[9] **viXra:1310.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 17:05:27*

**Authors:** L. Escamilla, J. Torres-Arenas

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fundamental thermodynamic relation, the classical thermodynamics of a black hole with mass and angular momentum is given.
New definitions of the response functions and $TdS$ equations are introduced and mathematical analogous of the Euler equation and Gibbs-Duhem relation are founded.
Thermodynamic stability is studied from concavity conditions, resulting in an unstable equilibrium at all the domain except for a region of local stable equilibrium. The Maxwell relations are written, allowing to build the thermodynamic squares. Our results shown an interesting analogy between thermodynamics of gravitational and magnetic systems.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] **viXra:1310.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 04:04:01*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 341 Pages.

The book calls attention to a method of describing and investigating various
physicochemical processes in their inseparable link with the heat form of energy.
The method is based on the law of energy conservation and free of hypotheses and
postulates.
All the basic principles, laws and equations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium
thermodynamics, heat- and mass-exchange theory, thermo-economics
and thermodynamics of finite-time processes are here derived from this method as
particular cases.
The book considers also with much attention phenomena at the interfaces
between heat engineering and other engineering disciplines, elaborates new
applications of the energy transfer and conversion theories, as well as analyzes
paralogisms arising in thermodynamics due to its inconsistent extrapolation.
The book is intended for researches, engineers and university students keen-set
for updating, extension and integration of knowledge in heat engineering
disciplines. It may be useful also for a wide audience interested in issues relating to
perfection of the modern natural science conceptual frameworks.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] **viXra:1310.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 05:05:23*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the major issues that remained controversial in classical thermodynamics is resolved. The issue is: Is it possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible heat engine cycle to be equal to the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle? Taking the simplest case of a reversible cycle that involves heat interactions at three different temperatures, we demonstrate that the answer is in the affirmative. We also show that if it is possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be lower than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle, then it is also possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be greater than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle. If the later is impossible, the former, too, is impossible. The later, however, is impossible according to Carnot’s corollary. Therefore, inequality of efficiencies of the two cycles is impossible. The only option left is equality of their efficiencies.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] **viXra:1310.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 05:13:49*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Calculation of efficiency of reversible cycles in thermodynamics remains a controversial issue. The basic question is this: Do different reversible heat engines, operating between maximum and minimum temperatures TH and TL, respectively, have different values of efficiency? We demonstrate in this article that the answer is in the negative and that all such cycles have equal efficiencies. In other words, no two reversible cycles operating between maximum and minimum temperatures of TH and TL respectively, can have unequal efficiencies.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] **viXra:1310.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 08:18:05*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Maxwell’s Demon is believed to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell, who conceived of this being in 1867, did not believe that it violated the second law, but rather that it only highlighted the statistical validity of the law - with less than 100 percent certainty for its results - in contrast to the general view that thermodynamics gave results with 100 percent certainty. From then on, many other forms of challenges appeared. Some try to exorcise the demon by proposing new theories to prove that the second law is not violated by the demon, while others argue that the demon violated the second law. The debate has been continuing for the past nearly 150 years.
We show in this article that Maxwell’s Demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law. This we show by demonstrating that the Maxwell’s Demon Process (MDP) can be incorporated as a step into a reversible cycle. Through this cycle, the system subjected to MDP can be restored to its original state without leaving any changes in the surroundings. Therefore, the cycle must be reversible. If such a reversible cycle involving MDP as one of its steps were to be impossible, then it must violate the first law. Violation of the first law by this reversible cycle can arise only if MDP violated the first law, as no other process in the cycle violates either the first law or the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] **viXra:1310.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:36:54*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 19 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 41-59

In this work, the development of solar theory is followed from the concept that the Sun was an ethereal nuclear body with a partially condensed photosphere to the creation of a fully gaseous object. An overview will be presented of the liquid Sun. A powerful lineage has brought us the gaseous Sun and two of its main authors were the direct scientific descendants of Gustav Robert Kirchhoff: Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster and Arthur Stanley Eddington. It will be discovered that the seminal ideas of Father Secchi and Hervé Faye were not abandoned by astronomy until the beginning of 20th century. The central role of carbon in early solar physics will also be highlighted by revisiting George Johnstone Stoney. The evolution of the gaseous models will be outlined, along with the contributions of Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner, James Clerk Maxwell, Jonathan Homer Lane, August Ritter, William Thomson, William Huggins, William Edward Wilson, George Francis FitzGerald, Jacob Robert Emden, Frank Washington Very, Karl Schwarzschild, and Edward Arthur Milne. Finally, with the aid of Edward Arthur Milne, the work of James Hopwood Jeans, the last modern advocate of a liquid Sun, will be rediscovered. Jeans was a staunch advocate of the condensed phase, but deprived of a proper building block, he would eventually abandon his non-gaseous stars. For his part, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar would spend nine years of his life studying homogeneous liquid masses. These were precisely the kind of objects which Jeans had considered for his liquid stars.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] **viXra:1310.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 00:09:11*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new and interesting continued fraction expression is derived for Carnot efficiency. The derivation is based on a series combination of a set of Carnot heat engines, wherein heat rejected by a member of the series is absorbed by the following member of the series. Our analysis of this combination of Carnot heat engines shows that mathematical consistency is maintained only if the efficiency of Carnot heat engine is zero. This calls the attention of researchers to look back at the puzzling definition of Carnot efficiency that says the efficiency of ideal heat engine (Carnot heat engine) is less than one, in spite of the fact that each of the steps involved in the cycle of operation is hundred percent efficient.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] **viXra:1310.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:56:51*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 9 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 25-33.

In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can decrease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1310.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-06 01:03:23*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The most standard and fundamental statements of the second law of thermodynamics are those of Kelvin and Clausius. They form the foundation for the structure of thermodynamics. Essentially they are statements of impossibility of certain processes in nature. Every standard book on thermodynamics ritualistically demonstrates the consistency between these two statements by showing violation of one leads to violation of the other. We show in this note, that the two statements are mutually inconsistent. That is, we show violation of one does not lead to violation of the other. We adopt a procedure similar to the one used by Fermi for our demonstration.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy