# Thermodynamics and Energy

## 1403 Submissions

[2] **viXra:1403.0964 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-24 22:04:48*

### Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-GÖran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Version after Galley proof corrections in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1403.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-14 07:34:53*

### Defeating the 2ND Law of Thermodynamics with Quantum-Entangled Bits

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Disorder (entropy) increases over time. This is known as the 2nd law of thermodynamics. In the 1860s, physicist James Clerk Maxwell invented the hypothetical "Maxwell's Demon" - this classic thought experiment could break the law by sorting hot and cold gas particles without expending any energy. 150 years later, a research team in the USA has published a mathematical model envisioning a machine which really could decrease entropy without using energy. It would only need a supply of bits – the binary digits of 0 and 1 – with which to encode information about the particles. Such a machine may supply infinite energy in the future, according to team member Dibyendu Mandal. But it would require about 200 x 10^18 bytes to heat a gram of water by just a single degree Celsius – at present, an overwhelming demand on data storage. (from “Conquering a Demon” by Shannon Palus – Discover Magazine, March 2014, p.17). My vixra article seeks to show how to delete that overwhelming demand.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy