Thermodynamics and Energy

1806 Submissions

[2] viXra:1806.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 13:23:51

Material Capture Solar Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Solar energy is clean and abundant. But when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis—in which solar energy is used to make fuels. [31] An international team of scientists, including NUST MISIS's Professor Gotthard Seifert, has made an important step toward the control of excitonic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. [30] Carbon nanotubes – cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity – hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1806.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 04:52:51

Kirchhoff ’s Law of Thermal Emission: Blackbody and Cavity Radiation Reconsidered

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 11 Pages. An earlier partial version of this work was archived on viXra.org as follows: Robitaille P.-M. and Robitaille J. L. Kirchhoff ’s Law of Thermal Emission: What Happens When a Law of Physics Fails an Experimental Test? viXra:1708.0053.

Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission asserts that, given sufficient dimensions to neglect diffraction, the radiation contained within arbitrary cavities must always be black, or normal, dependent only upon the frequency of observation and the temperature, while independent of the nature of the walls. In this regard, it is readily apparent that all cavities appear black at room temperature within the laboratory. However, two different causes are responsible: 1) cavities made from nearly ideal emitters self-generate the appropriate radiation, while 2) cavities made from nearly ideal reflectors are filled with radiation contained in their surroundings, completely independent of their own temperature. Unlike Kirchhoff’s claims, it can be demonstrated that the radiation contained within a cavity is absolutely dependent on the nature of its walls. Real blackbodies can do work, converting any incoming radiation or heat to an emission profile corresponding to the Planckian spectrum associated with the temperature of their walls. Conversely, rigid cavities made from perfect reflectors cannot do work. The radiation they contain will not be black but, rather, will reflect any radiation which was previously incident from the surroundings in a manner independent of the temperature of their walls.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy