**Previous months:**

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2013 - 1301(8) - 1302(7) - 1303(7) - 1304(5) - 1305(27) - 1306(6) - 1307(8) - 1308(7) - 1309(7) - 1310(9) - 1311(12) - 1312(2)

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2016 - 1601(5) - 1602(8) - 1603(8) - 1604(6) - 1605(14) - 1606(11) - 1607(5) - 1608(13) - 1609(17) - 1610(17) - 1611(6) - 1612(23)

2017 - 1701(9) - 1702(9) - 1703(5) - 1704(10) - 1705(17) - 1706(9) - 1707(14) - 1708(16) - 1709(6) - 1710(16) - 1711(11) - 1712(7)

2018 - 1801(16) - 1802(19) - 1803(9) - 1804(10) - 1805(6) - 1806(8) - 1807(6) - 1808(14) - 1809(11) - 1810(13) - 1811(9) - 1812(4)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[820] **viXra:1812.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-07 10:21:12*

**Authors:** Julian Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In these preliminary notes we show that there exist null cone integral
analogues of both the Dirac equation and the U(1) gauge field. We then
explore a generalization of this idea through the introduction of a universal
scalar, analogous to the lagrangian density of the Standard Model, from
which all known particle equations of motion and interactions can be
derived in principle, without recourse to either field derivatives or gauge
degrees of freedom. The formulation suggests that at least some of the
constants appearing in the Standard Model are related to cosmological
quantities such as the total number and mass of particles on the past null
cone, and that these are the origin of broken gauge symmetry.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[819] **viXra:1812.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-05 04:31:50*

**Authors:** Jorma Jormakka

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Gunnar Nordstr\"om published his second gravitation theory in 1913. This theory is today considered to be inconsistent with observations. At this time Einstein was working on his field theory, the General Relativity Theory. Einstein's theory has been accepted as the only theory of gravitation consistent with measurements. The article reconsiders Nordstr\"om's theory and proves the following claims. 1) If gravitation is caused by a scalar field, then the theory is Nordstr\"om's second gravitation, which in a vacuum outside a point mass reduces to his first gravitation theory. Nordstr\"om's scalar field theory gives proper time values that fully agree with gravitational redshift in the Pound-Rebka experiment and with the Shapiro time delay in Shapiro's radar bouncing experiment. Gravitation in Schwarzschild's solution is not a field but a deformed geometry. If proper time is calculated via the General Relativity formula, Schwarzschild's solution fails both the Pound-Rebka redshift and Shapiro time delay tests because the ball in Schwarzschild's solution is deformed and light as measured by an external clock can exceed $c$. 2) The third classical tests of Einstein's theory is the movement of the perihelion of Mercury. Calculations from Schwarzschild's exact solution to Einstein's equations gave a correction that very well fitted the unexplained part of Mercury's movement. However, Schwarzschild's solution as a stationary solution it fails to explain why the orbit of Mercury, or any planet, is an ellipse. It is shown that the customary proof of Kepler's law stating that the orbit is an ellipse is incorrect: under a central stationary Newtonian force the orbit of a two mass system can only be a circle or (almost) a hyperbole because of conservation of energy. This observation invalidates the movement of Mercury as a test of General Relativity: Schwarzschild's solution cannot produce an elliptic orbit, therefore it is not the solution and that it gives a correct size modification to the movement of the perihelion is just a coincidence. Nordstr\"om's theory remains inconclusive in the Mercury test because calculating the orbit is difficult and cannot be done in this article. Nordstr\"om's theory, however, offers a possibility for explaining elliptic orbits: some energy is needed for waves in time-dependent solutions to Nordstr\"om's field equation and this loss of potential energy from the radial potential can lead to elliptic orbits. 3) The fourth classical test is the light bending test. Light bends in Nordstr\"om's theory as light behaves as a test mass in a gravitational field. Calculation of the amount of light bending in Norstrs\"om's theory is similar to calculation of the orbit of planets and beyond the scope of this article. Theoretical consideration of bending of light leads to the conclusion that the stress-energy tensor in the General Relativity is incorrect: the diagonal entries should contain the energy of a stationary gravitational field in the vacuum outside a point mass and therefore diagonal Ricci tensor entries cannot be zeroes. Nordstr\"om's theory passes this theoretical consideration while Einstein's theory fails it.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[818] **viXra:1812.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 19:34:05*

**Authors:** Tangyin Wu Ye

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract simulation,basiclogicof synchronization algorithm, reasoning judgment and hypothesis contradiction
[integer theory]

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[817] **viXra:1811.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 13:17:04*

**Authors:** Savior F. Eason

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Proposes a mathematical formula for measuring and calculating in hyper-space, as well as a theorem for calculating the mandelbrot set of Quantum information making up our universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[816] **viXra:1811.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-26 09:54:21*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This small article is intended to be a contribution to the LinkedIn group “Pre-University
Geometric Algebra”. The main idea is to show that in geometric algebra we have the Pythagoras’
and De Gua’s theorems without a metric defined. This allows us to generalize these theorems to
any dimension and any signature.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[815] **viXra:1811.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-23 06:42:56*

**Authors:** Richard Shurtleff

**Comments:** 11 page article plus 32 page Mathematica notebook in an Appendix = 43 pages. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

The Poincar\'{e} group of spacetime rotations and spacetime translations has been fundamental for over a century. Also a century old are efforts to find alternatives, efforts that include invoking the larger symmetry group of Maxwell's electrodynamics, the conformal group. In this paper an 8x8 matrix representation of the Poincare group is enhanced by defining a 4x4 matrix rep of the conformal group that acts on 4 of the 8 dimensions, a 4-spinor subset of 8-spinors. The matrix generators are described in detail and the commutation relations of the Lie algebra are displayed. There are additional generators needed to keep the enhanced algebra closed. The new generators add new transformations making a group larger than the direct product of the Poincare and conformal groups.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[814] **viXra:1811.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-23 23:21:08*

**Authors:** Peter J. Nolan, Hunter McClelland, Craig Woolsey, Shane D. Ross

**Comments:** 25 Pages. In preparation for journal submission

The transport of material in the atmosphere is a problem with important implications for agriculture, aviation, and human health. Given the turbulent nature of the atmosphere it can be difficult to predict where a particle, such as a plant pathogen, will wind up. Tools from dynamical systems theory, such as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), can help us to understand how particles in a flow will evolve. The study of atmospheric transport from a dynamical systems perspective has long focused on the study of large scale phenomena. This has been largely due to the larger scale grid spacing of readily available atmospheric model data and the lack of high resolution atmospheric measurements on a scale large enough to calculate Lagrangian data. Furthermore, few works have attempted to find ways to detect LCSs in the field. In the authors used wind velocity measurements from a dopler LiDAR to detect LCS which had passed through Hong Kong International Airport. Rather than measure the wind velocity to try and detect LCSs, the authors in looked at sudden changes in pathogen concentrations in the atmosphere. They were then able to link those changes to the passage of LCSs using atmospheric velocity data from the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. Yet to date, we are unaware of any attempts to develop a means of directly sense LCSs which could be readily implemented by operators in the field. Recent advances in dynamical systems theory, such as new Eulerian diagnostics, and new atmospheric sensing technology, such as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), have brought the local detection of LCSs within reach.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[813] **viXra:1811.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-24 05:07:10*

**Authors:** Preobrazhenskiy Andrey

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT. In this paper it is shown that the system of four equations formed by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations system for incompressible fluid and equation of continuity, is not closed, equation of continuity is excessive. This is because the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations system cannot have a bounded at infinity solutions to the Cauchy problem with a non-zero velocity field divergence.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[812] **viXra:1811.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-22 09:55:14*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Plugging the closed-form expression of the associated Laguerre polynomials into their orthogonality relation, the latter reduces to a factorial identity that takes a simple, non-trivial form for even-degree polynomials.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[811] **viXra:1811.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-18 09:39:36*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will talk about I numbering system I want to invent which is based on the knowledge of true and false being 1 and 0 (true and false)
Lets take a look at our hands it has 10 fingers which uses the decimal system its ok
Lets take out the true and false which are the 1 and 0 (one and zero) from the decimal system leaving eight numbers which are 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 but first lets take a look at how I thought of this
These are 10 mathematical stuff made from 1 and 0 or the true and false below
1*1/1*1=1(true fact or something) 1*0/1*1=0 0*1/1*1=0 0*0/1*1=0
1*1/0*0=not understood 1*1/1*0=not understood 1*1/0*1=not understood 0*1/0*0=not understood 1*0/0*0= not understood 0*0/0*0= totally not understood
When looking at this you see that if you take the true and false which are 1*1/1*1=1 and 0*0/0*0=totally not understood you are left with 8 of the 10
Now to see how you can apply this new numbering system you should look at what follows
Lets start counting in this numbering system with 2 and end with 8 so we say 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Lets do this mathematical trick 2*3*4*5/6=120/6=20 which is 2*10=20
Lets try an easier one which is 3*4*5/6=60/6=10 you see the trick?
Adding a truth to false and another truth(which is my theory!!!!) which all amounts to 3 (2 truths and one false) which starts with 3
in this one you get to the numbering system in your hand or 10 in the second easier mathematical trick and also in the mathematical trick starting with 2 ends with 20 which when divided by 10 you get 2 which is the number you started with!!!!!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[810] **viXra:1811.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-13 11:21:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Pierre Nicolas Jean Brouard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here is proposed a solving Navier and Stokes equations three dimensions fluid model problem, described in cylindrical coordinates, composed of null radial and vertical velocities, and of a cross-radial velocity. Equations conditions verifications and calculation description leading to the expression of pressure are given. A description of the problem can be found here: http://www.claymath.org/sites/default/files/navierstokes.pdf

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[809] **viXra:1811.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-02 10:41:52*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Extended version of viXra:1809.0241 to include spin 1.

In the present article we investigate the spin-1/2 and spin-1 cases in different bases. Next, we look for relations
with the Majorana-like field operator. We show explicitly incompatibility of the Majorana anzatzen with the Dirac-like field operators in both the original Majorana theory and its generalizations. Several explicit examples are presented for higher spins too. It seems that the calculations in the helicity basis give mathematically and physically reasonable results only.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[808] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-30 18:06:51*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the rule is determined by mathematics

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[807] **viXra:1810.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-29 02:08:45*

**Authors:** Jan Makopa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is known that the direction of rotation of a position vector in Polar Coordinates is not continuous for angles ʘ = π(a + 1/2). The fallacy has algebraic origins and as a increases, the direction of the position vector at ʘ is oscillating between two opposite discontinuous points we shall call Norms . The pertinent Literature can be argued, as has been done by others in the past that – the direction of a position vector at ʘ cannot be real thence must carry an imaginary component also to justify the occurrence of discontinuities along the Polar plane. To understand how Norms oscillate, we propose the “Norm Wave Function” whose exposition we give herein is based on the geometric expansion of Norms. The once speculative Mohammed Abubakr- proposition on Calpanic Numbers, can now find full justification as a fully-fledged proposition. At the end of it all our contribution in the present work – if any; is that we demonstrate that the hypothetical Norm proposed herein, is imaginary and Norms carry unique properties that may have the potential for strong application in Quantum Theory of the Spinning Photon. This current text is part one of two. This text is a proposition of a Norm Wave Function and it discusses the philosophy behind the discontinuities of rotations while part two will apply the formulation in Quantum Mechanics of Spinning Photons.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[806] **viXra:1810.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-27 13:21:47*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Some parts of this paper have been presented at the XI Escuela de DGFM SMF, Dec. 5-9, 2016, Playa del Carmen, QRoo, M\'exico, the IARD2018, June 4-7, 2018, M\'erida, Yuc., M\'exico and the MG15 Meeting, July 1-7, Rome, Italy.

We continue the discussion of several explicit examples of generalizations in relativistic quantum mechanics. We discussed the generalized spin-1/2 equations for neutrinos and the spin-1 equations for photon. The equations obtained by means of the Gersten-Sakurai method and those of Weinberg for spin-1 particles have been mentioned. Thus, we generalized the Maxwell and Weyl equations. Particularly, we found connections of the well-known solutions and the dark 4-spinors in the Ahluwalia-Grumiller elko model. They are also not the eigenstates of the chirality and helicity. The equations may lead to the dynamics which are different from those accepted at the present time. For instance, the photon may have non-transverse components and the neutrino may be {\it not} in the energy states and in the chirality states. The second-order equations have been considered too. They have been obtained by the Ryder method.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[805] **viXra:1810.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 06:20:51*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the single page of this article, I stated that Yang-Mills theory (the foundation of standard model) is actually the typical form of torsion tensor. Since electromagnetic field is also the torsion tensor without the [x,y] part. We can easily unite strong force field, weak force field, and electromagnetic field by integrating these torsion tensors. This provides the proof of Yang-Mills theory existence. And, I also solved Yang-Mills mass gap problem in strong interaction in my previous study. Thus, the grand unified theories can be finished.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[804] **viXra:1810.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 02:40:01*

**Authors:** Takahiro Kajisa

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In a non-equilibrium thermodynamical physics, there has been al- most no universal theory for representing the far from equilibrium sys- tems. In this work, I formulated the thermodynamical path integral from macroscopic view, using the analogy of optimal transport and large deviations to calculate the non-equilibrium indicators quantita- tively. As a result, I derived Jarzynski equality, fluctuation theorem, and second law of thermodynamics as its corollaries of this formula. In addition, the latter result implies the connection between non- equilibrium thermodynamics and Riemannian geometry via entropic flow.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[803] **viXra:1810.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-23 12:05:16*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article an overview-abstract is given about a new universe model according to a series articles by the author, wherein he describes step by step in rather easy mathematics and not affiliated to the university-world, how he came to his new cosmological model. The overview-abstract contains an amount of subjects being found important for a better understanding of his new model in addition to his former articles. His articles are hosted in the viXra-archive in the UK and free to read. The new universe model is called RTHU instead of Big Bang. The main issue is that the RTHU generates the Big Bang-universe, although at the same time the RTHU also contains a lot of other Big Bang-universes shifted relative to each other, however all generated by the RTHU. The generator is the rotation of the RTHU, which has no beginning of time, but uses duo-bits to crumble the Planck-scale. The RTHU therefore is much bigger than a single self-supporting Big Bang-universe. The total new dynamics give other insights in unsolved problems, but make it possible to understand several phenomena better than solving them just only in a single Big Bang-universe. The author pleads for physics and cosmology in the token of the RTHU. Therefore evidence is available, which has been already presented in several of his articles. Moreover it will pinpoint the future for cosmology in a better way. He describes a new perception of time and future. The author also launches a new insight, based on his new cosmological model, which not has been earlier being involved in the problems around climate-change.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[802] **viXra:1810.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-20 04:55:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this work we discuss the topological transformation of quantum dynamics by showing the wave dynamics of a quantum particle on different types of topological structures in various dimensions from the fundamental polygons of the corresponding universal covering spaces. This is not the view from different perspectives of an observer who simply uses different coordinate systems to describe the same physical phenomenon but rather possible geometric and topological structures that quantum particles are endowed with when they are identified with differentiable manifolds that are embedded or immersed in Euclidean spaces of higher dimension. A rigorous approach would be a complete formulation of wave dynamics on two and three-dimensional geometries that are classified according to the uniformisation theorem of Riemannian surfaces and the Thurston geometrisation conjecture on three-dimensional differentiable manifolds. However, for the purpose of physical illustration, we will follow a modest approach in which we will present our discussions in the form of Bohr model in one, two and three dimensions using linear wave equations. In one dimension, the fundamental polygon is an interval and the universal covering space is the straight line and in this case the standing wave on a finite string is transformed into the standing wave on a circle which can be applied into the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. The wave dynamics on a circle can also be described in terms of projective elliptic geometry. Since a circle is a 1-sphere which is also a 1-torus therefore the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom can also be viewed as a standing wave on a 1-torus. In two dimensions, the fundamental polygon is a square and the universal covering space is the plane and in this case the standing wave on the square is transformed into the standing wave on different surfaces that can be formed by gluing opposite sides of the square, which include a 2-sphere, a 2-torus, a Klein bottle and a projective plane. In particular, we show that when the wave dynamics on a projective plane is described in terms of projective elliptic geometry then it is identical to the wave dynamics on a 2-sphere. In three dimensions, the fundamental polygon is a cube and the universal covering space is the three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is shown that a 3-torus and the manifold K×S^1 defined as the product of a Klein bottle and a circle can be constructed by gluing opposite faces of a cube therefore in three-dimensions the standing wave on a cube is transformed into the standing wave on a 3-torus or on the manifold K×S^1. We also discuss a transformation of a stationary wave on the fundamental cube into a stationary wave on a 3-sphere despite it still remains unknown whether a 3-sphere can be constructed directly from a cube by gluing its opposite faces. In spite of this uncertainty, however, we speculate that mathematical degeneracy in which an element of a class of objects degenerates into an element of a different but simpler class may play an important role in quantum dynamics. For example, a 2-sphere is a degenerate 2-torus when the axis of revolution passes through the centre of the generating circle. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that if an n-torus degenerates into an n-sphere then wavefunctions on an n-torus may also be degenerated into wavefunctions on an n-sphere. Furthermore, since an n-sphere can degenerate itself into a single point, therefore the mathematical degeneracy may be related to the concept of wavefunction collapse in quantum mechanics where the classical observables such as position and momentum can only be obtained from the collapse of the associated wavefunctions for physical measurements. This consideration suggests that quantum particles associated with differentiable manifolds may possess the more stable mathematical structures of an n-torus rather than those of an n-sphere.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[801] **viXra:1810.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-17 13:33:42*

**Authors:** Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 245 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

The universe is a solid elastic continuum - gukuum. This continuum does not contain any numerical parameters or constraints.
All visible and invisible objects of the universe, from large to small, are wave objects in this continuum.
All the wave objects in the gukuum are described by the letter specification of the elasticity parameters of the solid body and the three-dimensional wave equation.
The nonlinearity that exists in the universe is explained by the law of "winding the linear solution on itself." As a result of such winding, or layering, the linear solution becomes non-linear and creates the entire variety of the material world.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[800] **viXra:1810.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-16 07:43:15*

**Authors:** Pan Zhang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, by using Uhlenbeck-Yau's continuity method, we prove that the existence of approximation $\alpha$-Hermitian-Einstein strusture and the $\alpha$-semi-stability on $I_{\pm}$-holomorphic bundles over compact bi-Hermitian manifolds are equivalent.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[799] **viXra:1810.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-11 16:51:13*

**Authors:** I. M. Saharov, G. I. Saharov

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The paper presents a mathematical study of sub-nuclear particles (nucleons) by a singular mathematical structure, which is a unique compatibility of singular integers with their binding functions, demonstrating the connection of the transcendent and integer, continuous and discrete. The four-dimensional space-time was tested to find the original effective unit, the coefficients of the dominant angles and the main singular number. Representation of a particle as a spatial wave objects (rotating waves) made it possible to find geometric and numeric expressions to their relative mass in units of electron mass with a precision within the limits of the uncertainty principle. Submitted to the consideration of the law effective wave of the relationships governing the stability of subnuclear particles. An approximate expression of the ratio of the magnetic moments of nucleons in vector form based on the ratio of the functions of dominant angles is shown.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[798] **viXra:1810.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 07:45:13*

**Authors:** Pan Zhang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we solve the Dirichlet problem for $\alpha$-Hermitian-Einstein
equations on $I_{\pm}$-holomorphic bundles over bi-Hermitian manifolds. As a corollary, we obtain an analogue result about generalized holomorphic bundles on generalized K\"{a}hler manifolds.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[797] **viXra:1810.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-09 10:40:20*

**Authors:** Yélomè J. F. Kpomahou, Damien K. K. Adjaï, J. Akande, Marc D. Monsia

**Comments:** 7 pages

It is well known that amplitude-dependent frequency features only nonlinear dynamical systems. This paper shows that, however, within the framework of the theory of nonlinear differential equations introduced recently by the authors of this work, such a property may also characterize the linear harmonic oscillator equation. In doing so it has been found as another major result that the linear harmonic oscillator is nothing but the nonlocal transformation of equation of the free particle motion under constant forcing function.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[796] **viXra:1810.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-07 08:50:44*

**Authors:** Amit Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short 3 page Pdf I am giving you method to prove Ramanujan's identity

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[795] **viXra:1809.0599 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-30 10:53:19*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu, Maricel Agop

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

Even though a physical theory, the Scale Relativity Theory (SRT) means more than physics, as its creator noticed himself. In fact it targets the very foundation of the entire positive knowledge, and we are set here to prove this fact. Mathematically one needs the description of a transition between infrafinite, finite and transfinite orders, while physically one needs a transition between microcosmos, daily world (quotidian cosmos) and universe. With SRT the mathematical categories of infrafinite, finite and transfinite, become differentias of the same general concept of ‘finite’. As it turns out, there is a parallelism of the physical transition between the worlds and the mathematical transition between degrees of ‘finite’: it is followed here historically and logically, in a first part of the present work, with the benefit of extracting the mathematical principles of a physical description of matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[794] **viXra:1809.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-20 16:03:08*

**Authors:** Andrew Dente

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This unique mathematical method for understanding the flow of gas through each individual objects shape will show us how we can produce physical functions for each object based on the dissemination of gas particles in accordance to its shape. We analyze its continuum per shape of the object and the forces acting on the gas which in return produces its own unique function for the given object due to the rate at which forces were applied to the gas. We also get to examine the different changes in the working rate due to the effect of its volume and mass from the given objects shape with our working equation
discovered through green’s and gaussian functions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[793] **viXra:1809.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-11 06:07:48*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In this work, by summarising our recent works on the differential geometric and topological structures of quantum particles and spacetime manifold, we discuss the possibility to classify quantum particles according to their intrinsic geometric structures associated with differentiable manifolds that are solutions to wave equations of two and three dimensions. We show that fermions of half-integer spin can be identified with differentiable manifolds which are solutions to a general two-dimensional wave equation, in particular, a two-dimensional wave equation that can be derived from Dirac equation. On the other hand, bosons of integer spin can be identified with differentiable manifolds which are solutions to a general three-dimensional wave equation, in particular, a three-dimensional wave equation that can be derived from Maxwell field equations of electromagnetism. We also discuss the possibility that being restricted to three-dimensional spatial dimensions we may not be able to observe the whole geometric structure of a quantum particle but rather only the cross-section of the manifold that represents the quantum particle and the space in which we are confined. Even though not in the same context, such view of physical existence may comply with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics which states that the properties of a physical system are not definite but can only be determined by observations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[792] **viXra:1809.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-11 11:49:24*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

CFD STUDY OF PIKES PEAK RACE CAR 2017.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[791] **viXra:1809.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-12 01:58:30*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Electron Capture(EC) is a peculiar phenomenon that unstable atoms can use to become more stable. During EC, an electron(e) in an atom's inner shell is drawn into the nucleus where it combines with a proton(P), forming a neutron(N) and a neutrino():
P + e N + (1).
Electrons are usually captured from the inner K layer, leaving 'holes' process or Auger’s es. Such a capture may also leave the nucleus in an excited state, causing it to release γ rays.
This emission of highly energetic electro-magnetic radiation(EMR), generally originates the production of pairs of light particles:
γ e + e+(2),
or:γ + ῡ(3),
where ῡ is an anti-neutrino.
Yet, if this phenomenon of materialization of the EMR that accompanies the EC, manifesting in the production of lepton pairs(described in this case by the Eq.3), was represented in the equation describing the EC, we could better justify that appeared ex abrupto in Eq.(1).
Therefore, taking into account also the EMR(γ) emitted at the time of the EC, and inserting it in
Eq.(1) on the side of the captured e, we have:
P + e + γ P + e + ῡe.+ e N + e(4),
that is:P + e + ῡe.+ e ↔ N + e(5).
However, as the e mass is considered 2eV, Eq,(1) and (5) show a conspicuous mass gap problem, since according to Pauli and Fermi the proposed to compensate for the mass gap of the N decay must have the same mass of e. Unless one wishes to hypothesize the existence of the neutral electron(e°). In this case, Eq.(5) should be rewritten as follows:
P + e + ē° + e° ↔ N + e°(6).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[790] **viXra:1809.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-11 02:27:48*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Vehicles running at high speed are greatly influenced by their aerodynamic profile. Racing car teams strive to tune the setup seeking higher levels of downforce aerodynamic load. Wind tunnel tests or track data for specific vehicle positions are useful but incomplete and very expensive. Transient loads on the vehicle come from very different sources and, to date, there is no established methodology to take them into consideration. Computer simulation seems to be a good starting point to study the effect of transient aerodynamic loads in the design and optimization of the tuning of the suspension of a racing car.
This paper studies the effect of transient aerodynamic loads on the downforce of a vehicle. Heave vibrations on an aileron are analyzed on a simulation model. The data obtained in this simulation model are validated both in a steady and a transient state for different frequencies (1-800Hz). These results lead to the obtainment of a transfer function for the downforce on the aileron in question. Finally, a new quarter car model including aerodynamic effects from these studies is presented and some results on the influence of heave transient aerodynamics loads on a racing car are obtained.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[789] **viXra:1809.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-11 02:30:13*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

The performance of an F1 race car is greatly influenced by its aerodynamics. Race teams try to improve the vehicle performance by aiming for more levels of downforce. A huge amount of time is spent in wind tunnel and track testing. Typical wind tunnel testing is carried out in steady aerodynamic conditions and with car static configurations. However, the ride heights of a car are continuously changing in a race track because of many factors.
These are, for example, the roughness and undulations of the track, braking, accelerations, direction changes, aerodynamic load variations due to varying air speed and others. These factors may induce movements on suspensions components (sprung and unsprung masses) at different frequencies and may cause aerodynamic fluctuations that vary tires grip. When the frequency of the movement of a race car is high enough the steady aerodynamic condition and the car static configurations are not fulfilled. Then, transient effects appear and the dynamics of the system changes:
heave, pitch and roll transient movements of the sprung mass affect both downforce and center of pressure position. The suspension system have to cope with them, but in order for the suspension to be effective, unsteady aerodynamics must be considered.
The main objective is to model the effects of unsteady aerodynamics and know really the car dynamic, with the aim of optimizing the suspension performance, improving tire grip and finally reducing lap times.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[788] **viXra:1809.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-04 13:57:14*

**Authors:** Biruk Alemayehu Petros

**Comments:** 3 Pages. millenium prize problem counter example.

Abstract
Due to the existence of huge number of different information on Navier_Stokes equation on internet, introduction and method used to come to the following solution is less important than the solution its self. As a result the paper shows the periodic solution for Navier_Stokes equations. All conditions for physically reasonable solution as posted by clay mathematics institute is fulfilled. The following solution is counter example for existence of smooth unique periodic solution.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[787] **viXra:1809.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-05 07:50:31*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We present a method of constructing complex PT-symmetric sextic oscillators using quotient polynomials and we apply it to derive complex oscillators from real quotient polynomials.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[786] **viXra:1809.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-03 13:36:10*

**Authors:** Andrey Gomes Martins, R.V. Lobato, G.A. Carvalho, A.P.N. Cronemberger

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We formulate and solve the problem of boundary values in non-relativistic quantum mechanics in non-commutative boundary spaces-times. The formalism developed can be useful to the formulation of the boundary value problem in in
Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[785] **viXra:1809.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-04 01:22:36*

**Authors:** Jack Bidnik

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract
© US 2015
Gravitational Periodicity from Special Relativity by Jack Bidnik
This is my derivation of the sinusoidal variation of planetary orbits by means of relativistic relative momentum of two masses. It may be considered Chapter 3 of my paper Gravitational Forces Revisited (GFR), http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0128
where I derived a force, Fm, which I analogized to Newton's force of gravity by the equation
Fm = Gs Mm /r^2, where Gs is a velocity dependent variable.
Here I derive the same force, but I use a separate method to show that it is the force of gravity. This chapter can be seen as a completely independent, stand alone, method of deriving gravity from Special Relativity, and that Fm is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for the gravitational force.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[784] **viXra:1808.0677 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 15:39:49*

**Authors:** Robert H Ihde

**Comments:** 22 Pages. a pure math & therefore fringe theory for Digital or IT Physics

All quantum algebras are algebras over a field or K-algebras with a binary operation, which are defined as constant invariants over the Poincaré group. The Christoffel symbols in the classical geodesic equation can also be understood as a representation of a K algebra.
In contrary to the constant algebras of quantum theory, the K-algebra of the Christoffel symbols is a function of space-time. A mathematical, conformal union of geometry and algebra requires a corresponding dependence on space-time for quantum algebras. Assuming the existence of an algebraic field, based on a changing binary operation and coupled back to the domain,
a quantum mechanical vacuum equation for gravity can be established.
The vacuum equation follows structurally a generalized, pseudo-linear Dirac-Maxwell system
with additional algebraic constraints.
A physical existence of the algebraic field, as a counterpart to the geometric field of gravity,
can in principle be falsified by the experiment.
The proportion of the spin in the magnetic moment of a particle would then depend on its acceleration,
since the algebraic field should influence the spin algebra accordingly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[783] **viXra:1808.0607 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-27 11:21:23*

**Authors:** Guy Abitbol

**Comments:** 116 Pages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=omOlPH_4G5U

A full rational explanation of all the properties of the universe by 3 postulates (time, space, thin spheroid).
This theory explains that charge is just a result of rotational motion, much as the temperature is just a result of translational motion. It explains why the speed of light is constant, what exactly are the elementary particle spins and why they have such strange properties and how entanglement form, how we can explain the huge red shift in CMB without stretching space. On the hearth of this theory lay a mathematical discovery that state that oppositely rotated spheroids attract and same rotated spheroids repel each other in an imaginary universe that contains many even thinner spheroids that translate in all directions without rotating.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[782] **viXra:1808.0586 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 01:36:06*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As shown in our work on spacetime structures of quantum particles, Schrödinger wavefunctions in quantum mechanics can be utilised to construct the geometric structures of quantum particles which are considered to be three-dimensional differentiable manifolds. In this work we will extend this kind of geometric formulation of quantum particles by showing that wavefunctions that are normally used to describe wave phenomena in classical physics can in fact also be utilised to represent three-dimensional differentiable manifolds which in turns are identified with quantum particles. We show that such identification can be achieved by using a three-dimensional wave equation to construct three-dimensional differentiable manifolds that are embedded in a four-dimensional Euclidean space. In particular, the dual character that is resulted from the identification of a wavefunction with a three-dimensional differentiable manifold may provide a classical basis to interpret the wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[781] **viXra:1808.0579 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 04:54:21*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Scientists have discovered a mysterious pattern that somehow connects a bus system in Mexico and chicken eyes to quantum physics and number theory. The observed universality reveals properties for a large class of systems that are independent of the dynamical details, revealing underlying mathematical connections described by the classical Poisson distribution. This note suggests that their origin can be found in the wavefunction as modeled by the geometric interpreation of Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[780] **viXra:1808.0572 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 13:25:18*

**Authors:** M. Nonti, A. V. Yehossou, J; Akande, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 3 pages

This paper investigates analytical properties of a singular Kamke second order equation consisting of a generalization of Kamke equation 6.110 and Kamke equation 6.111. It is shown that this equation belongs to the class of quadratic Liénard type equations closely related to the linear harmonic oscillator and introduced recently by some authors of this work. In this way, exact Kamke solutions are recovered. The connection between this equations and the linear harmonic oscillator shows its possible use in mechanical vibrations study and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[779] **viXra:1808.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-22 06:01:54*

**Authors:** Biruk Alemayehu Petros

**Comments:** 6 Pages. millenium prize problem counter example

The existence of smooth periodic solutions for Navier-Stokes three dimensional equations for a given periodic initial velocity vector field with positive viscosity is proved. The equation is solved by considering Fourier series representation of periodic initial velocity vector fields and predicting the velocity vector field at all times. The solution discovered here can also be used as counter example for clay mathematics millennium prize problem.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[778] **viXra:1808.0521 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-22 09:49:34*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a day from days, when the famous x is lengthened to x_2 and lost its virginity... Hey-o! Here comes the danger up in this club again. Listen up! Here's the story about a little guy, that lives in a dark world and uses power of wisdom as a torch to find way in darkness; and all day and all night and everything he sees is just illusion. I have been working about the laws of existence for a time. I developed new formulas which were based on a strong mechanism over philosophical hypotheses. Nobody can answer easily; but I thought many times better mathematical infrastructure. Actually at the beginning, I noticed, that a fixed observer does observation of moving bodies being the bodies do a circular motion because of emerging and changing angles over time even if the objects move parallel manner relatively to the observer at that time . This would not happen accidentally even if abstract math says, nothing is going to change. Eureka! Finally while I was in a cafe today, I remembered and developed in a few hours a new method on some note papers which I demanded from cafe to explain existence, and thereupon I asked to my friends for leave, and I am writing towards morning in the name of giving a shoulder to the tired giants. The ancients smile on me!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[777] **viXra:1808.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-22 17:47:20*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The intent of this paper is to present hopefully new and fruitful topic areas for current and future research. 1. Is dark matter and dark energy really caused by strange new particles or something else? 2. Normal surface geometry in differential geometry is built upon what is called the Symmetric Coefficient of the Second Fundamental Form. Is there such a thing as the Asymmetric Coefficient of the Second Fundamental Form? 3. Is it possible to have one equation which will give the basic intrinsic spin values? 4. Is it possible to derive a generalized transport flux using the Fokker-Planck equation? 5. Does the weak interaction harbor a powerful energy source? 6. Could the predicted fading of the earth’s magnetic field lead to another ice age? What really is lightning?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[776] **viXra:1808.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 10:31:26*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Error on page 48.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[775] **viXra:1808.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 10:32:26*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Error on the page 49.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[774] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-15 01:42:17*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The polynomial parabolas alone produce laminar flow. It is illustrated that the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches working together produce turbulence, rotation, swirling, and chaos

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[773] **viXra:1808.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-12 06:03:49*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this work we will discuss the geometric structure of the spatiotemporal manifold which appears apparently as a multiverse whose intrinsic geometric structures will be shown to be resulted from geometric interactions between space and time. The geometric and topological structures of the total spatiotemporal manifold are formed from the geometric interactions of the decomposed cells from the base space of the total spatiotemporal manifold which is considered as a fiber bundle. In particular we will discuss in details spacetime which has the mathematical structure of a 6-sphere bundle in which the dynamics of the fibers is resulted from the geometric interactions of different types of decomposed cells that give rise to various relationships between space and time. We also show that the concept of the spatiotemporal manifold being viewed as a multiverse endowed with the structure of a CW complex was in fact suggested by Newton himself in his book Opticks. In Newton’s multiverse, the expansion of space can be seen as a geometric evolution which redistributes to smooth out irregularities of the spatiotemporal manifold.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[772] **viXra:1808.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 11:39:58*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is widely known that the E8 polytope can be folded into two Golden Ratio (Phi) scaled copies of the 4 dimensional (4D) 120 vertex 720 edge H4 600-cell. While folding an 8D object into a 4D one is done by applying the dot product of each vertex to a 4x8 folding matrix, we use an 8x8 rotation matrix to produce four 4D copies of H4 600-cells, with the original two left side scaled 4D copies related to the two right side 4D copies in a very specific way. This paper will describe and visualize in detail the specific symmetry relationships which emerge from that rotation of E8 and the emergent fourfold copies of H4. It will also introduce a projection basis using the Icosahedron found within the 8x8 rotation matrix. It will complete the detail for constructing E8 from the 3D Platonic solids, Icosians, and the 4D H4 600-cell. Eight pairs of Phi scaled concentric Platonic solids are identified directly using the sorted and grouped 3D projected vertex norms present within E8.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[771] **viXra:1808.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-07 18:13:31*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Author offers a new impulse beam hole thermonuclear reactor. Reactor has the following features: one has a power high-current pulse ion accelerator using the thermonuclear fuel (for example, Deuterium) as ions. Accelerator focuses the ion beam into very small focus. The very small fuel capsule covered by shell from heavy and strong elements. The shell has a small hole for fuel beam from accelerator. The capsule contains a solid fuel (example, LiD). The theory and computation give conditions when will be ignition and developing the high intensity thermonuclear reaction. The suggested reactor is small, non-expensive and allows to make small engines.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[770] **viXra:1808.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-04 09:50:52*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6934223.v1

The Danish physicist Niels Bohr is reported to have said last century, "Your theory is crazy, but it's not crazy enough to be true." This article reaches a final conclusion that is, in a word, crazy. But the conclusion appears to be inescapable if mathematics has any value. So maybe the article is crazy enough to be true. It speaks of an equivalence between quantum particles and macroscopic objects via the vector-tensor-scalar relationship. That relationship also proposes a supersymmetry between fermions and bosons, explaining the quantum spin of both. Then it addresses the subjects of other large-scale dimensions and negative energy (the masses in other dimensions would be an easy solution to the "dark matter" problem this dimension has). Finally, Archimedes and Kepler combine to show that the vector-tensor-scalar relationship can substitute Earth (when considered as a whole) for the Higgs boson and extend it into the infinite and eternal Unified Field of the Block Universe Albert Einstein believed in.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[769] **viXra:1807.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 02:19:14*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With the neutronization protons(Ps) and electrons(es) fuse together to form neutrons(Ns) and release electronic neutrinos(e):
e + P N + e(1).
This is possible because the electron in the neutronization equation is equipped with a very high energy, just provided by a collapsing star, or by a neutron star. In those extreme conditions electrons become relativistic, since they acquire a 200MeV energy, so as to fill the conspicuous energy gap between N and P.
However, Eq.(1) appears incomplete because it does not explain the ex abrupto appearance of the e. One may wonder: how was it produced?
As it is known matter and antimatter particles are always produced as a couple. Where is the antiparticle of e, i.e. the ῡe, not represented in Eq.(1)?
In our opinion, Eq.(1) implies some intermediate steps not represented.
A phenomenon associated with neutronization is photoannihilation, characterized by the materialization of the electromagnetic radiation(γ), with consequent production of pairs, such as:
γ ῡe + e(2).
If we enter Eq.(2) in Eq.(1), we have:
e+ P e + P + γ e + P + ῡe + e N + e(3),
that is:e + P + ῡe + e ↔ N + e(4),
i.e.:e + P + ῡe ↔ N(5).
From Eq.(5) it emerges that to N corresponds a compound of 3 particles, i.e. a multiplet:[e, P, ῡe]. This is in agreement with Spin Statistics, as well as with Quantum Mechanics, since the relativistic electron has an energy>140MeV. Furthermore, let's try to read Eq.(5) in reverse:
N e + P + ῡe(6).
It is surprising: Eq.(6) shows exactly the decay products of N, corresponding precisely to the famous Fermi equation describing the N decay, providing a counter-test to Eq.(5)

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[768] **viXra:1807.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-24 18:54:44*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility to construct spacetime structures for electromagnetic and matter waves in which the universal speed in relativity plays a decisive role. Based on our recent works on physical interactions that are associated with the geometric and topological structures of the spatiotemporal manifold, we suggest that when the spatiotemporal manifold decomposes n-cells at each point on the manifold then it can be regarded as a fiber bundle where the base space is the spatiotemporal manifold and the fiber is the n-cells. We will discuss the case when the n-cells are n-spheres therefore the total spatiotemporal continuum will be regarded as an n-sphere bundle, in particular when n equals 6. We will show that the universal speed is the speed at which there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial submanifolds of the spatiotemporal manifold. Since in both Maxwell and Dirac fields there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial forms of matter and since temporal matter is assumed to be associated with the temporal submanifold of the spatiotemporal manifold and spatial matter with the spatial submanifold, therefore in order to describe the conversion of matter we need to formulate the corresponding conversion between the spatial and temporal submanifolds. As a result, the 6-sphere fibers form the required medium for the electromagnetic and matter waves. From the description of waves in terms of spacetime structures it is reasonable to state that both matter and electromagnetic waves are oscillations of the intrinsic geometric structures of the total spatiotemporal manifold.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[767] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 03:08:38*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We show a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[766] **viXra:1807.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 15:34:46*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in [1] that gravitational interaction can be expressed as an algebraic
quadratic invariant form of energies.
This allows the decomposition of the entire gravitational system into the sum of squares
of energies of its composing particles. Still then, we ran into serious problems,
when it came to figure out the Hamiltonian and calculate the total energy of the system
from that. (Equivalently put, the algebraic invariant above is not a Hamiltonian one.)
The problem is: What goes wrong? This is what this article is about, and the answer is very simple.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[765] **viXra:1807.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 02:22:40*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work we extend our discussions on the possibility to classify geometric interactions to temporal manifolds according to the dimensions of decomposed submanifolds n-cells. A temporal manifold is a differentiable manifold which is accompanied a spatial manifold to form a spatiotemporal manifold which represents an elementary particle and can be assumed to have the mathematical structure of a CW complex. As in the case of spatial manifolds, a temporal differentiable manifold can also be assumed to decompose n-cells. The decomposed temporal n-cells will also be identified with force carriers for physical interactions. For the case of temporal differentiable manifolds of dimension three, there are also four different types of geometric interactions associated with 0-cells, 1-cells, 2-cells and 3-cells. We also discuss the possible dynamics from these geometric interactions in terms of Newtonian spatiotemporal mechanics. In particular we show that, unlike spatial manifolds in which the contact forces that are associated with the decomposition of 0-cells would render mass points to join to form elementary particles, the forces that are associated with the decomposition of temporal 0-cells are short-lived therefore temporal matter cannot form stable physical objects as in the case of mass points in spatial continuum. We also discuss in more details the case of geometric interactions that are associated with the decomposition of 3-cells from a spatiotemporal differentiable manifold and show that the physical interactions that are associated with the evolution of the geometric processes can be formulated in terms of general relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[764] **viXra:1807.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 08:04:18*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The Big Bang is not a stand-alone beginning of the universe that came to life with the beginning of time. Originally, or so to say more fundamental, the Big Bang-universe is emergent. The existence of the Big Bang-universe is due to a ‘Rotating Torus Hologram-Universe’ (RTHU). We actually live in a RTHU. What we observe as a stand-alone Big Bang is by residue the CMB, but in fact it is an information-field of the RTHU. This is the main result of my theoretical research wherein the cognition of the origin of the universe is extended to refined time and a subdivision of the quantum-unit. I call this new perception Double Torus Theory (DTT). More theoretical evidence shows the cause why matter is dominant over anti-matter, why virtual particles go in and out of vacuum, but most of all that the total CMB rotates with 29 km/h.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[763] **viXra:1806.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-25 11:39:01*

**Authors:** Alexander Balatsky

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper claims that physical laws are amenable to consideration in terms of an algebraic pattern arising solely from the omega constant that underlies both a spatial limit of the universe, implying its scale invariance, and the fine structure constant that stands for changeability of the universe in time. Given that connection, we are able to deduce all fundamental physical quantities exclusively from the omega constant, which makes it possible to meet certain fundamental challenges faced by physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[762] **viXra:1806.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-22 07:41:06*

**Authors:** Y.J F.Kpomahou, C. Midiwanou, R. G. Agbokpanzo, L. A. Hinvi, D.K.K. Adjaï

**Comments:** 20 pages

In this paper, the nonlinear resonances analysis of a RLC series circuit modeled by a modified Van der Pol oscillator is investigated. After establishing of a new general class of nonlinear ordinary differential equation, a forced Van der Pol oscillator subjected to an inertial nonlinearity is derived. From this equation the multiple scales method is used to find the various resonant states. As analytical results primary resonance, sub-harmonic resonance of order 1/3 and super-harmonic resonance of order 3 are obtained. The steady-state solutions and theirs stabilities are determined. Numerical simulations display bistability, hysteresis, jump and bifurcation phenomena. The effects of different parameters on the system behavior are investigated and results are presented graphically and discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[761] **viXra:1806.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-22 10:33:02*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Present article allowed me to elucidate , the Essence , of what is said for Geometry and Physics . In geometry Point P , is nothing and is possessing Zero-magnitude and Infinite directions. In Material-Geometry , Point is the minimum-energy-cave ,r, in space possessing cave`s ,r, magnitude which is eternally existing from the internal-rotation ≡ motion , of any two Opposites [+ , - ] . Because of this , Material-point is a Quaternion measuring so much the cave`s , r, magnitude as well as the internal eternal-motion which is an oscillatory motion in , n , lobes . In geometry , two Points A,B consist the line-Segment , possessing the |AB| magnitude and AB direction. Euclidean-vector → |AB| , carries Point A to point B , possessing the |AB| magnitude and the two opposite directions → AB , BA ← respectively .
Material-Quaternion or , monad |AB| = z = a + bi , carries motion from Material-point A , to Material point B , where this motion called Work ≡ Spin and is never annihilated .
The non-annihilation of Work ≡ motion , is due to the fact that this happens in the finite –space , r , which is a Stationary-Wave pattern , and thus is the way of Transporting Energy .
In E-Geometry Three Points A , B , P, consist the Plane ABP , i.e. the line AB and point P , not on AB and triangle ABP , which is the Basic-Ideal-Stable-Plane Shape in all states of universe, and for Material triangle is the analogous Regular Hexagon containing all properties of
E-Geometry -triangle multiplied by two .
In E-Geometry Four Points A , B , C , P, consist the Space ABCP , i.e. the Basic-Ideal-Stable and Solid-Shape which is the Tetrahedron , and is the Basic-Element for all structures as Compound-primary particles , Atoms , Molecules , Crystals , etc. N - Points A , B ,,, P,,, P_( N) , consist the Regular-N-Edges shape , ABPP_( N) , i.e. The Regular N - Edges - Polyhedrons , where points , P , P_( N) , do not coincide with the others and consist all Solid Structures.
Any cave , r, containing Opposites Is a Material-Point, and into this cave exists an eternal rotation
of the Positive to the Negative . This motion produces an angular-velocity-vector w, and an angular-momentum-vector , B, and the work produced is equal to 2W = w.B .
Caves r , follow the Euclidean-Geometry of two points Quantization , from point zero which is
nothing or the sum of two equals and opposite , to any number ,n, and to infinite.
The eternal-rotation of Positive to Negative in energy-cave ,r, is proved to be , The eternal-motion which is equal to what is called The Energy from Chaos.
The Spin is proved to be the above rotation on Great or on Small circles in cave , r , on the negative constituent , and is equal to the Angular-momentum-vector B of cave .
Energy-storages is proved to be the n , Stationary and integer-Energy-lobes in cave , r , and which cave r , is a Stationary-wave becoming from the eternal-rotation of opposites.
Photon is proved to be one of the Moving Energy-storages ,[Stationary-Energy-storage-Wave].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[760] **viXra:1806.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-23 01:36:29*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this work first we discuss the possibility of existence of Dirac negative mass and magnetic monopole by formulating Dirac and Maxwell equations from a symmetrical system of linear first order partial differential equations. Then, by establishing a complete symmetry between space and time, in particular their dual dynamics, we show that the existence of negative mass is the result of dynamical symmetry between space and time, and magnetic monopole is a manifestation of the temporal topological structure of an elementary particle classified by the homotopy group of closed surfaces. We also show that the quantum relationship between the electric charge and the magnetic charge obtained by Dirac can be derived by imposing a topological relationship between the Gaussian curvatures of the temporal and spatial manifolds.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[759] **viXra:1806.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-12 05:32:04*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this work we discuss further the geometric interactions resulted from the coupling of n-cells that are decomposed from CW complexes. As an illustration, we discuss whether a gravitational field can be considered as the result of a geometric and topological coupling of two decomposed sub-manifolds from CW complexes in terms of Gaussian curvatures of two-dimensional manifolds.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[758] **viXra:1806.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 11:03:23*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

The purpose of this work is to introduce, in a simple, intuitive way, the coherent and squeezed states of the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO), through a series of exercises, which are solved in detail.
Starting from the application of a spatial translation to the ground state of the QHO, we introduce the spatial and momentum translations, focusing on their application to the QHO, which leads us to the displacement operator.
Next, we introduce the coherent states and examine their basic aspects.
We then proceed to give a simple and purely intuitive introduction to the squeezed states and we conclude by identifying the coherent states as states of minimum energy expectation value compared to the respective squeezed states.
The reader is assumed to have a basic knowledge of the postulates and the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, including the Dirac notation and the ladder operator method of the QHO.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[623] **viXra:1812.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-04 00:00:37*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Euler's formula is generally expressed as follows.
\zeta(1-s)={\frac{2}{(2*pi)^s}\Gamma(s)\cos(\frac{pi*s}{2})\zeta(s))}
However, I substitute (-2,-4,-6) in this and do not become zero.
There is not it and approaches only for a zero when I surely substitute Non trivial zero point (0.5+14.1347i, 0.5+21.0220i) for this formula.
It is either whether the formula of the Euler is wrong whether a misprint is sold as for this. I am convinced misprints are circulating.
I am convinced that it is sold It is make a mistake with cos, and to have printed sin.
The one that is right is as follows.
\zeta(1-s)={\frac{2}{(2*pi)^s}\Gamma(s)\sin(\frac{pi*s}{2})\zeta(s))}

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[622] **viXra:1811.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-28 03:57:18*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Plugging the closed-form expression of the associated Laguerre polynomials into their orthogonality relation, the latter reduces to a factorial identity that takes a simple, non-trivial form for even-degree polynomials.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[621] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-11 06:27:01*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the rule is determined by mathematics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[620] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-06 10:08:35*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the rule is determined by mathematics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[619] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-02 09:02:35*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the rule is determined by mathematics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[618] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-01 13:01:26*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[617] **viXra:1810.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-31 07:34:22*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[616] **viXra:1810.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-09 15:58:58*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article an overview-abstract is given about a new universe model according to a series articles by the author, wherein he describes step by step in rather easy mathematics and not affiliated to the university-world, how he came to his new cosmological model. The overview-abstract contains an amount of subjects being found important for a better understanding of his new model in addition to his former articles. His articles are hosted in the viXra-archive in the UK and free to read. The new universe model is called RTHU instead of Big Bang. The main issue is that the RTHU generates the Big Bang-universe, although at the same time the RTHU also contains a lot of other Big Bang-universes shifted relative to each other, however all generated by the RTHU. The generator is the rotation of the RTHU, which has no beginning of time, but uses duo-bits to crumble the Planck-scale. The RTHU therefore is much bigger than a single self-supporting Big Bang-universe. The total new dynamics give other insights in unsolved problems, but make it possible to understand several phenomena better than solving them just only in a single Big Bang-universe. The author pleads for physics and cosmology in the token of the RTHU. Therefore evidence is available, which has been already presented in several of his articles. Moreover it will pinpoint the future for cosmology in a better way. He describes a new perception of time and future. The author also launches a new insight, based on his new cosmological model, which not has been earlier being involved in the problems around climate-change.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[615] **viXra:1810.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-09 19:32:17*

**Authors:** Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel A. Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 244 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. The universe is a solid elastic continuum - gukuum. This continuum does not contain any numerical parameters or constraints.
All visible and invisible objects of the universe, from large to small, are wave objects in this continuum.
All the wave objects in the gukuum are described by the letter specification of the elasticity parameters of the solid body and the three-dimensional wave equation.
The nonlinearity that exists in the universe is explained by the law of "winding the linear solution on itself." As a result of such winding, or layering, the linear solution becomes non-linear and creates the entire variety of the material world.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[614] **viXra:1809.0599 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-14 08:46:32*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu, Maricel Agop

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

Even though a physical theory, the Scale Relativity Theory (SRT) means more than physics, as its creator noticed himself. In fact it targets the very foundation of the entire positive knowledge, and we are set here to prove this fact. Mathematically one needs the description of a transition between infrafinite, finite and transfinite orders, while physically one needs a transition between microcosmos, daily world (quotidian cosmos) and universe. With SRT the mathematical categories of infrafinite, finite and transfinite, become differentiae of the same general concept of ‘finite’. As it turns out, there is a parallelism of the physical transition between the worlds and the mathematical transition between degrees of ‘finite’: it is followed here historically and logically, in a first part of the present work, with the benefit of extracting the mathematical principles of a physical description of matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[613] **viXra:1809.0599 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-05 13:27:53*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu, Maricel Agop

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

Even though a physical theory, the Scale Relativity Theory (SRT) means more than physics, as its creator noticed himself. In fact it targets the very foundation of the entire positive knowledge, and we are set here to prove this fact. Mathematically one needs the description of a transition between infrafinite, finite and transfinite orders, while physically one needs a transition between microcosmos, daily world (quotidian cosmos) and universe. With SRT the mathematical categories of infrafinite, finite and transfinite, become differentias of the same general concept of ‘finite’. As it turns out, there is a parallelism of the physical transition between the worlds and the mathematical transition between degrees of ‘finite’: it is followed here historically and logically, in a first part of the present work, with the benefit of extracting the mathematical principles of a physical description of matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[612] **viXra:1809.0450 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-23 14:57:31*

**Authors:** Andrew Dente

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This manuscript has no operational errors confirmed by reviewers and outside reviewers.

This unique mathematical method for understanding the flow of gas through each individual objects shape will show us how we can produce physical functions for each object based on the dissemination of gas particles in accordance to its shape. We analyze its continuum per shape of the object and the forces acting on the gas which in return produces its own unique function for the given object due to the rate at which forces were applied to the gas. We also get to examine the different changes in the working rate due to the effect of its volume and mass from the given objects shape with our working equation discovered through Green’s and Gaussian functions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[611] **viXra:1809.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-02 03:55:00*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 23 Pages. This work has been published in Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science

In this work, by summarising our recent works on the differential geometric and topological structures of quantum particles and spacetime manifold, we discuss the possibility to classify quantum particles according to their intrinsic geometric structures associated with differentiable manifolds that are solutions to wave equations of two and three dimensions. We show that fermions of half-integer spin can be identified with differentiable manifolds which are solutions to a general two-dimensional wave equation, in particular, a two-dimensional wave equation that can be derived from Dirac equation. On the other hand, bosons of integer spin can be identified with differentiable manifolds which are solutions to a general three-dimensional wave equation, in particular, a three-dimensional wave equation that can be derived from Maxwell field equations of electromagnetism. We also discuss the possibility that being restricted to three-dimensional spatial dimensions we may not be able to observe the whole geometric structure of a quantum particle but rather only the cross-section of the manifold that represents the quantum particle and the space in which we are confined. Even though not in the same context, such view of physical existence may comply with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics which states that the properties of a physical system are not definite but can only be determined by observations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[610] **viXra:1809.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-27 21:31:04*

**Authors:** Jack Bidnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract
© US 2015
Gravitational Periodicity from Special Relativity by Jack Bidnik
This is my derivation of the sinusoidal variation of planetary orbits by means of relativistic relative momentum of two masses. It may be considered Chapter 3 of my paper Gravitational Forces Revisited (GFR), http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0128
where I derived a force, Fm, which I analogized to Newton's force of gravity by the equation
Fm = Gs Mm /r^2, where Gs is a velocity dependent variable.
Here I derive the same force, but I use a separate method to show that it is the force of gravity. This chapter can be seen as a completely independent, stand alone, method of deriving gravity from Special Relativity, and that Fm is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for the gravitational force.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[609] **viXra:1808.0677 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-07 12:04:39*

**Authors:** Robert H Ihde

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Some error corrections.

All algebras of quantum theory are algebras over a field or briefly K-algebras of a binary operation, which are defined as constant invariants over the Poincaré group. The Christoffel symbols occurring in the classical geodetic equation can be understood as a representation of a K-algebra. In contrary to the constant algebras of quantum theory, the K-algebra of the Christoffel symbols is a function of space-time. A mathematical, conformal unification of geometry and algebra requires a corresponding dependence on space-time for the quantum algebras. Assuming the existence of an algebraic field, based on a changing binary operation with a feedback to the domain, a quantum mechanical vacuum equation for gravity is established. The vacuum equation structurally follows a generalized, pseudo-linear Dirac-Maxwell system with additional algebraic constraints. A physical existence of the algebraic field, as the counterpart to the geometric field of gravity, can be falsified by the experiment. The part of the spin in the magnetic moment of a particle would then depend on its acceleration, since the algebraic field should influence the spin algebra accordingly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[608] **viXra:1808.0677 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-25 12:15:08*

**Authors:** Robert H Ihde

**Comments:** 22 Pages. some correction of typos

All algebras of quantum theory are algebras over a field or briefly K-algebras of a binary operation, which are defined as constant invariants over the Poincaré group. The Christoffel symbols occurring in the classical geodetic equation can be understood as a representation of a K-algebra. In contrary to the constant algebras of quantum theory, the K-algebra of the Christoffel symbols is a function of space-time. A mathematical, conformal unification of geometry and algebra requires a corresponding dependence on space-time for the quantum algebras. Assuming the existence of an algebraic field, based on a changing binary operation with a feedback to the domain, a quantum mechanical vacuum equation for gravity is established. The vacuum equation structurally follows a generalized, pseudo-linear Dirac-Maxwell system with additional algebraic constraints. A physical existence of the algebraic field, as the counterpart to the geometric field of gravity, can be falsified by the experiment. The part of the spin in the magnetic moment of a particle would then depend on its acceleration, since the algebraic field should influence the spin algebra accordingly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[607] **viXra:1808.0677 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-20 14:32:20*

**Authors:** Robert H Ihde

**Comments:** 22 Pages. English version added

All algebras of quantum theory are algebras over a field or briefly K-algebras of a binary operation, which are defined as constant invariants over the Poincaré group. The Christoffel symbols occurring in the classical geodetic equation can be understood as a representation of a K-algebra. In contrary to the constant algebras of quantum theory, the K-algebra of the Christoffel symbols is a function of space-time. A mathematical, conformal unification of geometry and algebra requires a corresponding dependence on space-time for the quantum algebras. Assuming the existence of an algebraic field, based on a changing binary operation with a feedback to the domain, a quantum mechanical vacuum equation for gravity is established. The vacuum equation structurally follows a generalized, pseudo-linear Dirac-Maxwell system with additional algebraic constraints. A physical existence of the algebraic field, as the counterpart to the geometric field of gravity, can be falsified by the experiment. The part of the spin in the magnetic moment of a particle would then depend on its acceleration, since the algebraic field should influence the spin algebra accordingly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[606] **viXra:1808.0586 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-27 16:53:39*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This paper has been published in International Journal of Physics

As shown in our work on spacetime structures of quantum particles, Schrödinger wavefunctions in quantum mechanics can be utilised to construct the geometric structures of quantum particles which are considered to be three-dimensional differentiable manifolds. In this work we will extend this kind of geometric formulation of quantum particles by showing that wavefunctions that are normally used to describe wave phenomena in classical physics can in fact also be utilised to represent three-dimensional differentiable manifolds which in turns are identified with quantum particles. We show that such identification can be achieved by using a three-dimensional wave equation to construct three-dimensional differentiable manifolds that are embedded in a four-dimensional Euclidean space. In particular, the dual character that is resulted from the identification of a wavefunction with a three-dimensional differentiable manifold may provide a classical basis to interpret the wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[605] **viXra:1808.0579 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-27 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a mysterious pattern that somehow connects a bus system in Mexico and chicken eyes to quantum physics and number theory. The observed universality reveals properties for a large class of systems that are independent of the dynamical details, revealing underlying mathematical connections described by the classical Poisson distribution. This note suggests that their origin can be found in the wavefunction as modeled by the geometric interpreation of Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[604] **viXra:1808.0521 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-26 15:05:35*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In a day from days, when the famous x is lengthened to x_2 and lost its virginity... Hey-o! Here comes the danger up in this club again. Listen up! Here's the story about a little guy, that lives in a dark world and uses power of wisdom as a torch to find way in darkness; and all day and all night and everything he sees is just illusion. I have been working about the laws of existence for a time. I developed new formulas which were based on a strong mechanism over philosophical hypotheses. Nobody can answer easily; but I thought many times better mathematical infrastructure. Actually at the beginning, I noticed, that a fixed observer does observation of moving bodies being the bodies do a circular motion because of emerging and changing angles over time even if the objects move parallel manner relatively to the observer at that time . This would not happen accidentally even if abstract math says, nothing is going to change. Eureka! Finally while I was in a cafe today, I remembered and developed in a few hours a new method on some note papers which I demanded from cafe to explain existence, and thereupon I asked to my friends for leave, and I am writing towards morning in the name of giving a shoulder to the tired giants. The ancients smile on me!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[603] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-28 23:30:57*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The linear terms and the polynomial parabolas are involved in laminar flow. It is illustrated that the linear terms, the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches are all involved in turbulent flow,

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[602] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-14 01:01:26*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The linear terms and the polynomial parabolas are involved in laminar flow. It is illustrated that the linear terms, the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches are all involved in turbulent flow,

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[601] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-23 01:46:06*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The polynomial parabolas produce laminar flow. It is illustrated that the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches working together produce turbulence, rotation, swirling, and chaos

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[600] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-21 02:52:57*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The polynomial parabolas alone produce laminar flow. It is illustrated that the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches working together produce turbulence, rotation, swirling, and chaos

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[599] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-18 03:10:26*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize polynomial parabolas. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is a radical parabola. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to that of the x-nonlinear term. The integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two radical parabolas and a hyperbola. The polynomial parabolas alone produce laminar flow. It is illustrated that the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas and the hyperbola branches working together produce turbulence, rotation, swirling, and chaos

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[598] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-16 16:12:42*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[597] **viXra:1808.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-16 04:35:21*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[596] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-25 07:15:13*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 3 pages, written in english

We define a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors and connections linked by functions. We show compacity of the so defined moduli spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[595] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-05 07:36:34*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 4 pages, written in english

We define a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors and connections linked by functions. We show compacity of the so defined moduli spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[594] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-03 11:00:12*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 4 pages, written in english

We introduce here a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations and we show compacity for the so defined moduli spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[593] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-30 11:38:35*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We propose an abelian theory which generalize the Seiberg-Witten equations. We expect the moduli spaces to be compact.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[592] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-28 03:17:12*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We show a set of equations linked to the Seiberg-Witten equations. We couple in some sense two solutions of the Seiberg-Witten equations. We expect the moduli spaces to be compact.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[591] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-26 13:22:28*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We show a set of coupled Seiberg-Witten equations. We expect the moduli spaces beeing compact.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[590] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-21 14:43:01*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in english

We show a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors instead of one single.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[589] **viXra:1807.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-18 10:57:21*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages. misspellings corrected

It was shown in [1] that gravitational interaction can be expressed as an algebraic quadratic invariant form of energies. This allows the decomposition of the entire gravitational system into the sum of squares of energies of its composing particles. Still then, we ran into serious problems, when it came to figure out the Hamiltonian and calculate the total energy of the system from that. (Equivalently put, the algebraic invariant above is not a Hamiltonian one.) The problem is: What goes wrong? This is what this article is about, and the answer is very simple.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[588] **viXra:1806.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 06:16:50*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The fact of named one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution of any object or event.
In the nature, there are many events with the same geometry, so is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples.
That is the main goal for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event.
In this article, I explain other vision of economy for example, and its evolution and also the relation between human feelings and the cosmos evolution through paths or ways. I love the knowledge and know the future based in the past.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[587] **viXra:1806.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-11 06:36:05*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

The purpose of this work is to introduce, in a simple, intuitive way, the coherent and squeezed states of the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO), through a series of exercises, which are solved in detail.
Starting from the application of a spatial translation to the ground state of the QHO, we introduce the spatial and momentum translations, focusing on their application to the QHO, which leads us to the displacement operator.
Next, we introduce the coherent states and examine their basic aspects.
We then proceed to give a simple and purely intuitive introduction to the squeezed states and we conclude by identifying the coherent states as states of minimum energy expectation value compared to the respective squeezed states.
The reader is assumed to have a basic knowledge of the postulates and the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, including the Dirac notation and the ladder operator method of the QHO.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics