Thermodynamics and Energy

1910 Submissions

[5] viXra:1910.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 08:50:10

Conversion of Infrared Light to Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Invisible infrared light accounts for half of all solar radiation on the Earth's surface, yet ordinary solar energy systems have limited ability in converting it to power. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system-meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1910.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:32:52

Information Entropies Are Unable to Describe Mental Activities

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we describe how and why information entropy is totally inadequate to assess, describe and quantify the activities of the brain that we term mental functions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1910.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-19 05:27:20

Equilibriums in the Planet Atmospheres

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 17 Pages. Russian

An effective mathematical method for deriving of gas dynamics equations is found. A correct statistical definition of heat flow is given. Equilibriums are found in which, in the absence of mass transfer, the Maxwell distribution is offended.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1910.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 08:41:27

Binding Energy for Catalysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Determining the optimal binding energies for heterogeneous chemical reactions-usually meaning that the reactant is in the gas or liquid phase while the catalyst is a solid-is critical for many aspects of modern society, as we rely on such reactions for processes as diverse as the production of fertilizers and plastics. [37] Among the many techniques being investigated to generate clean energy, water splitting is a very promising one. [36] But now, Shigehisa Akine and colleagues from Kanazawa University have shown that the reversed order is also possible: first, the host undergoes a chemical reaction, after which it recognizes and forms a complex with the guest ion. [35] In batteries, fuel cells or technical coatings, central chemical processes take place on the surface of electrodes which are in contact with liquids. During these processes, atoms move over the surface, but how this exactly happens has hardly been researched. [34] A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1910.0232 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 02:34:52

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ and Specific Lattice Thermal Capacity of Non-Homogeneous and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors and Insulators

Authors: Valeri LIGATCHEV
Comments: 21 Pages. This paper is devoted to an extended discussion on some new aspects of the ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) described in details in the second chapter of my book ‘Polycrystalline and Spatially Non-Homogeneous Amorphous Semiconductors’ published in 2017.

The ‘Generalized Skettrup Model’ (GSM) links features of near-band gap and intra-gap electronic as well as corresponding optical spectra of polycrystalline and spatially non-homogeneous amorphous semiconductors and insulators to probabilities of equilibrium fluctuations in an energy of the individual quasi-particle, number of quasi-particles in a quantum grand canonical ensemble of confined acoustic phonons with static plane-wave basis (pure states), and in their aggregate energy. The essentially many-body GSM might be implemented as well at evaluations on harmonic and anharmonic contributions to the specific lattice thermal capacity of those semiconductors and insulators, as well as their low-dimensional counterparts. Herein predictions of the ‘refined’ GSM equations in these areas are compared with appropriate experimental results and outcomes of canonical Debye – Planck model.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy