Classical Physics

1911 Submissions

[18] viXra:1911.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 18:47:00

Cheap, Small Electric Space Propulsion

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research, the author proposes a fundamentally different way to launch spacecraft. The method is characterized in that the spacecraft is accelerated by an electric accelerator that ionizes the air and throws it at a high speed regardless of the speed of the accelerator itself. The accelerator returns to the launch site after the launch and returns the energy spent on accelerating the accelerator body. That is, the electric ground (from the power plant) energy is spent only on the acceleration of the spacecraft itself. As a result, we have the lowest possible launch cost (about $1 / kg) and are not limited in the number of launches. This will allow us to really engage in space exploration. In addition, in wartime, it allows an unlimited number of military vehicles to launch and organize anti-missile defense (electric gun). The proposed invention also allows to solve the problem of the engine for hypersonic aircraft.
Category: Classical Physics

[17] viXra:1911.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:14:14

Gravitation - Flat Power Field

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 10 Pages.

A new principle of origin and the nature of the action of gravity forces are proposed. Forces of universal attraction have plane-symmetrical directions. On this basis, it becomes possible to reconsider certain regularities in natural science. The new principle of gravitation will allow to explain physical paradoxes, to improve methods of scientific research and some technological processes.
Category: Classical Physics

[16] viXra:1911.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:16:38

Genesis of the Planet Earth

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article we consider the origin and subsequent evolution of our planet. Theoretical studies are based on the author's theory of vortex gravity, cosmology and cosmogony, and also on the law of conservation of the angular momentum of the body's rotation. As a practical justification for calculations and conclusions, the well-known fact of slowing the rotation of the Earth is used. The principles of the formation of elementary particles and all types of inorganic and organic substances are proposed. The calculation of the physical state of our planet in the past and in the future is done. The age of the Earth is calculated in the article, which exceeds the generally accepted value by 1.2 billion years. It is shown that the principle of the origin and evolution of the Earth is fully applicable for the genesis of all other celestial bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[15] viXra:1911.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:19:13

On Invariant Speed of Light

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new physical model of the appearance of light, properties, and its trajectory. Explains the paradox of invariance and isotropy of light based on the laws of classical physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[14] viXra:1911.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:21:28

Photon Mass

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The atomic structure is presented on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation. The feasibility and calculation of the values of the density and mass of electromagnetic particles are proposed. A calculation is made, which proves that the photon must have mass. In the calculations, some physical characteristics of electromagnetic particles that are accepted by modern physics are refuted.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1911.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:31:43

Equivalence of Energy and Atomic Gravitation

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Investigated directly proportional dependence of the energy end mass of a physical object on the strength of the vortex gravitation, which created the object.
Category: Classical Physics

[12] viXra:1911.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-23 07:59:38

Q-switched and Mode-locked Nd/Cr:YAG Ceramic Pulse Laser

Authors: T. Saiki, N. Hirota, S. Kanemori, Y. Iida
Comments: 13 Pages.

A mode-locked and Q-switched short pulse laser using Nd3+ /Cr3+: YAG ceramic has been constructed with a semiconductor SESAM and Cr4+:YAG crystal optical switch based on excite state absorption (ESA). Laser oscillations of the pulse laser were observed experimentally. The Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic laser has a high conversion efficiency from white light (such as lamp light or solar light) to laser. A single-mode locked laser pulse with fast modulation on the order of 100 ps was obtained in some pump power regimes when using Cr4+:YAG crystal. The obtained pulse duration of the short pulse was a few hundred ps.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1911.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 13:59:46

EUV Lithography System with Diffraction Optics

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 34 Pages.

A spot-scanning, maskless EUV lithography system using singlet zone-plate lenses for spot generation exhibits significant chromatic dispersion, but the dispersion can be neutralized by means of a diffractive, phase-Fresnel mirror in the projection optics. The same dispersion compensation method can be used in the context of EUV mask-projection lithography using a diffractive photomask, which can focus illumination onto sparse image patterns for high-dose, aberration-free printing.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1911.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-29 14:26:36

The Cause of Inertia

Authors: Aurelian Dumitru
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper presents the cause for inertia. We present a theoretical model of the mechanism of inertia and propose an experiment to test the new theory. Inertia is emerging at macroscopic level from the variable inertia of the microscopic particles which compose an object. The rectilinear uniform motion is just false impression caused by sinusoidal rectilinear motion. The mechanism of inertia reveals that inertia is quantized.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1911.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 06:13:16

The Space Conveyor Could Revolutionize Space Travel

Authors: Stanley Korn
Comments: 9 Pages.

The proposed space conveyor is a mass transit system for launching vehicles into space that uses the energy of Earth’s rotation to do the heavy lifting. In some respects, the space conveyor is similar to a space elevator in that they both consist of a ground station connected to a top station located some distance above the height of geostationary orbit. However, instead of being joined by a tether, the two stations are connected by a conveyor belt moving along rollers on both stations. Whereas with a space elevator, the climber must make a round trip from the ground to the top station and back before it can carry a second load, the space conveyor allows loads to be continuously attached to the moving conveyor belt, resulting in a vast increase in carrying capacity compared to the space elevator. Furthermore, if the height of the space conveyor is chosen so that the gravitational force acting on the conveyor belt and the attached conveyor cars is exactly balanced by the centrifugal force due to Earth’s rotation, the only energy required to operate the space conveyor would be that which is necessary to offset the small losses due to friction on the bearings supporting the rollers as well as air resistance on the tiny fraction of the conveyor belt lying within Earth’s atmosphere. This balance between the gravitational force and the centrifugal force will continue to hold even in the presence of a net upward flow of mass, as is expected to occur for some time after the space conveyor becomes operational, as humanity leaves Earth to explore and colonize the rest of the solar system, that energy difference being provided by the energy of Earth’s rotation. It turns out that the minimum tensile strength required for the conveyor belt of the space conveyor is the same as that for the tether of the space elevator, so it follows that if the technology exists for constructing a space elevator, it likewise exists for constructing a space conveyor. Therefore, given the substantial advantages of the space conveyor as compared to the space elevator, namely, vastly increased carrying capacity as well as greatly reduced energy required per unit payload carried aloft, it makes sense to devote our resources to designing and building a space conveyor rather than a space elevator.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1911.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 13:06:53

Elementary Geometric Proofs Of Euler's Rotation Theorem

Authors: Ross Ure Anderson
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures

Two elementary Euclidean Geometry proofs of Euler's Rotation Theorem, with appendices discussing a formal mathematical definition of rigid motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1911.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 22:44:56

Two Body Motion: A Rudimentary Inspection

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 10 Pages.

The basic laws of mechanics, conservation of linear momentum and angular momentum have been considered along with a third equation—a new one-- to bring out conflicting features in the subject by considering two body motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1911.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 15:41:29

New Small Cheap Rocket for Small Payload

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 10 Pages.

Conventional modern rocket has existed for more than a half century. However, there has been little or no significant progress in their basic data. They are very exceedingly complex and generally very expensive to build. Designers ordinarily try to improve them by simplifying in order to reduce the cost payload launches. They try to use the first stagy of rocket sometimes, because the rocket engine and body are expensive. But no significant success. The author offers a new type of rocket which does not have the usual rocket body and engine (only open solid rocket fuel). This new rocket is cheap to fabricate, may be switched on and switched off many times and has specific impulse more than conventional solid fuel engine (i.e., close to liquid fuel). One can be used for launch as well as vector correcting rocket. This method is particularly suitable for micro-spacecraft (up to 1 kg). It allows to reduce the launch weight of the rocket to 50 ÷ 1000 kg.
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1911.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 04:45:16

Universe, Multiverse and TIME.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 14 Pages. Reality of our existence in time.

The concept of time in multiverse.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1911.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 17:03:06

Mass Spectrum for Leptons and Quarks

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the mass spectrum of the standard model is infinite, and I try to evaluate a simple formula for the masses.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1911.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 03:37:43

Grand Unified TheorieS

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 439 Pages.

This book contains theories in physics, chemistry, biology, geosciences, and mathematics. Spinity is a force to drag spacetime to rotate around central mass. Rest mass produces gravity, spinning mass produces spinity; rest charge produces electricity, spinning charge produces magnetism. Gravitospinity Maxwell equations can be obtained. Light is also the gravity wave, and light decides time. Space-time has smallest unit as new Planck volume and Planck time. Flight principle is given. Lightity is dark energy. Photon emitted from galaxy expands the universe acceleratedly via light pressure. General relativity suggests mass induces spacetime curvature; charge relativity suggests charge induces spacetime torsion. There is no dark matter, and spiral galaxies are formed due to charge relativity which replaces quantum electrodynamics. Integrating general relativity, charge relativity, and light pressure, we get 4x4 universe field tensor. The birth and end of universe can be deducted. Unified field theory can also be obtained by integrating electric field, magnetic field, gravity field, spinity field, and temperature field. Combining gravitospinity, electromagnetism, and matter standing wave, I deduct a determinative atom model replacing quantum mechanics. In addition, I propose a new chemical bond theory according to the new atom model. Homochirality is due to co-catalysis of L-amino acids and D-sugars. Extinction is due to Milankovitch cycle. Earthquake is caused by abrupt light release from inner earth which explains electromagnetism/ ionosphere anomaly and intra-tectonic earthquakes replacing plate tectonic earthquake theory. Tornado genesis is related to charge relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1911.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 06:49:10

Galilean Space and the Doppler Effect Галилеево пространство и эффект Доплера

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 20 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, p.20, russian

In Galilean space 3 (three) metrics describing its geometrical properties in various cases are possible. These are 1) 1-dimensional time interval, 2) 3-dimensional distance and 3) 4-dimensional wave interval. The main question of this work is: will we be able to determine some geometry by wave standards? Suppose there are two researchers (hereinafter-the objects "researcher", "observer", "experimenter" - identify: this is homo sapiens): can we measure the distance between them? Is it possible to measure the mutual velocity and its direction? And is it possible to synchronize his watch with mine? And what is clock synchronization? And in General – is there a synchronization problem? Are there inertial frames of reference outside absolute frames of reference? Is it possible to use wave standards of one ISO in other ISO and how do they differ? The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. This word is the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. Other main word-combinations are connected with the word "wave" - wave in Galilean space, Galilean wave space, wave standard, wave metric. Etc. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is the fixed air medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is the empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference (hereinafter - AISO), but for propagating waves as independent entities it is a real AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate only with one specific velocity – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be viewed separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the AISO. Despite the possibility of independent groundless consideration of the existence of the wave, there is a risk of the existence of this basis. In addition to waves, non-wave objects can exist in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence of the wave. В ГП возможны 3 (три) метрики, описывающие ее геометрические свойства в различных случаях. Это 1) 1-мерный промежуток времени, 2) 3-мерное расстояние и 3) 4-мерный волно-вой интервал. Главный вопрос этой работы: сможем ли мы определить какую–то геометрию волновыми эталонами? Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера, аберрации и их использова-ние для локализации в АИСО (далее - АИСО) и взаимной локализации. Предположим, име-ются два исследователя (далее – объекты "исследователь", "наблюдатель", "экспериментатор" – отождествляем: это homo sapiens): можно ли измерить расстояние между ними? Можно ли измерить взаимную скорость и ее направление? И можно ли синхронизировать его часы с моими? И что такое синхронизация часов? И вообще – есть ли проблема синхронизации? Су-ществуют ли инерциальные системы отсчета вне абсолютных систем отсчета? Можно ли вол-новыми эталонами одной ИСО пользоваться в других ИСО и чем они отличаются? В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – главное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галиллева метрика. Другие главные слово-сочетания связаны со словом "волна" - волна в галилеевом пространстве, галилеево волно-вое пространство, волновой эталон, волновая метрика. И т.д. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосо-четаний является неподвижная воздушная среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распростра-няющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей это настоящее АИСО. Волна в среде в гали-леевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – ско-ростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать от-дельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, ос-тавив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Несмотря на возможность самостоятельного безосновного рассмотрения существования волны, есть риск существования этой основы. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения кото-рых не ограничена скоростью звука. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстракции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1911.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 14:33:57

Gravity and Spacetime Beyond Einstein

Authors: Anil Gupta
Comments: 28 Pages with illustrations

This paper makes the following predictions: 1. Spacetime is quantum in nature 2. Spactron is the quanta of spacetime 3. A Spactron is made up of three spatial and one time dimension 4. Spacetime, matter, energy, force and everything in our material universe are all made up of Spactrons 5. Gravity is the product of the Spactron density differential between mass and the surrounding spacetime
Category: Classical Physics