[18] **viXra:1908.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 14:44:29*

**Authors:** Zhuofa Chen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we investigated the performance of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different channel configurations including single-active-layer (SAL) Sn-Zn-O (TZO), dual-active-layers (DAL) In-Sn-O (ITO)/TZO, and triple-active-layers (TAL) TZO/ITO/TZO. The TAL TFTs were found to combine the advantages of SAL TFTs (a low off-state current) and DAL TFTs (a high mobility and a low threshold voltage). The proposed TAL TFTs exhibit superior electrical performance, e.g. a high on-off state current ratio of 2×10^8, a low threshold voltage of 0.52 V, a high saturation mobility of 145.2 cm2/Vs, and a low off-state current of 3.3 pA. The surface morphology and characteristics of the ITO and TZO films were investigated and the TZO film was found to be C-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC). A simplified resistance model was deduced to explain the high channel resistance of TAL TFTs. At last, TAL TFTs with different channel lengths were also discussed to show the stability and the uniformity of our fabrication process. Owing to its low-processing temperature, superior electrical performance, and low cost, TFTs with the proposed TAL channel configuration are highly promising for flexible displays where the use of heat-sensitive polymeric substrates is desirable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1908.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 15:09:27*

**Authors:** Christopher Rodgers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Kirchhoff’s law of voltages is a standard in the education of students learning circuits for the first time. Even when this is done in physics classes, there is no attention paid to the origins of this law. This is a disservice to the students, because this robs them of an opportunity to see a real world application of conservation laws that they don’t need to take on faith. Furthermore, if we introduce a magnetic field to the systems, things get more interesting. This allows the student to see a firsthand application and emergence of a fundamental property of the universe and its effects on everyday things, Faraday’s law. In this work we will be exploring these two phenomena from first principles, and showing how Kirchhoff is a limiting case of Faraday’s Law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1908.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-21 12:55:33*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The characterization of magnetic fields around elementary particles is an extension of a project to model the gravitational field. The observation that the South Pole is slightly stronger than the North Pole as suggested in a previous experiment is confirmed. Each of the particles has a unique magnetic field lobes structure.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1908.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 23:12:59*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A power transfer system is designed with wire antennas. There are three wires, which are transmitter, receiver, and counterpoise. The counterpoise wire is placed between the transmitter and receiver to modify the electric field between transmitter and receiver so that the transmitter current is reduced and the transfer efficiency is increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1908.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-11 22:11:42*

**Authors:** M. Omori, Y. Iida, T. Saiki

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Recording and operation and control for data processing and are conducted using electricity in conventional computers. Optical computers only work on light. Since amount of data to be processed has dramatically increased in recent years, it is difficult to continue to develop computers only with technology based on the extension of semiconductor electronics. Therefore, it is necessary for the computing technology to be based on a new concept. Concerning about optical information technology increases from such a background. Various proposals for optical switching using various materials have been conducted until now. Our group has proposed an optical switch using the free carrier effect in silicon phonic waveguide by computer simulation. In this time, we report on an experimental succession of optical switching using the carrier effect of silicon. Signal light was switched by injecting violet light for control on silicon.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1908.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 11:30:46*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Current research enquiry has sought a more primitive explanation for gravity. The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. Four experiments are done to examine the repulsive magnetic force characteristics. Different relations of force to distance were found. A speculation that gravity may be the sum of the poles at the side of photons is formed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1908.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 14:45:10*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 370 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1908.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 21:00:18*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 528 Pages.

New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized—that is, fully developed and utilized.
Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings; 2) Then methods, estimation and computations of the main system parameters are listed, and 3) A brief description of possible applications—candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings.
The first and third parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public, the second part of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students.
The book gives the main physical data and technical equations in attachments which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book.
The author have published many new ideas and articles and proposed macro-projects in recent years (see: General References). This book is useful as an archive of material from the authors’ own articles published during the last few years.
Every chapter is independent. Than why some figures are repited.
Copyright @ auther.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1908.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-07 11:30:15*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to invalidate light density inverse squared law , and solve the problem of
light density for distance values beyond its range.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1908.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-13 11:59:52*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.org/vixra:1801.0037". The recent script introduced a sphere with surface-tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at the publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text I have tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1908.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-08 02:04:28*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine undefined arithmetic expressions that have been left
by great scientists, to solve misunderstanding these expressions cause in physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1908.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-05 16:33:40*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** language: Russian, number of pages: 17, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

A separate widespread type of motion in any space is the wave motion characterized by some amplitude A, oscillation frequency f of the wave parameter and velocity c = cx of the wave motion along the direction of the x axis. In this paper, the equations of wave motion in spaces with different metrics are considered: in Galilean space, pre-relativistic space of classical mechanics, Minkowski space. Aberration, relativistic and Doppler effects are calculated. Various cases of mutual motion of the source and the receiver and corresponding transformations of coordinates are considered.

Отдельным широко распространенным типом движения в любом пространстве является
волновое движение, характеризующееся некоторой амплитудой A, частотой колебаний
параметра волны и скоростью c = cx движения волны вдоль направления оси x. В данной
работе рассмотрены уравнения движения волны в пространствах с различной метрикой: в
галилеевом пространстве, дорелятивистском пространстве классической механики,
пространстве Минковского. Рассчитаны аберрация, релятивистский и Доплера эффекты.
Рассмотрены различные случаи взаимного движения источника и приемника и
соответствующие им преобразования координат.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1908.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-06 00:22:08*

**Authors:** G Piyadasa, UD Annakkage, AM Gole, AD Rajapakse, U Premaratne

**Comments:** 46 Pages. Supplementary data is attached at the end of the manuscript

The objective of this study is to propose a heuristic model of energy propagation due to an anomaly; electromagnetic-field penetration into a continuously covered conducting enclosure (Faraday shield) from an external radio frequency source, violating the accepted model in electromagnetic-field theory. In this study, at arbitrarily selected frequency, range of 26.965–1800 MHz, of an external frequency source, an electromagnetic field inside the conducting enclosure was observed, contrary to expectations, which was followed by a systematic examination. Although no induced voltage could be expected inside the enclosure according to classical theory, experiment revealed a clear induced voltage inside; An attenuated induced voltage of -18.0dB to -1.0dB (for the range of frequencies 26.965 – 1800MHz) was observed. Hence these results apparently contradict the established notion that an electromagnetic field cannot penetrate a faraday shield. Rationalizing these observations and the results of the investigation leads to an alternative model to the existing models in energy propagation in free space. In this model, novel quantities named ‘ISpin energy’ and ‘ISpin-energy field’ are defined to replace the concept of electric and magnetic fields in classical electromagnetic theory. The proposed ISpin-energy model is capable of explaining the unexpected presence of the electromagnetic field inside the Faraday shield as well as the induction of an alternating current in a conductor placed inside a Faraday shield along with other existing observations in physics such as those in famous Young’s double slit experiment on interference of light - which provided the basis for the wave theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1908.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-04 08:13:58*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Absorber theory published in 1945 and 1949 by Wheeler and Feynman which tells us that if the sun is put in a empty space where apart from the sun is nothing, the sun cannot shine. That means only with the source, the radiation cannot be produced. The radiation is phenomena of an action-at-a-distance. The action at a distance needs at least two object: the source and the sink or the emitter and the absorber. Only with one charge even it has the acceleration, it still cannot make any radiation. However this result is not reflect at the Maxwell's theory. According to the theory of Maxwell, a single charge can produce the radiation without any help of the absorber. Hence, Maxwell theory is different with the absorber theory of Wheeler and Feynman, this author thought that Wheeler and Feynman is correct. According the absorber theory the source (emitter) sends the retarded wave. The sink (absorber) sends the advanced wave. In the electromagnetic field theory, W. J. Welch introduced the reciprocity theorem in 1960. V.H. Rumsey mentioned a method to transform the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to a new formula in 1963. In early of 1987 Shuang-ren Zhao (this author) introduced the mutual energy theorem in frequency domain. In the end of 1987 Adrianus T. de Hoop introduced the time-domain cross-correlation reciprocity theorem. All these theories can be seen as a same theorem in different domain: Fourier domain or in time domain. The reciprocity theorem of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop has been applied to find out the directivity diagram of receiving antenna from the corresponding transmitting antenna. The mutual energy theorem of Zhao, has been applied to define an inner product space of electromagnetic radiation fields, and hence, to applied to the sphere wave expansion and the plane wave expansion. All these theorems the transmitting antenna sends the retarded waves and the receiving antenna sends the advanced waves. The reciprocity theorems of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop talk about reciprocity theorem in which the two fields one can be real one can be virtual. The mutual energy theorem tell us the two fields the retarded wave sent out from the transmitting antenna and the advanced wave sent out from the receiving antenna are real and are physical waves with energy. After 30 years silence on this topic, finally, this author has introduced the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle which updated the Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and Schrödinger's quantum mechanics. According to the theory of mutual energy principle, the energy of all particles are transferred through the mutual energy flows. The mutual energy flow are inner product of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The retarded wave is the action the emitter gives to the absorber. The advanced wave is the reaction the absorber gives to the emitter. When the absorber received the retarded wave, it received a force from the emitter, that is the action from emitter to the absorber. When the emitter receive the advanced wave, it obtained the reaction from the absorber. This reaction is express as the recoil force of the particle to the emitter. Hence, action is retarded and the reaction is advanced. In this article the action is retarded and the reaction is advanced will be widen to the macroscopic object for example a stone or a piece of wood. Hence, even the waves in water, in air or wood all involve the advanced reaction. The author reviewed the Newton's third law, found that only when the reaction is advanced, the Newton's third law can be applied on arbitrary surface of the object. Hence the reaction is advanced must be correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1908.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-04 15:12:03*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** language: Russian, number of pages: 7, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields defined by scalar and vector potential fields and their intensities, it is possible to have force fields defined directly through the metric tensor gij(r,t). The role of the metric tensor in the motion of a material point is that the trajectory between any two points of space–time along the geodesic "line" as the line of the smallest length is determined through it. The length of the "straight" corresponds to the length of the shortest "interval" between these points. The differential equation of this "shortest" condition is expressed by the Christoffel symbols. In this paper we consider the case of weak "metric" fields and velocities of the material point. The Christoffel symbols themselves and the metric field are defined as corresponding fields in Galilean space.
Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным и векторным потенциальным полями и их
напряженностями, возможно существование силовых полей, определяющихся
непосредственно через метрический тензор gij(r,t). Роль метрического тензора в движении
материальной точки заключается в том, что через него определяется траектория между
любыми двумя точками пространства–времени по геодезической "прямой" как линии
наименьшей длины. Длина "прямой" при этом соответствует длине наикратчайшего
"интервала" между этими точками. Дифференциальное уравнение этого "наикратчайшего"
условия выражается через символы Кристоффеля - В данной работе рассмотрен случай
слабых "метрических" полей и скоростей движения материальной точки. Сами символы
Кристоффеля и метрическое поле определены как соответствующие поля в галилеевом
пространстве

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1908.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-04 15:14:32*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** language: Russian, number of pages: 8, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields given by the scalar potential field and its intensity, there may be force vector potential fields Vi(r,t), which are converted as a vector. Such fields can directly set the energy K = p0 and the momentum pi (speed) of the motion of a material point in space or their change in contrast to the scalar potential field, which determines the change only of the kinetic energy of the material point. This field is called a vector potential field.
Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным потенциальным полем и его напряженностью, возможно существование силовых векторных потенциальных полей Vi(r,t), которые преобразуются как вектор. Такие поля могут непосредственно задавать энергию K = p0 и импульс pi (скорость) движения материальной точки в пространстве или их изменение в отличие от скалярного потенциального поля, задающего изменение только кинетической энергии м.т. Такое поле называется векторным потенциальным полем

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1908.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-04 15:30:33*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** language: Russian, number of pages: 6, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

This paper deals with the description of the scalar potential field and the motion of a material point in it in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations. Attention is also paid to the existence of such fields in classical physics with the operating principles of relativity. It is shown that such fields can only be stationary, and not stationary can only be in conservative systems.
В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярного потенциального поля и движения материальной точки в ней в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях. Также уделено внимание вопросу существования таких полей в классической физике с действующими в ней принципами относительности. Показано, что такие поля могут быть только стационарными, а не стационарными могут быть только в консервативных системах.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1908.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-04 15:34:36*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** language: Russian, number of pages: 3, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the true scalar potential fields that determine the energy of M. O. in space-time or its change, there are other similar to scalar fields that affect M. O. In this paper we consider the description of the scalar fields of density ρ and the strength E of the resistance to the motion of a material point in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations.
Кроме истинно скалярных потенциальных полей, определяющих энергию м.о. в пространстве-времени или ее изменение, существуют и другие, похожие на скалярные, поля, которые воздействуют на м.о. В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярных полей плотности ρ и напряженности E сопротивления движению материальной точки в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях.

**Category:** Classical Physics