[8] **viXra:1705.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-29 12:01:22*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Kelvin, one of the founders of thermodynamics, proposed an economical, thermodynamic method to heat houses. The method employs a combination of two Carnot heat engines. One engine runs in clockwise direction while the other runs in counterclockwise direction. This combination is claimed to provide much more heat into the house for a given amount of fuel used, compared to that obtained through burning that fuel inside the house. The ratio of the two heats, one obtained by Kelvin’s method and the other obtained by the burning the fuel inside the house, is known as heat multiplication factor (HMF). This factor could theoretically be quite high (a typical calculation gives more than a factor of 6). We show in this note that Kelvin’s method is fallacious - it is impossible to get any more heat by using Kelvin’s method than the heat that could be obtained from combustion (burning) of the fuel.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] **viXra:1705.0394 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-28 03:51:51*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The molar ratio of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), Na + cation and SO4- anion is 2 : 1.Thus, when the aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) between the upper and lower semipermeables in the figure is placed in a vertical downward electrostatic field, Na + cation and SO4 - anion, respectively, to the bottom and above the concentration, Forming the bottom of the rich Na + cationic solution and the above-rich SO4- anion liquid, Up and down the balance of electricity but the molar concentration of ions is not balanced !

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] **viXra:1705.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 08:38:31*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

We propose a meta-logical framework to understand the world by an ensemble of theorems rather than by a set of axioms. We prove that the theorems of the ensemble must have *feasible* proofs and must recover *universality*. The ensemble is axiomatized when it is constructed as a partition function, in which case its axioms are, up to an error rate, the leading bits of Omega (the halting probability of a prefix-free universal Turing machine). The partition function augments the standard construction of Omega with knowledge of the size of the proof of each theorems. With this knowledge, it is able to decide *feasible mathematics*.
As a consequence of the axiomatization, the ensemble additionally adopts the mathematical structure of an ensemble of statistical physics; it is from this context that the laws of physics are derived. The Lagrange multipliers of the partition function are the fundamental Planck units and the background, a thermal space-time, emerges as a consequence of the limits applicable to the conjugate pairs. The background obeys the relations of special and general relativity, dark energy, the arrow of time, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation and it embeds the holographic principle. In this context, the limits of feasible mathematics are mathematically the same as the laws of physics.
The framework is so fundamental that informational equivalents to length, time and mass (assumed as axioms in most physical theories) are here formally derivable. Furthermore, it can prove that no alternative framework can contain fewer bits of axioms than it contains (thus it is necessarily the simplest theory). Furthermore, it can prove that, for all worlds amenable to this framework, the laws of physics will be the same (hence there can be no alternatives).
Thus, the framework is a possible candidate for a final theory.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] **viXra:1705.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-16 13:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Energy dissipation is a key ingredient in understanding many physical phenomena in thermodynamics, photonics, chemical reactions, nuclear fission, photon emissions, or even electronic circuits, among others. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] **viXra:1705.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-18 16:56:26*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 15 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] **viXra:1705.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 07:23:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] **viXra:1705.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-04 20:08:30*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Irreversible adiabatic cyclic process of an ideal gas is an important thermodynamic process. It offers a method of analysis of second law without involving any heat interactions. We show in this note that the impossibility of an irreversible adiabatic cyclic process is equivalent to the assertion that time plays no role in thermodynamic predictions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1705.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 14:34:44*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 5 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28522.72648

Why we have to be addictive to rotary turbine for tide or wind energy harvest? Perhaps we are not smart enough to find a new way. Now I propose a rectangular cross section turbine that works in reciprocation mode to harvest energy from any flowing fluid. In a sense, fluid flows in similar way of electric DC (Direct Current), but reciprocal motion of device’s ram behaves in similar way of AC (Alternating Current), thus a DC-AC mechanic inverter is needed. Of course, inverse utilization of same mechanism renders an AC-DC mechanic rectifier, i.e. an exotic pump.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy