[7] **viXra:1303.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-28 04:10:29*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 11 relations, 1 figure

This paper is about relations between the mass of universe and mass of some elementary particles. Important is only the diagram in Figure 1, which you can understand in any language if you know the language of mathematics and physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1303.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 15:28:17*

**Authors:** Yingqiong Gu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is a hot topic about how to trade a stock/group of stocks in a non-news day. Author tries to design safe, profitable automated stock trading agents using evolutionary algorithms[2].
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory[4] is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The idea is to start with a simple system for which a mathematical solution is known, and add an additional "perturbing" Hamiltonian representing a weak disturbance to the system. If the disturbance is not too large, the various physical quantities associated with the perturbed system (e.g. its energy levels and Eigen states) can, from considerations of continuity, be expressed as 'corrections' to those of the simple system. These corrections, being 'small' compared to the size of the quantities themselves, can be calculated using approximate methods such as asymptotic series. The complicated system can therefore be studied based on knowledge of the simpler one.
In Stock Market, for a non-news trading day, stock prices will mostly depend on the initial price at given time, and bid-ask spread.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1303.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 04:22:55*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Point , which is nothing and has not any Position , may be anywhere in Space , therefore the Primary point A , being nothing also in no Space , is the only Point and nowhere i.e. Primary Point is the only Space and from this all the others , so then this primary point A to exist at a second point B somewhere else , point A must move at point B , where then A ≡ B . Presupposition for Unit AB = ds means an Impulse P removes point A to B and since in each Restrained System (S) the Work done ( W ) by Impulse P on a Virtual displacement ( ds > 0) is zero , and then W = ∫ A-B [ P.ds ] = 0 → [ ds .( PA+P B ) = 0 ] and Point A is in Space [S] and point B is in Anti-Space [aS] which are self created and are Property and Essence from the same Unit AB, therefore these are also a Restrained System(S). Since the only two Elements of Universe are ds and P and are connected by Virtual Work Principle and since Unit AB = ds is a quantized dimension,so Impulse is also quantized.Quantization of Points becomes through Vector Unit dš = ÃB which is the first dimensional Unit [ Zenon Paradox 13]and this because Vector has Position and Direction .Quantization of Energy is done in bound States ( loops ) because bound states [11-16] withhold diffusion ( flow ) .The two fundamental dimensions
( quanta of Points (ds) and quanta of Energy (dP) , are connected on Primary dipole and on any dipole AiBi . [PNS] is self created and consists a space (x,y,z) Scalar field Sp which constructs a vector field Sa = Ñ.Sp . The position of dipole in the equilibrium Space Anti-Space keeps charge = momentum ( Energy→ the difference of primary Work which is bounded on edge points ) and Angular momentum ( Spin → angular momentum is the intrinsic twist of Space , Anti-Space ) which inextricably unify geometry of Space and motion . On any Dipole AB of [PNS] with dš = ( [J,E,B] and content © ) ,where motion occurs only as (+) → (-) Source (+) → Drain (-) ,Conservation State of Work exists on magnitude |dš| = √ J² + E² + B² of vector ř ( J,E, B ) ( which is the Sub-Space of AB ) and on the two perpendicular Fields Ê = Ñx J , B = Ñx Ê ( which are the two diffused equilibrium Spaces and Anti -Spaces of AB , Ñx Ê = 0 , Ñ x B = 0 ) . Since,Source (+) →Drain (-) , in [PNS] is the equilibrium of Space [S] and Anti-Space [aS] , therefore the only magnitude for motion is J , while E and B are produced , as this happens in the Magnetic fields where lines ( loops ) close in themselves and this because no sources exist ↑→ ® for magnetic fields B and so the two models [ the B-field Pole and Amperian loop ] are explained. Solving equation ds.( PA+ PB ) = 0 then ds.PA = - ds.PB and since , dš , is constant for Primary dipole , so the Work conserved on every point in Spaces is constant and equal to [ dš .Impulse P = constant ] . i.e. The applied Work [ Wi → 1 → ∞ ] = ( charge ± P ) on every point of the three , Spaces , Anti–Spaces and Sub–Spaces , which coexist in [PNS] is conserved on Points , meaning that every point of [PNS] consist the fundamental ± Scalar Field with variables the Constraint Forces and Angular momentum [ Spin = Wij →1→ ∞] , and is conserved always in [PS] , [ PaS] or, The two elements [Vector dš = AB (matter) , ± dP ,Work p , Spin = momentum ] of the Infinite Dipole Vectors [AB] = [ ĀB – PA , PB ] build Particles with Identity Card , the Constant Product → dš . p = constant …(k) ← so , the Possible Energy Range (m) Scales , of the two fundamental and quantized dimensions [ ds , - P , + P ] are the three Layers ,
(- i ) ↔ (0 ) = - P → [ ds , - P , ] → Black Holes Scale = k 1 → ds 1. dP 1 = k 1
(-i ) ↔ (+i) = 7 P → [ ds , - P , + P ] → Planck Scale Matter = k 2 → ds 2. dP 2 = k 2
(+i ) ↔ (0 ) = + P → [ ds , + P , ] → Dark Matter Scale = k 3 → ds 3. dP 3 = k 3
For any single particle of wavelength λ = ds and dP = Charge → momentum ( p ) exists :
dš.dP = λ . p = constant = h → is the reduced Planck constant in Planck Scale Matter . For ds near zero and P = ∞ , is needed a new Type of Light to see what is happening below Planck length Level , Layer 10¯35 m .Primary Vector monad and Vector monads are , either Static ( equilibrium ) or Dynamic ( are moving ) , and keep their Conservation of State ( The Total work is equal to zero ) in the three equilibrium and perpendicular monads [ J , E , B ] which are in Subspaces , Spaces , Anti-Spaces ( and thus , not turn
to non-existence ) and are interchanged by Pythagoras conservation law of Volume.
The geometric concepts of [PNS] as two dimensional field is that , the third dimension represents the amplitude of the potential S . Considering x-y Plane as the base and the vertical (z) is the potential S , then contours of constant potential altitudes of [PNS] are Cylindrical or Solenoidal and for Position 0 ( which is the equilibrium Horizon of Space and anti-Space) is Sphere , therefore [PNS] with the included Space [S] and Anti-Space [aS] may be Sphere and Solenoidal simultaneously.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1303.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-18 12:13:37*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

New gravity-physics and -mathematics produce calculations of dark matter-accelerations and prove we live in a Double Torus Universe, which recalculates Quantum Gravity in vacuum. The set of equations to do that, prove the (new) dark energy force formula in the Double Torus Hypothesis is correct. The formula has been developed step by step and described in my Vixra-papers. It is an alternative for still unknown dark energy used in Big Bang cosmology. It is a tool for the awareness that the universe is not a universe that started with a Big Bang. The universe is a Double Torus, which uses + and - dark matter force to change quantum-gravity. The formula shows clearly a new view on the universe to be necessary. This paper shows theoretical predictions through calculations that match the experimental values of dark matter-accelerations in galaxies, the Pioneer-satellites (1 and 2) and produces the lowest limit for Newton-gravitational force. This Newton limit-acceleration matches the laboratory-experiments and moreover sets the limit to a slightly theoretical lower limit-acceleration of 2.8659 x 10^-14 [m/s2]. There is no other theory that predicts this limit. The conditions of the formula show, that quantum-gravity is related to a dark matter force. Dark energy-time from below the Planck-time is applied to the dark matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1303.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 15:25:42*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 2 pages, 3 figures

This article shows how the gravitational force is conservative only in ideal models of small
size. It is shown as strictly mathematical generally is not conservative. From it you can get energy by asymmetric systems.
Spanish: En este artículo se muestra como la fuerza gravitatoria sólo es conservativa en modelos ideales de pequeño tamaño. Se demuestra con rigor matemático como, en general,
no es conservativa. De ella se puede obtener energía mediante sistemas asimétricos.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1303.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 13:10:39*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 16 formulas, 1 table

In "The Code of Nature" [1] Helmut Söllinger gives Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker's (1912-2007) relationship between the fundamental physical constants. The first section examines Söllinger's the relationship between the masses of protons and electrons, and the fundamental physical constants. The second is about the Weizsacker's assumption of proportionality between the Planck length, Compton wavelength and radius of the Universe. In the third section, I try to explain, the previous relationships, in light of the attractive-repulsive forces of the Ruđer Bošković (1711-1787), the earliest founder of quantum theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1303.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 15:56:25*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Keywords: Helmholtz equation, PWE, paraxial approximation, bipolar coordinates

A new type of exact solution of the reduced 3 dimensional spatial PWE (paraxial wave equation) for the case of bipolar coordinates is presented here.
First, we consider a self-similar representation of the solution in a bipolar coordinate system, the second we additionally reduce PWE under a proper paraxial assumption.
Analyzing the structure of the final equation, we obtain the simple exact solution which is proved to satisfy to such an equation in bipolar coordinates.
Besides, there is a limitation of the components of self-similar solution of a new type.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics