[8] **viXra:1412.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-31 14:46:19*

**Authors:** Ivan L Zhogin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. essay; 2 figures (send to friedmann-2015.org)

There is a unique (compatible, second-order) 5D-equation of Absolute Parallelism (D is fixed) which solutions avoid singularities. Three of fifteen polarization modes are linearly unstable; they can carry digital information, topological charges and quasi-charges, but not the five-momentum. Phenomenological models accounting for these (quasi)charges (i.e., particles) emerge including a relativistically expanding S^3-shell cosmology and Lagrangian forth-order gravity. A radial longitudinal wave can form a shell of huge size L (in the co-moving system) along the extra-dimension.
The correction to the Newton's law here behaves as 1/r on large scales, r>L, so the Dark Matter hypothesis looks unnecessary. Generation of gravitational waves (GW) in this theory differs by the factor (\lambda/L)^2 from the General Relativity result (for GW amplitude; \lambda is GW wavelength); so, short GWs should be much weaker than in GR.
A new way of interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (closely relating to the huge and "undeveloped" extra-dimension) is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1412.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-08 16:52:34*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Definitions are presented for "quaternion functions" of a quaternion. Polynomial and exponential quaternion functions are presented. Derivatives and integrals of these quaternion functions are developed. It is shown that quaternion multiplication can be represented by matrix multiplication provided the matrix has a specific type of structure. It is also shown that differentiation and integration are similar to their non-quaternion applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1412.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 03:09:23*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Some charts and diagrams

Sir Roger Penrose, Nobel Laureate, has described them as “useless” for physics, yet the old uncle locked up in the attic, as John Baez describes them, play a fundamental role in the physics of the Universe, according to Vedic Physics theory. This paper explains why.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1412.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 07:21:38*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The subtitle of this paper is: “An overwhelming amount of evidence is available for the non-existence of the Big Bang”. Instead a new proposal for the shape and dynamic of the universe is described as an eternally rotating Time-Torus-Universe. Therein particles and observers are in orbit inside a time-density of a sub-time-torus. Such a sub-time-torus is a part of the larger Time-Torus Universe. Such a whole universe rotates forever. This is the Double Torus Universe described in the Double Torus Theory (DTT), which has no beginning or end. Such a universe is full of dark matter in synergy with new dark energy, which emerges the visible material world as we know it. The power for this synergy is capsuled in events happening by 2 dimensions of time smaller than the conformal time in the Big Bang Universe. Therefore this new theory is called ‘double’, because it uses that refined time, which is 2D-time smaller than the conformal Planck-time. However, the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Quantum Theory (QT) remain valid in the DTT. In the DTT a new force takes care for the torus not to expand unlimited as in the Big Bang universe. Observers inside the DTT experience a combination of quantum Newton-force and sub-quantum dark matter-force at the edge of any sub-time-torus. This leads to a sometimes shared rotating cosmological horizon in the presence. Space is no longer the issue in the DTT, but conformal and refined time are. In an overview is explained, by means of 14 handwritten sheets, how to visualize this mechanism mathematically and dimensionally. The under laying formulations are already described in former vixra-articles of mine [1]. Popular information can also be found on my website [a]. In the end a description is given of the window of visible matter (a new formula, which is independent of the cosmological constant). This formula calculates the ‘window’. In addition several examples of institutional evidence is shown to support the DTT-formulations. My opinion is: It is unbelievable how science anno 2014 wants holds on to Big Bang. Forget the Big Bang!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1412.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 02:58:50*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 47 Pages. Some diagrams

The Tai Xuan Jing (T’ai Hsuan Ching) or Classic of the Great Mystery, although attributed to Chinese writers and preserved in China for two thousand years, probably originated in Vedic India. The Tai Xuan Jing pertains to the dynamic Raja form of 9 x 9 matter, which is a fundamental aspect of Vedic Physics. This paper argues for Vedic origins of the Tai Xuan Jing and provides supporting material for that argument, based on the mathematical argument proposed by Frank “Tony” Smith on his website.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1412.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-16 15:08:54*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The dynamics of reality is well regulated. What is the mechanism that controls dynamics and what rules this mechanism? The models of contemporary physics do not answer these questions.
In the realm of elementary particles the special habits of quaternions appear to play an essential role. In the past physics had a choice between the Maxwell based approach and the quaternionic based approach. That choice has a significant influence on how physics equations look. Einstein selected the Maxwell approach and in this way physics inherits the spacetime view on the universe in which we live.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1412.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-03 14:37:40*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Prepared for the special issue of the "Adv. Appl. Clifford Algebras" - Proceedings of the ICCA10 Conference - Tartu, Estonia, Aug. 2014. Also presented by my students at the LVII Congreso Nacional de Fisica, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Oct. 2014

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of
the helicity=0 fundamental field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We study the massless limits.
In fact, a theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers of Ogievetskii and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed
the concept of the notoph, whose helicity
properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism
They are consistent with the general relativity.
Particular attention has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Noether currents. We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph. PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1412.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 12:28:34*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The Energy Space nature of the particles

Analysing the principles of ,Mechanics and Physics, is clearly shown their common origin which is the unique essence of Space(m) and Energy (Force ,Push, Pull, Rotate) where arbitrary number ,t = time, is defined as the conversion factor between time units (second) and the length units (meter) . By contrast Inertial frame [R] is the frame of reference which describes Space-Energy homogeneously and isotropically , and in an genius manner , where arbitrary number , t = time , is defined as the conversion factor between time units (second) and length units ( meter ).
The content of this article is ,
The Geometrical Reasoning of Planck Length being a quaternion ,
The Binomial nature of Monads in Monad and this because of their intrinsic property in Inner system which is , A Stationary wave on Norm of wavelength λ , and thus Poinsot's Ellipsoid becomes → Cycloidal Ellipsoid ← or Cycloidal wave motion in monads , and also the two parts of spin of particles , i.e. the plane Electromagnetic waves forming the spherical standing waves .
The STPL line as the unique passage of particles from absolute [O]frame to all other [R] Inertial Frames (parallel between them) which is thus , the Navel cord (string) of galaxies ,
The geometrical expression of Spaces are the Geometries related to Euclidean by the Lorentz factor ,γ, and thus the common essence of Mechanics and Geometry,
The isochrones motion of spaces which is shown to be the geometrical expression of Lorentz factor γ , is such that it is possible for velocities in an Affine Frame (System) or the Frame , to be the projection of one Constant Velocity of Absolute Frame [O] to the relative frames [R] where there exists Simultaneity .
By considering breakages as ,masses, and also being off an absolute system [O] and under the constant velocity c as Action , then the known formulas of GR for masses and Energy are geometrically produced without any set restrictions , but from relation sec.φ = γ only. Relativity is now placed as a part of the whole Euclidean geometry , because all rotating [R] reference systems are related to the absolute system [O] which is that of Gravity Field .
The Origin of Particles from the collision of Velocity vectors Breakages in common circle ,
The Origin of Color forces from the Retardation and the Birefringence of Spaces ,
The Structure of the Space-Energy universe and the boundaries in it , of General Relativity,
Because breakages travel in [R] system (frame) with the constant velocity ,c, and so are in rectilinear motion between them , they occupy zero acceleration and thus can be converted to measurements in another by the simple Galilean transformations , because physical laws take the same form in all inertial systems .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics