, and new causal equations formulated, according to Jefimenko’s important work in this area, strongly inspired by Oliver Heaviside’s genius work. The causal equations take into account what is commonly called ‘relativistic’ velocities, and in fact replace the need for any relativity theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1702.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:43:51*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravity measurement of Qian-shen Wang during the total eclipse of the Sun on 9 March 1997 showed a strange diagram-shape over time. In this paper, I investigate this shape by setting up a simple scenario: the double shielding of the used gravimeter didn’t totally exclude an induction of the fast electrons of the Sun’s corona. The passage of the Moon shielded the fields. Neither the hypothesis of a gravitational shielding, nor a temperature effect can be maintained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1702.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:53:41*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, two types of magnetic fields were proposed and discussed. The two types of magnetic fields should have very different properties with respect to the observer’s motion state. For convenience to discuss, here we name them absolute magnetic field and relative magnetic field. The absolute magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets or by electric currents in neutral wires, which is very familiar to us. Its magnitude is invariable with respect to the motion state of the observer. The relative magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by directional motion of like charges, of which, the magnitude is variable with respect to the motion state of the observer. Here in this article, experimental designs are proposed, by which the existence of the relative magnetic field can be proved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1702.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 08:13:33*

**Authors:** Kiyoung Kim

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It has been believed that the process of scientific reasoning in research and its conclusion in the natural science should be in phenomenological basis. However, what if physical reality that is based on phenomenological facts is not enough to explain all natural phenomena or what if physical reality is not closed by itself? In other words, what if physical reality is representing just a part of outcome through interacting with any unconceivable entities in ontological truth? After reviewing 4-dimensional complex space model, which has been introduced as an alternative way to understand physics comprehensively from classical physics to modern physics, some interesting scientific activities are discussed, which have been ignored in the name of pseudoscience, such as free electric energy generation, Hutchison Effect, and the common physical origin of the Hutchison Effect and WTC (World Trade Center) collapse in 2001.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1702.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Blackbody radiation by volume accounts for temperature distribution in the troposphere. Gravity perform an equal amount of work on a square meter, as the amount of thermal energy radiated by the surface towards space.

Abstract
This is a very simple analysis of earth and the input of solar energy using heat transfer and geometry. I show that earth radiates as a blackbody by volume and not as a surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-19 12:25:44*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. fix scaling error in figure 3

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations lead always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-22 09:10:48*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1702.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 19:34:42*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1702.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 09:37:09*

**Authors:** J.Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle once said, and I am paraphrasing (once you remove all that's false, whatever remains has to be the truth. No matter how strange or ridiculous it may seem). I am going to assume that a photon will turn into a wave just because it goes through a double slit in a piece of paper is a false statement. I will then demonstrate that whatever is left can explain the four bars of light that form when light travels through the double slit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1702.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam will behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront will slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number.
It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1702.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 04:24:05*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We show that the time must be quantized in a classical world, and therefore all other physics parameters must also be. We propose to build a classical physics theory that uses only theorems, but no postulate. The foundation are build on five elementary theorems, that lead trivially and straight forward to the description of the Planck's constant, the Planck-Einstein relationship, and the speed of light as the maximum speed, although we remain on a classical point of view.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1702.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 11:46:31*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to all journals

We consider the incidence of a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave on a mirror at an angle and its reflection from it. We have calculated the transfer of a momentum and a spin to the mirror and, accordingly, the pressure and density of a mechanical torque on the mirror. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of the plane electromagnetic wave, as momentum. Recognizing the existence of photons with momentum, energy and spin in a plane electromagnetic wave, it is strange to deny the presence of spin in such a wave, as is done in modern electrodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics