[11] **viXra:1501.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 12:24:18*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Talk at the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, Playa del Carmen, Mexico, December 1-5, 2014. To be published in Proceedings.

On the basis of the Silagadze research[1], we investigate the question
of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the
classical level, and
in the secondary-quantization scheme [2,3]. We studied the physical content
within several bases: light-front form formulation [4],
helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples.
The conclusion is that we have ambiguities in the definitions of the
corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical
consequences [5,6].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1501.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 04:47:40*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 38 Pages. Physics in the past formulated at least part of the truth about the physical phenomena. Some ideas, even if they were doubtful and rejectable, are still valid today

All is building on experiments. The theory is valid if and only if it can explain everything
earlier known experiments and can predict something new in physics, which will be confirmed in the future. Metrology must be paramount. All equations must be dimensionally correctly, that is, to use the correct units for each physical quantity. Correct nomenclature and correct terminology.
Form of the interference field must be non-linear.
Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical.
Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
Wave - particle duality as kinetic energy against and In direction of motion.
Physicist must to have a healthy arrogance, do not be afraid criticize of the great physicists, if he is adamantly confident on the basis of experiments metrological and mathematically about their truth. Not afraid to speak out about errors in the theory and about their consequences.
Physicist must have a flight and constantly looking partners, who can discuss with him, who can jointly develop and explore.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1501.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-09 15:39:21*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is well known among physicists that two different kinds of experiments give an anomaly in the proton-radius. The anomaly is: When a muon orbits the proton the proton-radius is 4% smaller than when an electron orbits the proton. This anomaly is a puzzle in standard physics. This puzzle is solved in a new cosmological theory with a new dark energy-force. This article describes the solution. The solution is put in perspective of new physics by a combination of quantum-gravity and sub-quantum dark matter-force in one formula, within the new cosmological theory, called the Double Torus Theory for the universe. Additionally the principle for an anti-gravitational machine is shown based on the use of a dark matter force.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1501.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 11:40:56*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that the polar coordinates satisfaction to wave equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1501.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 03:15:53*

**Authors:** Harry A. Watson

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An Approximation to the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The mass ratio of the proton to the electron is a dimensionless physical constant. The following expression provides a good estimate. (4π)(4π−1/π)(4π−2/π)= 1836.15 (1) The above expression is also the greatest lower bound (GLB) for a more general expression. A geometric persuasion is given and the more general expression is determined via the inversion of the spheres.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1501.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 16:38:15*

**Authors:** Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A comment has been added (end of Section2).

In the present work new analytical results for the 3-cycles of the logistic map are obtained.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1501.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-02 09:05:50*

**Authors:** Carsten S.P. Spanheimer

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Introducing a special quaternionic vector calculus on the tangent bundle of a 4-dimensional space, and by forcing a condition of holomorphism, a Minkowski-type spacetime emerges, from which special relativity, gravitation and also the whole Maxwell theory of electromagnetic fields arises.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1501.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 21:48:02*

**Authors:** Yuan Li, Xuhong Zou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We try to use the word“balance” to explain the energy in this universe. In chemistry, we know if a matter wants to be stable[1], the energy must be lower and lower. So we have reason to believe that if our universe is stable, then the total energy equal to zero, the perfect balance. We use coordinates to prove negative matter and negative internal energy exists and builds molds to explain the relation ship between negative matter and normal matter in our universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1501.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 08:01:42*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 55 Pages. Some charts

One cause for the failure of western science is the assumption that Time is constant, or the reliance on such concepts as “Space – Time.” In contrast, the ancient divination method known as Qi Men Dun Jia views time as a physical entity. The QMDJ model, based on actual real physical processes, thus uses this temporal model to make accurate predictions in the real world. This paper explains the temporal mechanism, based on Hurwitz Quaternions, by which this is done. Thus Hurwitz Lattices and the 24 – Cell may describe the Geography of Time.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1501.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-12 11:09:25*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It has long been known that a photon entering a gravitational potential follows a path identical to that of a photon in a variable speed of light defined by the Shapiro velocity for Minkowski flat space [1]. A spatially variable speed of light is implicitly present in General Relativity, and in fact has a long history starting in the pre GR efforts of Einstein and others. The difference in the approach presented in this paper is not that gravitation changes the speed of light, but that gravitation is a change in the speed of light. There are lots of implications in this including whether or not gravitons and gravitational waves exist.
It will be demonstrated that a pair of opposite going photons or massless bosoms, instantaneously located at a point have the mass and inertial properties of a massive particle, and transform under a change in the velocity of light exactly as a massive particle responds to a gravitational field. The mechanism for holding massless bosons together as a particle will not be addressed in this paper, but it is not necessary to illustrate confinement to demonstrate the transformation properties on photon momentum in a variable speed of light.
At least some massive particles are in reality a confinement of massless bosons, and if it can be shown that the collective momentum is accelerated by a gradient in c, then the premise vindicated. It is shown here that the center of mass of a particle defined as a pair of opposite going null vector photons, in a gradient light speed, is accelerated exactly as a massive particle is accelerated in a gravitational potential.
It is thus asserted that gravitation can be defined as a gradient in c produced by the presence of mass, and thus, Newton’s apple falls not because of an increase in energy, but because the speed of light at the branch is higher than the speed of light at the ground.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1501.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 00:19:09*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This is a copy of my entry in the latest essay contest conducted by the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi). That contest restricts me to 25,000 characters, so I’ve added Notes to the end of the essay (FQXi allows the addition of notes but limits their length to much less than what I want to say). Other excellent essays in FQXi’s current contest will inform readers about the role of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio in nature, as well as referring to the book “Our Mathematical Universe” by Max Tegmark and the use of pi in a science-fiction book by astronomer Carl Sagan to show that “the universe was made on purpose”. Rather than merely repeat the other essays’ wisdom, I’ll take a different approach. I hope my approach will be novel and original, but only time will reveal where it may lead. I want to show that you can combine the topology (rubber-sheet geometry), binary digits and E=mc^2 of maths with the matter, energy and forces of physics to
1) explain dark energy and dark matter,
2) open up the whole universe and all time to human exploration and creation,
3) show that there’s an infinite, eternal cosmos (not a multiverse) beyond our observable universe,
4) unify gravitation with electromagnetism, the other fundamental forces, and the physical universe;
and 5) reconcile the anthropic principle with the unified theories of physics (via a strong version of that principle - that a direct link exists between human existence and the actual form of the laws of nature).
Is this an incredibly ambitious challenge for one person? Yes, and maybe you think an essay competition is not the right place for this. You might be right - but I feel ready to take on the challenge. And people tell me there’s no time like the present. An important weapon in my arsenal is R136a1 -
R136a1 is a monstrous-sized star 165,000 light years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our Milky Way’s satellite galaxies. It currently has 265 times the mass of the Sun and may have been 320 solar masses when it first formed. It’s the most massive and most luminous star ever found, being 10 million times brighter than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," said (English astrophysicist Paul) Crowther. It’s important to my essay because adopting a view in which everything in all space and all time (such as gravitation, electromagnetism and matter) is part of a unification says a star in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the imaginings in the human brains on Earth must indeed be connected. Instead of fantasy, the anthropic principle arises and is reconciled with the unified theories of physics.
Albert Einstein showed that space-time is curved and warped, so it’s possible that our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the remote past. In the TV program "Catalyst", Dr Graham Phillips said,“(The physicist and writer) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing.”

**Category:** Mathematical Physics