Climate Research

   

Global Warming Due to Albedo & Human Humidity Forcing from Hydro-Hotspots

Authors: Alec Feinberg

Understanding root causes is always needed to find proper solutions. In climate change, we must ask, what has historically changed? Besides CO2, we have a change in the specific and relative humidity, slight decrease in land albedo, and yearly growth of Hydro-HotSpots (HHS). We denote hydro-hotspot as water evaporation and bulk heating from low albedo manmade type roads and cities surfaces, including cars and engine hoods. This includes both Highly Evaporating Surfaces (HES) and bulk warm Rain Water Management (RWM). This is Human Humidity Forcing (HHF)related to albedo forcing and the creation of HHS. Most significant is land albedo human forcing. An Earth albedo change from 0.29 to 0.288, corresponds to a 0.32oF rise, due to growth in cities and roads. This also feeds most of the HHS’ which are concentrated hot areas (as well there is combustive areas such as car engine hoods). We show in this article that such surfaces, while semingly only covering less than 2% of the Earth, can have very large effective solar areas, and evaporation areas many times the size of the HES and RWM area itself compared with higher albedo absorbing vegetative areas that also include transpiration. This is significant since water vapor is the most potent greenhouse gas. City surfaces can prove to be enormous when tall buildings are considered. In addition, Hydro-hotspots generate high kinetic energy molecules in the troposphere which can decrease relative humidity while increasing specific humidity. It is thought that global warming ocean evaporation-CO2 feedback is the key contributor, but in this paper other issues are considered. For example, we find that it is nontrivial to look at changing the albedo of cities and roads as possibly a major solution to global warming. Also alarming is warm rain water management. For example, New York City dumps an estimated 27 billion gallons of waste water into the ocean each year. This pattern is followed by cities all over the world. This water is often warmed by hot city streets and buildings having high heat capacities. This is also lost land water storage as urban impermeable surfaces increase. Numerous concerns are pointed out: 1) warmer runoff to streams/ocean water, 2) loss of wetland storage in vegetative areas, 3) loss of land evaporation and precipitation, 4) increase in ocean precipitation creating higher land temperatures, and 5) dryer drought-prone regions. This is key as change in global warming goes as the change in specific and relative humidity which are functions of CO2, other GHGs, and as described here, HHS.

Comments: 17 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2019-10-01 07:34:27
[v2] 2019-10-10 18:07:52
[v3] 2019-10-12 06:54:28
[v4] 2019-10-15 08:58:07
[v5] 2019-11-28 00:12:06
[v6] 2019-11-28 23:19:54
[v7] 2019-11-29 15:33:34
[v8] 2019-12-01 00:41:06
[v9] 2019-12-01 14:47:33
[vA] 2019-12-02 10:42:44
[vB] 2019-12-03 09:43:32
[vC] 2019-12-04 09:36:20
[vD] 2019-12-04 14:09:30
[vE] 2019-12-06 12:16:41
[vF] 2019-12-09 22:33:03
[vG] 2019-12-11 10:13:38
[vH] 2019-12-12 11:48:20
[vI] 2019-12-13 11:15:48
[vJ] 2019-12-14 00:10:01

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