[12] **viXra:1311.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-30 09:17:51*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 11 pages; mostly font 11; A4 paper; UK English; Freelance scientist.

This answers fundamental questions from Wikipedia about Generations of Matter [**web 1] and related properties.
Why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? Why are the ratios of masses of quarks and leptons as they are?
Also, is the ratio of fundamental force strengths related to the size of the universe and why are the ratios as they are?
This theory defines a “fundamental sub-structure" that is a tetrahedron with the further “sub-structure" of spheres.
Another geometrical possibility, with the same values, is based on the spatial axes.
The big picture could be the arrangement of the “fundamental spheres” along the axes of space.
There seems to be a “universal template” for the properties of the universe. The ratio numbers can be thought of as "quantum numbers". The ratios for each of these “fundamental sub-structure", “quantum numbers” are 1, 3 & 6; simple integer values. The 1, 3, 6 “quantum numbers” ratios in this theory show why the relative masses & radii of quarks and the “heavy leptons” are their “known values”. The cube root of the mass was used to calculate a diameter ratio parameter for these. These ratios are also applied to other basic properties of the universe. This “fundamental sub-structure" has also been applied to the relative strengths of the fundamental forces determining the size of the universe at the time of their creation.
The universe is believed to have gone through creation of forces, inflation stages & must, of necessity, have gone through “phase changes". These could be interconnected.
This theory combines the above items into ONE overall theory. Unexpected conclusions of the theory is
[1] that gravity (like the nuclear force holding protons and neutrons together) is just another aspect of the strong nuclear force. This would mean that gravity works without gravitinos as force carriers or gavity waves! It also ties the force of gravity to its interaction with space!
[2] Mass is an ATTRACTION ONLY “CHARGE”! [No repulsive gravity = dark energy.]
[3] This gives numerical values to different inflation stages.
[My unpublished work:- accelerated expansion = “localised view” of start of a new inflation period! Natural evolution of the universe!]

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11] **viXra:1311.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-15 09:13:30*

**Authors:** Dan visser

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I hope the press takes notice. The result violates GRT. Signed: Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands

In particular calculations have been made for the detection of extraterrestrial high energy neutrinos. Additional the rest-energy of a neutrino is calculated (equivalent to its rest mass). But both calculations are not standard. The calculations are made from the perspective of a new model for the universe: The Double Torus hypothesis. The alternative calculation shows that the result matches a neutrino-incident in the ICECUBE-project in Antartica for a value of 250 TeV energy. Moreover, an extra calculation is made for the expected neutrino rest-energy by the Standard Model (equivalent for its rest-mass). This shows time 21 times smaller than the Planck-time can generate a neutrino-rest-energy of 2.2 eV. It also shows time 100 times smaller than the Planck-time can generate a neutrino-rest-energy of 0.1 eV. This delivers evidence for the existence of a sub-quantum-domain of refined time that affects dark vacuum-particles; this is dark matter described in the Double Torus-framework. That generates visible quantum-gravitational particles. Such a calculation could also be performed for an electron or a quark. But that is not (yet) performed in this paper. But one of the conclusions is that the detection of high energy neutrinos could turn out to be additional evidence for the existence of rotational Double Torus Universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1311.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 04:16:59*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

All the fermion masses may be determined from merely two numbers dependent on π , e , and a few rational fractions, and all the fermion charges thereafter., In this, now, dimension independent revision; the electron mass and the ratio of the muon mass to the electron mass are shown calculable from simple quadratic functions of π , e , and a few rational fractions. All the remaining masses may be determined from from these constants and their indexes determined by the mass-generalized Maxwell's equations. These calculated masses are all well within current specs as of this publication. In fact, more recent neutrino measurements and estimates have put their values into a rather tight range which the computed values in this update fall within.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1311.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-28 14:20:49*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Keywords: Helmholtz paradox, constant vortex, incompressible ideal flow

The reverse side of Helmholtz paradox is presented here. Helmholtz paradox itself had been formulated as follows: - in the ideal (non-viscid) newtonian fluids any vorticity should be stable (constant) during infinite time. It means that if vortex arise in non-viscid newtonian fluid, such a vortex should have the constant strength all the time.
In our note to Helmholtz paradox, we proved that Vortex with constant angular velocity of rotation could be generated only by the flow with zero Laplacian (thus, such a flow is not viscid for the case of incompressible newtonian fluids).
Thus, we could conclude in addition to Helmholtz paradox: not only any vortex should be constant in the ideal (non-viscid) newtonian fluids, but if vortex is constant it means that such a flow is proved to be ideal (unviscid) due to zero Laplacian.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1311.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 02:41:37*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The fluid equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term - hence describing viscous flow. Due to specific of NS equations they could be transformed to full/partial inhomogeneous parabolic differential equations: differential equations in respect of space variables and the full differential equation in respect of time variable and time dependent inhomogeneous part. Finally, orthogonal polynomials as the partial solutions of obtained Helmholtz equations were used for derivation of analytical solution of incompressible fluid equations in 1D, 2D and 3D space for rectangular boundary. Solution in 2D and 3D space for any shaped boundary was expressed in term of 2D and 3D global solution of Helmholtz equation accordantly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1311.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-19 15:51:54*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 5 Pages. version 2 repairs a calculation ommision

The title of this article presents evidence-based insights of the manner entropy-gravity might work in detail. Entropy-gravity stands in the picture of actuality in physics, while simultaneously my Double Torus theory posits the universe can no longer be maintained as Big Bang cosmology. So from the point of view of the Double Torus theory both theories could be theoretically related. The Double Torus hypothesis is point-particle related, but entropy-gravity used string-mathematics. Moreover, entropy-gravity also used the holographic principle. So, string-mathematics seems not to be useful as a fully expectable physics model, because it is limited to the conservative Big Bang cosmology. Therefore it might be unexpectedly true that the universe is shaped as a rotating torus (ring) with sub-quantum dynamics based on dark vacuum-particles (rings). In this paper the calculation-result of the dark vacuum-particle is presented on 0.984 x 10^-18 eV per cubical zepto-meter multiplied by squared zepto-second and radials squared (zepto is the scale of 10^-21 m). The dark vacuum particles are shaped as instable rings and generate quantum-gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1311.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 06:39:16*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 13 Pages. I hope the press will take notice of the Double Torus hypothesis and in particular this paper.

Einstein’s energy is connected to a new dark energy force, refined-time, the fundamental constants of Planck and Newton and prove the universe is a rotational Double Torus Universe. Also is proven that an accelerated space-expansion in a stand-alone Big Bang cosmology is an optical illusion. This paper presents a new energy-equation connecting Einstein’s relativistic-energy to a new dark matter-force in a new dark energy force. This new equation is the result of combining a rather new energy-formula of E. Verlinde (UvA-NL) with my new dark energy force-formula of my Double Torus hypothesis. The Double Torus hypothesis is a new model for the universe and against Big Bang Cosmology. A second new equation proves indeed the accelerated space-time expansion is an optical illusion. The new dark energy force uses refined time, which is smaller than the Planck-time. Such causes a cyclic refined time-process from a sub-quantum scale recalculating dark matter towards the quantum scale, but in a rotational Double Torus Universe. This has consequences for the philosophy of past and future.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1311.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-16 01:26:45*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

At first the 4-dimensional real basis spinors are set in accordance to usual 2-dimensional complex basis spinors. This is the first step. Then the 4-dimensional space of real basis spinors represents as the tensor product of two 2-demensional spaces. Further the sum of these two 2-dimensional spaces represents as the tensor product of two new 2-dimensional spaces. And this operation repeats infinitely.The metric tensor defines for each of derived in this process spaces (as for 2-
dimensional, so for 4-dimensional). The shortage of data at this process compensates by the simplicity principle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1311.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-14 12:53:12*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 30 Pages; 45 References

The paper provides a crucial elementary derivation of new superluminal spatio-temporal transformations based on the idea that, conceptually and kinematically, each subluminal, luminal and/or superluminal inertial reference frame has,in addition to its relative velocity, its proper specific kinematical parameter,which having the physical dimensions of a constant speed. Consequently,the relativity principle and causality principle are coherently extended to superluminal velocities and, more importantly, this original approach constitutes the first basic step toward the formulation of superluminal relativistic mechanics in which the standard special relativity theory should be a particular case.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1311.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-12 04:08:29*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From the fact, that 2-dimensional basis spinors are complex, there are made two conclusions. The first is that it is possible to change them by
4-dimensional real basis spinors. The second is that it is possible to enter 12 more dimensions in addition to 4 ordinary dimensions of our space.
There is found connection of the basis of that 16-dimensional space with the basis of 4-dimensional space of real basis spinors.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1311.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 08:00:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Mustiness basement of Science were blown up, in time of rising Einstein. He has not taken any of the Newtonian principles (three dimensional World with absolute time) into General Relativity. The beam of starlight passing in Sun's low gravity, showed, that even in weak field limit the General Relativity empirically contradicts the Newton's theory. Nowadays the Science is slow. I propose to critically examine its foundations once again. Because there are experiences, which contradict the Science. And the entropy, as it not being sold on market, is mystical enough.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1311.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-19 05:12:49*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An explanation is offered of the mechanism of turbulent flows emergence, based of the Maxwell-like gravitation equations, updated after some known experiments. It is shown that the moving molecules of flowing liquid interact like electrical charges. The forces of such interaction can be calculated and included to the Navier-Stokes equations as mass forces. Navier-Stocks equations complemented by these forcesbecome equations of hydrodynamics for turbulent flow. For the calculations of turbulent flows the known methods of Navier-Stokes equations solution may be used. The source of energy in cavitation heat generators is considered.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics