Classical Physics

1601 Submissions

[12] viXra:1601.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 10:44:35

Optical Biopsy with Long-Range Nondiffracting Beams

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

Most current configurations for optical biopsy contain fiber optic bundles at both the delivery and receiving ends of the optical system. Some layouts include distal lenses to either collimate or focus the incident light at various depth locations across the tissue. The inherent beam divergence, along with the highly scattering nature of the living tissue, is known to limit the penetration depth of the probe and the spatial or temporal resolution of the detected signal. In this work we study a novel modality for tissue illumination based on the use of long-range nondiffracting beams (LRNB). LRNB represent narrow-width light pencils with a constant or linearly varying axial intensity that propagate over large distances without diffractive spreading. Recent tests have demonstrated that LRNB exhibit insignificant intensity distortions when operated as beacon beams through atmospheric turbulence. Our numerical and software simulations show that LRNB may offer the potential for larger penetration depth and enhanced contrast over setups using conventional laser beams. Clinical applications include diagnosis, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1601.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-30 08:09:21

New Concept for a Photonic Switch

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 12 Pages.

The paper reveals a new operating principle for a planar photonic transistor in which no electronic components or nonlinear optical modules are used for digital switching.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1601.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-29 22:22:21

Curvature Sensing from a Single Defocused Image in Partially Coherent Light

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages.

Curvature sensing is an intensity-based technique for wavefront reconstruction using two defocused images located on the opposite sides of the focal plane. It requires either one detector placed at two consecutive axial locations or a dual path with a pair of detectors from which the sensor signal is obtained. The method yields sensitivity comparable to that of the Hartmann test in the adjustment and evaluation of ground-based optical telescopes. We introduce the analytical framework underlying the function of a curvature sensor which operates from a single defocused image. A series of twin images is computed from the propagation law of the mutual intensity along the optical axis. The polynomial decomposition of the wavefront allows retrieval of Zernike coefficients by means of the standard least-squares algorithm. The paper concludes with a review of image sampling requirements and a discussion on the signal-to-noise ratio.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1601.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-28 06:12:45

The Experiment Confirming the Existence of the Fourth Electromagnetic Induction

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages.

The presented experiment is a proof of the fact that a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates electromagnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-15 10:28:34

The Second Solution of Maxwell's Equations \\ Второе решение уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1601.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 22:32:04

Opened a New Type 3D Printing, Resolution 3D Printing Increased by 1000 Times.

Authors: Andrea Lenz, Korolev Daniil Leonidovich.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Today, there are a lot of projects equipment and products in the field of nanotechnology, but modern technology cannot adequately implement them because of the impossibility of creating high 3D nanostructures, despite all the advances in 2D technology. Modern technology spend hundreds minutes for creating a structure of thin layer. Consequence: the creation of high 3D nanostructures with good resolution will go for decades. However, it is these structures are necessary for many products. Conventional 3D printing also cannot solve these problems. Minimum resolution of modern 3D printers 30 micrometers. We developed a 3D printer based on the assembly from ion beams with a resolution better than 30 nanometers, and without limitation in the used materials. Progress by 1000 times. This printer removes the drawbacks of modern technology. This fact and self-assembly of this printer open the way to new types of technology.
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1601.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 07:57:26

The Experiment Confirming the Existence of the Fourth Electromagnetic Induction \ Эксперимент, подтверждающий существование четвертой электромагнитной индукции

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

We consider the experiment, which is proof that the stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates an electromagnetic induction. \ Рассматривается эксперимент, являющийся доказательством того, что стационарный поток электромагнитной энергии создает электромагнитную индукцию.
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1601.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-19 03:47:47

Em Drive Theory

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 5 Pages. Some minor changes.

The EM drive is an object composed by a Magnetron feeding a tapered resonant cavity whose area is greater at one end. Both ends of the cavity are sealed. When the Magnetron is turned on, the EM drive manifests a thrust toward the smaller end of the cavity. Nothing is emitted outside. Mainstream Physics is reluctant to recognize the EM drive as valid as it appears to break the law of conservation of momentum For this reason EM drive caused discussions, theories more or less exotic, and skepticisms. But the experiments seem to confirm it works. Here I discuss a simple theory in the framework of classical physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1601.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:36:05

Electrical Solitons and Their Application to Communication Systems

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 61 Pages.

The following are learnt and achieved: 1. A robust electrical soliton oscillator/ generator was designed. 2. Soliton and similariton pulses propagated with far less distortion than their square counterparts. 3. Soliton trains could be implemented effectively in digital communication techniques with better results than sinusoidal waves. 4. Soliton modulation could be used in optical communication, leading to a cost effective yet powerful laser.5. Chip to chip communication is successfully implemented using solitons.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1601.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 05:36:34

Эфирное устройство Мира.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 97 Pages.

УДК 053 Акованцев Пётр Иванович, сменный мастер ВПАТП №3, г.Воронеж, Российская Федерация. Эфирное устройство Мира. Аннотация: В статье изложено описание устройства Мира с помощью одной сущности-Эфира. Впервые даны представления о структурах электрона и протона. Дана природа основных физический явлений, как гравитация, электростатические и электромагнитные взаимодействий. Описана природа возникновения центробежной силы. Даны описания экспериментов, проведение которых, покажет наличие Эфира вокруг нас. Дано представление о формировании элементов таблицы Менделеева, показаны взаимодействия на уровне атомов и молекул. На космологическом уровне показаны этапы развития Вселенной. Я оперирую не символами, а образами и математику не привлекаю для доказательства своих выводов. Для доказательства я привлекаю эксперимент и наблюдения астрономии и астрофизики. По моим понятиям природа силы заложена в движении Эфира. В основе всех явлений Природы лежит СВЕТОЭфиродинамика. Во Вселенной происходит только один процесс перехода Эфира в СВЕТ. Все явления в Природе предназначены для обеспечения этого процесса или являются следствием этого процесса. Ключевые слова: Эфир, Свет, СветоЭфиродинамика. UDC 053 Akovantsev Peter Ivanovich, shift foreman MTE №3, Voronezh, Russian Federation. The essential structure of the world. Abstract: The article described a device description of the world through a single entity-ether. For the first time we are given insight into the structure of electron and proton. Given the nature of the basic physical phenomena such as gravity, electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions. It described the nature of occurrence of the centrifugal force. The descriptions of experiments conducted which show the presence of ether around us. The representation of the formation of the elements of the periodic table, showing the interaction at the level of atoms and molecules. On the cosmological level shows the stages of development of the universe. I do not operate on symbols, and images, and do not attract the math to prove their conclusions. To prove this I draw the experiment and observation of astronomy and astrophysics. According to my notions of the nature of power lies in the motion of the ether. The basis of all the phenomena of Nature is SVETOEfirodinamika. In the universe takes only one transition in the light of Aether. All phenomena in nature are intended to ensure that the process or are a consequence of this process. Keywords: Ether, Light, SvetoEfirodinamika.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1601.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-10 14:35:45

Время в капле воды / Time in a Drop of Water

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian: Yusupov Robert © Time in the drop of water

Согласно учебникам физика является наукой о природе, физика изучает природу. В физике считается, что природа материальна. Из естествознания и философии мы знаем, что понятия материя и время являются фундаментальными понятиями природы и мироздания. Время широко используется в физике. Но в теории современной физики не определены физические величины материя и время. Это нонсенс. Что такое время? Как время соотносится с природой, с реальностью и материей? В предлагаемой вниманию статье предпринята попытка решения проблемы времени с позиции диалектического материализма. Для решения используется простая модель, представленная в природе примитивным процессом свободного истечения воды из резервуара по каплям. ------------------------------- According to the textbooks the physics is the science of nature, the physics studies nature. In the physics it is believed that the nature of the material. Because of the natural sciences and philosophy we know that the concepts of matter and time are the fundamental concepts of the nature and the universe. Time is widely used in physics. But in the theory of modern physics the physical quantities matter and time are not determined. This is nonsense. What is time? How time is related to the nature, reality and the matter? The attention of the proposed article is an attempt to solve the problem of time from a position of dialectical materialism. For solution using a simple model presented in the nature by the primitive process of the free expiration of the water from the reservoir dropwise.
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1601.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-07 02:11:53

EUV Plasma Source with IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 10 Pages.

Laser power requirements for an EUV laser-produced plasma source can be reduced by using power-recycling optics to reflect plasma-scattered IR radiation back onto the plasma. Previously proposed spherical retroreflective mirrors can be used to form an inverted image of the plasma on itself, but an erect (non-inverted) image would be more tolerant of positional alignment errors. Erect-imaging optical design alternatives for power recycling are described in this paper.
Category: Classical Physics