Thermodynamics and Energy

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[361] viXra:1911.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 08:54:53

A Study on the Enhancement of the Breaker Ability of Contactors

Authors: Yong Chol Jong, Un Chol Ri, Gum Chol Ri
Comments: 5 Pages.

Increasing the life of contactors, which are widely used in the power industry, is a very important issue. In this paper, a new U-shaped arc lattice was introduced to increase the arc extinguishing capacity of the contactor.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[360] viXra:1911.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 05:16:15

Heat Fluctuate in Microscopic System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

"The physical origins of thermodynamic uncertainty relations were obscure until now. Our study shows they can be derived from FTs," Landi said. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators - resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[359] viXra:1911.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 09:39:34

Heat Radiation Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers at Purdue University have engineered ceramic "nanotubes" that behave as thermal antennas, offering control over the spectrum and direction of high-temperature heat radiation. [28] Scientists have developed a new approach for making metal-metal composites and porous metals with a 3-D interconnected "bicontinuous" structure in thin films at size scales ranging from tens of nanometers to microns. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[358] viXra:1911.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 15:51:22

Analysis of Natural Lightning Phenomena and Method for Laboratory Study

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 12 Pages. Reported in International conference on Nanotechnology and Materials Science, 2019, Rome, Italy

On Earth, the lightning frequency is approximately 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year. The average lightning duration is a few hundred milliseconds made up from a number of shorter strokes. Lightning is a transient process producing very high frequency pulses mostly in MHZ range. The analysis of lightnings using the BSM-SG models indicates that theoretically predicted and experimentally proved “Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism” (HRM) is involved in the transient process of lightning. The physics of HRM effect permits a new understanding on the energy of lightning. This article is focused mainly on lightnings between clouds and ground in which an avalanche process takes place. The enormous energy released during this process could not be only from the potential energy accumulated in clouds. A new technical method for a laboratory study of the lightning is proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[357] viXra:1911.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 05:04:09

Cycle of Sevtsov

Authors: Sergey Sevtsov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A fundamentally new thermodynamic cycle of operation of an internal combustion engine with compression ignition is proposed.In a new two-stroke diesel fuel combustion occurs at a constant volume, as in a gasoline engine. Theoretically, the efficiency of the new engine is increased and there is no need for a particulate filter (due to the complete combustion of diesel fuel).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[356] viXra:1911.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 11:09:05

About the Properties of Energy

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract Is it possible to describe all law of nature in one theory? This paper constitutes all principles as a result of one single energy and its quantities and distributions. The properties of energy, which lead to the different principles, are the following: 1.There is nothing beside energy. 2.Energy is local 3.Energy is able to superpose with other quantities of energy 4.Quantities of energy tend to each other towards the largest difference of their amount of energy ∆W, except for ∆W=0. 5.Given that there are 2 directions with the same value of ∆W, the energy tends to both ways with the same quantity of energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[355] viXra:1910.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 08:50:10

Conversion of Infrared Light to Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Invisible infrared light accounts for half of all solar radiation on the Earth's surface, yet ordinary solar energy systems have limited ability in converting it to power. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system-meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[354] viXra:1910.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:32:52

Information Entropies Are Unable to Describe Mental Activities

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we describe how and why information entropy is totally inadequate to assess, describe and quantify the activities of the brain that we term mental functions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[353] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 07:51:29

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[352] viXra:1910.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 08:41:27

Binding Energy for Catalysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Determining the optimal binding energies for heterogeneous chemical reactions-usually meaning that the reactant is in the gas or liquid phase while the catalyst is a solid-is critical for many aspects of modern society, as we rely on such reactions for processes as diverse as the production of fertilizers and plastics. [37] Among the many techniques being investigated to generate clean energy, water splitting is a very promising one. [36] But now, Shigehisa Akine and colleagues from Kanazawa University have shown that the reversed order is also possible: first, the host undergoes a chemical reaction, after which it recognizes and forms a complex with the guest ion. [35] In batteries, fuel cells or technical coatings, central chemical processes take place on the surface of electrodes which are in contact with liquids. During these processes, atoms move over the surface, but how this exactly happens has hardly been researched. [34] A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[351] viXra:1910.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 04:35:46

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ and Specific Lattice Thermal Capacity of Non-Homogeneous and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors and Insulators

Authors: Valeri LIGATCHEV
Comments: 21 Pages. This paper is devoted to an extended discussion on some new aspects of the ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) described in details in the second chapter of my book ‘Polycrystalline and Spatially Non-Homogeneous Amorphous Semiconductors’ published in 2017.

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) links features of near-band gap and intra-gap electronic as well as corresponding optical spectra of polycrystalline and spatially non-homogeneous amorphous semiconductors and insulators to probabili-ties of equilibrium fluctuations in an energy of the individual quasi-particle, number of quasi-particles in a quantum grand canonical ensemble of confined acoustic phonons with static plane-wave basis (pure states), and in their aggregate energy. The essentially many-body GSM might be implemented as well at evaluations on harmonic and anharmonic contributions to the specific lattice thermal capacity of those semiconductors and insulators, as well as their low-dimensional counterparts. Herein predictions of the ‘refined’ GSM equations in these areas are compared with appropriate experimental results and outcomes of canonical Debye – Planck model.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[350] viXra:1910.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 07:34:27

Hot Spots is Primary Reason for Global Warming – New Theory

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper is a short overview of why hot spots are the primary reason for global warming. Hot spots are created due to city non reflective surfaces, high concentrations of CO2 green house emission in cities, and by concentrations of black asphalt roads covering urban areas and cities. The CO2 theory of global warming, while certainly part of the problem, is on average only 0.04-.06 percent of our atmosphere. These concentrations may be too low to be the major threat in green house theory. However, in cities, this CO2 number climbs substantially and in combination with non reflective city surfaces, creates the earth’s largest hot spots. Knowledge of the real root cause of the global warming problem once understood, can provide enormous solutions to our global warming crisis. Primarily, studies need to be conductive on how to reduce hot spots created by cities. Such solutions would include more reflective asphalt, painting dark surfaces and focusing on CO2 emissions in cities. For example, energy plants creating smog should be located far from city areas. Asphalt temperature must be lowered using safe reflective materials of paint. These types of solutions are much easier to deal with than lowering CO2 emissions in the next 10 years. CO2 emission lowering is particularly important in hot spot areas where green house effect is enhances due to high concentrations of emission by concentration of cars and fossil fuel burning. Results of this paper should be eye opening and provide important ramifications in the fight against global warming.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[349] viXra:1909.0647 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 02:05:34

Stefan-Boltzmann Constant Incorrect by a Factor of 2π

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

Due to wrong applications of Planck’s radiation law a wrong Stefan-Boltzmann constant has been introduced. This article describes 2 of such applications and proves that the mentioned constant is a factor 2π too high. One of the consequences is that the alleged power density of the sun is also 2π too high. Or its temperature is 1.6 times higher!
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[348] viXra:1909.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 03:32:58

Turn Heat into Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

An international team of scientists has figured out how to capture heat and turn it into electricity. [34] Researchers at Osaka University have been able to enhance the power factor of a promising thermoelectric material by more than 100% by varying the pressure, paving the way for new materials with improved thermoelectric properties. [33] Wearable devices that harvest energy from movement are not a new idea, but a material created at Rice University may make them more practical. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[347] viXra:1909.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 05:16:47

Organic Solar Cell Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Solar cells that use mixtures of organic molecules to absorb sunlight and convert it to electricity, that can be applied to curved surfaces such as the body of a car, could be a step closer thanks to a discovery that challenges conventional thinking about one of the key components of these devices. [31] "Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[346] viXra:1909.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 09:58:26

Hurricane Suppression Using Salt to Increase Atmospheric Conductivity

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a short overview of why adding salt to the eye of a hurricane might be an effective method for suppressing a hurricane by disrupting its electric field. A salt powder absorbed into the moist atmosphere would add a measure of conductivity and could significantly reduce the electric and electromagnetic fields build-up which would reduce a hurricane’s ability to stay organized. There is a history of observed strong electric fields inside hurricanes, primarily in the eye. We hypothesize how the electric fields act as the hurricane’s glue; the more it can be discharged, the less organized and weaker it will become.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[345] viXra:1908.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 13:30:20

Moteur Alternatif Mécanique

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 10 Pages.

Un travail en mécanique des moteurs , vos avis et vos collaborations sont les bienvenues.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[344] viXra:1908.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 17:31:10

L'injection Mécanique Automatique

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

C'est un travail sur l'injection mécanique automatique dans un moteur .Vous trouverez un résultat très important qui aide à deviner la forme de la combustion et donc aide à usiner la bonne tête de piston.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[343] viXra:1908.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 10:16:54

Thermal Profiles at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

At the nanoscale-at distances less than 1/100th the width of the thinnest human hair-controlling temperature is much more difficult. [35] Topological defects in the structure of materials known as active nematics can act as rods that mix the fluids-much like one might mix colours in white paint. [34] When a container of silicone oil or other similar liquid is vertically shaken at a regular frequency, 1-millimeter-sized droplets of the same liquid placed on the liquid's surface appear to "walk" across the surface at speeds of about 1 cm/second, propelled by their own waves. [33] Almost all living organisms from bacteria to humans have gate-like protein complexes in their cell membranes that get rid of unwanted or life-threatening molecules. [32] In a recent study now published on Light: Science & Applications, Yuchao Li and colleagues at the Institute of Nanophotonics in China, developed an optical microscope system using living cells as tiny lenses to image and manipulate objects smaller than the wavelength of light. [31] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a way to create catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of para-connected benzene rings. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[342] viXra:1907.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 00:42:43

Self Recharging Perpetual Paper Batteries

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar, S. Alamelu Mangai
Comments: 3 Pages. Paper Battery , Perpetual Battery, Self Recharging Battery.

In this paper we describe about a paper battery whose electrodes are made up of different metals. This battery is connected to the primary coil of a transformer. The secondary coil of the transformer is connected to full wave rectifier whose output is either connected to a super capacitor or a rechargeable battery. The whole of the setup is referred as Self Recharging Perpetual Paper Battery.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[341] viXra:1907.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 03:51:44

Magnetic Refrigerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists at the Laboratory of Novel Magnetic Materials of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University study magnetic materials and magnetostructural phase transition in order to create a new magnetic cooling technology. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[340] viXra:1907.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 16:21:43

We-Trump Powertrain = Gearless Automatic Digitostat Fluid Power Continuously Variable Bidirectional Regenerative Transmission

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 64 Pages.

Subject inventions use a bunch of hydraulic cylinders with cross section area in a series of powers of 2 multiples of the least common denominator. By selection from N pieces of such cylinders with corresponding digital-controllable valves array, the enumerateable quantity of different areal sums shall read: Nth power of 2. With proper switching on the bunch of cylinders, adjustable fluid power supply can be realized to adapt very wide pressure fluctuation of input. Also a novel system of hydrostatic transmission & powertrain is presented, and it features automatic quasi CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) & regenerative brake with reclaimed energy round trip via same tranny, by virtue of not expensively using planetary gears or variable displacement hydraulic pump/motor. All vehicles, even powered only by fossil fuel, deserve economic regenerative brake, now this invention can make it come true!
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[339] viXra:1907.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 06:50:24

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 15., Aktualisierte Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 16 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Zu dieser Thematik gab es in Russland sehr aufwendige und teure Experimente. Das Ihnen hier vorliegende Manuskript zeigt, dass man mit sehr viel weniger Aufwand bereits am Schreibtisch zu den gleichen Ergebnissen kommen kann.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[338] viXra:1907.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:41:18

Mass Energy Intake for Vibration and Heat

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if two masses collide inelastically the size of the hit masses determine the amount of energy it stores as vibration if the vibration is too much it produces heat any mass that fully occupies a larger volume produces more energy intake
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[337] viXra:1907.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-05 10:15:36

Heat Relations

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

heat is directly proportional to time of contact and is directly proportional to the kinetic energy lost per second
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[336] viXra:1907.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-06 05:19:58

More Heat out of Sunlight

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A newly developed material that is so perfectly transparent you can barely see it could unlock many new uses for solar heat. [34] By energizing precursor molecules using a tiny, high-energy supersonic jet of inert gas, researchers have dramatically accelerated the fabrication of nanometer scale structures. [33] Emerging single-cell diagnostics rely on the potential to rapidly and efficiently isolate bacteria from complex biological matrices. [32]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[335] viXra:1907.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-06 05:30:10

Combat Climate Change

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at TIFR have developed the solution phase synthesis of dendritic plasmonic colloidosomes (DPCs) with varying interparticle distances between the gold nanoparticles (NPs) using a cycle-by-cycle growth approach by optimizing the nucleation-growth step. [35] A newly developed material that is so perfectly transparent you can barely see it could unlock many new uses for solar heat. [34] By energizing precursor molecules using a tiny, high-energy supersonic jet of inert gas, researchers have dramatically accelerated the fabrication of nanometer scale structures. [33] Emerging single-cell diagnostics rely on the potential to rapidly and efficiently isolate bacteria from complex biological matrices. [32] A particularly aggressive, metastasizing form of cancer, HER2-positive breast cancer, may be treated with nanoscopic particles "imprinted" with specific binding sites for the receptor molecule HER2. [31] UNC School of Medicine scientists created a powerful new "directed evolution" technique for the rapid development of scientific tools and new treatments for many diseases. [30] Scientists have been aware of this 'length problem' for a long time, but it was largely overlooked for most of the twentieth century. [29] Such emulsions are similar to the mixture that forms when you shake an oil-and-vinegar salad dressing, but with much smaller droplets. [28] Russian scientists found that nanocrystal tungsten trioxide can be used instead of barium for X-ray examinations and also in cancer treatment. [27] Medical advancements can come at a physical cost. Often following diagnosis and treatment for cancer and other diseases, patients' organs and cells can remain healed but damaged from the medical condition. [26]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[334] viXra:1907.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-06 05:39:33

Smartphone Batteries Last Longer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Our future TV and smartphone screens could have double the energy efficiency, thanks to a technique invented by Imperial scientists. [36] Researchers at TIFR have developed the solution phase synthesis of dendritic plasmonic colloidosomes (DPCs) with varying interparticle distances between the gold nanoparticles (NPs) using a cycle-by-cycle growth approach by optimizing the nucleation-growth step. [35] A newly developed material that is so perfectly transparent you can barely see it could unlock many new uses for solar heat. [34] By energizing precursor molecules using a tiny, high-energy supersonic jet of inert gas, researchers have dramatically accelerated the fabrication of nanometer scale structures. [33]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[333] viXra:1907.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-04 07:02:24

Double Input Boost/Y-Source DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Niteesh S Shanbog
Comments: 58 Pages.

With the increasing adoption of renewable energy sources by domestic users, decentralisation of the grid is fast becoming a reality. Distributed generation is an important part of a decentralised grid. This approach employs several small-scale technologies to produce electrical energy close to the end users or consumers. The higher reliability of these systems proves to be of advantage when compared to traditional generation systems. Multi-Input Converters (MICs) perform a decisive function in Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). Making use of such MICs prove to be beneficial in terms of size, cost, number of components used, efficiency and reliability as compared to using several independent converters. This thesis proposes a double input DC-DC converter which makes use of a quasi Y-source converter in tandem with a boost converter. The quasi Y-source converter has the advantage of having a very high gain for low duty cycles. The associated operating modes are analysed and the operation of the MIC is verified using simulation result. A hardware prototype is built for large signal analysis in open loop. Different loads are applied and the efficiency of the MIC as a whole as well as the load sharing between the different sources is investigated.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[332] viXra:1907.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-04 04:59:58

PV Source Integrated Micro-Grid for Power Quality Improvement using MPPT Technique

Authors: Madhu Palati, Manjunath R D, Nagesh L, Niteesh S Shanbog, Prashanth C
Comments: Pages. Presented and Published in NC3PS (2017)

The demand for Electrical energy is increasing day by day as it can be easily converted to another form of energy. All consumers expect Electrical energy with high power quality. Most of the commercial and industrial loads are inductive in nature and need power electronic circuits/ controllers to get smooth control of the equipment. This, in turn, leads to the injection of harmonics into the system, hence the power quality is affected. The above problem needs to be addressed and eliminated. In this paper, a shunt active power filter is used to mitigate the harmonics. I d-I q control is used to analyse the performance of the filter and is simulated using MATLAB software. The MPPT controller is used to improving the power quality of the system.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[331] viXra:1906.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 06:50:40

Generating Electricity from Waste Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers at Osaka University have been able to enhance the power factor of a promising thermoelectric material by more than 100% by varying the pressure, paving the way for new materials with improved thermoelectric properties. [33] Wearable devices that harvest energy from movement are not a new idea, but a material created at Rice University may make them more practical. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[330] viXra:1906.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 10:06:03

Co-Generation of Power and Distilled Water on Big Land by Solar-Osmosis Closed-Loop System

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper presents up-conversion methods on whatever available big land, e.g. backyard or vacant land or farmland for booming green economy with new invention of solar-osmosis tandem technology so as to maximize multi goals: co-harvest of summer solar distilled or winter frozen potable water + pressure retarded fluid power, as well as pool buffered energy storage. By estimation, 1 km^2 land annual yield: 88 GWH energy + 1 million tons H2O in average zones. Also interlaced with some relevant political views.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[329] viXra:1906.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:51:32

Flexible Energy Generators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Wearable devices that harvest energy from movement are not a new idea, but a material created at Rice University may make them more practical. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[328] viXra:1905.0589 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 07:35:56

Heat Transport for Thermoelectrics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

NCCR MARVEL researchers have developed a novel microscopic theory that is able to describe heat transport in very general ways, and applies equally well to ordered or disordered materials such as crystals or glasses and to anything in between. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[327] viXra:1905.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 14:34:51

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science . Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[326] viXra:1905.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:26:40

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science. Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[325] viXra:1905.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 07:27:30

Design and Calculation of 25MW Steam Turbine Course

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, YongSong Kim, WonZhu Kim
Comments: 13 Pages.

今天,随着科学技术的迅速发展,人类对能源的需求也越来越增加。 在火力电站的发电当中汽轮机是不可或缺的特别重要的发电设备。 在小论文中,计算了对目前在我们国家现在运行的25MW蒸汽轮机的更精确的热计算
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[324] viXra:1905.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:50:29

On the Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are masses that oscillate both ways(up and down and to the sides at the same time perpendicular to its direction of motion
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[323] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 16:56:40

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 3

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise analysis future reliability testing. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, identify the spectral region, and separate out the associated entropy contribution in the noise in the 1/f noise spectrum. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[322] viXra:1905.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 20:56:58

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise by using a different framework in terms of thermodynamic degradation processes. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for 1/f noise reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[321] viXra:1905.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:08:18

Heat Unified Field Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

is absorbing heat produce magnetism and producing heat producing gravitation?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[320] viXra:1905.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:37:29

Heat Unified Field Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

heat is the production of gravity and magnetism together termed as electromagnetic radiation if you shoot electromagnetic radiation at the electrons they absorb it vibrating and produce magentism if an electron emits an electromagnetic wave they produce gravity what if you just make heat pumped out of any hot object absorbed by any other object and sustain the heat?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[319] viXra:1905.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 16:04:20

Energy Carriers

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

you could get a mass and heat it and do pressure on it and then when it cools down heat it up with the heat produced at the beggining carreied by water in a thermo thats a way to keep those atoms carrying energy through midstate vibration of atoms
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[318] viXra:1905.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 12:13:08

Possible Origin of Magnetism

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

magnetism occurs when you achieve high vibration altitudes of masses
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[317] viXra:1905.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:19:28

Masses vs Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

waves can contain energy in any volume of space while masses contain the smallest volume possible
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[316] viXra:1905.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:45:24

Compton Aand Photoelectric Effect in Atomic Ticles

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you increase the energy of a mass it would take more volume in space and then when it ejects the energy it ends up having more volume inside of it if the rate by which the ejection takes place is faster than the rate of the particle returning to its original form due to other electromagnetic waves pushing onto the particle
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[315] viXra:1905.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 20:20:09

Igin of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are waves that are produced after sound waves are inside a mass they are produced as an effect of producing sound waves then negating them with other sound waves
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[314] viXra:1904.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 06:55:57

Ways to Control Thermal Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A consortium of researchers using the unique Molecular Foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) set out to do just that with Planck's Law. [31] Researchers from Drexel University and Trinity College in Ireland, have created ink for an inkjet printer from a highly conductive type of two-dimensional material called MXene. [30] The nano research team led by professors Helge Weman and Bjørn-Ove Fimland at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Electronic Systems has succeeded in creating light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, from a nanomaterial that emits ultraviolet light. [29]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[313] viXra:1904.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 10:56:42

On the Origin of 1/f Noise Due to Entropy Damage

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we provide two thermodynamic models to describe 1/f noise due to microscopic entropy damage fluctuations; that is, minor fluctuations of degradation occurring in system-environment interaction. As such, we find that flicker noise is a sensitive measure of entropy damage. The concepts provided are consistent with the literature on 1/f noise measurement observations in materials and helps provide a uniform understanding of 1/f phenomena.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[312] viXra:1904.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 18:26:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if masses and nonexistence are splitting the universe into two then half for existence and half for nonexistence and if so then the amount of electromagnetic waves is huge and its what is used to form the rest of existence or masses
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[311] viXra:1904.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 03:17:11

Thermodynamic Magic Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system-meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[310] viXra:1904.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 13:31:30

The Oppsoite Push Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you want to produce a great amount of electromagnetic waves push a dense mass from two opposite sides of the mass the atoms will start jerking and then producing electromagnetic waves
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[309] viXra:1904.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:11:05

Novel Fusion-Reaction Fuel Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

To capture and control on Earth the fusion reactions that drive the sun and stars, researchers must first turn room-temperature gas into the hot, charged plasma that fuels the reactions. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[308] viXra:1904.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 10:26:07

Hidden Order in Disorder

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and colleagues from several countries have now found that in amorphous, i.e. disordered, systems, optimization of the individual cells gradually results in the same structure, although it remains amorphous. [18] Understanding how these materials mix has implications in industries such as pharmaceuticals and concrete manufacturing, but little is still known about how to best mix them. [17] The scientists identified a shortlist, a kind of "periodic table" of the most designable knot types, i.e. those knots that could easily self-assemble under appropriate physical and chemical conditions. [16] Scientists have now observed for the first time how diamonds grow from seed at an atomic level, and discovered just how big the seeds need to be to kick the crystal growing process into overdrive. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[307] viXra:1903.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 07:54:00

Comments on “Aerothermodynamic Effects of Controlled Heat Release Within the Hypersonic Shock Layer Around a Large Angle Blunt Cone” [phys. Fluids 30, 106103 (2018)]

Authors: Anbuselvan K.K.N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Recently, Deep and Jagadeesh published a paper on understanding the aerothermodynamic effects of chromium coating over a large angle blunt cone test model at hypersonic flow conditions. The article concludes that the heat-flux at stagnation point increases by 25.6%, the temperature at stagnation region increases by 5%, and the shock stand-off distance increases by 17% with chromium coating. These findings appear to be ambiguous due to inconsistencies in the manner of calculating the free-stream values, the inappropriate use of measurement techniques and incorrect analysis of experimental data which have been elucidated in this comments.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[306] viXra:1903.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 07:56:42

Comments on “Aerodynamic Drag Reduction by Heat Addition Into the Shock Layer for a Large Angle Blunt Cone in Hypersonic Flow” [physics of Fluids 20, 081703 (2008)]

Authors: Anbuselvan K.K.N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The article1 showed a 47% drag reduction and 18% increase in shock stand-off distance with chromium coated surface whereas A.M. Tahsini2 performed numerical simulations of Kulkarni et al.1 work and found a large discrepancy (>50%) with the experimental results. The reason for the discrepancy is found in this comments to be improper data analysis of the experimental drag signals.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[305] viXra:1903.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 07:20:54

Magnetism-Driven Thermal Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Computers, cell phones and other devices are built from many small parts and components that are prone to poor performance and damage caused by overheating. [26] An international team of researchers has measured a quantum power increase in a quantum boost engine for the first time. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[304] viXra:1903.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 10:19:59

The Fire Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

When you burn fire you have fire if you let it into space the fire would fade out and diminish because there are particles in space now lets assume that the lit fire is in absolute space space that has no particles in it then the fire would keep burning forever in fact it will grow as it burn the material it burns it burns now since fire is an electromagnetic wave we could say that the particles static electricity polarities(from particles)is the one that make the fire fade away but that’s not important the thing that is important is that if fire is attracted to the polarities without absorbtion its own polarity(positive polarity) will not be absorbed by electrons but rather would push the positive polarities of protons in other way since a fast moving fire would push other materials now lets study electrons and how fire spins around it(makes it jiggle as heat) and afterwards its absorbed by the electrons then remitted but lets study how the electron jumps from one level to the other way some of the energy of fire is transmitted into other colors of fire its probably because fire is not absorbed(partially) at all its reproduced by the electron by other colors with different intensities due to several electrons in all orbits but lets study how do several electron change the color of fire after its absorbed then reproduced it seems like the fire is absorbed several times and then produced and as some of the fire is absorbed at one level of electrons inside the atom it needs to pass another level of electrons this leads to the dispertion of fire(due to fire jiggling around electrons) and producing several colors from each electron now lets study explosion explosion happens best and strongest when fire keeps pushing with its polarity the portons the more precise the on hit of photons with proton for the most time (that you can do the on hit forever) without deflection of photons from protons the more you could reach the speed of light with bigger masses you need precision and continued result from precision a continued push to achieve speeds of light for this to happen you need to shoot burning fires away from electrons and onto protons to do this you have to shoot fire at very high speeds and very small amounts timed to intervals and the machine that hurls fire should be very lit very near to the pushed rocket and also you should shoot fire after fire so that the its produced very near to each other and that fire is very small in size but large in magnitude so that they push each other with a fire inducer and also you could make the amount of fire getting out of the rocket much less than the one pushing the fire by burning up fire from one side successively or even two sides if possible
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[303] viXra:1903.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 07:06:22

The Current Law of Conservation of Energy in Mechanics is the Greatest Mistake of Physics

Authors: Dubrovskii Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 22 Pages.

The current law of conservation of energy in mechanics is the greatest mistake of physics. mgh and mV^2/2 is not energy Real energy is Ft (impulse) and mV
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[302] viXra:1903.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 15:47:26

The Mass Occupation Gravitational Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

Imagine that you have a heave mass this mass occupies space and then you have a heavier mass of the same volume of the first heavy mass imagine that you increase the energy of the two masses the two masses thus increase in mass per volume ratio and thus increase gravitation you can measure mass to volume ratio gravitational force by getting a light element like hydrogen and a heavier mass such as the heaviest nuclear element and fill a volume(maybe a sphere) totally and fully with both of the two elements separately and each and heat each sphere to the point the element accept no more heat then measure the gravitational force of each of the two volumes with heated balls of similar elements to the point that the balls and the heated heavy element spheres are of G^(1/2) or of root of G
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[301] viXra:1903.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-24 08:50:34

Coffee-Based Solar Absorption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Solar energy is one of the most promising resources to help reduce fossil fuel consumption and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to power a sustainable future. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[300] viXra:1903.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-23 12:20:33

Solar Cells Buttering Bread

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

"This means that we now have a method for the production of high-quality films for perovskite solar cells using an industrially scalable technique." [40] Organic electronics have the potential to revolutionize technology with their high cost-efficiency and versatility compared with more commonly used inorganic electronics. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[299] viXra:1903.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-13 19:38:04

Thermodynamics Super Efficiency

Authors: Jose Iraides Belandria
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article shows a surprising prediction of the global formulation of the second law of thermodynamics that suggests the hypothetical existence of super-efficient thermodynamics processes. Such processes, according to the local formulation of the second law of thermodynamics, may occur as a consequence of an internal entropy coupling between the different systems that make up the universe of the process. In this way, the heuristic combination of the aforementioned formulations predicts the theoretical existence of an operation zone where thermodynamic processes can produce more mechanical work than conventional reversible operations.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[298] viXra:1902.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 08:02:54

Compressed Material Conducts Heating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[297] viXra:1902.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-20 10:46:26

Quantum Engine Performance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[296] viXra:1902.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-16 11:25:20

Gravity is a Wrong Idea of Physics

Authors: Gephy Adachi
Comments: 2 Pages. Review of the Tamura theory

Gravity does not exist. This must be replaced by the idea of buoyancy, which is described with Archimedes’ principle. I introduce the notable idea “Tamura’s theory” in this paper and we must reconsider the fundamental physics with the idea.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[295] viXra:1902.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 08:55:17

High-Speed Surveillance in Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

A research team at Osaka University has developed an improved method for producing microscope images that can spot speedy electrons zipping through nanomaterials used in solar panels. [43] Complex, three-dimensional (3-D) structures are regularly constructed using a reliable commercial method of 3-D laser micro- and nanoprinting. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[294] viXra:1902.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 00:25:42

The Rise and Fall of Evolution

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Jeremy England proposed in his “Statistical physics of self-replication” that energy dispersion drives evolution. Such is the explanatory power of his theory that we build on it to rethink the relationship between life and entropy as handed to us by Schodinger, to find a place for the origin and evolution of life within the cosmos, to explain the Cambrian Explosion and the Mass Extinctions from an entropic perspective, hence the title, and finally, to find a way out of the gloom and doom of global warming.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[293] viXra:1902.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 06:06:40

Automatically Cool or Insulate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

University of Maryland researchers have created a fabric that can automatically regulate the amount of heat that passes through it. [21] At EPFL, Selman Sakar's research team has developed micromachines able to mechanically stimulate cells and microtissue. [20] Scientists from ITMO in collaboration with international colleagues have proposed new DNA-based nanomachines that can be used for gene therapy for cancer. [19] CRISPR is a technique that is revolutionizing biomedical research through high-precision genome editing. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[292] viXra:1902.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 08:21:09

Remark on Creation and Dis-Creation Processes Related to Origination of Charge and Matter

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 16 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Canadian journal of physics

In this article, we discuss shortly on creation and dis-creation processes related to origination of charge and matter by the production of any force you like, especially from Kelvin-Helmholtz electron vortex theory. Both processes, creation and dis-creation, can produce excess electrical energy, so we think such an investigation is worthy to continue. When the matter creation process is deeply investigated and technologies arise from the studies, we will be able to make any amount of any kinds of atoms we like. Later, after deeper investigations, we will be able to make "designer atoms" which will have physical properties, as desired by us, perfectly suited for the selected specific application.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[291] viXra:1902.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 09:25:36

Energy is not Conserved Masses Like to Act Like Waves and Waves Are Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will talk about how masses actually spend their energies in space and how masses actually lose their mass energy masses are relative and are not conserved they lose their mass by radiation spinning and gravity now when we look at a mass we find that it has the same mass at all time which but in fact its because its losing its mass at a rate of c or the speed of light constant and becomes c times smaller after c seconds and all the mass lost is equal to mc or the number of mass multiplied by the c constant or mc^2/c=mc and what is left is the new mc rather than E=mc^2 energy and then we can talk about how mass likes to act like waves when they gain external energy from other masses as when you hit pond water with a ball and watch the ripples the wave is just energy that cant escape from the mass medium and then when its spread across a larger medium and the oscillations hights(peaks and troughs) are still the same unless and the wave is still there and is not lost unless of course if the wave hits air and then the wave disappears after some time but if there are no air and also if there is zero air in a water container and a wave is applied the water vibrates forever unless the energy is absorbed by the masses and are part of the masses and then we talk about waves and why waves are masses its because waves are not electromagnetic waves they are masses that have very much mass absorbed from the star it came from and then photon mass absorbs the energy inside of the mass and then the photon starts losing energy at c constant rate but since the photon has small mass to energy acquired ratio it moves at high speeds for long time
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[290] viXra:1902.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 08:21:52

Using Ambient Photons As A Stator in A Motor

Authors: Simon A. Olanipekun
Comments: 7 Pages.

A magnetic field is the angular momentum of a photon; and an electric field is the linear momentum of the photon. Thus the ambient magnetic fields are photons whose angular-momentum vectors are oscillating continuously and rapidly. Since the ambient magnetic fields possess energy and angular momenta, they are able to exert reactive forces on the rotor and stator of the motor. Thus the ambient magnetic fields serve as the stator.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[289] viXra:1902.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 06:27:04

Recyclable Thermoelectric Paper

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Thermoelectric materials, capable of transforming heat into electricity, are very promising for converting residual heat into electrical energy, as they convert hardly usable or nearly lost thermal energy in an efficient way. [31] Solar rays are a plentiful, clean source of energy that is becoming increasingly important as the world works to shift away from power sources that contribute to global warming. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[288] viXra:1902.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-02 21:30:10

Unified Field Energy Transducer

Authors: Simon A. Olanipekun
Comments: 27 Pages. This write-up contains the correct numerical analysis of my overunity system...

A unified field energy transducer including a plurality of permanent magnets having an axis of rotation and means mounting the magnets for rotation about the axis of rotation, a magnetic ring disposed around and in close enough proximity to the magnets to produce magnetic interaction therebetween, the magnets and the magnetic ring disrupting the equilibrium of the unified field and producing a net coupling force that rotates the magnets about the axis of rotation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[287] viXra:1901.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-31 18:15:40

Dual-band Dielectric Light-harvesting Nanoantennae Made by Nature

Authors: Julian Juhi-Lian Ting
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mechanisms to use nanoparticles to separate sunlight into photovoltaic useful range and thermally useful range to increase the efficiency of solar cells and to dissipate heat radiatively are discussed based upon lessons we learnt from photosynthesis. We show that the dual-band maxima in the absorption spectrum of bacterial light harvestors not only are due to the bacteriochlorophylls involved but also come from the geometry of the light harvestor. Being able to manipulate these two bands arbitrarily enables us to fabricate the nanoparticles required. Such mechanisms are also useful for the design of remote power charging and light sensors.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[286] viXra:1901.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-29 08:56:41

Computers Produce Less Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Dr. Jan Klaers is a researcher of the Complex Photonic Systems group, part of UT's MESA+ Institute. Within the group, he started his own research direction in the field of experimental quantum thermodynamics. [29] Physicists envision that the future of quantum computation networks will contain scalable, monolithic circuits, which include advanced functionalities on a single physical substrate. [28] Engineering researchers have demonstrated proof-of-principle for a device that could serve as the backbone of a future quantum Internet. [27] If you see a video of a politician speaking words he never would utter, or a Hollywood star improbably appearing in a cheap adult movie, don't adjust your television set—you may just be witnessing the future of "fake news." [26]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[285] viXra:1901.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-27 08:37:16

Entropy Gradient and Relative Entropy of Physical Systems

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 10 Pages.

Classical thermodynamics is founded on three principles and on the concept of entropy in which heat and temperature are considered physical quantities that are necessary for describing the behaviour of thermodynamic systems. The Principle of Specific Entropy has shown the concept of entropy can be extended to all physical systems with an appropriate choice of energy and of physical quantity that are involved in the physical process. New concepts of entropy gradient and of relative entropy allow to study physical systems from a different viewpoint and to extend their knowledge.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[284] viXra:1901.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-27 03:44:09

Efficient Harnessing of Solar Power

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Solar rays are a plentiful, clean source of energy that is becoming increasingly important as the world works to shift away from power sources that contribute to global warming. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[283] viXra:1901.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-25 07:21:49

Theory of Coolest Temperatures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new theory for recording the lowest temperatures ever measured, with the largest accuracy allowed by the laws of Nature. [25] Nothing in nature is known to hit the temperatures achieved in laboratories like CAL, which means the orbiting facility is regularly the coldest known spot in the universe. [24] There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[282] viXra:1901.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-21 07:09:08

Development of a Small 50W Class Stirling Engine

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, ChangIl Ri, YongHuan Kim, SongJin Ri
Comments: 7 Pages.

In order to develop a compact and low cost Stirling engine, a gamma type Stirling engine with simple moving-tube-type heat exchangers and a rhombic mechanism was developed. Its target shaft power is 50 W at engine speed of 4000 rpm and mean pressure of 0.8 MPa using helium as working gas. This paper describes the outline of the engine design and the performance test. The test was done without load, using air in atmospheric condition. Also, a mechanical loss measurement was done in highly pressurized condition, in which the engine was driven by a motor compulsory. Then, methods to get higher performance were considered based on the comparison of experimental and calculated results. The results indicate that a higher performance heat exchanger and decreasing of mechanical loss are needed for the attainment of the target performance.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[281] viXra:1901.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 02:57:09

Effects of Lorentz Force on Water Using Electro Powered Lattice Magnets and Applications of Small Clustered Water

Authors: Saurav L. Chaudhari
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this work we show the after effects of certain amount of magnetic field on a water for a specific amount of time in very calculable way. Here we are passing water between two magnetic poles and in that way, we will magnetize the water and will break its molecular clusters into smaller parts. It is helpful in both agriculture and household.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[280] viXra:1901.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 15:51:08

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 10

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 22 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Verdeutlicht wird, dass durch eine unterschiedliche Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels auch unterschiedliche Berechnungsalgorithmen für die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung resultieren. Aufgezeigt werden auch die Unterschiede beim resultierenden Impuls der Präzessionsbewegung zwischen kippenden und parallel ausweichenden Kreiselachsen. Beschrieben wird zudem die Abhängigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung von der Größe der wirkenden Impulse.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[279] viXra:1901.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-07 05:22:44

How Does a Light-Mill Work?

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 4 Pages.

This answer to the Frequently Asked Question first appeared in the Usenet Physics FAQ in 1997.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[278] viXra:1901.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 00:24:07

An Interesting Inspiration to Probe Protein Engineering & its Promising Applications Using Spin Glass Theory & Related Mathematical Concepts - Based on Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Haskell/Scala/Deep Learning(DL)/Java Virtual Machine/JikesRVM(Research Virtu

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Interesting Inspiration to Probe Protein Engineering & its Promising Applications Using Spin Glass Theory & Related Mathematical Concepts - Based on Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Haskell/Scala/Deep Learning(DL)/Java Virtual Machine/JikesRVM(Research Virtual Machine) as Future Informatics Platform in Protein Engineering Domains.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[277] viXra:1812.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 02:07:32

Comment on "Nonequilibrium Equality for Free Energy Differences"

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 1 Page.

The existence of Jarzynski “equality” is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)] uses Liouville equation of motion in dissipative system and derives a relation between ir-reversible work and change in Helmholtz free energy. In this comment, we will underline the flaw that exists in Jarzynski analysis, and thus, we will show that exact relation between ir-reversible works and change in Helmholtz/Gibbs free energy is impossible in any real thermodynamical system.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[276] viXra:1812.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 20:47:32

Relationship of the Resistivity with the Specific Heat.

Authors: Olmos Alfredo, Olmos R. Romyna
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this article, the relationship between resistivity and the specific heat of a conductor is studied. It is known that the resistivity of a conductor increases when the temperature of the conductor increases. And the specific heat of a material is a function of temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[275] viXra:1812.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 08:24:46

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 8

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 20 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Der RS1B2- Wandler wird vorgestellt und hinsichtlich dem Betrag der umzuwandelnden Energie mit einer Photovoltaikanlage durchschnittlicher Leistung verglichen. Es wird zudem aufgezeigt, dass je nach der Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels zwischen der Winkelgeschwindigkeit und der Umfangsgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung unterschieden werden muss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[274] viXra:1812.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 08:39:14

A New Way To Harness Energy

Authors: Sudarshan Saha
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we are proposing a method to harness energy in a green way. The method uses the fact, if two molecule with different electron affinity mechanically forced to interact with each other, electrostatic energy can be generated. The method has similarity with Photo-Voltaic Cell and Van de Graaff Generator, but it is more versatile and efficient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[273] viXra:1812.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 04:46:49

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 7

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 18 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Es wird zudem aufgezeigt, dass aus einer unterschiedlichen Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels auch unterschiedliche Berechnungsalgorithmen für die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung resultieren.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[272] viXra:1811.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 05:02:13

Heat Cold Vibration Effect

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

When you heat a mass it vibrates and if you leave it in a medium of two sides one that is hot and the other side is cold the heated mass tend to go to the hot side of the medium
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[271] viXra:1811.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 11:03:51

Electronic Devices Don't Overheat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

You've felt the heat before—the smartphone that warms while running a navigation app or the laptop that gets too hot for your lap. [23] A team of scientists from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), in collaboration with researchers from Monash University Australia, has succeeded in significantly increasing the stability and biocompatibility of special light-transducing nanoparticles. [22] Diagnosing diseases and understanding the processes that take place within cells at the molecular level require sensitive and selective diagnostic instruments. [21] A single-molecule DNA “navigator” that can successfully find its way out of a maze constructed on a 2D DNA origami platform might be used in artificial intelligence applications as well as in biomolecular assembly, sensing, DNA-driven computation and molecular information and storage. [20] The way DNA folds largely determines which genes are read out. John van Noort and his group have quantified how easily rolled-up DNA parts stack. [19]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[270] viXra:1811.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 15:54:58

Living System Negative Entropy Reliability, Old Trees and a Fifth Law for Thermodynamics on Negative Entropy

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages. Pre-print 2019 RAMS Conf. Paper, IEEE Copyright Notice

Physics of failure laws could start with the Second Law of thermodynamics as it explains aging when written as “The spontaneous irreversible degradation processes causing aging that take place in a system interacting with its environment will do so in order to go towards thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment increasing entropy” Often in thermodynamics we can think of replacing the word aging with disorder or entropy increase. Yet it might be said we are at a loss according to the Second Law when we try and explain why living systems allow for spontaneous growth and repair, because in this case entropy is decreasing. In life forms, negative entropy eventually gives way to aging or entropy increase. For living system reliability, understanding aging, requires an additional knowledge of order, repair and growth, a new type of physics of non failure. The concept of spontaneous clearly applies to disorder in the Second Law, yet living systems uncontrollably spontaneously grow and repair, creating order. However, to make matters even more complicated, Mother Nature has created one living system that seems capable of a type of perpetual spontaneous negative entropy. This life form is trees where in some cases reported to 9000 years old. Such longevity is beyond ones human comprehension. It becomes apparent in our assessment, that the Second Law has shortcomings and a Fifth Law of Thermodynamics is proposed for repair and growth. We will see that the Carnot cycle instrumental in the second law is modified for living system so that appropriate efficiencies can accurately be measured. Lastly we describe atomic weapons and global warming. In these extreme cases, degradation can be so severe negative reproductive entropy is unattainable. Extreme degradation will likely have cascade effects, so that many systems can become irreproducible in the environment. Such events need to be defined and identified in today’s modern age in thermodynamic terms, which we introduce in this paper.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[269] viXra:1810.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 12:01:28

Phonon Dispersion Thermal Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Lattice thermal conductivity strongly affects the applications of materials related to thermal functionality, such as thermal management, thermal barrier coatings and thermoelectrics. [30] A team of researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Potsdam has investigated heat transport in a model system comprising nanometre-thin metallic and magnetic layers. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[268] viXra:1809.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 12:06:07

Proposed Thermodynamic Fifth Law on Living System Negative Entropy

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Carnot cycle, instrumental in the second law, is modified for living system yielding higher efficiency. Thus, the Second Law has shortcomings when trying to determine the thermodynamic state of a living system and a Fifth Law of Thermodynamics is needed to explain the effect of spontaneous repair and growth.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[267] viXra:1809.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 06:47:41

Flaw in Crooks Fluctuation Theorem

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 14 Pages.

The existence of Crooks fluctuation theorem (even at microscopic level, in a very short time- period) is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we will underline the flaw that exists in Crooks fluctuation theorem assumptions, and thus, we will confirm the validity of the second law of thermodynamics at any temperature, pressure, and at any scale (time, and length-scale) in nature. We will validate the Loschmidt’s paradox, and will show that no physical directional-process can be perfectly-reversible at any non-zero, finite temperature (T > 0K) and pressure (P > 0) in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[266] viXra:1809.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 07:52:20

Magnetic Cooling Cycle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

As a result of climate change, population growth, and rising expectations regarding quality of life, energy requirements for cooling processes are growing much faster worldwide than for heating. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[265] viXra:1809.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 13:15:52

On the Kinetic Formulation of Gases

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 4 Pages.

The extensive studies on thermal properties of matter especially in gases, shows the new possible direction and therefore to initiate the new stream in theoretical physics. The subject discussed in this context is somehow important in this field; the paper shows an equation of gases which is enclosed in a metallic container under suitable conditions. The equation which will be described here is valid for the rigorous choice that we have considered to derive it.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[264] viXra:1809.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 15:51:09

Entropy in Physics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Following worries that the entropy functions of classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics were not equivalent, attention is drawn here to work by Lazar Mayants indicating that this is not the case and the two are, in fact, equivalent.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[263] viXra:1809.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 00:35:18

Power of Tiny Vibrations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Ultra-fast vibrations can be used to heat tiny amounts of liquid, experts have found, in a discovery that could have a range of engineering applications. [17] A system made of just a handful of particles acts just like larger systems, allowing scientists to study quantum behaviour more easily. [16] Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[262] viXra:1809.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 23:31:13

Flaw in Maxwell's Demon Paradox

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 6 Pages.

The existence of a Maxwell’s-demons is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we will underline the flaw that exists in Maxwell’s-demons paradox, and thus, we confirm the validity of the second law of thermodynamics in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[261] viXra:1809.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 09:43:56

Energy from Low-Frequency Vibrations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A wearable energy-harvesting device could generate energy from the swing of an arm while walking or jogging, according to a team of researchers from Penn State's Materials Research Institute and the University of Utah. [23] How do the bees use this system of vibro-acoustical signals? Understanding now, how marker and communicational vibro-acoustic signals are arranged, and what, in principle, they serve, let's consider their application in the daily life of beehives. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[260] viXra:1808.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 08:56:49

Nanoscale Heat Transport

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A team of researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Potsdam has investigated heat transport in a model system comprising nanometre-thin metallic and magnetic layers. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[259] viXra:1808.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 16:44:01

Removing Waste Heat, Improving Efficiency of Power Generation

Authors: Julian Juhi-Lian Juhi-Lian
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two methods to remove unnecessary heat through radiation to increase the efficiency of power plants are proposed: Firstly, special materials are used to improve the heat radiation for those power plants that requires heat conversion is mentioned; secondly, a frequency-separation method using nano-particles to increase the efficiency of solar cells is introduced. We propose also the best nanoparticle shape for the second method through light harvestor designs of bacteria.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[258] viXra:1807.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:27:59

Diamond in Fusion Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Fusion power plants promise nearly unlimited climate-friendly energy and scientists worldwide cooperate to reach this goal. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[257] viXra:1807.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 09:17:34

Solar Fuel Generation Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[256] viXra:1807.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 08:38:20

Maxwell's Demon Give Up Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

"We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[255] viXra:1807.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 09:43:27

On the Origin of the Laws of Physics from the Properties of Algorithms

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

I propose a method to derive the familiar laws of physics from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I introduce the notion of a proven computing reserve and I use it to connect AIT to physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[254] viXra:1807.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 09:11:04

Hybrid Energy Harvesting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[253] viXra:1807.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 02:45:07

Information and Effect

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge
Comments: 14 Pages.

The introduction and application of the concept of immanence as physical quantity allows a broader understanding of effect. Mathematical formulations present the complementary co-factors information and immanence as the cause and result respectively of the thermodynamic effect. Thus, the concept of immanence helps to clear up the relation between the concepts of information and reality and leads to the derivative of the principle of immanence development which might be applied to problems in astrophysics, e.g. in the discussion on the information paradox (i.e. the question of information loss regarding black holes).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[252] viXra:1806.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 15:02:51

Critique of the Paper "A Note on Solid-State Maxwell Demon" by Germano D’Abramo

Authors: Zoltan Losonc
Comments: 11 Pages.

Since Dr. Sheehan has published his discovery of the solid-state Maxwell demon (SSMD) many people have attacked the concept, simply because it violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics, which they consider to be sacrosanct and inviolable. One of the opponents is Dr. D’Abramo who attempted to debunk the principle in several papers. His main objection against the principle of the device is that according to him no electrostatic field can exist within the vacuum gap of the SSMD in equilibrium. In the present paper we will refute his arguments that he presented in the quoted publication.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[251] viXra:1806.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 13:23:51

Material Capture Solar Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Solar energy is clean and abundant. But when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis—in which solar energy is used to make fuels. [31] An international team of scientists, including NUST MISIS's Professor Gotthard Seifert, has made an important step toward the control of excitonic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. [30] Carbon nanotubes – cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity – hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[250] viXra:1806.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 04:52:51

Kirchhoff ’s Law of Thermal Emission: Blackbody and Cavity Radiation Reconsidered

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 11 Pages. An earlier partial version of this work was archived on viXra.org as follows: Robitaille P.-M. and Robitaille J. L. Kirchhoff ’s Law of Thermal Emission: What Happens When a Law of Physics Fails an Experimental Test? viXra:1708.0053.

Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission asserts that, given sufficient dimensions to neglect diffraction, the radiation contained within arbitrary cavities must always be black, or normal, dependent only upon the frequency of observation and the temperature, while independent of the nature of the walls. In this regard, it is readily apparent that all cavities appear black at room temperature within the laboratory. However, two different causes are responsible: 1) cavities made from nearly ideal emitters self-generate the appropriate radiation, while 2) cavities made from nearly ideal reflectors are filled with radiation contained in their surroundings, completely independent of their own temperature. Unlike Kirchhoff’s claims, it can be demonstrated that the radiation contained within a cavity is absolutely dependent on the nature of its walls. Real blackbodies can do work, converting any incoming radiation or heat to an emission profile corresponding to the Planckian spectrum associated with the temperature of their walls. Conversely, rigid cavities made from perfect reflectors cannot do work. The radiation they contain will not be black but, rather, will reflect any radiation which was previously incident from the surroundings in a manner independent of the temperature of their walls.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[249] viXra:1805.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-27 14:00:38

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 2

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 18 Pages.

Technische Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie in Theorie und Praxis
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[248] viXra:1805.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 09:55:06

Computational Statistical Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

It may sound like the stuff of fairy tales, but in the 1950s two numerical models initially developed as a pet project by physicists led to the birth of an entirely new field of physics: computational statistical mechanics. [35] New research gives insight into a recent experiment that was able to manipulate an unprecedented number of atoms through a quantum simulator. This new theory could provide another step on the path to creating the elusive quantum computers. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[247] viXra:1805.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 07:47:37

Hot Air Power Mega City Building

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 25 Pages.

Nowadays there are many cities that are very crowded. In order to create more living space, we need to build taller and taller buildings. But there are many problems with tall buildings. This paper proposed the Hot Air Power Mega City Building which does not have the problems of traditional tall buildings. With hot air it can create electric power and fresh water. And it does not require an elevator to make it work. It has efficient transportation systems which are more reliable than elevators. The transportation systems can be completely powered by electricity and with zero automobile exhaust. In order to make a Living Building work efficiently and suitable for living, this paper proposed a Standard Module. With many Standard Modules, we can make up a mega Living Building. It allows humans to develop high space at a lower cost. And Hot Air Power is sustainable green power. Hot Air Power Station is not just clean, it can even clean the air and eliminate haze. Hot Air Power Station can also recycle part of the energy which has been used in the building. Hot Air Power Station uses the heat exchange reaction between hot air and cold water to generate power. To make the hot air cool down quickly and efficiently, this paper proposed the Drooping Cold Water Infiltrated Cotton Strip Array. The fresh water is a by-product of Hot Air Power Station. Hot Air Power Mega City Building has Gradient Transparent Roof which height is gradient to collect hot air and transfer them to Hot Air Power Station. Because the city can generate hot air in twenty-four hours without stop, so Hot Air Power Station will be able to generate electric power in twenty-four hours without stop also. Hot Air Power Station consumes hot air in the city, make the city cool down, and solve the problem of Heat Island Effect.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[246] viXra:1805.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 11:09:04

Quantum Heat Engine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[245] viXra:1805.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 18:06:05

Moea Framework & Jikesrvm to Probe Computational Fluid Dynamics – an Interesting Insight Into the Informatics Aspects of CFD Using Genetic Algorithms,evolutionary Computation & Research Virtual Machine.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Technical Communication on CFD & Informatics

As explained in the TITLE of this short communication,we have tested some inspiring ideas in the context of Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) using Java related technologies. Hence,we have demonstrated a simple approach,highly useful in many domains of Science & Technology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[244] viXra:1805.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 11:32:11

A Study on PWM and SPWM Control and Can Communication Realization in the Wind-Solar Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System Using Dspic30f4013

Authors: Kang Kyong-Mo, Kim Song-Jae, Kim Un-Chol, Ji Song-Chol, Pak Chang-Yon, Han Kuang-Jin
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we study the data transmission method by CAN communication, PWM and SPWM control method of the chips capable of CAN communication in wind - solar photovoltaic hybrid power generation system, and introduced the method of using DSPIC30F4013.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[243] viXra:1805.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 22:31:35

The Determining of the Lowest Water Level in a Surge Tank

Authors: Kim Chol-Gyong, Sin Gyong- Il, Ri Un-Chol
Comments: 4 Pages.

This treatise solved: firstly, mathematically solved the important factor in management of the canal system hydropower plant -the lowest water level of the surge tank (or fore bay tank). Secondly, improved the former is the same as the stability condition of the water level vibration in the surge tank. Thirdly, improved the water level in the surge tank is connected with the diameter of the hydraulic tunnel and the diameter of the penstock. Key words: hydropower plant, surge tank, lowest water level, hydraulic tunnel, penstock
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[242] viXra:1805.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 08:55:34

Water-Based Battery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[241] viXra:1805.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-05 11:25:59

Design and Analysis of A Compact UWB Antenna based on Super-Formula

Authors: Kim Song-Jae, Kim Un-Chol, Kang Kyong-Mo
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, compact ultrawideband(UWB) antennas (1-Element and 2-Element) are presented for UWB application. The contour profile of the antenna is obtained by setting the six different parameters of the super-formula. The antenna is microstrip-fed and mounted on compact size FR4 substrate of dimensions of . To improve the impedance bandwidth, a notch is cut from the ground plane and the edges are chamfered with specific dimensions. The antenna is simulated using a full-wave simulator HFSS. Results showed that the antenna works in the UWB range(3.3-10.3GHz) with VSWR less than 2,and having almost constant gain and group delay.Also,in paper 2-Element antenna array are designed and simulated. Proposed antenna are used for applications such as WPAN,WBAN,etc.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[240] viXra:1805.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 00:31:03

Simulation of Construction Process and Stability Analysis of Surrounding Rocks at the Underground Waterway Tunnel Based on Abaqus

Authors: Kim Chol-Gyong, Ri Un-Cholb, Kim Dong-Song, Kim Jin-Hyok
Comments: 12 Pages.

The construction process of the underground waterway tunnel was divided into two stages and the calculation and after treatment was carried out by using the ABAQUS element technique. The study on the ground stress in the working area and the stability of the surrounding rocks were analyzed to improve the reliability of the initial surface stress equilibrium method. As shown in the results, we can know the parameters of the surrounding rock material affect the development and deformation of the surrounding rocks during the construction of the underground waterway tunnel, and the different excavation processes also affect the deformation and the flow of the surrounding rocks.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[239] viXra:1805.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 08:20:42

Zero-Energy Modes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[238] viXra:1804.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 10:57:13

Heat Pipes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[237] viXra:1804.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 13:23:24

Change in Kinetic Energy of the Body in the Environment with Constant Energy, Mpemba Effect

Authors: Strohm V.
Comments: 8 Pages.

The algorithm of change in kinetic energy of the body consisting of elastic spheres in the environment with constant energy is received. The software application is written. Physical experiments on the cooling of bodies in the constant temperature air are made. Mpemba effect is shown. Qualitative coincidence of calculated and experimental data is shown.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[236] viXra:1804.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 10:33:11

Waste Heat Switch for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[235] viXra:1804.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 14:14:31

Negative Entropy Living Systems Models and a Fifth Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages. Reference Terms in the book Thermodynamic Degradation Science

This paper will describe some basic negative entropy models for living system growth and repair. In so doing we will find that the laws of thermodynamics are unable to explain why growth and repair would spontaneously occur in nature. The models will show that the Second Law is not able to justify growth and repair without a Fifth Law. A Fifth law is needed to include tendencies of living systems to create order from available work and matter. In this paper, the Second Law short comings are exposed and the need for a Fifth Law is demonstrated and proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[234] viXra:1804.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 10:22:40

Whispering Light Boosts Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[233] viXra:1804.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 13:11:57

Thermodynamics of Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The connection between the two theories is hinted at by a formal curiosity: information theory uses a mathematical term that formally resembles the definition of entropy in thermodynamics. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[232] viXra:1804.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 09:53:24

Exchange Systems of Buried Ground Source Heat

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, Ri Gum-Chol, Ri Chang-Zhu, Yun Wan-Chol, Kim Bom-Il, Chu Zhong-Chol, Ji Yong-Chol, Pak Myong-Guk
Comments: 3 Pages.

We introduced the calculation method of exchange quantity of ground source heat in the exchange systems of buried ground source heat, and studied the form of heat exchanger and selection of pipe material, the determination of pipe diameter and length and the calculation of borehole distance and numbers. Key words: ground source heat exchange system, heat exchanger
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[231] viXra:1803.0651 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 00:54:08

Magnets Control Heat and Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[230] viXra:1803.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 12:33:13

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics is an Implication and not an Equivalency © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The zeroth law of thermodynamics is confirmed as an implication, but which cannot be coerced into equivalency. Subsequent laws of thermodynamics as based on the zeroth law become implications and not equivalencies. This serves to weaken assertions based on the laws of thermodynamics as equivalencies as reduced to implications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[229] viXra:1803.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 08:03:17

Flaw in Duncan's Paradox

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sheehan \cite{Sheehan1} recently discussed the possibility of existence of dynamically-controlled pressure or temperature gradient in black-body cavity. Duncan \cite{Duncan} proposed that if this pressure gradient exist and can be measured in laboratory then it will violate the $2^{nd}$ law of thermodynamics. Sheehan et.al \cite{Sheehna2} performed black-body cavity experiment by using tungsten and rhenium metals, $H_2$ and $He$ as reactants in gas-surface interface reaction and claim that they have indeed measured the temperature difference (equivalent to the pressure difference according to their definition). In this paper we will discuss about the flaw that exist in Duncan's paradox and in Sheehan \cite{Sheehna2} analysis. We will show that $2^{nd}$ law of thermodynamics is still valid in their experiment.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[228] viXra:1803.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 16:45:33

Hawking Radiation: A Violation of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides I presented on 3/17/2018 at the New England Section Meeting of the American Physical Society in Boston, MA. The link to the abstract is as follows: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/NES18/Session/D01.3
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[227] viXra:1803.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:27:33

Misconceptions Concerning Negative Absolute Temperatures.

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 3 Pages.

The issue of negative absolute temperatures is addressed anew in the light of fairly recent publications in the scientific literature which have totally misrepresented the position of such temperatures on the accepted absolute temperature scale. In particular, claims have been advanced that such temperatures are in fact lower than positive absolute temperatures in violation of the Third Law of Thermodynamics and incidentally in violation of all the work - both theoretical and experimental - of the original investigators of the phenomenon.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[226] viXra:1803.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:38:49

Tait, Force and Entropy

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Almost 150 years ago, Peter Guthrie Tait gave a lecture to a British Association meeting and took as his subject 'force'. His conclusions were both interesting and controversial but possibly offer a means to understanding better the notion of entropy as it appears in classical thermodynamics. This suggestion, however, applies to entropy - or, more accurately, to entropy difference - as it appears in classical thermodynamics and not to the quantity with the same name which occurs in statistical mechanics and information theory. Finally, there is included a brief examination of the plethora of recent claims to have identified violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in nanosized systems. Doubt is cast on the validity of such claims.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[225] viXra:1803.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:44:35

Some Thoughts on Basic Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here attention returns to the fundamental starting point for classical thermodynamics - the notion of a heat engine working in a cycle. What follows is based exclusively on the lucid writings of Peter Guthrie Tait and much of the argument closely follows his original. However, this is used to illustrate how modern physics has tended to stray away from the basics of this crucially important topic of thermodynamics. Attention is drawn to the difference between such classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[224] viXra:1803.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 13:50:28

Heat Switch for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[223] viXra:1803.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 10:03:11

Research on the Method About Designing of Solar-Wind Complex Generation Street Light System and the Enhancement of the Reliability of Its Power System by Realizing MPPT Maneuver Using Dspic30f4013

Authors: Kang Kyong-Mo, Ri Un-Chol, Kim Yun-Chol, Kim Shong-Jae, Ri kyong-Ju, Cho Zhongo-Huan
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article describes the design principles, design conditions, and design methods of combined wind power and solar power generation system, and discusses a new method for improving the Increasing trust of solar-wind complex generation street lighting system by DSPIC30F4013. In addition, by using the characteristics of this piece with four PWM control outlets, it is possible to smoothly perform the MPPT control of several DC-DC converters, to give a new steering algorithm, and to control the DC-DC converter To improve the stability and the life of the battery, thereby raising the trust level of thesolar-wind complex generation street lighting system.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[222] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 11:14:13

On the Existence of an Autotautological Physical Theory

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 67 Pages.

In this manuscript, we report the discovery of a mathematical construction that describes a self-explaining and necessarily existing universe. The construction has the expected properties of a complete description of reality. As such, it recovers the major laws of physics: special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, quantum field theory, etc.. and sheds some light on otherwise poorly understood phenomenon such as the arrow of time and the quantum measurement.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[221] viXra:1803.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 21:29:03

A Study on the Optimum Control of stair Step Hydropower Plant by the Considering Operation Characteristics of Turbine

Authors: Kim Chol-Gyong, Sin Gyong-Il, Ri Un-Chol, Pak Il-Un, Chon Gi-Sam, Ri Guang-il, Kim Chol-Ho, Kim Su-Song
Comments: 6 Pages.

Long - term optimal control of hydroelectric power plants plays an important role in improving the utilization efficiency of the water resource, but it is not elaborate to calculate the calculation results of the optimization model by using the established output power. Speaking of this problem, in general, the hydraulic turbine efficiency in the total efficiency of hydroelectric power plants depends on the power generation head and power. Changes in the generation head during the mid-long-term operation of hydroelectric power plants lead to changes in the efficiency of the turbines. The relationship between power generation head - output and efficiency is show in the overall operating characteristic curve of the turbines. However, considering the calculation methods so far, it is consider that the average output power is use in the mid - to long - term optimal control of the stepped hydroelectric power plant and the calculation is not detailed and the operation characteristics of the turbines are not considered. In this case, the total operating characteristic curve of the turbine is use to obtain the change of the turbine efficiency according to the change of the generation water head of the long-term optimum control process of the hydroelectric power plant, and the output of the power plant is obtained based in theory. As shown in the long series calculation of the stair Step hydroelectric power station of Chong-chon River, the relative error of the between this method and multi - year average generation amount of stationary side method is 2.7%, which is more suitable for production practice. Therefore, this method has a relatively good reference effect on the development of mid - and long - term subdivision management of stepped hydroelectric power plants.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[220] viXra:1802.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 05:52:49

A Study on the Selecting Optimum Condition and Evaporation Temperatures for Four Geothermal Power Generation Systems Under Different Geofluid’s Conditions

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, * Kim Yong-Song, ,Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Yun Su-Bom
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, the optimum flash and evaporation temperatures have been selected for the following four geothermal power generation systems: single-flash system (SF), double-flash system (DF), flash-ORC system (FORC), and double-flash-ORC system (DFORC). The maximum net electricity generated is regarded as an objective function, with the pump and fan consumptions being taken into account. Under the given geofluid’s condition (T= 170℃; x= 0.2), the optimum flash temperature of SF, the optimum 2nd-stage flash temperature of DF, the optimum evaporation temperatures of FORC and DFORC are found to be 150℃, 100℃, 100℃, and 70℃, respectively. More geofluid’s conditions (T= 80~260 ℃ ; x= 0, 0.2, 0.4) have also been considered for the temperature optimization of each system. The optimization results are shown in Fig.4 which can be useful for engineering application.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[219] viXra:1802.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 06:17:00

Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Geothermal and Solar Energy Medium - low Temperature Combined Power Generation System

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, * Kim Yong-Song ,Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Kim Won-Zhu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Taking the capacity expanded geothermal and trough type solar power combined generation system as the research object, the temperature at outlet of the solar energy collection was estimated to obtain the optimum outlet temperature. Evaluation models for such indexes as generation efficiency, the increasing ration of power generation capacity and solar energy utilization fraction were set up to analyze the thermal performance of this system. By applying the Aspen Plus software, the geothermal-solar energy combine power generation system model for the geothermal power station in DPR of Korea was established. Moreover sensitivity analysis and optimization tool were used to calculate major parameters of this system, to obtain the best capacity expansion temperature, which is helpful to the system’s capacity expansion. The results show that, after the optimization, the generation power of the system was 4 044.5KW, the generation efficiency was 13.1% the hot water consumption was 94Kg/(KW•h), the steam consumption rate was 9.2Kg/(KW•h), the solar energy utilization percentage was 58.1% and the power generation increment ratio was 30.0%. Each performance index of the system enhanced significantly.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[218] viXra:1802.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 14:59:35

Refutation of Control by Quantum Observation © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The following is not confirmed as tautologous. "A quantum observer has zero entropy flow. Examining the entropy flow due to the local observation shows that the quantum observer does not add a new entropy flow to the system in contrast to a standard thermodynamic heat bath. Inserting [Eq. (10)] into Eq. (9) shows that the entropy flux due to the quantum observer is zero. This means that a quantum observer changes the energy flow in the system directly, without having an entropy flow connected with it."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[217] viXra:1802.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 13:20:01

Thermoelectric Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[216] viXra:1802.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:54:13

Temperature Differential Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Hypothesis and formulas of Temperature Differential Force and law of increase or loss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[215] viXra:1802.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 02:09:09

Law of Equality and Increase or Loss

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Lass. I have given Equation of Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Loss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[214] viXra:1802.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 09:01:28

Thermodynamics in Quantum Territory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[213] viXra:1801.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 14:57:33

Newton Was Wrong

Authors: Padlock Harlenstein
Comments: 1 Page.

This article is written to proof finally that newton was wrong about thermodynamic laws
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[212] viXra:1801.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 10:16:08

Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated an information engine—a device that converts information into work—with an efficiency that exceeds the conventional second law of thermodynamics. [15] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[211] viXra:1801.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 11:24:41

Specific Entropy of Physical Systems

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 16 Pages.

The concept of entropy is generally defined for systems in which there is a heat exchange and it is connected with concepts of temperature and of internal disorder of system. This paper has the aim of examining the possibility of extending entropy to the generality of physical systems through the concept of specific entropy in which not necessarily heat is the only shape of energy that has to be considered. The outcome is that the concept of entropy can be extended from thermodynamic systems to other physical systems, including mechanical, gravitational and elementary electrodynamic systems. While all physical systems show the same behaviour with respect to the specific entropy, only mass electrodynamic particles show a different behaviour in instability conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[210] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 15:16:29

A Thermal Construction of the World

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 22 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation , special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multi-pliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[209] viXra:1712.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 11:22:52

Boltzmann and Gibbs Definition of Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[208] viXra:1712.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-02 07:59:55

Arrow of Time is a Relative Concept

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An international team of researchers has conducted an experiment that shows that the arrow of time is a relative concept, not an absolute one. [14] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[207] viXra:1711.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-22 09:49:39

Does the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum Suggest an Intrinsic Structure of Photons?

Authors: Alex Khaneles
Comments: 8 Pages.

Photons are considered to be elementary bosons in the Standard Model. An assumption that photons are not elementary particles is assessed from an outlook of equilibrium statistical mechanics with insights from computer simulation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[206] viXra:1710.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-28 18:50:32

Stars are Dissipative Systems in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the general theory of stellar metamorphosis stars are essentially the second largest dissipative systems in a galaxy. The properties of a dissipative system match the evolution of a star as it cools and dies into what are called "planets". Explanation is provided.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[205] viXra:1710.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-23 22:19:51

Tying Together the Gravity Principle of Life Formation to Dissipative Systems Concerning Life Formation in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Some clarifying statements are made concerning the ability for a star to create life essentially from scratch. This paper is to set the stage for future statistical analysis of the probabilities involved, and only contains simple generalizations. This paper will need to be edited in the future, but that is because the idea of evolving stars being the location for the beginning of life is still new.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[204] viXra:1710.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 13:46:16

Thermophysical Properties and Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids: a Review

Authors: Enrique Marcet Garcia, Eddy Martinez Padron, Marcelo Marcet Sanchez
Comments: 26 Pages.

Nanofluids are considered to offer significantly more advantages in heat transfer than conventional fluids. Recently theoretical and experimental research papers appeared in the literature on thermophysical properties of nanofluids and enhancement of heat transfer using suspensions of nanoparticles. The aim of this review summarizes the results of research papers about thermophysical properties and forced convection heat transfer with nanofluids.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[203] viXra:1710.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:10:54

Thoughts on Negative Heat Capacities

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 10 Pages.

By referring to well-established deductions from the Second Law of Thermodynamics and to the fact that concavity is the essence of this law, it is shown that the existence of negative heat capacities for closed systems is incompatible with the Second Law. However, it is seen that the heat capacity of an open system could be negative.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[202] viXra:1710.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:21

On the Statistical Nature of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is intended here to consider the Second Law of Thermodynamics and various deductions made from it, especially the introduction of the quantity known as the entropy. The starting point will be the formulations of the law in classical thermodynamics. Attention will then move to so-called statistical thermodynamics to help illustrate the point that the Second Law of Classical Thermodynamics is certainly not statistical in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[201] viXra:1710.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-01 11:25:33

Die Technische Bedeutung Der Swastika im Detail

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die technische Bedeutung der Swastika in Hinblick auf das Nutzen der Rotationsenergie der Erde.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[200] viXra:1709.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 19:46:40

Negative Entropy and Reverse Arrow of Time for a Parallel Antimatter Universe.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reason on Dr. Guths exponential inflation.

Balloon inside balloon theory published as comments in year 2004.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[199] viXra:1709.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:14:13

Electrostatic Field Control Osmotic Pressure, to Achieve "The Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine" Experimental Report

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the case of zero current, only ± 32V of the electrostatic field reversal, it brought the liquid level up to about 30cm significant dramatic changes.Where does the energy that causes the liquid level change?Experimental facts seem to have been presented for the human "second type of perpetual motion machine"?!
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[198] viXra:1709.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 12:41:26

Portable Electrocaloric Cooling Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[197] viXra:1709.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 09:12:20

The Temperature Dependence on Intermolecular Potential Energy in the Design of a Supercritical Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

Authors: Matthew David Marko
Comments: 22 pages, 4 tables, 3 figures

The Stirling thermodynamic heat engine cycle is modified, where instead of an ideal gas, a real, supercritical, monatomic working fluid subjected to intermolecular attractive forces is used. The potential energy of real gases is redefined to show it decreasing with temperature as a result of the attractive Keesom forces, which are temperature dependent. This new definition of potential energy is used to thermodynamically design a Stirling cycle heat engine with supercritical xenon gas, and an engine efficiency that exceeds the Carnot efficiency is demonstrated. The change in internal energy predicted is compared to experimental measurements of condensing steam, xenon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, and iso-butane, and the close match validates this new definition of temperature-dependent real gas potential energy, as well as the thermodynamic feasibility of the modified supercritical Stirling cycle heat engine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[196] viXra:1709.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 04:57:18

Remote Wind Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new remote sensing instrument based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that could offer a simple and robust way to accurately measure wind speed. [27] Water has many ice phases that form under different pressure and temperature conditions. [26] An ANSTO researcher has co-authored a novel theoretical approach to explain inconsistencies between crystallographic and chemical experimental data in the apparent transformation of a pyrochlore to defect fluorite in La2Zr2O7. [25] When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"— Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[195] viXra:1709.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 07:14:27

Quantum Reminder

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[194] viXra:1709.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 08:11:27

Thermal Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[193] viXra:1708.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 09:02:44

The Conservation of Kinetic Energy in Elastic Collisions

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 'conservation of energy' is a postulated law that implies the transformation of different forms of 'energy' into one another, while the total amount of 'energy' remains constant. In this paper I demonstrate that the conservation of 'kinetic energy' in perfectly elastic collisions, as well in its macroscopic form as 'kinetic energy of bulk motion' as in its microscopic form as 'kinetic energy of internal motion', is a quantitative expression of which the numerical value remains constant when the total amount of motion of the particle system at the given velocity level is physically conserved.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[192] viXra:1708.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 09:04:47

The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 13 Pages.

The kinetic theory defines the temperature of an ideal monatomic gas as a measure for the average translational kinetic energy of its particles. This definition ignores the fact that temperature is inevitably characterized by an isotropic distribution of the velocities of the particles over all possible directions and the continuous collisions and thermal radiation that this brings about. In this paper I first demonstrate that 'the thermal energy' of an ideal gas is in fact a mathematical expression of the total amount of momentum flow of its isotropic motion. This allows me to conclude that the pressure in an ideal gas is a measure for the average twosided momentum flow across any unit area of the particle system and that the temperature of an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of that gas, for a unit number density of its molecules. In that way I am able to demonstrate that the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution is a statistical representation of the speeds produced by repetitive isotropic collisions between perfectly elastic monatomic articles.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[191] viXra:1708.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:31:47

Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission: What Happens When a Law of Physics Fails an Experimental Test?

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Joseph Luc Robitaille
Comments: 6 Pages.

Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission asserts that, given sufficient dimensions to neglect diffraction, the radiation contained within arbitrary cavities must always be black, or normal, dependent only upon the frequency of observation and the temperature, while independent of the nature of the walls. With this in mind, simple tests were devised to demonstrate that Kirchhoff’s Law is invalid. It is readily apparent that all cavities appear black at room temperature within the laboratory. However, two completely different causes are responsible: 1) cavities made from good emitters self-generate the appropriate radiation and 2) cavities made from poor emitters are filled with radiation already contained in the room, completely independent of the temperature of the cavity. The distinction between these two scenarios can be made by placing a heated object near either type of cavity. In the first case, the cavity emission will remain essentially undisturbed. That is because a real blackbody can do work, instantly converting incoming radiation to an emission which corresponds to the temperature of its walls. In the second case, the cavity becomes filled with radiation which is not characteristic of its own temperature. Contrary to current belief, cavity radiation is entirely dependent on the nature of the walls. When considering a perfect reflector, the radiation will not be black but, rather, will reflect any radiation which was previously incident upon the cavity from the surroundings. This explains why microwave cavities are resonant, not black, and why it is possible to acquire Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (UHFMRI) images using cavity resonators. Conversely, real blackbodies cannot contain any radiation other than that which is characteristic of the temperature of their walls, as shown in Planck’s equation. Blackbody radiation is not universal, Kirchhoff’s Law is false, and cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the walls at every frequency of observation. Since they were derived from this law, the concepts of Planck time, Planck temperature, Planck length, and Planck mass are not universal and are devoid of any fundamental meaning in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[190] viXra:1708.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 09:15:56

Limits of Quantum Engines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Quantum engines are known to operate differently than—and in some cases, outperform—their classical counterparts. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[189] viXra:1708.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 04:14:32

Thermoelectric Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[188] viXra:1707.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 06:27:47

Entropy in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[187] viXra:1707.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 05:05:19

Negative Temperature & Einstein's Relativity Produce Immortality & Resurrection

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article may appear highly speculative at first glance. But it's evidence-based since Relativity (vital to the concept of resurrection) has successfully met all challenges during the past century. The immortality and negative temperature parts are based on much more recent science papers, but those papers are based on the thermodynamics which originated in the 19th century - modern labs confirm its ideas and are discovering more applications. I hope readers can appreciate that the evidence pointing to immortality and resurrection does not need to be limited to medicine, but can be interdisciplinary and embrace physics. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), one of the greatest physicists of all time, said he regretted not making a bigger contribution to medical science. Perhaps the time has arrived when the world will finally understand and appreciate this man more completely ... by realising that his physics will one day have applications in fields like resurrection of the deceased and normalisation of health through the universal gravitational field. The 2013 physics paper "Negative Absolute Temperature for Motional Degrees of Freedom" (Braun, S. et al.: "Science" journal, Volume 339, Issue 6115, pp. 52–55 [2013]) adds the topic of immortality by speaking of negative temperatures below absolute zero. Traditionally, going below absolute zero has been regarded as impossible since this is the temperature at which all atomic motion ceases. However, the authors of the 2013 paper maintain it's possible because a more rigorous definition of temperature is "a trade-off between energy and entropy (disorder)". The first sentence in the Abstract of the 2016 paper "Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures" by J.P.P. Vieira, Christian T. Byrnes and Antony Lewis - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2016, August 2016 (reference 2) says, "Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions)."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[186] viXra:1707.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:44:03

Controlling Heat and Particle Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[185] viXra:1707.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 06:53:48

Quantum Oscillations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[184] viXra:1707.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 12:23:13

Maxwell's Demon's Mind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[183] viXra:1707.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 02:04:06

Optical Nanomotors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers have created in simulations the first system in which can be manipulated by a beam of ordinary light rather than the expensive specialized light sources required by other systems. [16] A discovery of how to control and transfer spinning electrons paves the way for novel hybrid devices that could outperform existing semiconductor electronics. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at Linköping University in Sweden demonstrate how to combine a commonly used semiconductor with a topological insulator, a recently discovered state of matter with unique electrical properties. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[182] viXra:1706.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 07:12:56

Boltzmann Constant Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

By measuring the random jiggling motion of electrons in a resistor, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have contributed to accurate new measurements of the Boltzmann constant, a fundamental scientific value that relates the energy of a system to its temperature. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[181] viXra:1706.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 07:17:33

Distance Measurements with Thermal Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[180] viXra:1706.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 10:09:31

On Interrelation of Time and Entropy

Authors: Leonid M. Martyushev
Comments: 10 Pages.

A measure of time is related to the number of ways by which the human correlates the past and the future for some process. On this basis, a connection between time and entropy (information, Boltzmann-Gibbs, and thermodynamic one) is established. This measure gives time such properties as universality, relativity, directionality, and non-uniformity. A number of issues of the modern science related to the finding of laws describing changes in nature are discussed. A special emphasis is made on the role of evolutionary adaptation of an observer to the surrounding world.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[179] viXra:1706.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 09:40:51

Electrocaloric Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers have built an electrocaloric refrigerator the size of a beverage coaster that can generate a temperature difference of about 2 K between the hot and cold ends of the device. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a ground-breaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[178] viXra:1706.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:16:46

Stored Electromagnetic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[177] viXra:1705.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-29 12:01:22

A Note on Heat Multiplication Factor

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Kelvin, one of the founders of thermodynamics, proposed an economical, thermodynamic method to heat houses. The method employs a combination of two Carnot heat engines. One engine runs in clockwise direction while the other runs in counterclockwise direction. This combination is claimed to provide much more heat into the house for a given amount of fuel used, compared to that obtained through burning that fuel inside the house. The ratio of the two heats, one obtained by Kelvin’s method and the other obtained by the burning the fuel inside the house, is known as heat multiplication factor (HMF). This factor could theoretically be quite high (a typical calculation gives more than a factor of 6). We show in this note that Kelvin’s method is fallacious - it is impossible to get any more heat by using Kelvin’s method than the heat that could be obtained from combustion (burning) of the fuel.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[176] viXra:1705.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 03:15:32

A Scheme of the Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine is Realized by Using Imbalance of Cationic and Anions

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 3 Pages.

The molar ratio of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), Na + cation and SO4- anion is 2 : 1.Thus, when the aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) between the upper and lower semipermeables in the figure is placed in a vertical downward electrostatic field, Na + cation and SO4 - anion, respectively, to the bottom and above the concentration, Forming the bottom of the rich Na + cationic solution and the above-rich SO4- anion liquid, Up and down the balance of electricity but the molar concentration of ions is not balanced !
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[175] viXra:1705.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 13:56:59

Energy Dissipation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Energy dissipation is a key ingredient in understanding many physical phenomena in thermodynamics, photonics, chemical reactions, nuclear fission, photon emissions, or even electronic circuits, among others. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[174] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 21:31:08

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 13 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[173] viXra:1705.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 07:23:33

Nanoscale Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[172] viXra:1705.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 02:45:44

A Note on Irreversible Adiabatic Cyclic Process and Role of Time in Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Irreversible adiabatic cyclic process of an ideal gas is an important thermodynamic process. It offers a method of analysis of second law without involving any heat interactions. We show in this note that the impossibility of an irreversible adiabatic cyclic process is equivalent to the assertion that time plays no role in thermodynamic predictions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[171] viXra:1705.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 14:34:44

Shutter-Like Fluid Driven Motor and Tide Power Harvest System

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 5 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28522.72648

Why we have to be addictive to rotary turbine for tide or wind energy harvest? Perhaps we are not smart enough to find a new way. Now I propose a rectangular cross section turbine that works in reciprocation mode to harvest energy from any flowing fluid. In a sense, fluid flows in similar way of electric DC (Direct Current), but reciprocal motion of device’s ram behaves in similar way of AC (Alternating Current), thus a DC-AC mechanic inverter is needed. Of course, inverse utilization of same mechanism renders an AC-DC mechanic rectifier, i.e. an exotic pump.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[170] viXra:1704.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 07:55:13

Laser Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[169] viXra:1704.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 23:39:41

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and Horizon of Dark Fluxions and Thermodynamics

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: 7 pages, part II of Unified Physics (part I at http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0221)

Associated with the virtual or physical manifolds, the Universe Topology aggregates quantum objects and forms the second horizon as the group effects of the flow conservations both physically and virtually, called Dark Fluxions, a dynamics cosmology of energy flows. Inherent to its internal nature, the universe produces each of opposite dualities as a complex conjugate, the statistical representation of dark fluxions dynamically affiliated to bulk entropy, motion continuities, statistical works, and interactive fields, giving rise to the horizon of thermodynamics. As a result, this becomes a groundwork in quest for nature transformations delivered by the life energy of dark fluxions, or the dynamic flows of dark energy...
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[168] viXra:1704.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 14:03:45

Fermi Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem—which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states—has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[167] viXra:1703.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 09:09:56

Cool to Absolute Zero

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1912, chemist Walther Nernst proposed that cooling an object to absolute zero is impossible with a finite amount of time and resources. Today this idea, called the unattainability principle, is the most widely accepted version of the third law of thermodynamics—yet so far it has not been proved from first principles. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[166] viXra:1702.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 11:15:54

Information at Zero Energy Cost

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A few years ago, physicists showed that it's possible to erase information without using any energy, in contrast to the assumption at the time that erasing information must require energy. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[165] viXra:1702.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 13:25:27

The Dangers of Adopting Results from One Discipline in Another

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages. Although being listed under 'Thermodynamics and Energy', this refers by implication to all areas of science.

Quite often in the sciences, results from one area are used in other quite different scenarios. However, it is crucial in these cases to ensure beyond all doubt that any assumptions made in deriving the initial result are fulfilled in all subsequent applications. It is the purpose of this note to draw attention to this highly important, but often neglected, point.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[164] viXra:1702.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 09:53:16

Concept of Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[163] viXra:1701.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 07:52:29

A Cautionary Note on the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. Here questions are raised over the correctness of the idea that the Second Law of Thermodynamics may be expressed simply as 'the entropy never decreases'.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[162] viXra:1701.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 17:36:56

Comparative Studies of Law of Conservation of Energy and Law Clusters of Conservation of Generalized Energy—No.3 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 6 Pages.

As No.3 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies between the original law of conservation of energy and the Computer Information Library Clusters; and based on the multiform laws of conservation of energy, the concept of "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" is presented. In which, any physical quantity can be regarded as "generalized energy", and any physical formula and equation can be transformed into law of conservation, therefore all the physical laws as well as formulas and equations can be classified as "physical law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" (sometimes it can be simplified to "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy"). While in law clusters of conservation of generalized energy, there are some source laws. According to the source law, some related laws as well as formulas and equations can be derived, for example, law of gravity and Newton's second law can be derived with law of conservation of energy; thus "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" can be simplified to "law clusters of physical source law". As the number of source laws in the law clusters is reduced to some degree, all the laws of physics are able to be written on a T-shirt with the form of "the simplest law clusters of physical source law". In order to deal with the practical problems, "variational principle of the simplest law clusters of physical source law" can be eatablished.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[161] viXra:1701.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 03:54:31

Proposal to Test the Validity of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 6 Pages.

The concept of ‘thermal heating efficiency’, G, considered as a duel of Carnot efficiency, offers a suitable method to test the validity of second law of thermodynamics. This concept claims to offer us many practical (therefore, experimentally testable) advantages, specifically, economy in heating houses, cooking, besides others. For example, if one unit of fuel when burnt inside the house gives Q joules of heat, the thermodynamic method based on this concept offers as much as 10 Q joules for the same one unit of fuel, giving a 10 fold economy in heating houses. We show in this article that the economy claimed is a myth and we can get no more heat into the house using this method than that we get by burning the fuel inside the house. We propose, the concept of thermal heating efficiency as a suitable method to test the validity of the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[160] viXra:1701.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 14:50:00

Estudo do Sistema Pelamis Para Captação de Energia Maremotriz

Authors: A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, R. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XIX Physics Week, at the State University of Londrina, from September 15 to 19, 2014.

Many sources of energy have been researched for their proper capture, where some stand out for their ease of obtaining, others for low cost and others for being renewable. Here we study a source of energy - the sea wave, whose capture is still under development. This energy comes from the sea waves and is 100% renewable, and the treatment system here is the Pelamis System. Over the years the energy has become vital for the human being, allowing us comfort, leisure, mobility among other factors. The search for cheap and renewable energy sources has grown significantly in recent years, mainly to a diminishing effect that has degraded nature, enabling scientists and engineers to search for new technologies. Some countries where there are not many forms of energy capture, such as sources of alternative sources such as wind, solar, thermoelectric, marine energy and many others. Among the methods of energy capture mentioned above, a project created by Chinese in 1988, with the intention of being an infinite and totally clean energy source that caught our attention. It is a system that is not generated by the movement of the waves, this project is called Pelamis.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[159] viXra:1701.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 02:23:17

Energy Efficiency and Entropy

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper represents an intuitive approach to understanding Entropy. We can thus associate entropy for all forms of energy based on a known form. Boltzmann's Equation will allow us to determine chemical entropy for chemical energy and based on this we can determine the entropy for all forms of energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[158] viXra:1701.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 04:09:40

Is Production of Energy "For Free" Feasible in a PhR Perspective?

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Physical Reality (PhR) model recently presented in viXra.org/abs/16040230 is the outcome of an alternative approach to studying cosmic behavior. It implicitly extends the principle of energy conservation to the whole cosmos since its creation out of nihil. This article concludes that under such scenario an attempt to produce energy "for free" (e.g. by cold fusion) would not be doomed to fail.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[157] viXra:1612.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 07:49:40

Energy from Human Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Michigan State University engineering researchers have created a new way to harvest energy from human motion, using a film-like device that actually can be folded to create more power. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[156] viXra:1611.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 07:15:41

Converting Heat into Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[155] viXra:1611.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 09:05:30

New Way Heat Travels Between Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new model, developed by University of Pennsylvania chemists, could be the first step towards better harnessing heat energy to power nanoscale devices. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[154] viXra:1611.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 09:15:47

Some Novel Features of the Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Their Possible Impact to Understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (Lenr)

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal yet.

In this paper we will discuss how we can study some effects associated with LENR from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory. We are aware that this approach has its own risks, because many mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion should be associated with tunneling through Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[153] viXra:1611.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:15:02

The Condensing Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

Authors: Matthew Marko
Comments: 18 Pages, English,

The Stirling thermodynamic heat engine cycle is modified, where instead of an ideal gas, a real, monatomic working fluid is used, with the engine designed so that the isothermal compression starts off as a saturated gas, and ends as a mixed-phase fluid. This cycle takes advantage of the attractive intermolecular Van der Waals forces of the working fluid to assist in compressing the working fluid partially into a liquid, reducing the input compression work and increasing the overall heat engine efficiency to exceed that of the Carnot efficiency.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[152] viXra:1610.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 10:24:00

Quantum Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[151] viXra:1610.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:47:59

Quantum Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[150] viXra:1610.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:56:46

Spin Singlet Exciton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[149] viXra:1610.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 03:47:33

Further Thoughts on Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recently, attention has been drawn to a number of pieces written concerning classical thermodynamics in a biological setting. Several ideas have been put forward which are unusual for orthodox classical thermodynamics but, as they are supported by experiment, seem to offer suggestions for expanding the scope of that subject and even possibly helping make some aspects more amenable to students. The idea of introducing time into considerations is one such major notion which appears to lead to a new meaning of 'slow' processes in a classical thermodynamic setting and should be examined further because of the possible ramifications for the subject as a whole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[148] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 04:41:23

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 14 Pages. Another form of the conference paper

The need for better heat engines for our civilisation is obvious. The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram. Finally a discussion shows that there isn’t a problem with microscopically time symmetric laws and macroscopic irreversibility and that “Time’s Arrow” is really to be found in loss of information in the system state vector.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[147] viXra:1610.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 04:27:17

Entropy, or Entropies, in Physics?

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 13 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. The problem is exacerbated by its use in both statistical thermodynamics and information theory. Here its place in classical thermodynamics, where it was introduced originally, and in these other two areas will be examined and hopefully some light will be cast on the present position.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[146] viXra:1609.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:28:28

Thought Intervention Through Biofield Changing Metal Powder Characteristics Experiments on Powder Characterisation at a PM Plant

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[145] viXra:1609.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 04:30:36

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide, whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. The powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC2 was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC2. Besides, in Pr6O11, the XRD did not show any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm-1 (control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm-1 in the treated Pr6O11 sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder for the use in chemical industries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[144] viXra:1609.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 13:19:05

Development of User-Friendly Software to Design Dairy Heat Exchanger and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Dipankar Mandal
Comments: 7 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622,Vol. 5, Issue 2,2015, pp.111-117

The paper proposes a calculation algorithm and development of a software in Visual Basic(Visual Studio 2012 Express Desktop) used in heat transfer studies when different heat exchangers are involved (e.g. Helical Type Triple Tube Heat Exchanger , Plate Type Heat Exchanger).It includes the easy calculation of heat transfer coefficient and followed by the design and simulation of heat exchanger design parameter by inputting general known parameters of a heat exchanger into the developed software—DAIRY-HE. A parametric study is conducted using the software interface to determine the length of tubes or dimensions of heat exchanger.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[143] viXra:1609.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 12:24:50

Development of a Multipurpose Cold Storage Design Software MCS_BCKV V.1.14.1

Authors: Dipankar mandal
Comments: 15 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology ISSN: 2250-3676. Volume-4, Issue-6, 519-535

The paper proposes development of an interactive, flexible and user friendly software for designing a multipurpose cold storage in Visual Studio Express Desktop2012 environment and evaluation. The developed software-MCS_BCKV has a criterion for typical load estimation and designing of cold storage, selection of evaporator, compressor and condenser in developing country. Load estimating and designing through computer automation is likely to make a positive impact in the dynamic nature of cold storage applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[142] viXra:1609.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:07:49

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemoncablin (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in-vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[141] viXra:1609.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:08:12

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment upto a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/removal of sharp surface corners/formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[140] viXra:1609.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:10:09

Atomic, Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Treated Zirconia and Silica Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[139] viXra:1609.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:04:55

Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon, Tin and Lead Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present investigation silicon, tin and lead powders are exposed to bio field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder, suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio field after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[138] viXra:1609.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 04:45:40

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Yield of Lettuce and Tomato

Authors: Trivedi Foundation
Comments: 6 Pages.

Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[137] viXra:1609.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 00:12:56

Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided in three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for aniline and four parts named as T1, T2, T3, and T4 for 4-bromoaniline. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in aniline was increased from -40.82%, 30.17% and 73.12% in T1, T2 and T3 samples respectively. However in treated samples of 4-bromoaniline the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased exponentially from -4.36 % (T1) to 368.3% (T4) as compared to the control. A slight decreasing trend of the isotopic ratio of (PM+2)/ PM in 4-bromoaniline was observed after biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment has significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 15N in the treated aniline and 4-bromoaniline, while slight decreased the isotopic abundance of 81Br in treated 4-bromoaniline as compared to their respective control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[136] viXra:1609.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 04:12:36

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Naphthalene Derivatives After Biofield Energy Treatment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Naphthalene and 2-naphthol are two naphthalene derivatives, which play important roles in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in naphthalene and 2-naphthol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Naphthalene and 2-naphthol samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided into four parts named as T1, T2, T3 and T4. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM were increased significantly in treated naphthalene and 2-naphthol (where PM-primary molecule, (PM+1) isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and (PM+2) is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T2 samples of naphthalene and 2-naphthol was increased up to 129.40% and 165.40%, respectively as compared to their respective control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T1, T3 and T4 samples of naphthalene was decreased by 44.41%, 33.49% and 30.3%, respectively as compared to their respective control. While in case of 2- naphthol, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM was decreased by 39.57% in T1 sample and then gradually increased up to 9.85% from T3 to T4 samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in treated T2 sample of 2-naphthol was increased up to 163.24%, whereas this value was decreased by 39.57% in treated T1 sample. The GC-MS data suggest that the biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C in naphthalene and 2H, 13C and 18O in 2- naphthol as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[135] viXra:1609.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 22:00:50

Search for Physical Origin of Intelligence

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 29 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the purpose of Life.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[134] viXra:1609.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 23:41:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Ethyl Cellulose and Methyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Cellulose and its derivatives are used as potential matrices for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of ethyl cellulose (EC) and methyl cellulose (MC). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The biofield treated polymers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR analysis of treated EC showed downward shifting in C-O-C stretching peak from 1091→1066 cm-1 with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed upward shifting of –OH stretching (3413→3475) and downward shifting in C-O stretching (1647→1635 cm-1) vibrations with respect to control MC. CHNSO analysis showed substantial increase in percent hydrogen and oxygen in treated polymers with respect to control. XRD diffractogram of EC and MC affirmed the typical semi-crystalline nature. The crystallite size was substantially increased by 20.54% in treated EC with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed decrease in crystallite by 61.59% with respect to control. DSC analysis of treated EC showed minimal changes in crystallization temperature with respect to control sample. However, the treated and control MC did not show any crystallization temperature in the samples. TGA analysis of treated EC showed increase in thermal stability with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated MC showed reduction in thermal stability as compared to control. Overall, the result showed substantial alteration in physical, chemical and thermal properties of treated EC and MC.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[133] viXra:1609.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 12:18:33

Statistical Characterization of Heat Release Rates from Electrical Enclosure Fires for Nuclear Power Plant Applications

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci, Brian Metzger
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the publication of NUREG/CR-6850 / EPRI 1011989 in 2005, the US nuclear industry has sought to re-evaluate the default peak heat release rates (HRRs) for electrical enclosure fires typically used as fire modeling inputs to support fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), considering them too conservative. HRRs are an integral part of the fire phenomenological modeling phase of a fire PRA, which consists of identifying fire scenarios which can damage equipment or hinder human actions necessary to prevent core damage. Fire ignition frequency, fire growth and propagation, fire detection and suppression, and mitigating equipment and actions to prevent core damage in the event fire damage still occurred are all parts of a fire PRA. The fire growth and propagation phase incorporates fire phenomenological modeling where HRRs are key. An effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and Science Applications International Corporation in 2012 was not endorsed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in risk-informed, regulatory applications. Subsequently the NRC, with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, conducted a series of tests for representative nuclear power plant electrical enclosure fires to definitively establish more realistic peak HRRs for these often important contributors to fire risk. The results are statistically analyzed to develop two probabilistic distributions for peak HRR per unit mass of fuel that refine the values from NUREG/CR-6850, thereby providing a fairly simple means to estimate peak HRRs from electrical enclosure fires for fire modeling in support of fire PRA. Unlike NUREG/CR-6850, where five different distributions are provided, or NUREG-2178, which now provides 31, the peak HRRs for electrical enclosure fires can be characterized by only two distributions. These distributions depend only on the type of cable, namely qualified vs. unqualified, for which the mean peak HRR per unit mass is 11.9 and 22.3 kW/kg, respectively, essentially a factor of two difference. Two-sided, 90th percentile confidence bounds are 0.096 to 43.2 kW/kg for qualified cables, and 0.015 to 94.9 kW/kg for unqualified cables. From the mean (~70th percentile) upward, the peak HRR/kg for unqualified cables is roughly twice that that for qualified, increasing slightly with higher percentile, an expected phenomenological trend. Simulations using variable fuel loadings demonstrate how the results from this analysis may be used for nuclear power plant applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[132] viXra:1609.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 04:41:56

Characterization of Thermal and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Acrylamide and 2-Chloroacetamide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Acrylamide (AM) and 2-chloroacetamide (CA) are widely used in diverse applications such as biomedical, drug delivery, waste water treatment, and heavy metal ion removal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of amide group containing compounds (AM and CA). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface area analysis. XRD of treated AM showed decrease in intensity of peaks as compared to control sample. However, the treated AM showed increase in volume of unit cell (0.16%) and molecular weight (0.16%) as compared to control. The crystallite size was decreased by 33.34% in treated AM as compared to control Whereas, the XRD diffractogram of treated CA showed increase in intensity of crystalline peaks as compared to control. The percentage volume of unit cell (-1.92%) and molecular weight (-1.92%) of treated CA were decreased as compared to control. However, significant increase in crystallite size (129.79%) was observed in treated CA as compared to control. DSC of treated AM showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CA also showed increase in melting temperature with respect to control. Latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly changed in treated AM and CA as compared to control samples. TGA showed increase in thermal stability of treated AM and CA which was evidenced by increase in thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. Surface area analysis of treated AM showed increase (31.6%) in surface area as compared to control. However, a decrease (30.9%) in surface area was noticed in treated CA as compared to control. Study results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on the physical and thermal properties of AM and CA.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[131] viXra:1609.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 07:14:57

Evaluation of Plant Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and Chick Pea (Cicer Arietinum) Seeds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of mustard and chick pea was increased by 13.2 and 97.41%, respectively in the treated samples as compared to the control. Additionally, primary branching of mustard and chick pea was improved by 7.4 and 19.84%, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. The control mustard and chick pea crops showed high rate of infection by pests and diseases, while treated crops were free from any infection of pests and disease. The yield attributing characters of mustard showed, lucidly higher numbers of siliquae on main shoot, siliquae/plant and siliquae length were observed in the treated seeds and plot as compared with the control. Moreover, similar results were observed in the yield attributing parameters of chick pea viz. pods/plant, grains/pod as well as test weight of 1000 grains. The seed and stover yield of mustard in treated plots were increased by 61.5% and 25.4%, respectively with respect to the control. However, grain/seed yield of mustard crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square as compared to the control. Besides, grain/seed yield of chick pea crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square. The harvest index of biofield treated mustard was increased by 21.83%, while it was slight increased in case of chick pea. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used on both the seeds and plots of mustard and chick pea as an alternative way to increase the production and yield.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[130] viXra:1609.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 05:12:54

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4- DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63, 37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomers were increased significantly after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM after biofield energy treatment were increased by 54.38% and 40.57% in 2,4-DCP and 126.11% and 18.65% in 2,6-DCP, respectively which may affect the bond energy, reactivity and finally stability to the product.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] viXra:1609.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 06:46:46

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Murashige and Skoog Plant Cell Culture Media

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS media) is a chemically defined and widely used as a growth medium for plant tissue culture techniques. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MS media. The study was performed in two groups; one was kept as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Afterward, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 19.92% decrease in the crystallite size of treated sample with respect to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation (Tonset) by 9.41% and 10.69% in first and second steps of thermal degradation, respectively after the biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. Likewise, Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 17.43% and 28.61% correspondingly in the first and second step of thermal degradation in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated the 143.51% increase in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated MS media showed the alteration in the frequency such as 3165→3130 cm-1 (aromatic C-H stretching); 2813→2775 cm-1 (aliphatic C-H stretching); 1145→1137 cm-1 (C-N stretching), 995→1001 cm-1 (S=O stretching), etc. in the treated sample with respect to the control. The UV spectra of control and treated MS media showed the similar absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 201 and 198 nm, respectively. The XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of the MS media. As a result, the treated MS media could be more stable than the control, and might be used as better media in the plant tissue culture technique.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[128] viXra:1608.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:11:11

Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on Soil Fertility

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Measurement of soil components such as microbial population, minerals and obviously the content of organic carbon play the important roles for the productivity of crops and plants. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on soil for its physical (electrical conductivity), chemical (minerals) and microbial flora (bacteria and fungi). A plot of lands was assigned for this study with some already grown plants. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. In the treated soil the total bacterial and fungal counts were increased by 546 and 617%, respectively as compared to the untreated soil. Additionally, the conductivity of soil of the treated plot was increased by 79% as compared to the soil of control plot. Apart from microbes, the content of various minerals were also changed in the biofield energy treated soil. The calcium carbonate content showed 2909 ppm in the control, while in the treated soil it was increased to 3943 ppm i.e. 36% increased. Various other minerals such as nitrogen and potassium were increased by 12% and 7%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the level of some minerals such as potassium, iron, and chloride were decreased by 9%, 23%, and 41%, respectively as compared to the control. Apart from chemical constituents of soil, the content of organic carbon was also reduced by 8% in the treated soil as compared to the control soil. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the soil showed a significant improvement in the physical, chemical, and microbial functions of soil component. Thus, improved the conductance, supportive microbes, minerals and overall productivity of crops. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the yield of quality crops by increasing soil fertility.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[127] viXra:1608.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:10:12

Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

O-Toluic acid (OTA) and m-toluic acid (MTA) are two isomers of toluic acid that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines and pesticides. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM, in toluic acid isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The OTA and MTA samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of both the isomers showed five m/z peaks due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of toluic acid derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM were calculated for both the isomers and found significant alteration in the treated isomers. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in treated samples of OTA was decreased and then slightly increased upto 2.37% in T2, where the (PM+2)/PM in treated OTA, significantly decreased by 55.3% in T3 sample. Similarly, in case of MTA, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated sample showed a slight increase the (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 11.95% in T2 as compared to their respective control. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment on toluic acid isomers had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, and 18O in OTA and MTA as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[126] viXra:1608.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:21:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were assessed using numerous analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. The particle size analysis exhibited about 4.70% and 17.58% increase in the d50 (average particle size) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present), respectively of treated bio peptone as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 253.95% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 29.59% increase in the melting temperature of treated bio peptone sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset of degradation temperature by 3.31% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as O-H stretching from 3066 cm-1 to 3060 cm-1; C-H stretching from 2980, 2893, and 2817 cm-1 to 2970, 2881, and 2835 cm-1, respectively; N-H bending from 1589 cm-1 to 1596 cm-1; C=C stretching from 1533 cm-1 to 1525 cm-1; and P=O stretching from 1070 cm-1 to 1078 cm-1 in treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 259 nm and 257 nm in both the control and treated samples, respectively. Overall, the analytical results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has substantial effect on physicochemical and spectral properties of bio peptone. Owing to this, the treated bio peptone might be more effective as culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[125] viXra:1608.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:31:57

Biochemical Differentiation and Molecular Characterization of Biofield Treated Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The recent emergence of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a pandemic. For the safety concern of seafood, consumer monitoring of this organism in seafood is very much essential. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on [ATCC-17802] strain of V. parahaemolyticus for its biochemical characteristics, biotype and 16S rDNA analysis. The lyophilized strain of V. parahaemolyticus was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, whereas, Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment of Gr. IIB on day 142 (Study II), the sample was divided into three separate tubes. The tubes first, second and third were analyzed on day 5, 10, and 15, respectively. The biochemical reaction and biotyping were performed using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of V. parahaemolyticus with other bacterial species after the treatment. The results of biochemical reactions were altered 24.24%, out of thirty-three in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, negative (-) reaction of urea was changed to positive (+) in the revived treated Gr. IIB, Study II on day 15 as compared to the control. Besides, biotype number was substantially changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. However, change in organisms were reported in Gr. IIA on day 10 and in Gr. IIB; Study II on day 5 as Shewanella putrefaciens and Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp., respectively with respect to the control i.e. Vibrio sp. SF. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was V. parahaemolyticus after biofield treatment, and the nearest homolog genus-species was observed as Vibrio natriegens with 98% gene identity. The results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment showed an alteration in biochemical reaction pattern and biotype number on the strain of V. parahaemolyticus.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[124] viXra:1608.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:33:36

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did affect the crystalline nature of cellulose. The percentage of crystallite size was found increased significantly in treated cellulose by 159.83%, as compared to control sample. This showed that biofield treatment was changing the crystalline nature of treated cellulose. However treated cellulose acetate showed a reduction in crystallite size (-17.38%) as compared to control sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of treated cellulose showed no improvement in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Contrarily cellulose acetate showed significant improvement in melting temperature peak at 351.91ºC as compared to control (344ºC) polymer. Moreover percentage change in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was calculated from the DSC thermogram of both treated and control polymers. A significant increase in percentage ΔH of both treated cellulose (59.09%) and cellulose acetate (105.79%) polymers indicated that biofield treatment enhanced the thermal stability of the treated polymers. CHNSO analysis revealed a significant change in percentage hydrogen and oxygen of treated cellulose (%H-17.77, %O-16.89) and cellulose acetate (%H-5.67, %O-13.41). Though minimal change was observed in carbon percentage of both treated cellulose (0.29%) and cellulose acetate (0.39%) polymers as compared to their respective control samples. Thermo gravimetric analysis and Differential thermo gravimetric (TGA-DTG) analysis of treated cellulose acetate (353ºC) showed increased maximum thermal decomposition temperature as compared to control polymer (351ºC). This showed the higher thermal stability of the treated cellulose acetate polymer; although the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of treated cellulose (248ºC) was decreased as compared to control cellulose (321ºC). These outcomes confirmed that biofield treatment has changed the physicochemical properties of the cellulose polymers.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[123] viXra:1608.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:32:35

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in percent contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively; while 9.49% increase in nitrogen contents of treated sample as compared to the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 7.23% decrease in crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation by 19.61% in treated sample with respect to the control. The control sample showed the 48.63% weight loss during the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) while the treated sample showed only 13.62% weight loss during the Tmax. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 62.58% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated SFRE-M showed the alteration in the wavenumber of C-O, C-N and C-H vibrations in the treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The treated SFRE-M was more thermal stable than the control SFRE-M and can be used as the better culture media for mammalian cell culture.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[122] viXra:1608.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:10:52

Experimental Investigation on Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of 2-Chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN) is widely used in the manufacturing of azo dyes, pharmaceuticals, and as intermediate in various chemical reactions. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN. 2-ClBN sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 4.88% in 2-ClBN along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area of 64.53% in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion (28.74%) and a slight increase in melting temperature (2.05%) in treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control and treated 2-ClBN samples lost 61.05% and 46.15% of their weight, respectively. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to control. However, UV-Vis spectra showed an increase in the intensity of peak as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[121] viXra:1608.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:22:40

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated P-Chloro-M-Cresol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

p-Chloro-m-cresol(PCMC) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries as biocide and preservative. However, it faces the problems of solubility in water and photo degradation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of PCMC. For this study, PCMC sample was divided into two groups i.e., one served as treated and other as control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and both control and treated samples of PCMC were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). The XRD result showed a 12.7% increase in crystallite size in treated samples along with increase in peak intensity as compared to control. Moreover, surface area analysis showed a 49.36% increase in surface area of treated PCMC sample as compared to control. The thermal analysis showed significant decrease (25.94%) in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample as compared to control. However, no change was found in other parameters like melting temperature, onset temperature of degradation, and Tmax (temperature at which maximum weight loss occur). The FT-IR spectroscopy did not show any significant change in treated PCMC sample as compared to control. Although, the UV-Vis spectra of treated samples showed characteristic absorption peaks at 206 and 280 nm, the peak at 280 nm was not found in control sample. The control sample showed another absorbance peak at 247 nm. GC-MS data revealed that carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) was changed up to 204% while δ18O and δ37Cl isotopic ratio were significantly changed up to 142% in treated samples as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties, which can affect the solubility and stability of p-chloro-m-cresol and make it more useful as a pharmaceutical ingredient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[120] viXra:1608.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:26:04

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Gerbera Multiplication Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The micropropagation technique is used for Gerbera species due to their high demand all over the world as the decorative potted plants and cut flowers. The present study was done to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of gerbera multiplication medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy, and the other part was kept as untreated and termed as the control sample. Both the parts were subsequently analysed for their physical, thermal and spectral properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed 13.98% increase in crystallite size of treated sample (104.01 nm) as compared to the control (91.25 nm). The particle size data revealed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) by 72.57% and 42.26%, respectively of the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced from 0.694 m2/g (control) to 0.560 m2/g in the treated sample. The TGA data showed the increase in onset temperature along with the reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the elemental analysis revealed the significant decrease in the percentage of nitrogen (10.47%) and hydrogen (9.35%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The FT-IR results showed the differences in the IR frequencies corresponding to pyridine ring and N-H2 deformation of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall data revealed that the biofield energy treatment had a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might help to improve its uses in the in vitro tissue culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[119] viXra:1608.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:50:54

Use of Energy Healing Medicine Against Escherichia coli for Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction and Biotyping

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are the major health concern, as it causes infections in human mainly in urinary tract, ear, and wound infections. The present study evaluates the impact of biofield energy treatment on E. coli regarding antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number. Four multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 12, LS 13, LS 42, and LS 51) were taken in two groups i.e. control and treated. After treatment, above mentioned parameter were evaluated on day 10 in control and treated samples using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay was reported with 46.67% alteration (14 out of 30 tested antimicrobials) in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study showed the alteration in MIC values of about 34.37% (11 out of 32) tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was reported with improved sensitivity and four-fold decrease in the MIC value (64 to ≤16 μg/mL) in LS 42, as compared with the control. Amoxicillin/kclavulanate reported with improved sensitivity pattern from resistance to susceptible, with two-fold decrease in MIC value (>16/8 to ≤8/4 μg/mL) in biofield treated LS 51. Further, biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration (8 out of 33) in tested biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to the control. A change in biotype number (7774 4272) was reported as compared to the control, (7311 4012), with new organism identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae in biofield treated LS 13 with respect to the control organism, E. coli. Overall, data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment can be applied to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of E. coli.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[118] viXra:1608.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:18:18

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Butylated Hydroxytoluene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress related diseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food and pharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the biofield energy treatment on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BHT. For the study, the sample was divided into two groups and termed as control and treated. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The characterization of treated sample was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed the alteration in lattice parameters, unit cell volume, and molecular weight along with 14.8% reduction in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC analysis showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion from 75.94 J/g (control) to 96.23 J/g in the treated BHT sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of decomposition (130°C→136°C) and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (152.39°C→158.42°C) in the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the FT-IR analysis reported the shifting of aromatic C-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3068→3150 cm-1) and C=C stretching towards lower frequency (1603→1575 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Moreover, the UV spectrum also revealed the shifting of the peak at λmax 247 nm (control) to 223 nm in the treated sample. The overall results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of BHT sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[117] viXra:1608.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:20:30

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Potato Micropropagation Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Potato Micropropagation Medium (PMM) is the growth medium used for in vitro micropropagation of potato tubers. The present study was intended to assess the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of PMM. The study was attained in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis- differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), UV-Vis spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples of PMM. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant increase in the intensity of XRD peaks in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis revealed 6.64% increase in the average crystallite size of treated PMM with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed about 8.66% decrease in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA-DTA analysis exhibited about 4.71% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation after biofield treatment with respect to the control, while the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) was also increased (5.06%) in treated sample with respect to the control. This increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the slight blue shift in λmax of treated sample with respect to the control. FT-IR spectrum of control PMM showed the peak at 3132 cm-1 (C-H stretching) that was observed at higher wavenumber i.e. at 3161 cm-1 in the treated sample. Other vibrational peaks in the treated sample were observed in the similar region as that of the control. Altogether, the XRD, DSC, TGA-DTA, UV-Vis, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physicochemical properties of PMM. This treated PMM might be more effective as a micropropagation medium as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[116] viXra:1608.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 14:22:29

Is Thermodynamic Irreversibility a Consequence of the Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Szabolcs Osváth
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper explains thermodynamic irreversibility by applying the expansion of the Universe to thermodynamic systems. The effect of metric expansion is immeasurably small on shorter scales than intergalactic distances. Multi-particle systems, however, are chaotic, and amplify any small disturbance exponentially. Metric expansion gives rise to time-asymmetric behavior in thermodynamic systems in a short time (few nanoseconds in air, few ten picoseconds in water). In contrast to existing publications, this paper explains without any additional assumptions the rise of thermodynamic irreversibility from the underlying reversible mechanics of particles. Calculations for the special case which assumes FLRW metric, slow motions (v<<c) and approximates space locally by Euclidean space show that metric expansion causes entropy increase in isolated systems. The rise of time-asymmetry, however, is not affected by these assumptions. Any influence of the expansion of the Universe on the local metric causes a coupling between local mechanics and evolution of the Universe.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[115] viXra:1608.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:16:36

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopical Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenylmethane: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Triphenylmethane is a synthetic dye used as antimicrobial agent and for the chemical visualization in thin layer chromatography of higher fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and aliphatic amines. The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopical charecteristics of triphenylmethane. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated groups of triphenylmethane samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). XRD study revealed decreases in average crystallite size (14.22%) of treated triphenylmethane as compared to control sample. Surface area analysis showed a slight increase (0.42%) in surface area of treated sample with respect to control. DSC thermogram of treated triphenylmethane showed the slight increase in melting point and latent heat of fusion with respect to control. TGA analysis of control triphenylmethane showed weight loss by 45.99% and treated sample showed weight loss by 64.40%. The Tmax was also decreased by 7.17% in treated sample as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic result showed the similar pattern of spectra. The GC-MS analysis suggested a significant decrease in carbon isotopic abundance (expressed in δ13C, ‰) in treated sample (about 380 to 524‰) as compared to control. Based on these results, it is found that biofield treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and carbon isotopic abundance of treated triphenylmethane with respect to control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[114] viXra:1607.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 07:42:34

On Space Power

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 07 Pages. NA

To generate power from water , coal , wind and nuclear energies we require basic raw materials and the costs are high .Due to the scarcity of the above mentioned items , the developing countries like India are facing a number of challenges and problems. In order to avoid this, the author proposes to generate power directly from gravitons. The accepted physics says that the gravitons are the mediators of gravity. Albert Einstein told that we cannot separate gravity from space .Gravity is a part of space. Einstein’s variance of mass with velocity equation says that as the velocity of an object increases, its mass also increases .The author postulates that this mass is gained by the moving object directly from SPACE whenever its velocity increases. Pauli’s exclusive principle , Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle , Einstein’s equivalence principle and his two postulates of special relativity theory created ground breaking results in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[113] viXra:1607.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:25:10

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated P-Anisidine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups; one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Afterward, both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 → 690.18 × 10-24 cm3 and crystallite size from 83.84→84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the significant increase (25.44%) in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C, respectively, which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C, respectively after biofield treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 11.39% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover, the Tmax (temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs) was also increased slightly from 165.99°C (control) to 168.10°C (treated). This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any significant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. All together, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[112] viXra:1607.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:29:51

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated P-Hydroxyacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

P-Hydroxyacetophenone (pHAP) is an aromatic ketone derivative that is mainly used in the manufacturing of various pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, etc. In the present study, the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment was analysed on various properties of pHAP viz. crystallite size, surface area, melting temperature, thermal decomposition, and spectral properties. The pHAP sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as control sample while another part was named as treated sample. The treated sample was given the biofield energy treatment and various parameters were analysed as compared to the control sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD studies showed the decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (61.25 nm) as compared to the control (84.18 nm); however the intensity of peaks in diffractogram was increased in treated sample. Besides, the surface area of treated sample was decreased by 41.17% as compared to the control. The TGA analysis revealed that onset temperature as well as Tmax (maximum thermal decomposition temperature) was increased in the treated sample. However, the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was decreased from 124.56 J/g (control) to 103.24 J/g in the treated sample. The treated and control samples were also evaluated by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and did not show any significant alteration in spectra of treated sample as compared to the respective control. Hence, the overall results suggest that there was an impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of pHAP sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[111] viXra:1607.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:32:54

Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Biofield Treated Benzene, Toluene and P-Xylene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2 H/1 H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in treated toluene and p-xylene was significantly increased up to 531.61% and 134.34% respectively as compared to their respective control. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in a different way for un-substituted and substituted benzenes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[110] viXra:1607.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:20:06

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Thermal Properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate and Casein Yeast Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present study, the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate (CEH) and Casein Yeast Peptone (CYP) were investigated. The control and treated samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), particle size and surface area analysis. The FTIR results revealed that biofield treatment has caused reduction of amide group (amide-I and amide-II) stretching vibration peak that is associated with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in treated CEH as compared to control. However, no significant changes were observed in FTIR spectrum of treated CYP. The TGA analysis of treated CEH showed a substantial improvement in thermal stability which was confirmed by increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (217° C) as compared to control (209° C). Similarly, the treated CYP also showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to control. DSC showed increase in melting temperature of treated CYP as compared to control. However the melting peak was absent in DSC of treated CEH which was probably due to rigid chain of the protein. The surface area of treated CEH was increased by 83% as compared to control. However, a decrease (7.3%) in surface area was observed in treated CYP. The particle size analysis of treated CEH showed a significant increase in average particle size (d50) and d99 value (maximum particle size below which 99% of particles are present) as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CYP also showed a substantial increase in d50 and d99 values which was probably due to the agglomeration of the particles which led to formation of bigger microparticles. The result showed that the biofield treated CEH and CYP could be used as a matrix for pharmaceutical applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[109] viXra:1607.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 10:07:50

A Proposal for an Improved Solar Still

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The yield from solar stills depends upon meteorological parameters and design. Below improvement opportunities are presented using heat pipes. The changes may increase the yield of potable water without the need for external energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[108] viXra:1607.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:15:55

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stainless steel (SS) has gained extensive attention due to its high corrosion resistance, low maintenance, familiar lustre, and superior mechanical properties. In SS, the mechanical properties are closely related with crystal structure, crystallite size, and lattice strain. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural, physical and mechanical properties of SS powder. SS (Grade-SUS316L) powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. The treatment part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated SS samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Result showed that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size d10, d50, d90, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particles were present, respectively) of SS powder up to 7.42, 12.93, 30.23, and 41.38% respectively, as compared to control. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume of SS was altered after biofield treatment. Moreover, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 70% in treated SS as compared to control. The yield strength calculated using Hall-Petch equation, was significantly increased upto 216.5% in treated SS, as compared to control. This could be due to significant reduction of crystallite size in treated SS after biofield treatment. In FT-IR spectra, intensity of the absorption peak at wavenumber 1107 cm-1 (control) attributing to Fe-O-H bond was diminished in case of treated SS. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural, physical and mechanical properties of treated SS powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[107] viXra:1607.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:17:52

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant hormone. Sparfloxacin is fluorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another was subjected to biofield treatment. FT-IR spectrum of treated salicylic acid showed the upstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 to 3004 cm-1 and 2831 to 2837 cm-1 and C=O asymmetric stretching vibration from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. The peak intensity in treated salicylic acid at 1558 cm-1 (aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501 cm-1 (C-C stretching) was increased as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated sparfloxacin showed a downstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848 to 2818 cm-1, and upstream shifting in wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1. Besides, increased intensity of peaks in treated sparfloxacin was found at 1628 cm-1 [C=C stretching (pyridone)] and 1507 cm-1 (N-H bending) as compared to control. UV spectrum of biofield treated salicylic acid exhibited a shifting of wavelength (λmax) from 295.8 to 302.4 nm and 231.2 to 234.4 nm, with respect to control. Likewise, biofield treated sparfloxacin showed the shifting in UV wavelength (λmax) from 373.8 to 380.6 nm and 224.2 to 209.2 nm. Over all, the results suggest that alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks in treated samples might be occurred due to biofield induced alteration in force constant and dipole moment of some bonds. The changes in UV wavelength (λmax) of treated sample also support the FT-IR results. Due to alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical stability of structure of treated drugs might also be increased, which could be beneficial for self-life of biofield treated drugs.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[106] viXra:1607.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:23:34

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received biofield treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% on day 78 in treated bronze as compared to control. Further, the crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 49.96% in treated bronze sample on day 106 as compared to control. In addition, the biofield treatment has significantly reduced the average particle size upto 18.22% in treated bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed agglomerated and welded particles in control bronze powder, whereas fractured morphology at satellites boundaries were observed in treated bronze. The yield strength of bronze powder calculated using HallPetch equation, was significantly changed after biofield treatment. The FT-IR analysis showed that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 observed in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that the biofield treatment may alter the bond properties in bronze. Therefore, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[105] viXra:1607.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:20:25

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Aluminium Carbide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aluminium carbide (Al4 C3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its abrasive and creep resistance properties. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of Al4 C3 powder. The Al4 C3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated Al4 C3 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased by 0.33 and 0.66% respectively, as compared to control. The density of treated Al4 C3 samples was reduced upto 0.65% as compared to control. In addition, the molecular weight and crystallite size of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased upto 0.66 and 249.53% respectively as compared to control. Furthermore, surface area of treated Al4 C3 sample was increased by 5% as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra revealed no significant change in absorption peaks of treated Al4 C3 samples as compared to control. Thus, XRD and surface area results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical and structural properties of treated Al4 C3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[104] viXra:1607.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:22:28

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Chloride: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride are the white crystalline solid inorganic compounds having wide application in synthesis and analytical chemistry. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of inorganic salt like ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride. The study was performed in two groups of each compound i.e., control and treatment. Treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated groups were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the shifting in wavenumber of vibrational peaks with respect to control. Like, the N-H stretching was shifted from 3024-3586 cm-1 to 3033-3606 cm-1, C-H stretching from 2826-2893 cm-1 to 2817-2881 cm-1, C=O asymmetrical stretching from 1660-1702 cm-1 to 1680-1714 cm-1, N-H bending from 1533-1563 cm-1 to 1506-1556 cm-1 etc. Treated ammonium chloride showed the shifting in IR frequency of three distinct oscillation modes in NH4 ion i.e., at ν1 , 3010 cm-1 to 3029 cm-1; ν2 , 1724 cm-1 to 1741 cm-1; and ν3 , 3156 cm-1 to 3124 cm-1. The N-Cl stretching was also shifted to downstream region i.e., from 710 cm-1 to 665 cm-1 in treated ammonium chloride. UV spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the absorbance maxima (λmax) at 258.0 nm that was shifted to 221.4 nm in treated sample. UV spectrum of control ammonium chloride exhibited two absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e., at 234.6 and 292.6 nm, which were shifted to 224.1 and 302.8 nm, respectively in treated sample. Overall, FT-IR and UV data of both compounds suggest an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level i.e., at force constant, bond strength, dipole moments and electron transition energy between two orbitals of treated compounds as compared to respective control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[103] viXra:1606.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:09:29

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the average particle size, d50 and d99 (size below which 99% particles were present) were reduced up to 44.3% and 56.4%, respectively as compared to control. XRD result revealed that the unit cell volume in treated brass powder was increased up to 0.19% as compared to control. Besides, the crystallite size of brass powder was significantly increased up to 100.5% as compared to control, after biofield treatment. Furthermore, SEM microscopy showed welded particles in control powder, however fractured surfaces were observed in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, new peak at 685 cm-1 was observed after biofield treatment as compared to control that might be due to alteration in bonding properties in treated brass sample. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and structural properties of brass powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[102] viXra:1606.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:12:37

Biofield Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Indole compounds are important class of therapeutic molecules, which have excellent pharmaceutical applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of indole. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study demonstrated the increase in crystalline nature of treated indole as compared to control. Additionally, the treated indole showed increase in crystallite size by 2.53% as compared to control. DSC analysis of treated indole (54.45ºC) showed no significant change in melting temperature (Tm) in comparison with control sample (54.76ºC). A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) by 30.86% was observed in treated indole with respect to control. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) of treated indole showed elevation in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) 166.49ºC as compared to control (163.37ºC). This was due to increase in thermal stability of indole after biofield treatment. FT-IR analysis of treated indole showed increase in frequency of N-H stretching vibrational peak by 6 cm-1 as compared to control sample. UV spectroscopy analysis showed no alteration in absorption wavelength (λmax) of treated indole with respect to control. The present study showed that biofield has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of indole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[101] viXra:1606.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 23:22:10

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Structural Properties of Chromium (VI) Oxide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 4 Pages.

Chromium (VI) oxide (CrO3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its versatile physical and chemical properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder. In this study, CrO3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated CrO3 samples were characterized using Thermo gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DTA showed that the melting point of treated CrO3 was increased upto 212.65°C (T3) as compared to 201.43°C in control. In addition, the latent heat of fusion was reduced upto 51.70% in treated CrO3 as compared to control. TGA showed the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) around 330°C, was increased upto 340.12°C in treated CrO3 sample. XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated CrO3 samples were reduced by 0.25 and 0.92% respectively, whereas density was increased by 0.93% in treated CrO3 sample as compared to control. The crystallite size of treated CrO3 was increased from 46.77 nm (control) to 60.13 nm after biofield treatment. FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peaks corresponding to Cr=O at 906 and 944 cm-1 in control, which were increased to 919 and 949 cm¬1 in treated CrO3 after biofield treatment. Overall, these results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[100] viXra:1606.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:24:20

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Cancer Biomarkers Involved in Endometrial and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Increasing cancer rates particularly in the developed world are associated with related lifestyle and environmental exposures. Combined immunotherapy and targeted therapies are the main treatment approaches in advanced and recurrent cancer. An alternate approach, energy medicine is increasingly used in life threatening problems to promote human wellness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on cancer biomarkers involved in human endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines. Each cancer cell lines were taken in two sealed tubes i.e. one tube was considered as control and another tube was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, referred as treated. Control and treated samples were studied for the determination of cancer biomarkers such as multifunctional cytokines viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) concentrations using ELISA assay on day 10. Experimental results showed a significant reduction of IL-6 level in endometrium (12%) and prostate (98.8%) cancer cell lines while a significant increase was observed in TNF-α level in endometrium (385%) and prostate (89.8%) cancer cell lines as compared to control. No alteration of PSA level was observed in biofield treated endometrium and prostate cell line. Similarly, no alterations were evident in IL-2R and FPSA levels in endometrium and prostate cell lines after biofield treatment as compared to control. In conclusion, results suggest that biofield treatment has shown significant alterations in the level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in both endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[99] viXra:1606.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 23:16:55

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Boron Nitride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Boron nitride (BN) is known for high hardness, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and catalytic action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on physical, structural and spectral properties of BN powder. The control and treated sample of BN powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD results indicated that biofield treatment had substantially changed the crystallinity of BN powder as compared to control. Apart from the crystallinity, significant changes were also observed in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight of the treated BN powder as compared to control sample. The XRD data confirmed 33.30% increase crystallite size in treated BN powder as compared to control. The surface area data showed 10.33% increment in surface area of treated BN as compared to control. Furthermore, FT-IR spectra revealed that some part of BN may be transformed from hexagonal BN (h-BN) to rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN), which was corroborated by emergence of new prominent peaks at 1388 cm -1 in treated BN as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural properties and surface area of treated BN powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[98] viXra:1606.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 07:46:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and Electron spin resonance (ESR). The XRD analysis showed the permanent compressive strain of 0.45% in treated barium titanate powder as compared to control. Furthermore, the biofield treatment has enhanced the density upto 1.38% in barium titanate as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching and bending vibrations of Ti-O bond in treated BaTiO3 were shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control. The bond length was substantially increased by 0.72 % in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. The ESR spectra of control and treated BaTiO3 sample showed the g-factor of 2.0; and biofield treatment has substantially changed the width and height of ESR signal in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. These observations revealed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the crystal structure, lattice strain, and bond vibration of barium titanate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[103] viXra:1911.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-17 10:07:45

Analysis of Natural Lightning Phenomena and Method for Laboratory Study

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 12 Pages. Reported at International conference on Nanotechnology and Materials Science, 2019, Rome, Italy

On Earth, the lightning frequency is approximately 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year. The average lightning duration is a few hundred milliseconds made up from a number of shorter strokes. Lightning is a transient process producing very high frequency pulses mostly in MHZ range. The analysis of lightnings using the BSM-SG models indicates that theoretically predicted and experimentally proved “Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism” (HRM) is involved in the transient process of lightning. The physics of HRM effect permits a new understanding on the energy of lightning. This article is focused mainly on lightnings between clouds and ground in which an avalanche process takes place. The enormous energy released during this process could not be only from the potential energy accumulated in clouds. A new technical method for a laboratory study of the lightning is proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[102] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-19 05:27:20

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[101] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-07 22:08:34

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[100] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-31 18:41:05

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[99] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-29 15:14:45

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[98] viXra:1910.0232 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 02:34:52

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ and Specific Lattice Thermal Capacity of Non-Homogeneous and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors and Insulators

Authors: Valeri LIGATCHEV
Comments: 21 Pages. This paper is devoted to an extended discussion on some new aspects of the ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) described in details in the second chapter of my book ‘Polycrystalline and Spatially Non-Homogeneous Amorphous Semiconductors’ published in 2017.

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) links features of near-band gap and intra-gap electronic as well as corresponding optical spectra of polycrystalline and spatially non-homogeneous amorphous semiconductors and insulators to probabilities of equilibrium fluctuations in an energy of the individual quasi-particle, number of quasi-particles in a quantum grand canonical ensemble of confined acoustic phonons with static plane-wave basis (pure states), and in their aggregate energy. The essentially many-body GSM might be implemented as well at evaluations on harmonic and anharmonic contributions to the specific lattice thermal capacity of those semiconductors and insulators, as well as their low-dimensional counterparts. Herein predictions of the ‘refined’ GSM equations in these areas are compared with appropriate experimental results and outcomes of canonical Debye – Planck model.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[97] viXra:1910.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-15 08:58:07

Hot Spots vs. Green House Gases - Contribution to Global Warming – New Theory and Index

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we provide a simple thermodynamic proof that manmade Hot Spot heat generation would also create global warming even if CO2 emissions were at normal levels. We introduce the concept of global warming industrial revolution equilibrium heat index to establish this proof. We define manmade hot spot emission as unnatural heat emission produced by man that would not have occurred prior to the industrial revolution. The CO2 theory of global warming, while central to the issue as a huge part of the problem, has created a diversion to this other likely major contributor, namely hot spots contribution to global warming. It is obvious that there is a major focus on CO2 emissions and absolutely no focus on hot spot reduction in terms of solving the global warming crisis. This paper will hopefully provide motivation for the mitigation of hot spot creation. Knowledge of the root causes of the global warming problem is important to addressing the problem properly.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[96] viXra:1910.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-12 06:54:28

Hot Spots vs. Green House Gases - Contribution to Global Warming – New Theory and Index

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we provide a simple thermodynamic proof that manmade Hot Spot heat generation would also create global warming even if CO2 emissions were at normal levels. We introduce the concept of global warming industrial revolution equilibrium heat index to establish this proof. We define manmade hot spot emission as unnatural heat emission produced by man that would not have occurred prior to the industrial revolution. The CO2 theory of global warming, while central to the issue as a huge part of the problem, has created a diversion to this other likely major contributor, namely hot spots contribution to global warming. It is obvious that there is a major focus on CO2 emissions and absolutely no focus on hot spot reduction in terms of solving the global warming crisis. This paper will hopefully provide motivation for the mitigation of hot spot creation. Knowledge of the root causes of the global warming problem is important to addressing the problem properly.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[95] viXra:1910.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-10 18:07:52

Hot Spots vs. Green House Gases - Contribution to Global Warming – New Theory

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we provide a simple thermodynamic proof that man made Hot Spot heat generation would also create global warming even if CO2 emissions were at normal levels. We introduce the concept of global warming equilibrium heat index to establish this proof. We define man made hot spot emission as the excessive unnatural heat emission produced by man that would not have occurred prior to the industrial revolution. The CO2 theory of global warming, while central to the issue as a huge part of the problem, has created a diversion to this other likely major contributor, namely hot spots to global warming. It is obvious that there if a major focus on CO2 emissions and absolutely no focus on hot spot reduction in terms of solving the global warming crisis. This paper will hopefully provide motivation for the mitigation of hot spot creation. Knowledge of the root causes of the global warming problem is important to addressing the problem properly.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[94] viXra:1909.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-10 16:06:03

Hurricane Suppression Using Salt

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a short overview of why adding salt to the eye of a hurricane might be an effective method for suppressing a hurricane by disrupting its electric field which is known to exist in hurricanes. A salt powder absorbed into the moist atmosphere would add a measure of ionic conductivity and could significantly reduce the electric and electromagnetic fields build-up which would change a hurricane’s pressure and ability to stay organized. There is a history of observed strong electric fields inside hurricanes, primarily in the eye. A hurricane’s electric field role is not well understood. We hypothesize some physics of how the electric field’s role can aid in reducing pressure; thus if fields can be discharged, pressure levels should then increase, weakening the hurricane. Considering the damage hurricanes create, and their increase threat due to global warming, rewards could overwhelm risks in a proper investigation of hurricane de-electrification.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[93] viXra:1909.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 10:13:19

Hurricane Suppression Using Salt

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a short overview of why adding salt to the eye of a hurricane might be an effective method for suppressing a hurricane by disrupting its electric field. A salt powder absorbed into the moist atmosphere would add a measure of conductivity and could significantly reduce the electric and electromagnetic fields build-up which would reduce a hurricane’s ability to stay organized. There is a history of observed strong electric fields inside hurricanes, primarily in the eye. We hypothesize how the electric fields act as the hurricane’s glue; the more it can be discharged, the less organized and weaker it will become.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[92] viXra:1909.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-07 11:14:45

Hurricane Suppression Using Salt

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a short overview of why adding salt to the eye of a hurricane might be an effective method for suppressing a hurricane by disrupting its electric field. A salt powder absorbed into the moist atmosphere would add a measure of conductivity and could significantly reduce the electric and electromagnetic fields build-up which would reduce a hurricane’s ability to stay organized. There is a history of observed strong electric fields inside hurricanes, primarily in the eye. We hypothesize how the electric fields act as the hurricane’s glue; the more it can be discharged, the less organized and weaker it will become.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[91] viXra:1909.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-04 08:48:08

Hurricane Suppression Using Salt

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a short overview of why adding salt to the eye of a hurricane might be an effective method for suppressing a hurricane by disrupting its electric field. A salt powder absorbed into the moist atmosphere would add a measure of conductivity and could significantly reduce the electric and electromagnetic fields build-up which would reduce a hurricane’s ability to stay organized. There is a history of observed strong electric fields inside hurricanes, primarily in the eye. We hypothesize how the electric fields act as the hurricane’s glue; the more it can be discharged, the less organized and weaker it will become.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[90] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-18 12:48:22

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 4

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such type is called 1/f noise and is the most likely measure of subtle degradation occurring in materials. This measurement is done using random vibration methods. It is important to determine if this is the likely region of the spectrum related to degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations that can be associated with entropy in materials. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy frame work for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we suggest two thermodynamics models that might be used to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, help to identify the region of the spectrum related to degradation, and use it to do prognostics. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[89] viXra:1902.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 10:03:25

The Rise and Fall of Evolution

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Jeremy England proposed in his “Statistical physics of self-replication” that energy dispersion drives evolution. Such is the explanatory power of his theory that we build on it to rethink the relationship between life and entropy as handed to us by Schodinger, to find a place for the origin and evolution of life within the cosmos, to explain the Cambrian Explosion and the Mass Extinctions from an entropic perspective, hence the title, and finally, to find a way out of the gloom and doom of global warming.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[88] viXra:1811.0404 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-06 08:24:53

Electron Model Based on Helmholtz’s Electron Vortex Theory & Kolmogorov’s Theory of Turbulence

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been published by PSTJ. Your comments are welcome

In this paper, we explore a new electron model based on Helmholtz’s electron vortex and Kolmogorov theory of turbulence. We also discuss a new model of origination of charge and matter.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[87] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 08:39:22

DRAFT: On the Arrow of Spacetime

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. The union of these two theories resolves longstanding problems in regards to time. It augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes. First, using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. Furthermore, an observer O will perceive two horizons that can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon, and its entropy hides events in the regions that O cannot see. The second is a time horizon, and its entropy "shields" events from O's causal influence. As only past events are "shielded", and not future events, an asymmetry in time is thus created.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[86] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-17 09:33:32

On the Arrow of Spacetime

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. The union of these two theories resolves longstanding problems in regards to time. It augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes. First, using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. Furthermore, an observer O will perceive two horizons that can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon, and its entropy hides events in the regions that O cannot see. The second is a time horizon, and its entropy "shields" events from O's causal influence. As only past events are "shielded", and not future events, an asymmetry in time is thus created.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[85] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-13 11:44:15

Promoting the Arrow of Time to Space-Time

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 9 Pages.

Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. The construction resolves longstanding problems in regards to time. First, using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. Second, an observer O will perceive two horizons that can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon, and its entropy hides events in the regions that O cannot see. The second is a time horizon, and its entropy "shields" events from O's causal influence. As only past events are "shielded", and not future events, an asymmetry in time is thus created. The model augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[84] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-10 19:48:41

Promoting the Arrow of Time to Space-Time

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 9 Pages.

Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. In this model, an observer $\mathcal{O}$ will perceive two horizons whose entropy can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon, and its entropy hides events in the regions that $\mathcal{O}$ cannot see. The second is a future horizon, and its entropy hides future events until they occur. As there is no past horizon, an asymmetry in time is thus created. Using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. The model augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes. Finally, the speed of light, as a maximal speed, need not be assumed and is shown to be emergent in the macroscopic sense of statistical physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[83] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-06 18:16:28

Promoting the Arrow of Time to an Arrow of Space-Time

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 9 Pages.

Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. In this model, an observer O will perceive two horizons whose entropy can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon and its entropy hides events in the regions that O cannot see. The second is a future horizon and its entropy hides future events until they occur. As there is no past horizon, an asymmetry in time is thus created. Using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. The model augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[82] viXra:1807.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 08:14:17

DRAFT: On the Origin of the Laws of Physics from the Properties of Algorithms

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** I propose a method to derive the familiar laws of physics from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I introduce the notion of a proven computing reserve and I use it to connect AIT to physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[81] viXra:1807.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 08:36:37

On the Origin of the Laws of Physics from the Properties of Algorithms

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** I propose a method to derive the familiar laws of physics from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I introduce the notion of a proven computing reserve and I use it to connect AIT to physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[80] viXra:1807.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 11:37:36

On the Origin of the Laws of Physics from the Properties of Algorithms

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

I propose a method to derive the familiar laws of physics from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I introduce the notion of a proven computing reserve and I use it to connect AIT to physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[79] viXra:1807.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-25 23:46:58

Information & Effect

Authors: Friedhelm M. Jöge
Comments: 15 Pages.

The introduction and application of the concept of immanence as a physical quantity allows a broader understanding of effect. Mathematical formulations present the complementary co-factors of information and immanence as cause and result respectively of the thermodynamic effect. Thus, the concept of immanence helps to clear up the relation between the concepts of information and reality and leads to the derivate of the principle of immanence development which might be applied to problems in astrophysics, e.g., in the discussion on the information paradox (i.e., the question of information loss regarding black holes).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[78] viXra:1807.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-18 04:47:06

Information and Effect

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge
Comments: 14 Pages.

The introduction and application of the concept of immanence as physical quantity allows a broader understanding of effect. Mathematical formulations present the complementary co-factors information and immanence as the cause and result respectively of the thermodynamic effect. Thus, the concept of immanence helps to clear up the relation between the concepts of information and reality and leads to the derivative of the principle of immanence development which might be applied to problems in astrophysics, e.g. in the discussion on the information paradox (i.e. the question of information loss regarding black holes).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[77] viXra:1807.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 08:56:06

Information and Effect

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge
Comments: 14 Pages.

The introduction and application of the concept of immanence as physical quantity allows a broader understanding of effect. Mathematical formulations present the complementary co-factors information and immanence as the cause and result respectively of the thermodynamic effect. Thus, the concept of immanence helps to clear up the relation between the concepts of information and reality and leads to the derivative of the principle of immanence development which might be applied to problems in astrophysics, e.g. in the discussion on the information paradox (i.e. the question of information loss regarding black holes).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[76] viXra:1805.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-22 02:58:25

Hot Air Power Mega City Building

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 24 Pages.

This paper proposed the Hot Air Power Mega City Building which use hot air to create electric power and fresh water. And it does not require an elevator to make it work. It has efficient transportation systems which are more reliable than elevators. The transportation systems can be completely powered by electricity and with zero automobile exhaust. In order to make a Living Building work efficiently and suitable for living, this paper proposed a Standard Module. With many Standard Modules, we can make up a mega Living Building. And Hot Air Power is sustainable green power. Hot Air Power Station is not just clean, it can even clean the air and eliminate haze. Hot Air Power Station can also recycle part of the energy which has been used in the building. Hot Air Power Station uses the heat exchange reaction between hot air and cold water to generate power. To make the hot air cool down quickly and efficiently, this paper proposed the Drooping Cold Water Infiltrated Cotton Strip Array. The fresh water is a by-product of Hot Air Power Station. Hot Air Power Mega City Building has Gradient Transparent Roof which height is gradient to collect hot air and transfer them to Hot Air Power Station. Because the city can generate hot air in twenty-four hours without stop, so Hot Air Power Station will be able to generate electric power in twenty-four hours without stop also. Hot Air Power Station consumes hot air in the city, make the city cool down, and solve the problem of Heat Island Effect.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[75] viXra:1804.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 11:17:10

Change in Kinetic Energy of the Body in the Environment with Constant Energy, Mpemba Effect

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 8 Pages.

The algorithm of change in kinetic energy of the body consisting of elastic spheres in the environment with constant energy is received. The software application is written. Physical experiments on the cooling of bodies in the constant temperature air are made. Mpemba effect is shown. Qualitative coincidence of calculated and experimental data is shown.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[74] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-04 08:45:02

An Autotautological Description of the World

Authors: Alexandre Harvey Tremblay
Comments: 63 Pages.

We report the discovery of an autological construction that is universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from first principles as properties of the construction. As such, we find that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself. We first explain and derive the construction and then explicitly recover the major laws of physics as its properties, including special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of general relativity with quantum field theory and the arrow of time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[73] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-30 13:03:56

An Autotautological Description of the World

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 62 Pages.

We report the discovery of a tautological construction that is autological to the world. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from first principles as properties of the construction. As such, we conclude that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself. We first explain and derive the construction, then we explicitly recover the major laws of physics as properties of the construction, including: special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, the arrow of time, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed and the space-time background.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[72] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 16:17:28

DRAFT: The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 29 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[71] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 08:26:15

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 29 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[70] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-31 07:54:47

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 29 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[69] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-29 14:07:11

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 28 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[68] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-29 09:38:20

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 29 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[67] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-28 11:20:45

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 27 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[66] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 08:43:19

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 23 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[65] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-14 07:38:46

The World Constructed as a Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 22 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[64] viXra:1708.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-15 15:35:34

The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 12 Pages.

The kinetic theory defines the temperature of an ideal monatomic gas as a measure for the average translational kinetic energy of its particles. This definition ignores the fact that temperature is inevitably characterized by an isotropic distribution of the velocities of the particles over all possible directions and the continuous collisions and thermal radiation that this brings about. In this paper I first demonstrate that ‘the thermal energy’ of an ideal gas is in fact a mathematical expression of the total amount of isotropic momentum flow. This allows me to conclude that the pressure in an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of the particle system and that the temperature of an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of that gas, for a unit number density of its molecules, so that the temperature is in fact the pressure for a unit number density. In that way I am able to demonstrate that the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution function is not the fundamental characteristic of thermal motion, but that it is a result of the all-sided collisions that are typical for systems consisting of elastic particles with isotropic motion.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[63] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 08:16:21

DRAFT: A Derivation of Special and General Relativity from Algorithmic Thermodynamics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 28 Pages.

***DRAFT: Please note that this paper is a draft. It’s purpose is to help me collect my thought and to facilitate informal discussion about the ideas presented herein. This draft remains accessible to facilitate this conversation. For production quality publications, please instead refer to my latest research on a) geometric thermodynamic and b) axiomatic science. *** In this paper, I investigate a prefix-free universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel, orchestrated by a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Omega, the system will follow many laws analogous to the laws of physics. As the scheduler maximizes entropy, the result relies on algorithmic thermodynamics, which connects the halting probability of a prefix-free UTM to the Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics (which also maximizes entropy). My goal with this paper is to show that special relativity, general relativity, and an arrow of time can be derived from algorithmic thermodynamics under a certain choice of thermodynamic observables applied to the halting probability.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[62] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-03 10:26:51

A Derivation of Special and General Relativity from Algorithmic Thermodynamics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this paper, I investigate a prefix-free universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel, orchestrated by a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Omega, the system will follow many laws analogous to the laws of physics. As the scheduler maximizes entropy, the result relies on algorithmic thermodynamics, which connects the halting probability of a prefix-free UTM to the Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics (which also maximizes entropy). My goal with this paper is to show that special relativity, general relativity, and an arrow of time can be derived from algorithmic thermodynamics under a certain choice of thermodynamic observables applied to the halting probability.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[61] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-21 08:10:40

A Derivation of Special and General Relativity from Algorithmic Thermodynamics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 29 Pages.

In this paper, I investigate a prefix-free universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if over the course of the computation the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Omega, the system will follow many laws analogous to the laws of physics. As the scheduler maximizes entropy, the result relies on algorithmic thermodynamics which connects the halting probability of a prefix-free UTM to the Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics (which also maximizes entropy). My goal with this paper is to show specifically that special relativity, general relativity and an arrow of time can be derived from algorithmic thermodynamics under a certain choice of thermodynamic observables applied to the halting probability.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[60] viXra:1707.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-01 16:25:56

Negative Temperature & Einstein's Relativity Produce Immortality & Resurrection

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article may appear highly speculative at first glance. But it's evidence-based since Relativity (vital to the concept of resurrection) has successfully met all challenges during the past century. The immortality and negative temperature parts are based on much more recent science papers, but those papers are based on the thermodynamics which originated in the 19th century - modern labs confirm its ideas and are discovering more applications. I hope readers can appreciate that the evidence pointing to immortality and resurrection does not need to be limited to medicine, but can be interdisciplinary and embrace physics. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), one of the greatest physicists of all time, said he regretted not making a bigger contribution to medical science. Perhaps the time has arrived when the world will finally understand and appreciate this man more completely ... by realising that his physics will one day have applications in fields like resurrection of the deceased and normalisation of health through the universal gravitational field. The 2013 physics paper "Negative Absolute Temperature for Motional Degrees of Freedom" (Braun, S. et al.: "Science" journal, Volume 339, Issue 6115, pp. 52–55 [2013]) adds the topic of immortality by speaking of negative temperatures below absolute zero. Traditionally, going below absolute zero has been regarded as impossible since this is the temperature at which all atomic motion ceases. However, the authors of the 2013 paper maintain it's possible because a more rigorous definition of temperature is "a trade-off between energy and entropy (disorder)". The first sentence in the Abstract of the 2016 paper "Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures" by J.P.P. Vieira, Christian T. Byrnes and Antony Lewis - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2016, August 2016 (reference 2) says, "Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions)."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[59] viXra:1705.0394 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-28 03:51:51

A Scheme of the Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine is Realized by Using Imbalance of Cationic and Anions

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 3 Pages.

The molar ratio of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), Na + cation and SO4- anion is 2 : 1.Thus, when the aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) between the upper and lower semipermeables in the figure is placed in a vertical downward electrostatic field, Na + cation and SO4 - anion, respectively, to the bottom and above the concentration, Forming the bottom of the rich Na + cationic solution and the above-rich SO4- anion liquid, Up and down the balance of electricity but the molar concentration of ions is not balanced !
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[58] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-28 08:38:31

The World as Emergent from Pure Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 75 Pages.

We propose a meta-logical framework to understand the world by an ensemble of theorems rather than by a set of axioms. We prove that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the leading bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). The partition function augments the standard construction of Omega with knowledge of the size of the proof of each theorems. With this knowledge, it is able to decide *feasible mathematics*. As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble additionally adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics; it is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and the background, a thermal space-time, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. In this context, the limits of feasible mathematics are mathematically the same as the laws of physics. The framework is so fundamental that informational equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. Furthermore, it can prove that no alternative framework can contain fewer bits of axioms than it contains (thus it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives). Thus, the framework is a possible candidate for a final theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[57] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-27 11:31:06

The World as Emergent from Pure Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 74 Pages.

We propose a meta-logical framework to understand the world by an ensemble of theorems rather than by a set of axioms. We prove that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the leading bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). The partition function augments the standard construction of $\Omega$ with knowledge of the size of the proof of each theorems. With this knowledge, it is able to decide *feasible mathematics*. As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble additionally adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics; it is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and the background, a thermal space-time, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. In this context, the limits of feasible mathematics are mathematically the same as the laws of physics. The framework is so fundamental that informational equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. Furthermore, it can prove that no alternative framework can contain fewer bits of axioms than it contains (thus it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives). Thus, the framework is a possible candidate for a final theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[56] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-22 13:45:38

The World as Emergent from Pure Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 73 Pages.

We propose a framework to understand the world by an ensemble of theorems rather than by a set of axioms. We prove meta-logically that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics. It is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. It is shown that the Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and that the background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. In this context, the laws of physics connect to the limits of feasible mathematics. The framework is so fundamental that informational-equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. It can prove that no alternative framework can contain less bits of axioms than it contains (hence it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives). Thus, the framework is a candidate for a final theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[55] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-21 13:47:09

The World as Emergent from Pure Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 73 Pages.

We propose a framework to understand the universe in which an ensemble of theorems rather than a set of axioms define the theory. We prove meta-logically that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics. It is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. It is shown that the Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and that the background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. The laws of physics are emergent from the computational connection between axioms and theorems. The framework is so fundamental that informational-equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. It can prove that no alternative framework can contain less bits of axioms than it contains (hence it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[54] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-20 14:14:14

The World as Emergent from Pure Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 74 Pages.

We propose a framework to understand the universe as an ensemble of theorems rather than as a set of axioms. We prove meta-logically that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics. It is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. It is shown that the Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and that the background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. The laws of physics are emergent from the computational connection between axioms and theorems. The framework is so fundamental that informational-equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. It can prove that no alternative framework can contain less bits of axioms than it contains (hence it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives). The framework is, by all accounts, a candidate for a final theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[53] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-07 09:15:01

A Derivation of the Laws of Physics from Pure Information

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 60 Pages.

I suggest and formalize an alternative approach to understand the universe in which a large blob of facts, rather than a small list of axioms, define the theory. The blob of facts is given a physical interpretation when it is structured as a Gibbs ensemble. In the case where the facts are logically verifiable, the Gibbs ensemble describes a thermal universal Turing machine which spawns the whole system. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the Planck units. The background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys Special and General relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, the Schrödinger equation and the Dirac equation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[52] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-06 09:52:30

A Derivation of the Laws of Physics from Pure Information

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 59 Pages.

I suggest and formalize an alternative approach to understand the universe in which a large blob of facts, rather than a small list of axioms, define the theory. The blob of facts is given a physical interpretation when it is structured as a Gibbs ensemble. In the case where the facts are logically verifiable, the Gibbs ensemble describes a thermal universal Turing machine which spawns the whole system. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the Planck units. The background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys Special and General relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, the Schrödinger equation and the Dirac equation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[51] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-04 17:39:53

A Derivation of the Laws of Physics from Pure Information

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 58 Pages.

I suggest and formalize an alternative approach to understand the universe in which a large blob of irreducible facts, rather than a small list of axioms, define the theory. The blob of facts is given a physical interpretation when it is structured as a Gibbs ensemble. In the case where the facts are logically verifiable, the Gibbs ensemble describes a thermal universal Turing machine which spawns the whole system. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the Planck units. The background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys Special and General relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, the Schrödinger equation and the Dirac equation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[50] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-02 07:48:32

A Derivation of the Laws of Physics from Pure Information

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 53 Pages.

I suggest and formalize an alternative approach to understand the universe in which a large blob of irreducible facts, rather than a small list of axioms, define the theory. The blob of facts is given a physical interpretation when it is structured as a Gibbs ensemble. In the case where the facts are logically verifiable, the Gibbs ensemble describes a thermal universal Turing machine which spawns the whole system. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the Planck units. The background, a thermal spacetime, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys Special and General relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, the Schrödinger equation and the Dirac equation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[49] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-31 14:32:32

A General Theory of Emergence

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 66 Pages.

In this work, I present a minimalist approach to first-order logic and show how it implies an irrefutable equation which connects the field of algorithmic information theory (AIT) to our major theories of physics. The construction of the irrefutable equation produces a new theory of physics where the universe is to be interpreted as the result of a universal Turing machine maximizing the entropy during the calculation of its halting probability, Omega. The construction is sufficiently specific to derive General Relativity and the Dirac equation from pure reason. The minimalist approach is, in many ways, similar to the constructivist project in mathematics but taken to the extreme. The approach starts from first-order logic with no axioms and further removes all rules of inference with the exception of the proof by construction. Although this severely cripples first-order logic it nonetheless gives it the following advantage: From an argument originally made by Plato, I argue that any axioms or rules of inference that are removed increases the "epistemological irrefutability" of the theory. Taken to the extreme, once all axioms and all rules of inference are removed, the theory becomes entirely irrefutable and specifically in the case of this approach, as the first-order logic system is minimal, the epistemological irrefutability of its theorems is maximal. Using this approach, I construct a universal language defined by a small list of first-order sentences. Each of the sentences claims the existence of an object of language which is provable by construction, the only rule of inference allowed by the minimalist system. As a result of being a theorem of a minimal system, the existence of the constructed universal language is therefore maximally irrefutable. This minimalist method loosely resembles René Descartes' derivation of the 'cogito ergo sum', an irrefutable statement, obtained by progressively removing any and all uncertain statements and cataloguing what remains. Like Descartes' method, the minimalist method also produces a statement that cannot be denied. But, unlike Descartes, as the proof is written in the language of first order logic, the irrefutable statement obtained is an actual equation. The equation applies to the group of all statements that cannot be refuted by the application of Descartes' universal doubt method. Part I is the minimalist derivation of the irrefutable equation. The equation obtained is formulated as a Gibbs ensemble and relates the algorithmic notions of provable-sentences to that of entropy. Part II is the derivation of the physical laws. I recover, from the irrefutable equation, the exact mathematical formulation of the major theories of physics; including statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics (QM), special and general relativity (GR) and the holographic principle. These equations are derived entirely from pure reason with no appeal to physical observations. All physical laws obtained are shown to be emergent from the entropy associated with the group of statements irrefutably proven to exist by the minimalist method. Naturally, deriving both the Dirac equation and general relativity from the same theory is highly suggestive that the irrefutable equation should be promoted to a tentative Theory of Everything (ToE)-candidate. This result motivates the liberal use of the ToE label throughout the paper.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[48] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-30 07:48:29

A Formal Theory Where All Laws of Physics Emerge from Information

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 66 Pages.

In this work, I present a minimalist approach to first-order logic and show how it implies an irrefutable equation which connects the field of algorithmic information theory (AIT) to our major theories of physics. The construction of the irrefutable equation produces a new theory of physics where the universe is to be interpreted as the result of a universal Turing machine maximizing the entropy during the calculation of its halting probability, Omega. The construction is sufficiently specific to derive General Relativity and the Dirac equation from pure reason. The minimalist approach is, in many ways, similar to the constructivist project in mathematics but taken to the extreme. The approach starts from first-order logic with no axioms and further removes all rules of inference with the exception of the proof by construction. Although this severely cripples first-order logic it nonetheless gives it the following advantage: From an argument originally made by Plato, I argue that any axioms or rules of inference that are removed increases the "epistemological irrefutability" of the theory. Taken to the extreme, once all axioms and all rules of inference are removed, the theory becomes entirely irrefutable and specifically in the case of this approach, as the first-order logic system is minimal, the epistemological irrefutability of its theorems is maximal. Using this approach, I construct a universal language defined by a small list of first-order sentences. Each of the sentences claims the existence of an object of language which is provable by construction, the only rule of inference allowed by the minimalist system. As a result of being a theorem of a minimal system, the existence of the constructed universal language is therefore maximally irrefutable. This minimalist method loosely resembles René Descartes' derivation of the 'cogito ergo sum', an irrefutable statement, obtained by progressively removing any and all uncertain statements and cataloguing what remains. Like Descartes' method, the minimalist method also produces a statement that cannot be denied. But, unlike Descartes, as the proof is written in the language of first order logic, the irrefutable statement obtained is an actual equation. The equation applies to the group of all statements that cannot be refuted by the application of Descartes' universal doubt method. Part I is the minimalist derivation of the irrefutable equation. The equation obtained is formulated as a Gibbs ensemble and relates the algorithmic notions of provable-sentences to that of entropy. Part II is the derivation of the physical laws. I recover, from the irrefutable equation, the exact mathematical formulation of the major theories of physics; including statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics (QM), special and general relativity (GR) and the holographic principle. These equations are derived entirely from pure reason with no appeal to physical observations. All physical laws obtained are shown to be emergent from the entropy associated with the group of statements irrefutably proven to exist by the minimalist method. Naturally, deriving both the Dirac equation and general relativity from the same theory is highly suggestive that the irrefutable equation should be promoted to a tentative Theory of Everything (ToE)-candidate. This result motivates the liberal use of the ToE label throughout the paper.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[47] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 16:56:26

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[46] viXra:1705.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-04 20:08:30

A Note on Irreversible Adiabatic Cyclic Process and Role of Time in Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Irreversible adiabatic cyclic process of an ideal gas is an important thermodynamic process. It offers a method of analysis of second law without involving any heat interactions. We show in this note that the impossibility of an irreversible adiabatic cyclic process is equivalent to the assertion that time plays no role in thermodynamic predictions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[45] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-28 06:34:05

Heat, Temperature and Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 9 Pages. Minor changes of words

A simple analysis of planetary temperatures and the relationship between heat flow and gravity in spherical shells. It includes equations for electric fields and global formulations of the first law of thermodynamics for Earth, Mars and Venus. A single equation is shown to be able to produce σT4 at 1 bar pressure for all three planets. The energy-mass equivalence is used as a base for connecting gravity to Earth surface temperature. By simplifying flows of energy on a global scale, all observed heat flows and the force of gravity are exactly balanced and quantified.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[44] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-03 12:15:25

Heat_Temperature_and_Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 8 Pages. Minor changes

A simple analysis of planetary temperatures and the relationship between heat flow and gravity in spherical shells. It includes equations for electric fields and global formulations of the first law of thermodynamics for Earth, Mars and Venus. The energy-mass equivalence is used as a base for connecting gravity to Earth surface temperature. By simplifying flows of energy on a global scale, all observed heat flows and the force of gravity are exactly balanced and quantized.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[43] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 03:53:32

Heat, Temperature and Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 8 Pages. Added chapter about mass-energy equivalence

A simple analysis of planetary temperatures and the relationship between heat flow and gravity in spherical shells. It includes equations for electric fields and global formulations of the first law of thermodynamics for Earth, Mars and Venus. The energy-mass equivalence is used as a base for connecting gravity to Earth surface temperature. By simplifying flows of energy on a global scale, all observed heat flows and the force of gravity are exactly balanced and quantized.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[42] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-09 13:42:19

Heat, Temperature and Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 17 pages, added chapter about T^4

The vertical mean temperature distribution is coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and tropopause temperature is coupled to gravity as thermal resistance in the spherical volume. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. The system is defined as a simple heat engine with accuracy. It is a simple extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume. The equation that is the result of the analysis of the earth system is the same as those for an electric field inside a hollow sphere of uniform charge. The equation is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the inner planets.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[41] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-12 15:05:52

Heat, Temperature and Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 16 Pages.

The vertical mean temperature distribution and gravity are coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and troposphere temperature. The difference between the effective temperature of the perfect blackbody and the observed effective temperature, is found to match the energy needed for the force of gravity when expressed in units of thermal resistance, stress and pressure. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. Altogether this combines to a basic framework of energy distribution inside the system of Earth. It is simply an extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume, which inevitably leads to a fraction of the heat to be turned into work. The equations that is the result of the analysis of the earth system, is the same as those used for a hollow sphere with a charged shell and a conducting ball at the center which is positioned in an electric field. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the planet. The method is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. Altogether it is shown in this paper that on a bulk scale energy is what dominate the structure of the three planets independently of mass.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[40] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-27 14:58:27

Heat, Gravity and Temperature Distribution of Earth, Mars and Venus

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 16 Pages.

The vertical mean temperature distribution and gravity are coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and troposphere temperature. The difference between the effective temperature of the perfect blackbody and the observed effective temperature, is found to match the energy needed for the force of gravity when expressed in units of thermal resistance, stress and pressure. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. Altogether this combines to a basic framework of energy distribution inside the system of Earth. It is simply an extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume, which inevitably leads to a fraction of the heat to be turned into work. The equations that is the result of the analysis of the earth system, is the same as those used for a hollow sphere with a charged shell and a conducting ball at the center, that is positioned in an electric field. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the planet. The method is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. Altogether it is shown in this paper that on a bulk scale energy is what dominate the structure of the three planets independently of mass.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[39] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-10 11:31:25

Heat, Gravity and Temperature Distribution of Earth, Mars and Venus

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 14 Pages.

Abstract The vertical mean temperature distribution and gravity are coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and troposphere temperature. The difference between the effective temperature of the perfect blackbody and the observed effective temperature, is found to match the energy needed for the force of gravity when expressed in units of thermal resistance, stress and pressure. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. Altogether this combines to a basic framework of energy distribution inside the system of Earth. It is simply an extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume, which inevitably leads to a fraction of the heat to be turned into work. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the planet. The method is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. Altogether it is shown in this paper that on a bulk scale energy is what dominate the structure of the three planets independently of mass.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[38] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-02 19:21:43

Blackbody Modification According to the Energy Distribution of Earth

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 7 Pages.

The earth steady state is shown to be balanced by solar radiation, the surface temperature and the emitted effective temperature. Geometrical modification is shown to solve the problem of absorption of solar radiation into a volume of a sphere with two shells. Heat transfer explain the distribution of energy according to observed mean temperature at different altitude. Gravity is shown to be a force of intensity equal to the difference between the true blackbody temperature calculated from the solar constant and the effective temperature. The source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere, is connected to the core temperature of earth in the discussion chapter, assumed to be at a similar value as the surface of the sun. This forms a somewhat complete model of energy distribution inside the system of Earth, where all individual temperatures are balanced in an instantaneous steady state. It is shown that energy is what dominate the structure independently of mass, following simple laws of geometry, heat transfer and the inverse square law.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[37] viXra:1611.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-22 08:13:31

On Plausible Role of Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Submicroscopic Physics to Understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (Lenr): a Preliminary Review

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP)

In this paper we will discuss how we can study some effects associated with LENR from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory and also from a very new approach based on the submicroscopic concept of physics. Perhaps our considerations have their own risks because the majority of mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion rather as a phenomenon associated with tunneling through a Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect. We will discuss that there are some aspects of Classical electromagnetic theories which may have impact on our understanding on LENR phenomena, including: a. nonlinear electrostatic potential as proposed by Eugen Andreev, b. vortex sound theory of Tsutomu Kambe, c. nonlinear ponderomotive force, and d. submicroscopic consideration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[36] viXra:1610.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:53:10

The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 8 Pages.

The principles of the conservation of 'linear momentum' and the conservation of 'energy' are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have, however, never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibniz and D'Alembert had lengthy discussions on whether 'kinetic energy' or 'linear momentum' were the true property considered by the conservation laws. In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion. In this paper the author reveals the physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[35] viXra:1610.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:56:34

The Physical Nature of Force

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The concept of 'force', which finds its origin in Newton's laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, as it is the basis of the fundamental notions of 'work' and 'energy'. The problem is that the present concept of 'force', as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, in which I have demonstrated that the 'linear momentum' of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its physical amount of congruent translational motion, I will in this paper reveal the physical meaning of the 'force' exerted between colliding bodies.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[34] viXra:1610.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:59:25

The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The principle of conservation of 'energy' is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what 'energy' really is and how and where it is physically stored. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: 'The true physical nature of force' in which I have demonstrated that 'force' is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of 'work', which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force and its displacement and of the true physical nature of 'kinetic energy' of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity. My clarification of the physical nature of kinetic energy will thereby allow me to unveil the true physical nature of Planck’s constant and of the energy of photons.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[33] viXra:1610.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 16:24:34

Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan
Comments: 2 Pages. Please contact Associate Professor Khoshnevisan,M at mkhoshnevisan@mailaps.org if further elucidation is warranted.

Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was teaching at the University of Berlin. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Professor. Dr. Simon Lilly, Head of Department of Physics at ETH- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology for responding to my e-mail and phone call on September 19 2016 and putting me in contact with Professor Norbert Straumann. I further would like to express my appreciation to Professor Straumann for reviewing and confirming my findings on September 19 2016 via e-mail in relation to the unintended mathematical error in equation (7a) on page 81 in this book.I shall note that Professor Straumann is a retired Professor of Physics from the University of Zurich, and former student of Professor Wolfgang Pauli at ETH, the Austrian-American Physics Nobel Prize Winner in 1945 and one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. He has also served on the advisory board of the Albert Einstein Institute of the Max Planck Society.It appears that this book has been cited more than 3800 times over the years and I hope equation (7a) will be corrected in the new edition of this book.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[32] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 04:22:02

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 20 Pages. Provisional form to MDPI Entropy. Improvements in wording and presentation. Power calculation included instead of referenced. Appendix expanded.

The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[31] viXra:1609.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 08:44:22

Statistical Characterization of Heat Release Rates from Electrical Enclosure Fires for Nuclear Power Plant Applications

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Brian Metzger
Comments: 32 Pages. Accepted at PSAM13 (Seoul, October 2016) and RAMS2017 (Orlando, January 2017), but not presented due to lack of travel funds; published in Fire Technology, 2017 (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10694-016-0633-z)

Since the publication of NUREG/CR-6850 / EPRI 1011989 in 2005, the US nuclear industry has sought to re-evaluate the default peak heat release rates (HRRs) for electrical enclosure fires typically used as fire modeling inputs to support fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), considering them too conservative. HRRs are an integral part of the fire phenomenological modeling phase of a fire PRA, which consists of identifying fire scenarios which can damage equipment or hinder human actions necessary to prevent core damage. Fire ignition frequency, fire growth and propagation, fire detection and suppression, and mitigating equipment and actions to prevent core damage in the event fire damage still occurred are all parts of a fire PRA. The fire growth and propagation phase incorporates fire phenomenological modeling where HRRs have a key effect. A major effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and Science Applications International Corporation in 2012 was not endorsed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in risk-informed, regulatory applications. Subsequently the NRC, in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, conducted a series of tests for representative nuclear power plant electrical enclosure fires designed to definitively establish more realistic peak HRRs for these often important contributors to fire risk. The results from these tests are statistically analyzed to develop two probabilistic distributions for peak HRR per unit mass of fuel that refine the values from NUREG/CR-6850, thereby providing a fairly simple means by which to estimate peak HRRs from electrical enclosure fires for fire modeling in support of fire PRA. Unlike NUREG/CR-6850, where five different distributions are provided, or NUREG-2178, which now provides 31, the peak HRRs for electrical enclosure fires can be characterized by only two distributions. These distributions depend only on the type of cable, namely qualified vs. unqualified, for which the mean peak HRR per unit mass is 11.3 and 23.2 kW/kg, respectively, essentially a factor of two difference. Two-sided, 90th percentile confidence bounds are 0.091 to 41.15 kW/kg for qualified cables, and 0.027 to 95.93 kW/kg for unqualified cables. From the mean (~70th percentile) upward, the peak HRR/kg for unqualified cables is roughly twice that that for qualified, increasing slightly with higher percentile, an expected phenomenological trend. Simulations using variable fuel loadings are performed to demonstrate how the results from this analysis may be used for nuclear power plant applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy