General Science and Philosophy

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Recent Submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[291] viXra:1404.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-18 13:28:26

Sobre la Incompletez del Lenguaje y Su Imposibilidad de Definir la Existencia

Authors: Adriano Israel Vismara
Comments: 5 Pages.

La existencia de Dios es no-decidible, y por tanto cualquier discusión al respecto es absolutamente estéril, me propongo en este pequeño artículo, arrojar luz a discusión que parece que su único fin es dividir al hombre y llenar los bolsillos de teístas y ateístas.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[290] viXra:1404.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-11 02:53:20

Theories of Everything by Logic

Authors: Wan-Jiung Hu
Comments: 416 Pages.

The author Wan-Jiung Hu(born1973) is a MD (National Taiwan University) and PhD (Johns Hopkins University). This book contains theories of everything in physics, chemistry, biology, geosciences, and economics. Spinity is a force to drag spacetime to rotate around central mass. Rest mass produces gravity, spinning mass produces spinity; rest charge produces electricity, spinning charge produces magnetism. Light is also gravity wave. Space has smallest unit, and time is decided by light. Lightity is dark energy. Photon emitted from galaxy expands the universe acceleratedly via light pressure. General relativity suggests mass induces spacetime curvature; charge relativity suggests charge induces spacetime torsion(vortex). There is no dark matter, and spiral galaxies (vortex) are formed due to charge relativity which replaces quantum electrodynamics. Integrating general relativity, charge relativity, and radiation tensor, we get Universe Field Theory. We can also deduct the birth and end of universe. Unified field theory can also be obtained. Integrating gravitospinity and electromagnetism, we deduct a determinative atom model and chemical bond theory replacing quantum mechanics. In addition, I propose a new chemical bond theory according to the new atom model. Homochirality is due to co-catalysis of L-amino acids and D-sugars. Extinction is due to Milankovitch cycle. Earthquake is caused by radiation release from inner earth which explains Electromagnetism/ ionosphere anomaly and intra-tectonic earthquakes replacing plate tectonic earthquake theory. Tornado genesis is related to charge relativity. In economics, I propose money conservation and monetary leverage to explain economic bubbles. In mathematics, I propose strong light interaction. This book is very important to earthquake prediction and tornado control.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[289] viXra:1403.0963 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-29 02:10:44

Complexity Class Collapse and Symmetric Group

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper by using complexity class collapse and symmetric group. If some NC hierarchy collapse, all permutation can be embedded into the NC class. Therefore the NC become symmetric group. The NC class can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict time hierarchy theorem. Therefore NC is proper. In the same way, we can prove that P is not NP and PH is proper. If P is NP, any cycle can be embedded into P. Therefore P become symmetric group. That is, the P can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict time hierarchy theorem. Therefore P is not NP. We can expand this result to prove that PH is proper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[288] viXra:1403.0941 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 10:35:43

Ceas de Taifas

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 96 Pages.

Dialoguri literare si stiintifice ale lui Florentin Smarandache cu Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, si Flavia Drăgan. *** Literary and scientific dialogues of Florentin Smarandache with Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, and Flavia Drăgan.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[287] viXra:1403.0930 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 22:39:25

The_great_center

Authors: Klinkerman R.V.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Annotation. An author considers that in DNA there can not be all information, necessary for the construction of organism. It is suggested to consider a variant, when complete information is contained in zero vibrations of birth-elimination of microparticless, circumferential to organisms. On the gravity canals information is passed to the center of Earth, where detailed pictures and classes of organisms are formed. Center is provided by author with a capacity for creation, for participating in the evolution of life. Informative connection of Center with organisms it is possible to check experimentally. Keywords: zero vibrations, microparticless, gravitation, information, Center, creation, organisms, evolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[286] viXra:1403.0917 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 02:38:22

The_essence_of_life

Authors: Klinkerman R.V.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract. An author considers that basic property of all living creatures is a capacity for creation, that supposes the presence of consciousness, free will, centralized structure. Drawn conclusion, that the indicated properties are inherent not only biological objects but also microparticless, to the atoms. A man before birth existed as an atom and will become such post mortem. Key words: creation, consciousness, free will, centralization, electron, wave function, atom, hypothalamus, information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[285] viXra:1403.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 03:24:11

An Unifying Scientific Principle

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. Note to the Editor of Nature (12 March 2013), rejected without justification

A generalization of the virial theorem, using the basic quantum proportionality between energy and frequency, leads to a Coherence Principle which applies both in atomistics, astrophysics and cosmology, with the determination of several so-called 'free cosmic parameters'. An application in biology is also proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[284] viXra:1403.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 11:38:55

The Jerusalem Extraterrestrial Spaceship

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 1 reference

A short analysis of the Jerusalem Extraterrestrial Spaceship is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[283] viXra:1403.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 00:41:51

Is Sarah Becker's Fully Renewable us Electricity System a Realistic Plan?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

Sarah Becker et al. just released a new paper (arXiv: 1402.2833) where she and her colleagues including Mark Jacobson suggest a new plan for fully renewable US electricity system. Their title is: Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions. So I think it is worth to discuss their proposal.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[282] viXra:1403.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-07 22:15:22

The Coherence Principle :A New Basis for General Science

Authors: Francis. M. Sanchez, Valéry A. Kotov
Comments: 12 Pages. Rejected by Nature (8 March 2014) without serious analysis (no refferee consulted)

A Coherence Principle (CP) is proposed, a generalization and idealization of the virial theorem, stating that each well-defined phenomenon should be mono-frequency. When applied to the steady-state critical cosmology, characterized by the scale factor exp(t/T), this principle leads to three independent expressions for T compatible with the so-called Universe age TU ≈ 13.80(4) Gyr, as estimated by the recent Planck mission for the spatially-flat six parameters Λ-CDM model. The most precise formula is given by a c-free analysis of the “incredible” non-Doppler cosmic oscillation, implying tachyonic physics. This refutes (a) the primordial Big Bang model, (b) the cosmological anthropic principle and (c) the Multiverse theory, – in favor of the reconstructing Universe model with frequency about 10^103 Hz and pseudo-period T. This corresponds to critical condition Ω = 1, Hubble parameter H0 ≈ 70.8 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, matter density Ωm = 3/10, and baryonic one Ωb ≈ Ωm^2/2 = 0.045, with detailed predictions for astrophysics. The CP is connected with practical holography, which formalism is shown to be consistent with the basic quantum one, and holographic conservations are either demonstrated or observed, opening the way for further study. The CP is shown to apply also in atomic and stellar physics, together with biology, predicting the DNA chain to be a linear hologram.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[281] viXra:1402.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-27 09:22:42

The Information as Absolute

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: 32 Pages.

Abstract This article presents and grounds (i.e. presents proof of the existence, the truth, the self-consistence and the completeness of) the informational conception (“the Information as Absolute” conception) in physics and philosophy. The conception defines the information as an ultimately common, real and fundamental concept/phenomenon – “Absolute”, which exists as an absolutely infinite set (“Information” Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) links between the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substance, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific - and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set - subset of the “Information” Set. The conception allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of the basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; in physics it allows to suggest reasonable model, which makes more clear basic physical notions, such as space, time, matter, etc. This paper is a next edition of the paper “The information as Absolute” http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.3712
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[280] viXra:1402.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-25 14:33:05

Storia Della Critica D'arte

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 1 Page.

Appunti di storia della critica d'arte.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[279] viXra:1402.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-19 16:31:24

The Sound of the Universe

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Universe is a sound of a given frequency.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[278] viXra:1402.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-17 10:30:52

Consciousness is a Singularity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that consciousness itself is a genuine singularity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[277] viXra:1402.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-15 15:04:56

A Unified Explanation of Quantum Phenomena? The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis

Authors: Marcus Arvan
Comments: 18 Pages.

In my 2013 article in The Philosophical Forum, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper shows that quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis in detail. §2 then shows how it explains quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), wave-particle duality (§2.3.), and quantum entanglement (§2.4.).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[276] viXra:1402.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-14 11:45:25

PostDoc in Tara Soarelui-Rasare

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 153 Pages.

Prof. univ. dr. Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, descrie în această carte studiile şi cercetările sale ştiinţifice postdoctorale în matematică, precum şi seminariile şi conferinţa internaţională la care a participat în perioada 2012-2014, în Japonia. La Conferinţa Internaţională de Mecatronică, organizată de Universitatea de Agricultură şi Tehnologie din Tokyo în septembrie 2012, precum şi la seminariile susţinute la Universitatea de Ştiinţe din Okayama şi respectiv la Universitatea din Osaka (2013-2014), autorul a prezentat articole privind Logica neutrosofică şi mulţimea neutrosofică, Teoria Dezert-Smarandache, şi Metoda reducerii–α în luarea de decizii bazate pe multicriterii, împreună cu aplicarea acestora la roboţii mobili. Pe lângă activitatea sa ştiinţifică, autorul a vizitat şi muzee, temple, castele medievale şi grădini nipone în mai multe oraşe (Tokyo, Okayama, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Kurashiki, Osaka şi Kyoto), şi a colaborat cu profesori, cercetători şi studenţi japonezi de la aceste trei universităţi în scrierea de articole şi cărţi ştiinţifice. * In this book, Professor Florentin Smarandache, Ph D, from the University of New Mexico (United States) describes his postdoctoral scientific studies and researches in mathematics, and several international seminars and a conference attended in 2012-2014, in Japan. At the International Conference on Mechatronics, organized by the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in September 2012, as well as at the seminars held at the Okayama University of Science, respectively at the Osaka University (2013-2014), the author has presented articles on Neutrosophic Logic and Neutrosophic Set, Dezert-Smarandache Theory, and α-Discounting Method in Multi-Criteria Decision-Making, together with their applications to mobile robots. In addition to his scientific work, the author visited Nippon museums, temples, medieval castles and gardens, in several cities (Tokyo, Okayama, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Kurashiki, Osaka and Kyoto), and worked with Japanese professors, researchers and students of these three universities in writing scientific articles and books.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[275] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-09 06:35:13

Measureing Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC Hierarchy

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that NC hierarchy and P is not NP by using problem reduction. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using difference between logarithm space reduction and polynomial time reduction. Like this, we can also prove NC hierarchy by using difference between AL0 and NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[274] viXra:1402.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-05 20:30:23

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Solar System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 3 references, 1 diagram

Some problems with the mentality and use of language in establishment astrophysics/astronomy with the concept of the “Solar System” are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[273] viXra:1402.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-03 06:56:35

Return to Innocence or Vaccine Against Atheism.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 83 Pages.

Here midst physics and spiritual is "neutral" area X. I wrote a book about this area. My proof of God is not a rejection of faith or its destruction, because all knowledge is faith. After the shame named "The God Delusion" the book glorifying God is best welcome. It must become the bestseller as our redemption after the feast of fools called "God Delusion". It will be our Return to Innocence -- the title of present bestseller. It is bestseller in the future, otherwise we have no future after releasing totally hellish well-selling book "God Delusion". Full of hatered. It is simply ill, it is illogical: in one part Dawkins argues, that no-one is responsible for anything. Another part tells, that the believers are responsible for everything. Also Dawkins argues, that atheists made no harm whatsoever. But history proves, that atheistic Soviet Union has killed many innocent Christians, especially the Orthodox priests.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[272] viXra:1401.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-28 11:43:21

Approach to solve P vs PSPACE with Collapse of Logarithmic and Polynomial Space

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not PSPACE. If P is PSPACE, we can derive P is L from relation of logarithm and polynomial reduction. But this result contracit Space Hierarchy Theorem. Therefore P is not PSPACE.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[271] viXra:1401.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-27 14:36:58

Philosophy of Time

Authors: Zan kaon
Comments: 1 Page.

A new Nature of Time model
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[270] viXra:1401.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-26 18:26:10

The Miracle of our Universe

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 1 Page.

Perhaps the most astonishing thing modern physics has revealed to us is that the world is built from the simplest of ingredients. How do we get from a proton, neutron, electron, and neutrino to a Beethoven symphony? But given enough time, Nature somehow evolves this miracle.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[269] viXra:1401.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-26 09:01:02

Symmetry as Turing Machine - Approach to solve P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not NP by using difference of symmetry. Turing Machine (TM) change configuration by using transition functions. This changing keep halting configuration. That is, TM classify these configuration into equivalence class. The view of equivalence class, there are different between P and coNP. Some coNP problem have over polynomial size totally order inputs. These problem cannot reduce P because these totally order must keep. Therefore we cannot reduce some coNP problem to P problem. This means P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[268] viXra:1401.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-23 09:11:42

Restructuring for a Biennial FIFA World Cup

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 8 Pages.

The FIFA World Cup is a quadrennial tournament staged every four years with a three year qualification/draw process. I propose here a biennial format of the FIFA World Cup that has a six month qualification process and no draws. Pure genius!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[267] viXra:1401.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-18 19:08:45

Dissertatio Philosophica de Natura Discreta

Authors: Alexandru Iosif
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. We develop a prime number based model for discrete universes. We give some definitions and propositions and also ask if there is a discrete version of the brachistochrone problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[266] viXra:1401.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-08 05:41:51

On the Ethical Dimensions of Artificial Moral Agents Following the Principles of Jus In Bello (Justice in War)

Authors: Emmanuel A. Gonzalez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In the past decade, research on the philosophy and the development of artificial moral agents (AMAs) have increased in order to seek for the implementation of moral decision-making faculties basically in machines—computers, robots, etc. Because of this, ethical reasoning becomes one of the primary challenges computer scientists, engineers, and philosophers are trying to solve—by developing an ethical dimension that can be incorporated in a machine so that it can make decisions on its own subjected to ethical and morality issues. However, when this ethical dimension is implemented in autonomous weapon systems (AWSs) such as cruise missiles, torpedoes, uninhabited/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and uninhabited/unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), difficulty and confusion arise due to the question of who should hold responsible when the AWS itself is involved in an atrocity that would normally be described as a war crime under the principle of jus in bello—rules concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war. Thus, this paper presents a solution to the problem which is by incorporating artificial morality into the AWSs making them AMAs. Literatures supporting the possibility of incorporating an ethical dimension that is able to consider moral principles to be applied in AWSs are also presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[265] viXra:1401.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-07 23:38:52

How Paul Mccartney Wrote the Song Yesterday

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1964, Paul McCartney wrote “Yesterday”, which has been called the best song of the 20th century and the No. 1 pop song of all time. The song was originally recorded by the Beatles for their 1965 album “Help!” Paul has said that, after he wrote it, he felt as though the song already existed. This is perhaps the most famous example in modern times of the “déjà vu” we’ve all experienced at some time. No doubt, it’s also closely related to the dreams and inexplicable inspirations that have aided the work of musicians, scientists and inventors throughout the centuries (and continues in the present). Did Albert Einstein explain this phenomenon when he told us that space-time is warped?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[264] viXra:1401.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-07 13:54:19

The 5th Dimension Conceptual Model, Unabridged

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 582 Pages.

Reality has a 5th dimension of spatial size or 'energy' and speed of temporal clocks that carry the information of the Universe in its frequency and form. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. Yet the product of the speed of time of Nature's clocks that process information (Ti) and its spatial-energetic size, Se remains the same across those scales: This fact defines the metrics of the 5th dimension: Se x Ti=K. This paper-book summons up 20 years of research in the formalism and conceptual meaning of the 5th dimension: In the first part, we introduce the Fractal Universe, structured across the 5th dimension and the life-death cycle of all its entities, which exist traveling through 3 scales of the 5th dimension (so for example, we human beings live through 3 scales, the cellular, seminal scale, the organic scale and the social scale, before we return back to the cellular level in the process of death.) In the second part we introduce both, its mathematical formalism, which redefines the 5 postulates of non-euclidean geometry and its logic formalism, which defines 5 arrows of time, one for each Dimension, creating a ternary logic of multiple causality and complex symmetries. Then we use this upgraded mathematical and logic formalism to define the co-invariant laws of motion and form that all systems of the Universe follow, as they exist through those scales. We show this to be the case for the main species of reality, from strings to the Universe as a whole; from the simplest molecule to the more complex society. Finally in the III and IV part we study physical and biological systems under those invariant laws, resolving most of the questions unanswered by previous, simpler 4D formalisms. In other papers, available at viXra we apply those laws also to the study of social and historic cycles, as humans also obey the same co-invariances of all Complementary systems of energy and information, made to the image and likeness of the whole.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[263] viXra:1401.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-05 06:49:12

The Logic of Creation: Non-AE Fractal Universes

Authors: luis Sancho
Comments: 142 Pages.

We are all systems of spatial energy and temporal information that combine to create the infinite actions and systems of the Universe. In the jargon of physics we talk of clocks of cyclical time that carry in their frequency the information of the Universe – charges and masses – moved by fields of energy that occupy a certain vacuum space. In biology we talk of heads, brains and cellular nuclei that process information, moved by bodies and cytoplasm. Each system will display a certain type of ‘spatial energy’ or ‘vital space’ and process information with a different network of logic paths, though particles, genes, chips or brains, but all those systems will obey to certain laws natural to the 2 formal motions that ultimate explain the game of ‘creation and extinction’ of systems of energy and information, which is the dynamic universe. Physical systems are always made with a field of energy and a particle of information and one cannot exist without the other (complementary principle of quantum physics). Biological beings are also made with a head of information and a body that processes energy and moves it – or in cellular organisms, with a nucleus of DNA-information and a cytoplasmic body that moves it. Sociological systems are divided into networks of upper class cells/citizens who control the languages of information of society and its working, body class that reproduces the products the body needs to survive. All those systems and many more systems studied by all type of sciences, arts and religions can now be understood with self-similar laws derived of the General Laws of all Universal, Complementary systems of energy and information, E<=>I And General Systems Sciences, also called Complexity is the XXI century discipline that researches those laws. In this paper we explain the structure of the Universe made of similar networks of energy and information, which are the 2 components of all its complementary beings of space-time that ’exi=st’, as parts of more complex systemic networks, which become units of bigger wholes, building the scales of the fractal Universe, from the simplest particles that become parts of atoms that become parts of molecules, parts of cells, planets and stars parts of galaxies, parts of Universes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[262] viXra:1401.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-04 19:21:40

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralele, Vol. Vii

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 109 Pages.

Volumul cuprinde călătoriile autorului în perioada 2011-2013 la Bucureşti pentru a primi Premiul „Traian Vuia” al Academiei Române, apoi la o conferinţă în Columbus (Ohio), mini-excursii în deşertul din Arizona şi New Mexico, relatarea teribilului său accident de maşină pe autostradă în care putea să-şi piardă viaţa, apoi în România cu o delegaţie de profesori chinezi, şi la conferinţele internaţionale din Istanbul şi Beijing. Addenda fotografică dă culoare acestei carţi memorialistice.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[261] viXra:1312.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-31 10:05:12

The Invariances of the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 21 Pages.

The 5th dimension is the dimension of spatial size and speed of temporal clocks. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. ‘A Geometry is the study of the invariant properties of a space(time), under transformations within itself’ (Klein) As such, the geometry of the 5th dimension is defined by a co-invariant equation that relates 2 ‘inverse’ parameters, spatial energy and temporal information: SexTi=K, from where 5 invariant properties followed by all systems of the Universe can be deduced: the invariance of formal motions, of actions, of topological forms, of scales and of time ages. This paper will resume them..
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[260] viXra:1312.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-31 12:19:01

Symmetry as Turing Machine - Approach to solve L vs P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that L is not P and P is not NP by using difference of symmetry each problems. Deterministic Turing Machine (DTM) change configuration by using transition functions. This changing keep halting configuration, therefore these configurations set are classification by DTM as equivalence relation. The view of classification, there are different between L and P. L can compute equivalence class that cardinals is polynomial size, but P can compute exponential size. Therefore, L cannot compute P-Complete problems, and L is not P. And using L is not P, we can prove P is not NP. All P problem have equivalent reversible function and DTM can reduce from NP-Complete problem to another NP-Complete problem by using this reversible function. If P is NP, equivalent Logarithm space reductcion exists. But that means L is P and contradict L is not P. Therefore, P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[259] viXra:1312.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-28 19:55:28

A Systematic Vision of Belief Systems and Ideologies

Authors: Josué Antonio Nescolarde Selva
Comments: 440 Pages.

Studies of the belief systems from a neutrosophic point of view.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[258] viXra:1312.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-22 20:54:07

The Future Science Institute(volume I issue 2012 -2013)

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is an introduction to the journal "The Future Science Institute"(volume I issue 2012 -2013). Any scientist or amateur who is interested in interstellar travel and time travel can go to amazon,lulu or magcloud to buy this journal: 61.4 dollars/per copy This journal is also a collection of the great job established by professor Jeff in 2012-2013,which include many most important topics focus on the future science and art,even in literature. This journal is published by the future science institute and we have the right of invention for all the results we get in this journal. And our institute is a research organization devoted to the future science. For instance,the interstellar travel and time travel are the two most important projects we study now,and even more many other science projects we will do in our schedule. So we welcome any type discussion from readers and any good idea about the problems appear in this journal can be mail to professor Jeff via: pqrs008@126.com chengtianren@whu.edu.cn
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[257] viXra:1312.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-18 11:07:17

The Q2 Mechanics

Authors: Sserubogo Zaid
Comments: 8 Pages. the meaning and application of laws and principles are subject to the difinitions and explanations provided in the paper.

We introduce the Q2 mechanics based on conscious and consciousness and derive their mechanical principles. We unify between Q2 and units of joule through the principle of dimensional analysis and establish the equation of energy due to relativity principle. We discuss the measurements and predictions of energy through the principle of relative measurements, the correspondence principle of relative measurements, the principle of consciousness actions, the principle of action equivalence, the principle of increasing opportunity cost of massive acceleration and the principle of fine network. We propose Q2 mechanics to contend for the theory of everything.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[256] viXra:1312.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-18 02:00:35

Über Die Logische Notwendigkeit Des Einen

Authors: Helmut Hansen
Comments: 25 Pages.

In 1078 Anselm of Canterbury proposed an argument for the existence of God, which became known as ontological proof. It based on the finding that the non-existence of God led to a contradiction. Consequently, the existence of God appears as a logical necessity. Though this conclusion is nowadays critized as being meaningless, it is still object of philosophical and theological considerations. In this paper a scientific Metaphysics is presented that led to the same conclusion like the ontological proof but on a quite different ground. It shows that in a physical universe which bases explicitly on a invisible foundation (i.e. the ONE), the existence of the ONE turns out to be a logical necessity, because otherwise this universe would be internally of contradictory nature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[255] viXra:1312.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-13 10:56:05

Вечность и бесконечность Мироздания (Eternity and Infinity of Existence)

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 4 Pages. rus (русский)

Matter is the basis of Existence. It is eternal and infinite. Matter has spawned a substance, fields, the plasma, particles, consciousness in the process of веществолизации. Real Genesis sooner or later cease to exist, becoming the original Matter. Consciousness is a property of matter, therefore, with the disappearance of the substances it can go from substance in Matter. Consequently, consciousness is eternal.
Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Материя – основа Бытия. Она вечна и бесконечна. Материя породила вещество, поля, плазму, частицы, сознание в процессе веществолизации. Вещественное Бытие рано или поздно прекратит своё существование, превратившись в исходную материю. Сознание - свойство материи, поэтому при исчезновении вещества оно может перейти из вещественной формы в материальную. Следовательно, сознание вечно.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[254] viXra:1312.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-09 12:13:43

Popasuri Scriitoricesti pe Olt şi Olteţ

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 282 Pages.

Acest volum antologic probează un mai vechi gând al meu de a reuni într-o carte poeţi şi scriitori, născuţi sau transferaţi în aria noastră geografică, pe Olt şi Olteţ; spaţiul însemnând, poate, un nucleu de inspiraţie. Scriitori eleganţi, cu radicale convingeri, abordează în operele lor atotcuprinderea, atracţia vagului prinsă în zbateri de lumină, tumultul vieţii, toate constituindu-se în semen distinctive ale unui memento. Se urmăreşte evolutiv parcursul scriitorilor, care-şi agaţă ispitele sufleteşti de vaierul vorbelor purtate pe aripi de timp. Dubla determinare, trecut şi viitor, dăruieşte oamenilor şi locurilor în care au trait înţelepciunea şi diversitatea preocupărilor. Simţul neobosit al detaliului, sublimele gânduri, dinamismul nepotolit al veacului, necum al scriitorilor, împodobesc atmosfera de idei, desprinsă din creaţiile celor prezentaţi în volum, în ordine strict alfabetică. (FS) Scriitori antologaţi: Valeriu Anania, Bogdan Amaru, Nicolae Bălaşa, Ştefan Dumitrescu, Dumitru Gherghina, Virgil Ierunca, Gib Mihăescu, Alexandru Oprea, Petrache Poenaru, Ioan Şt. Popa, Irineu Popa, Marin Popescu – Diculescu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Dinu Săraru, Florentin Smarandache, Beatrice Silvia Sorescu, George Sorescu, Ion Sorescu, Marin Sorescu, George Ţărnea, şi Al. Florin Ţene. Alte scriitori din Bălceşti, Bulzeşti, Rusăneşti, Tetoiu, Valea Mare, şi personalităţi din judeţul Vâlcea sunt de asemenea incluse cu scurte prezentări.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[253] viXra:1312.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-05 09:44:22

Un Violon, une Reine et un roi

Authors: Tigran MAYTESIAN
Comments: 10 Pages. Actes Musées de la Ville de Liège, 2014

L’article décrit les relations musicales entre la Reine Élisabeth de Belgique et le violoniste et compositeur Eugène Ysaÿe, surnommé le Paganini belge, et le violoniste russe David Oïstrakh, gagnant de la première édition du concours international Eugene Ysaÿe crée par la Reine.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[252] viXra:1312.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-01 18:40:56

Windshields for the Back of the Car

Authors: Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page. English

We all know that windshield wipers are in the front windshield but what if they were in the back and sides of the windshields on a car. Think about it. One can wipe the back glass whiling backing up during a rain storm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[251] viXra:1311.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-15 08:00:08

Carbon Emission Control for Industrial Application

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 3 Pages.

I propose a protocol for the filtration of carbon dioxide and other carbon based compounds, which are the central cause of greenhouse gases, from an emission. The protocol involves the addition of the carbon emission to a diffusion friendly gas (such as H2O) at high temperature in vapour form. The combination of the two gases will allow a formation of a liquid/solid chemical mixture upon cooling. There are numerous possibilities of the final chemical state of the mixture. The final step of the protocol is to simply filter the liquid and solid chemicals from the water for safe disposal.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[250] viXra:1311.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-13 04:14:12

Tony Smith's Web Book 2013

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 11445 Pages. PDF Document is 313 MB.

This is a booknoted PDF book containing the web site work of Tony Smith on math, physics, history, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[249] viXra:1311.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-06 01:05:22

Lentile Transparente

Authors: editor Dana Petras
Comments: 128 Pages.

O diagonală la activitatea literară şi ştiinţifică a lui Florentin Smarandache
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[248] viXra:1311.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-03 16:28:22

Symmetry Debts: The "Tetrahedron Model VS the "Standard Model"

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 Pages. regarding Unified Field Theory

Both the "Standard" and the "Tetrahedron Model" rely on symmetry principles (in the sense of Emmy Noether's great theorem relating symmetry and conservation) to create unified theories of the "four forces of physics". But in general I use the symmetries of the "forest", while the standard model uses the symmetries of the "trees". Obviously, these cannot be mutually exclusive categories; in most respects the two theories complement each other. Another major difference is that I use the concept of symmetry "debts" to solve qualitative "why" or conservation problems (Why gravity? What is the conservation reason that gravity must exist as a force in the universe?), whereas the "establishment" uses the concept of symmetry-in-action to solve quantitative "how" or mechanistic problems (how does gravity produce its effects and how can we calculate them?). (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' VS the 'Standard Model' of Physics: A Comparison".)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[247] viXra:1311.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-02 15:26:41

Biographical Reflections on an ‘Emperor’s New Clothes’ the Immanent Completion of the Tools of Epistemology

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 8 Pages. Paper discusses Empirical metaphysics, Epistemology, Noetic, Plato, Transcendence

Galileo is credited with bringing us from the age of Logic and Reason to the age of Empiricism; This document describes the next step which also completes the tools of epistemology - That of the utility of transcendence (or noetic insight as ancient Greek Philosopher Plato termed it) as a tool in scientific theory formation. An example of this controversial concept is illustrated here giving birth to an ‘Empirical Metaphysics’ that was used to open the door to large-scale additional dimensionality and in the process allow access to a 3rd regime of reality (Classical Newtonian - Quantum - Unity) founding the field of Unified Field Mechanics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[246] viXra:1310.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-25 10:49:14

The Root Assumption in all of Astrophysics and Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The most basic assumption in all of astrophysics and astronomy is the consensus that stars and planets are mutually exclusive. There was never any evidence to show this assumption to be true. The reality is that a star is a young planet and a planet is an aging star, they are the exact same objects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[245] viXra:1310.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-13 00:38:42

The Universe as a Complex Manifold

Authors: T. Widdicombe
Comments: 1 Page. previously uploaded as 1208.0142

Evidence pointing to the existence of mathematically imaginary dimensions in the universe is put forward, briefly and qualitatively explaining "spooky action at a distance" and the fractal nature of living structures.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[244] viXra:1310.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-11 12:12:42

The Phases of Matter

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages.

A phase is a self-organizing stable or semi-stable state of energy/matter/information whose emergent properties are unique to its level of organization, characteristic of the collective action of its parts and not of the properties of the parts themselves. For example, in the biological information hierarchy that applies to our own human level of organization: Individual, Family, Society, Species - biochemical metabolism is a characteristic of the individual; reproduction is a characteristic of families; culture is a characteristic of societies; genetic evolution is a characteristic of species. Phase transitions demonstrate the emergence of collective laws and behaviors that are both qualitatively distinct and unpredictable from the laws and behaviors of lower organizational levels within the collective. Life is an information phase of matter; our Universe is an anthropic (life-friendly) phase of the Multiverse. (See: "The Information Pathway"; "The Information Ladder"; "The Fractal Organization of Nature".) Below I list various phases of matter discussed on this website, with links to relevant papers. I have grouped the phases according to their origin in a particular force (as in one of the "four forces of physics"), or according to their common origin in some other analogous force or agency.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[243] viXra:1310.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 10:50:42

Some Comments on Modern Physics.

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies.
Comments: 6 Pages. It is sincerely hoped that these comments will provoke serious thought and discussion about the specific issues raised, as well as about other similar issues in present day physics.

Considering the manner in which many students are introduced to some of the accepted pillars of perceived scientific wisdom, it seems appropriate, in view of recent developments associated with the theories of both Special and General Relativity, to look at the present basis for this accepted educational approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[242] viXra:1309.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 15:13:43

Life. Science. Future (Biography Notes, Researches and Innovations).

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 208 Pages.

A human life is special. It may turn this or that way and put you on trial. Unfortunately, young people very often make the same mistakes their parents did. That is why if we have a look at biographies of senior people – especially those ones who lived unusual lives and had very special destinies – it may help us to avoid many mistakes, delusions, wrong decisions and deceit. Of course, political powers, authorities, regimes and social situation constantly change, but there are some vital general basics always remaining in a human society and they are quite necessary to be realized and understood for an individual to survive and not to repeat stupid mistakes of older generations. This is the prime and important goal of this book. The author of this book is a researcher. A main goal of any true researcher is impartial and comprehensive investigation of the reality, discovering its laws and building models of nature, environment, human and society behavior. These laws help to predict human and environment reaction to our activity, and consequently, achieve required results and make all human progress move forward. The most important feature of a true researcher is the ability to change (or revise) his opinions, conclusions and regulations in case the reality response does not coincide with his theories and forecasts. The author worked a lot for Soviet aviation, rocket and space industries and in research labs of the NASA and USAir Force. He was not much interested in minor routine technical problems which were again and again to be solved by engineers and scientists in the course of projecting, designing and final operational development of some spacecraft or rocket, and which he was supposed to deal with by virtue of office. His spare time was devoted, first of all to breakthrough technologies of the future which would make mankind leap to a new stage of technological progress. Some of these technologies suggested by the author are understandably expounded in a special Appendix to this book (Breakthrough to the Future) Besides current and future problems of aviation, astronautics, energy, breakthrough technologies of the future he devoted a lot of time to the purpose of existence and to the future of mankind, or more exactly to the future of Intellect and Universe. The Self-copying System Complexity Increase law discovered by Alexander Bolonkin explains not only beginnings of Homo Sapience on Earth, but also its inevitable transition into E-creatures and to Superior Intellect (to God, as true believers would say), to a total control by its Universe laws and creation of new Universes with new life. All these ideas are compactly and plainly expounded in a special chapter of this book (Pondering on Life, Progress, Mankind and Science) so that a reader uninterested in these problems may just skip this section.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[241] viXra:1309.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-29 15:41:00

Жизнь. Наука. Будущее (Биографические очерки).LIFE. Science. Future (In Russian)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 287 Pages.

Каждая человеческая жизнь уникальна. Однако у каждого она складывается по-своему и преподносит разные испытания. К сожалению, молодежь, как правило, повторяет ошибки старшего поколения. Поэтому знакомство с жизнью и биографиями людей старшего возраста, особенно с необычными, уникальными судьбами, может помочь им избежать многих ошибок, иллюзий, неверных решений и обмана. Конечно, власти, политические режимы, социальная обстановка все время меняются, но в человеческом обществе есть важные общие моменты, знать, понимать и осознавать которые весьма важно для выживания любого индивидуума, чтобы не повторять глупейших ошибок предыдущих поколений. Это главная цель и задача данной книги. Автор книги ученый. Цель всякого настоящего ученого – объективно и всесторонне изучать окружающую действительность и находить законы, которым она подчиняется, строить модели действительности (природы, среды, поведения индивидуума и социума). Эти законы позволяют предсказывать реакцию людей и внешней среды на наши действия и тем самым добиваться нужных нам результатов, обеспечивать прогресс человечества. Важнейшее качество истинного ученого – менять (или модифицировать) свои мнения, обновлять выводы, если реакция внешней среды не совпадает с предсказаниями его теории. Автор много работал в советской авиационной и ракетной промышленности, в научных лабораториях НАСА и военно-воздушных сил США. Его интересовали не текущие технические проблемы, которые приходится постоянно решать ученым и инженерам в процессе проектирования и доводки того или иного самолета, космического корабля или ракеты. В первую очередь его интересовали прорывные технологии будущего, которые позволили бы человечеству сделать прыжок, совершить рывок в своем технологическом развитии. Некоторые предложенные им технологии популярно излагаются в специальном приложении к данной книге (Рывок в Будущее). Помимо текущих и будущих проблем авиации, космонавтики, энергетики, прорывных технологий, автор много занимался вопросами смысла существования человечества и его будущим, 8 точнее, вопросами Разума и Вселенной. Открытый им закон «Повышения сложности самокопирующих систем» объясняет не только появление разумного человека, но и неизбежный переход его в электронное Е-существо, и приближение к Высшему Разуму (т.е., в понимании верующих, к Богу), к управлению законами своей Вселенной, созданию новых Вселенных и жизни в них. Все это автор попытался кратко и популярно изложить в отдельной главе, которую не интересующийся этими проблемами читатель может просто пропустить (Размышления о жизни, прогрессе, человечестве и науке).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[240] viXra:1309.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-28 20:04:35

Записки советского политзаключенного (Memories Soviet Political Prisoner (In Russian))

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 71 Pages. 71 pgs, Russian

В этой небольшой заметке я хочу коротко рассказать об удивительном человеке - Александре Александровиче Болонкине, его сложной и трудной судьбе как ученого и защитника прав обездоленных. Родился он на Урале в г. Пермь и уже в детстве и юности проявил недужие способности. Начиная с 4-го класса: школа, авиатехникум, авиационный институт, аспирантура МАИ - а это 16 лет! - всегда был первым в своем потоке, имел только отличные оценки. В детстве увлекался авиамоделизмом, установил несколько Всесоюзных рекордов, превышал и Мировые достижения. За что был награжден серебряной и золотой медалями. В период учебы в институте постоянно награждался грамотами, премиями за научные разработки и был (студент!) отмечен в Приказе Министра Высшего Образования СССР. Защитил кандидатскую и докторскую диссертации работал ведущим инженером в авиационном Опытно-конструкторском бюро Олега Антонова и начальником отдела надежности в ракетном бюро академика В.П. Глушко. Рассчитанные им АНы возили миллионы пассажиров, а ракетные двигатели поднимали спутники и космические корабли. Казалось, человек достиг всего, и осталось только наслаждаться жизнью. Но получив доступ к сверхсекретной информации (у него был высший допуск - особо секретно - государственной важности) Александр стал понимать, что режим, которому он, подобно всем советским людям, служит, совсем не то, за что он себя выдает. Лицемерие и ложь пропитали все верха, железный занавес отгородил советский народ от всего мира и весь режим держится на обмане. В это время (конец 60-х годов) в стране началось диссидентское движение. Академик А.Д. Сахаров, ряд ученых и писателей открыто потребовали демократизации советского общества, соблюдения прав человека, прекращения репрессий. Диссиденты очень нуждались в множительной технике, которая находилась под строгим учетом КГБ. К Александру обратились за помощью и он изобретает простой множительный аппарат. Этот аппарат мог изготовить любой из подручных средств. Сам он лично сделал 8 таких аппаратов и раздал диссидентским группам. Только его группа на одном из таких аппаратов отпечатала более 150 тысяч страниц диссидентской литературы, включая произведения Сахарова, Солженицына, Роберта Конквиста "Великий террор", подпольные журналы: "Хроника", "Демократ", "Луч Свободы", "Вече" и др. Выпускали они и собственный журнал "Свободная Мысль". Печатали статьи Болонкина, посвященные исследованиям уровня жизни в СССР и западных странах, выполнению (точнее провалам) пятилетних планов. Некоторые экземпляры его журнала и статей, попали за границу и были переопубликованы. Когда сотрудники КГБ стали находить при обысках у диссидентов не 1-2 копии, отпечатанные на машинке, а сотни экземпляров запрещенных изданий, ЦК КПСС забило тревогу. КГБ был дан строгий приказ: во что бы то ни стало найти "злоумышленников". А тут в июне 1972 года в связи с десятилетием повышения цен группой Болонкина в 8-ми районах Москвы были распространены 3500 листовок, отпечатанных на неизвестных КГБ аппаратах. Всесоюзное КГБ было поставлено на ноги. В сентябре 1972 года А. Болонкин и его группа были арестованы. Следствие вел тогда никому неизвестный рядовой следователь московского КГБ Анатолий Трофимов. Болонкину вынесли приговор: 4 года концлагерей строго режима и два года ссылки, пообещав, что это только начало и он никогда не выйдет их тюрьмы. Слово свое они сдержали, вышел он только через 15 лет, в конце 1987г в начале перестройки. После его осуждения в 1974г по его делу было специальное постановление ЦК КПСС "Об усилении идеологической работы в МВТУ имени Баумана" (где он преподавал), а Трофимов быстро пошел в гору, став начальником следственного отдела по Москве и Московской области, и упрятал за решетку сотни диссидентов, включая таких известных правозащитников как С.Ковалев, Н.Щеранский, К.Любарский и многие другие. Невозможно описать каким постоянным истязаниям, пыткам, издевательствам, избиениям, подвергался Александр Болонкин во время заключения. Более 3-х лет его продержали во внутрилагерной тюрьме особого режима и свыше 400 суток (больше года!) практически раздетого в холодном карцере с обледенелыми стенами на 400 граммах черного хлеба и воде. Требовали одно - раскайся. Его имя стало известно за границей, о нем неоднократно передали радиостанции "Голос Америки" и "Свобода". Он был на учете в Амнисти Интернейшинал, в его защиту выступали академик Сахаров и видные ученые мира. После освобождения Александр сразу же был выдворен за границу. У него отобрали жилье, лишили имущества, заставили заплатить 4000 долларов выкупа. Поселился он в США. Четыре года работал в Главных лабораториях Военно-Воздушных Сил США в Дейтоне (Огайо), Эглин (Флорида) и двa годa в НАСА (NASA, DFRC, Калифорния) над важнейшими оборонными проектами США. Выступал на Международных Космических Конгрессах (1992,1994,1996, 2002 гг), двa рaзa нa Всeмирныx Авиaционныx Конгрессах (1998, 1999гг.) и много раз на Обще-американских научных конференциях в США. Вот некоторые темы его выступлений: Ядерный ракетный двигатель для космических аппаратов, Способ извлечения энергии в космосе из солнечного ветра. Он автор знаменитых книг: "Безракетные запуски и полеты в космос" (Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.), "Новые концепции, идеи и инновации в аэроспейс, технологии и науке о человечестве" (New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Life", NOVA, 2007, 300 pgs), "Человеческое бессмертие и электронная цивилизация" (Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization, Lulu, 2007). Он также автор более 170 научных работ и книг и 17 изобретений, многие из которых засекречены. Александр Болонкин является членом Совета директоров «Международного Космического Агенства» (International Space Agency) и председателем секции «Космические полеты». Не отказывается он и от общественных обязанностей. Бывшие политзэки в 1990 году избрали его президентом «Международной Ассоциации бывших советских политзаключенных и жертв коммунистического режима». Под его руководством Ассоциация превратилась из маленькой американской группы, которая в начале насчитывала 25 человек в огромную организацию, имеющую более 30 тысяч членов, главным образом за счет присоединения Ассоциаций репрессированных России, Украины, Белоруссии, Прибалтики и др. стран. Ассоциация решительно выступает за права жертв коммунизма, против коммунистов всех мастей, требует «Нюренберг-2» над руководством КПСС, КГБ-НКВД за уничтожение 60 миллионов советских людей, справедливой компенсации жертвам коммунистического произвола. Она выступила против присвоения нынешними российскими властями высшего воинского звания генерал - полковника палачу диссидентов Анатолию Трофимову и назначения его замдиректора нового Российского КГБ-ФСБ. Не забывает о Болонкине и Трофимов. В конце 1995 года автомобиль Болонкина был взорван. Сам он чудом избежал смерти. Российская газета "Известия" с иронией писала по поводу Болонкина и Трофимова: "Наша страна щедро делится талантами с Америкой: ненужное сплавляет за океан, нужное сохраняет". Мне бы хотелось пожелать успеха этому выдающемуся ученому и правозащитнику, у которого коммунистические лагеря и тюрьмы отняли 15 лет творческой жизни. Более подробную информацию желающие могут найти в книге "Русские в Америке", в статье В. Левина "Две жизни Александра Болонкина", журнал "Вестник" №№13-14, 1993г., либо в предлагаемой небольшой автобиографической повести "Записки политзаключенного". Д.т.н. Борис Крукляк
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[239] viXra:1309.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-23 17:08:03

Tenth International Anthology on Paradoxismin Folklore Images

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 359 Pages.

This photo-album includes about 350 folklore images gathered from Internet or received by e-mail. The images are contradictory -- in a lower percent (soft paradoxism), or in a higher percent (hard paradoxism).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[238] viXra:1309.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 03:38:18

Can Illogical Thought be Possible ?

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 13 Pages.

The notion of logical thought has been discussed since time known to rational mind but the notion of illogical thought be possible is rarely thought and in this paper, there is an attempt made to understand the notion of illogical thought by asking whether illogical thought be possible or not, and if it is not , why it is not and if it is yes , then how can it be. The paper comprises of two parts i,e. (i)Illogical thought is impossible . Why it is so? – Early Wittgenstein’s reply and (ii) Illogical thought is possible. How can it be? -Criticism to Early Wittgenstein.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[237] viXra:1309.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 03:57:55

“The Meaning of a Word Lies in Its Use.”

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 7 Pages.

Ludwig Wittgenstein in his later days’ Philosophical Investigations which has come as a criticism to his own prior work namely Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus , discusses about the relevance of the context in which a word has been used in order to understand the meaning of the word rather than going by the notion of an Ideal Language in the form of a fixed meaning picture theory of a name being labelled against an ostensive body or object in which there is one-to-one correspondence between the simple and the name which is advocated in Tractatus.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[236] viXra:1309.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 03:34:29

Artistic Imagination Needs More Understanding Than Scientific Imagination

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 5 Pages.

The article is non-expository in nature in which the proposed thesis is “Artistic imagination needs more understanding than scientific imagination.” which could also be reframed as ‘understanding needed for artistic imagination is more than understanding needed for scientific imagination’ and the claim to the proposition is to be supported by Neo-Kantian philosopher of science and advocate of symbolism Ernst Cassirer’s An Essay on Man with a special reference to Art (IX) and Science (XI) in the book and other arguments with examples. The premise of the debate requires the definition or meaning of imagination or what does imagination refer to if it could have a point of reference but in a passage of searching its definition, a historical problem is encountered as the word ‘imagination’ etymologically derived from Latin word imaginatio is used by Aristotle as phantasia in Greek forming fantasy ,but an usual exchange between imagination and fancy has been re-thought and later, it is considered that imagination is not imaging in terms of mental pictures totally and not also merely fantasizing per se but rather could be creating, imagining neither in a logical rational nor irrational way but ‘a’ rational manner which is where it is difficult to demarcate the boundary of definition for imagination and the definition has been made more complex in modern days in philosophy of mind and neurological sciences due to the notion of neurological dynamics of imagination also.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[235] viXra:1309.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-05 22:07:55

Cine Are Urechi de Auzit, Să Vadă ! (Aforisme de Viaţă, Vol. II)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

Cugetări ale autorului inspirate din folclor, lecturi diverse, sau originale.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[234] viXra:1309.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-05 22:10:35

Science is Infinite

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

The MechanoPaint that illustrates the slides, except the covers, is made with an automatic computer program. The program draws and paints according to the parameters given by the user. You can choose geometric figures (like rectangles, tetronimos, polyominoes, circles, etc.) as automatic drawings, and the colors you like to fill into them. The images and colorings are done randomly. The program randomly calculates the coordinates for the points (x, y) where to start drawing, and randomly picks up the lengths and widths, or radii of the geometric figures. You can over-draw and over-paint many times on the same electronic canvas. It is a Mechanic Art, or Automatic Art. The accompanying reflections, meditations, and paradoxes are about science and life. [The Author] -------------------------------------------------- This album of MechanoPaint is made with a computer program. The program draws and paints according to the parameters given by the user. The text contains reflections about science and life, as well as two Smarandache paradoxes in literature (All is possible, the impossible too… and Nothing is perfect, not even the perfect), and in science four quantum Smarandache paradoxes, such as: •Our visible world is composed of a totality of invisible particles; •Large matter, which is at some degree under the determinist principle, is formed by a totality of elementary particles, which are under indeterminacy principle; •Stable matter is formed by unstable elementary particles (elementary particles decay when free); •Long-time-living matter is formed by very short-time-living elementary particles; and their corresponding Sorites paradox versions. [Education Publisher]
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[233] viXra:1309.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-05 22:13:56

Arta Femeii

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 109 Pages.

Imagini sexy si muzică de pe Internet, aforisme si prezentare de catre autor. Derulare automată in format PPS.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[232] viXra:1308.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-29 01:47:24

What is the Quality World Line

Authors: Zhicheng Yu
Comments: 2 Pages.

I proposal a new concept the quality-world line, maybe it will become a new development in the philosophy of science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[231] viXra:1308.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-27 07:42:21

The Definitions for Object and Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is given definition for object and space so that consistency can be kept in the sciences.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[230] viXra:1308.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-18 15:50:05

Predictor of Bronchodilatation Response in Asthmatic Patients

Authors: H. Al-Ghadeer, Abdullah AlShimemeri, H. Al-Jahdali, M. Al-Moamary, Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 pages not including coverpage and sources...

Bronchodilatation response is often used in theassessment and the diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Many clinics and peripheral hospitals have no facility for spirometry and post bronchodilatation response (PBR) assessment. To test the predictors of PBR in asthmatic patients we retrospectively reviewed 100 cases of asthmatic patients followed by our outpatient department. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFT) on first presentation, 45% M, 55% F, Mean age SD was 38.518 (range: 9-86 years), 92% of the cases were using medication: 89% inhaled beta agonists, 65% inhaled steroids, 7% Ipratropium, 32% oral theophylline, 4% sodium Cromoglycate, and 8% oral prednisone. 82% had shortness of breath, 62% wheezing, 71% cough, 51% nocturnal symptoms, 22% had associated allergic symptoms, and 33% had positive family history for asthma. 48% of the cases had significant PBR (ATS standards). Analysis of the above variables, revealed that a significant association between the bronchodilatation response and the use of medication (Odd Ratio OR=7.2, p ¡ 0.05), nocturnal symptoms (OR = 8:4, p < 0:001) and family history (OR = 2:9, p < 0:05). Conclusion: in asthmatic patients, current use of medications, presence of nocturnal symptoms, and positive family history of asthma , may predict the possibilities of the presence of a significant response post bronchodilatation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[229] viXra:1308.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-17 09:32:53

Implementation of a Complete Web Based Gis Solution Using Open Source Technologies

Authors: Siddharth Srivastava, Prashant Kumar, Ashu Krishna
Comments: 6 Pages. ASCNT 2012, Pg 256-262

The benefits of using open source solutions are now obvious to the industrial applications. The Open Source GIS solutions are gaining popularity within the geo informatics community. Examples of popular FLOSS GIS solutions are GeoServer, MapServer, GRASS GIS, Quantum GIS. These when combined with open source tools such as MoNav, Mapnik etc make a robust mapping solution. This paper illustrates such an Open Source solution to web mapping service, by which the data preprocess and the construction of prototype system both used merely open source GIS software.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[228] viXra:1307.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-27 11:16:58

Why Low Carbon Steel is Strong

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture

Since the establishment cannot provide a picture of why low carbon steel is strong the author of this paper will. Just saying “strengthing the crystal lattice” and then showing math equations is not an explanation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[227] viXra:1307.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-16 17:01:46

The truth about Geometric Unity

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 5 Pages.

The truth about Geometric Unity is that it was authored by this writer in several papers beginning in 2009. These papers are all available free of cost through the open-access academic publishing archive viXra. Originally designated the Modified Cosmological Model (MCM), it is not clear who coined the mellifluous term Geometric Unity. What is clear is that the non-existence of any Weinstein papers on Geometric Unity is explained with an author search for Jonathan Tooker at viXra. This article will describe the development and features of the new theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[226] viXra:1307.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-12 08:33:42

ICT (Information and Communications Technology) and Cyrillic

Authors: Dragoljub Pilipovic
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper will start from the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet, then will immediately move on to the present situation. It will then describe what the electronic devices (not) be used Cyrillic letters and in what form and under what conditions it use. Conditions are defined in a ways of non-hardware concepts: software, databases, web pages, coding, etc. Special attention will be given to short messages on cell phones.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[225] viXra:1307.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-03 03:58:01

A Connection Between the Apeiron to the Set of Supersingular Prime Numbers

Authors: Klaus Lange
Comments: 4 Pages. Main text in german language

On the framework of the Quantum field theory from Burkhard Heim [1], a generating primal set of eight prime numbers (the so called Apeiron according to the work of Hedwig Conrad-Martius [2] – [4]) is found to be the origin of the entire universe. In this paper we will see how this prime number primal set [6] is connected to the set of the super singular prime numbers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[224] viXra:1307.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-02 19:27:31

A Christian Ethics Consideration on Nuclear Energy

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages. this paper is not yet submitted to any journal

Based on ethical, ecological, and economics considerations, the writers conclude that it is not acceptable to consider nuclear energy as part of national’s energy mix, especially for developing countries, because of many reasons, including: radiation risks of radioactive waste, the capital-intensive development cost of a NPP which may cause heavy foreign loan to that nation, and also the risks of contamination of water and environment during uranium mining and spent fuel storage. Because of the above mentioned reasons, Christian people and common people should suggest to their governments to push forward the use of renewable energies especially WWS. For the short term, coal and natural gas can be considered as a temporary alternative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[223] viXra:1307.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-01 12:44:22

Method for Converting Carbon Dioxide and Natural Gas Into Gasoline

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Nikhil Panwar
Comments: 2 Pages.

A process for the production of Gasoline from natural gas (methane) and the reaction of the resulting hydrogen gas with carbon dioxide in a catalyst containing methanol synthesis to produce methanol. The methanol thus formed may be converted to gasoline by the Mobil process. Alternative methods include the gasification with carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide, which is then reacted with hydrogen gas to produce. The methods taught reduce the overall amount of carbon dioxide resulting from the methanol production process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[222] viXra:1306.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-28 09:40:39

Reality and Information: It and Bit

Authors: Salvish Goomanee
Comments: 7 Pages.

The present understanding of the relation between reality and information theory is for the time being rather vague. There are many speculations about the fact that the understanding of reality may be beyond our capabilities. However the perception of our observed reality in relation to quantum physics and consciousness as per Wheeler’s theories may lead to the exploration of some new branches of quantum physics and consciousness theory. For many physicists, this may be something rather troubling but what if non – computability was actually part of reality? What if there were some processes or some kind of information that cannot be understood through algorithms and needed new understanding. In this essay the relation between information, reality and consciousness will be briefly discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[221] viXra:1306.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-21 20:03:14

Die Kunst des Wedelns (The Art of Wag) - in German

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Bernd Hutschenreuther
Comments: 18 Pages. This book is a German translation of The Art of Wag book

Wahrscheinlich eines der weltweit bekanntesten Bücher über Strategie ist Sun Tsus „Die Kunst des Krieges“. Es gibt bereits zahlreiche an verschiedenste moderne Aspekte des Managements und andere Themen angepasste Adaptionen dieses Buches. Wir wollen hier nicht diese „neuen“ Kopien wiederholen, sondern haben lieber eine neue Satire geschrieben.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[220] viXra:1306.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 17:22:33

State Decoding in Multi-Stage Cryptography Protocols

Authors: Sindhu Chitikela
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a practical method of quantum tomography for decoding the state of photons in a multistage cryptography protocol. This method works if the polarization angles are defined on a fixed plane, as is assumed in several quantum cryptography protocols. We show if there are 2m polarization angles in a fixed plane, we need m number of filters and m2 number of photons through each filter.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[219] viXra:1306.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-15 00:16:17

Little Green Man Gives Answers to Queensland Plan

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

"THE Queensland Plan will outline our shared vision for the next 30 years and identify local and statewide priorities. It will harness the collective wisdom of Queenslanders and guide future activities delivered by all levels of government, business and the community." That's what the Queensland government says at http://queenslandplan.qld.gov.au/about-the-plan/ (Queensland is one of the states in Australia) These are the 6 questions asked on the "Queensland Plan" website, and their answers as given by a Little Green Man who comes from a different planet. I suspect LGM is secretly using this political website to tell us about the science they have in the universities on 22nd-century Mars.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[218] viXra:1306.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-13 14:12:25

Reasoning about RFID-tracked Moving Objects in Symbolic Indoor Spaces; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 39 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Reasoning about RFID-tracked Moving Objects in Symbolic Indoor Spaces".
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[217] viXra:1306.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-12 06:45:58

How New Scientists are Brainwashed

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is given explanation as to how new young scientists are brainwashed to believe what ever their professors want them to believe.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[216] viXra:1306.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-10 07:14:13

The Dimensional Universe. Proving Infinite Dimension and Time.

Authors: Jeremy Michael Poulos
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let's do a little bit of math work. You're given a pattern, and told that there is no other information available to the entire human race at this current time to identify this pattern! The pattern is as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 X. Based on this available information, what is the most logical value for x? 7. Now, in our known universe, there also exists a pattern. A point, has a value of infinity^0. It has an area of one POINT. It is one point. The dimension of it, it one point. A line, is an infinite number of points on an X or Y Axis. Infinity ^ 1. An area, is an infinite number of points on an X AND Y axis. Infinity ^ 2. While the number of points do not increase, the limitations on the locations at which these points can exist increases exponentially. As a point has no identifiable area, in any dimension from a point itself, to a cube, there will always be room for infinite points. Now, the complexity constraints of where the points may exist will increase one more time when we move to the third dimension. Infinity ^ 3. Volume! Still, infinite available points, but now, an infinitely larger area to place them. But hey, you can have all the gold cubes in the world, but you can not spend them if time never happened! Why do you think time appears LINEAR to us, when we live in the third dimension? That's because the fourth dimension is also a line. It is a set of points in time, in which, any volumized object can exist. Now, there's another pattern that emerges. For a point to exist, it needs to exist on a line. Why? Because you can not define its location otherwise, and without defining a location, it can not be observed. That which can not be observed within Dimension 2, that exists in dimension 1, doesn't exist, as it's not "part" of the dimension. So, for a point to exist, it needs a location on a line. For a line to exist, you have to locate it on a plane. What is a plane with a thickness of zero? Nothing. It needs a Z value, a thickness, or it is literally, nothing. Now, what logically defines the NEXT LINEAR dimension by which we regularly define the location of matter within our universe? (Note that each advancement in dimensions previously only increased the complexity by a line, or +-infinity, multiplied into the number of existing points.) Everyone experiences a linear travel in this world, by which our physical bodies and all matter moves. It moves through TIME. Therefor, i theorize, that dimension four, is, in fact, time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[215] viXra:1306.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-07 10:49:31

Nemateria, Ipoteza Smarandache și Fuziunea Informației

Authors: Mircea Monu
Comments: 168 Pages.

Acest volum reuneşte articole scrise de fizicianul si jurnalistul Mircea Monu, cu eliminarea unor paragrafe repetitive. Articolele au apărut în perioada 2009-2012 în publicaţii tipărite („Monitorul de Vâlcea”, „Constelaţii diamantine”, „Semănătorul”) şi reviste online, şi reflectă parte din prodigioasa activitate recentă a omului de ştiinţă şi scriitorului Florentin Smarandache, in special privind termenul de “nematerie” introdus in fizica, “Ipoteza Smarandache” ca nu exista limita de viteza in univers, si cercetari in fuziunea informatiei.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[214] viXra:1306.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-03 23:33:01

On the Logical Analysis of the Foundations of Vector Calculus

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 8 Pages.

A critical analysis of the foundations of standard vector calculus is proposed. The methodological basis of the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is proved that the vector calculus is incorrect theory because: (a) it is not based on a correct methodological basis – the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics; (b) it does not contain the correct definitions of “movement”, “direction” and “vector”; (c) it does not take into consideration the dimensions of physical quantities (i.e., number names, denominate numbers, concrete numbers), characterizing the concept of ”physical vector”, and, therefore, it has no natural-scientific meaning; (d) operations on “physical vectors” and the vector calculus propositions relating to the ”physical vectors” are contrary to formal logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[213] viXra:1305.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-31 01:01:56

Gravity and Unknown Spectral Lines Explain Dark Universe and Higgs Boson Mass

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 33 Pages. some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new

The start of this article lies a few years in the past, when I wrote about the Little Ice Age experienced in Europe some 300-360 years ago. I then read an article in “Astronomy” magazine which prompted me to extend those ideas to explanation of heating the Sun’s corona. On the same page of Astronomy, I was inspired by a story on unidentified spectral lines in the Sun. I thought about this, and decided it could be extended to all matter, supporting Einstein’s conviction that mass is generated by gravitational-electromagnetic interactions (maybe the Higgs field is actually these interactions, for they fill the universe and are certainly capable of producing the Higgs boson, as will be explained here). In writing this, I felt the need to go into more detail frequently – about string theory, the mathematical universe, the infinite universe, the strong and weak nuclear forces, etc. (some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new). All of this seems to fit together perfectly in my mind. However, I don’t feel as though I’ve done much of the work myself. It feels like figuring out the nature of the universe is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and I’ve been handed the solution (if indeed I have it) piece by piece over the years and decades. This fitting together of a giant jigsaw made me think the universe isn’t really such a complicated place, and reminded me of Professor John Wheeler saying - Can we ever expect to understand existence? Clues we have, and work to do, to make headway on that issue. Surely someday, we can believe, we will grasp the central idea of it all as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, "Oh, how could it have been otherwise! How could we all have been so blind so long! “ The scientist and philosopher in me inspire each other. They combined logic with measurement and willingness to speculate so they could produce these subheadings - Unidentified Spectral Lines; Graviton-Photon Oscillation; Relativistic Mass Increase and Time Dilation; Higgs Boson and (e∞); Quantum Entanglement and Retrocausality; Mathematical Unification; Coronal Heating (Part 1 – Little Ice Age); String Theory, the Mobius Loop and the Klein Bottle; Coronal Heating (Part 2 – Gravity and EM Interact); Nuclear Forces as Modified Gravity; Electromagnetism as Modified Gravity; Nonlinear Gravity and EM; Infinite Universe (Physically and Electronically); Brian Greene’s Cosmic Movie; Something from Nothing, Something from Something; Universal Intelligence; Hidden Variables and Virtual Particles; Biogenesis; Bell’s Theorem; Immortal Life; Space-time, Hyperspace and the Big Bang; Physicist John Wheeler; Equation Describing the Universe; and CHALLENGE – Explain To The Layman How Gravity Accounts For Dark Matter and Dark Energy Without Using Any Mathematics (this could have been given subheadings of its own – about Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, tides, orbits, but my abstract’s long enough).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[212] viXra:1305.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-29 18:31:05

Nutritional Balance of Corn Crisps

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Corn crisps had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 67.36-fb, being particularly biased towards deficiency in fiber. They were also adequate in carbohydrate and sugar, high in fat, saturated fat and sodium, and low in protein.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[211] viXra:1305.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-28 20:49:58

Nutritional Balance of Corn Crisps (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 5 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. The distribution of nutritional balance covered a wide range of values. The median was located at BNI 76.98 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 42 (P16) and BNI 121 (P84). There was a slight positive skewness (mean=78.49, zSkew=0.99). The distribution of nutritional balance varied slightly according to the particular recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) of reference, although all followed a pattern similar to the one just described. Even so, this group of products appeared slightly less unbalanced under US's, Australia's and UK's RDIs than under WHO's RDIs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[210] viXra:1304.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-29 12:24:42

Ultrapolemici cu Litere Mari şi Mici (Ediția a II-a, Corectată și Repaginată)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 199 Pages.

Paradoxismul este un curent de avangardă care se bazează pe folosirea excesivă – atât în spaţiu mic, cât şi la nivel global al operei – de antiteze, antinomii, antipozi, oximoroane, contradicţii, aporii, situaţii paradoxale, plus experimente în literatură, filosofie, artă. Etimologic, evident: paradox+ism. Scopul este lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice. Dar, mai ales, creaţia în răspăr, în contra-timp, în contra-sens. Se preconizează că sensul are un non-sens şi, reciproc, non-sensul are un sens. Ca motto se foloseşte paradoxul “Totul este posibil, chiar şi imposibilul!”. Iar emblema este o spirală, ca iluzie optică ori ca un cerc vicios. Direcţiile de dezvoltare cuprind crearea de lucrări literare, artistice, filosofice, chiar ştiinţifice, care să releveze contradicţii, antagonisme, plus experimente în acest scop.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[209] viXra:1304.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 01:22:37

Ppc GhEEms

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages. This, and several more of my articles, also published at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rodney_Bartlett/?ev=pub_int_doc_dlext

This article is called Ppc GhEEms because it combines the P(oincare conjecture) + p(=mv) + c(=infinity) + G(ravitational constant) + h (Planck’s constant) + E(=hv) + E(=mc2) + ms (spin quantum number). If you start with a stutter and progress to the Dutch pronunciation of “ee” as “ay” in “say”, the article might be called P-peace Games”  My aims are to show - a new way of looking at relativistic mass increase and time dilation, infinity has 2 definitions (space-time going on and on forever; and the elimination of all distance), this elimination of distance unites here and there (entanglement) plus past and future (retrocausality) plus quantum mechanics and general relativity (theory of everything), the relation between E=hv and E=mc^2, h and G both apply to mass and to space-time, the warping of space in Einstein's General Relativity was extended by him to subatomic particles, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces may be regarded as modifications of gravitation because all forces are formulated from the same mathematical foundation of the universe, this math basis derives from human development of hidden variables called binary digits and figure-8 Klein bottles (which form the subuniverses - including ours - in the one infinite universe), our remote descendents travel to the distant past via a 5th-dimensional hyperspace and apply this maths which has been glimpsed by string theory to produce the Big Bang, the inverse-square's infinite aspect combines with eternal cosmic entanglement to produce infinity's 2nd definition (simultaneously, a universal intelligence we call God inevitably exists forever), parallel universes require infinitesimal separation and can't exist because of infinity's zero-separation definition, and I suspect Planck could have developed E=mc^2 if Einstein had been born a decade later.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[208] viXra:1304.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 04:37:33

On Reference System of Life

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 8 Pages.

We consider the human thinking from the aspect of life, i.e., from conditions of being alive. Thus, we try to consider cognition how it would be considered in some unconventional outline, i.e., as the functionality of life from within the reference system of life, or, how we perceive world directly. We conjecture that this would give us right to consider mathematical thinking differently, i.e., as an aspect of life and thus in completely unconventional approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[207] viXra:1304.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 23:41:53

Nutritional Balance of Wheat Cravers (Introduction)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of wheat cravers in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Wheat cravers had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 55.71na, being particularly biased towards excess of sodium. They were also adequate in carbohydrate, sugar and saturated fat, high in fat, and low in protein and fiber.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[206] viXra:1304.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 08:44:00

The Ratio of Dark Matter to Dark Energy in Our M-Brane Universe

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 1 Page.

In a superbly ordered and symmetrical universe, the fundamentals come into play, the perfection is so deeply embedded in mathematics. The Pythagoreans had the notion in mind that numbers are the purest of ideas.M-theory derives a fractal universe composition with all the matter in the universe accounted for.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[205] viXra:1304.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 13:54:27

Mathematics as Reference System of Life: Preliminary Observations

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 15 Pages.

We forward hypothesis that all what we refer to as mathematics are cognitive aspects of life, moreover, we have right to refer to mathematics as reference system of life (as state of being alive). Mathematics and cognition are not distinguishable between themselves because what we call mathematics refer to the functionality by means of what (or via what) we are created by nature, or by God, be it question of our religious persuasion. Thus, according to this hypothesis, mathematics turns out to be considerably more primary with respect to other sciences than before, when we attributed to mathematics only some role of auxiliary technical tool to help in the description of nature. When we are going to say that mathematics might be considered as reference system of life, we mean that today's mathematics is only some starting state of what might be referred to as mathematics as subject and/or object of reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[204] viXra:1304.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 07:31:32

Fractal Constitution of Our 11 Dimensional M-Brane Universe

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 1 Page.

Having worked M-Theory on a circle ,a Systems theory approach is taken, looking at phenomena from the universe in the pure Universal mathematical ratio derived when solving for the Dual M-Brane in MTheory. The M-Brane is the fundamental Brane at the heart of the entire universe.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[203] viXra:1304.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 10:15:51

The Twilight of the Scientific Age

Authors: Martin Lopez Corredoira
Comments: 7 Pages.

This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There is a loss of ideals in the search for great truths and a shift towards an anodyne specialized industry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[202] viXra:1304.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-21 22:22:39

Nutritional Balance of Wheat Cravers (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of wheat cravers in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. The median was located at BNI 55.65 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 45 (P16) and BNI 69 (P84). There was a sensible positive skewness (mean = 58.39, zSkew = 3.68), probably exacerbated by the most extremely unbalanced product within the small sample.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[201] viXra:1304.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 12:06:29

Oglinzi Paralele şi Perpendiculare

Authors: editor Octavian Blaga
Comments: 160 Pages.

Volumul de faţă adună o mână de studii, articole şi consemnări din presa românească despre scriitorul şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache, mişcarea literar-artistică pe care a iniţiat-o (Paradoxismul) şi una dintre teoriile pe care le-a dezvoltat (Viteza Supraluminală); câteva interviuri acordate de scriitor, câteva mesaje adresate acestuia şi o addenda ilustrată vin să contureze peisajul ştiinţific, artistic şi uman în care se mişcă unul dintre cei mai prolifici, mai interesanţi şi mai apreciaţi români ai momentului.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[200] viXra:1304.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-14 17:38:14

Understanding Hume’s Skepticism Through Watkins’criticism of it

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper intends to discuss the naturalist strategy used by Hume in his skepticism in the first half of the paper, while in the second half of the paper, it comprises of criticisms to Humean skepticism and Watkins’s critical analysis of criticism taken from different philosophers who are critical of Hume’s approach towards skepticism. The paper also in general makes an attempt to bring out the issue of the development of knowledge in the domain of philosophy of science from the notion of philosophical skepticism , which in this paper focuses on Humean skepticism only. In short, the paper will reply to two questions i,e. (a) What is Hume’s naturalist strategy to deal with skepticism? and (b) How does Watkins criticize it?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[199] viXra:1303.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-25 22:26:30

Scientific Errors and Ambiguities in Prominent Submissions to Canadian Environmental Assessments: A Case Study of the Jackpine Mine Expansion Project

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 9 Pages.

In Canada, as in many other developed nations, natural resource development projects meeting certain criteria are required to undergo an environmental assessment (EA) process to determine potential human and ecological health impacts. As part of the Canadian EA process, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency generally considers submissions by members of the public and experts. While the allowance of external submissions during EA hearings forms an important component of a functional participatory democracy, little attention appears to have been given regarding the quality of such EA submissions. In particular, submissions to EA hearings by prominent individuals and/or groups may be weighted more heavily in the overall decision making framework than those from non-experts. Important questions arise through the allowance and consideration of external submissions to EAs, such as whether inaccuracies in any such submissions may misdirect the EA decision makers to reach erroneous conclusions, and if such inaccuracies do result in sub-optimal EA processes, how the issues should be addressed. In the current work, a representative recent external submission from a prominent public individual and group to the Shell Canada Jackpine Mine Expansion (JPME) Project EA hearings was examined. The case study submission to the JPME EA hearings appears to contain a number of significant scientific errors and/or ambiguities, demonstrating that the EA process in Canada appears to allow potentially flawed submissions from prominent individuals and/or groups, and these problematic submissions may result in unnecessary delays, expenses, or even erroneous decisions. From a public policy perspective, it is desirable that the Canadian EA process be reformed to minimize contributions that may not result in an accurate assessment of the underlying science for the project(s) under consideration.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[198] viXra:1303.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-24 08:03:15

Probability as a Factor for the Stable Planetary and Electronic Orbits to Exist (Вероятность как фактор существования устойчивых планетных и электронных орбит)

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 3 Pages. including 2 figures

An explanation is proposed that probabilistic factors cause the existence of the stable planetary and electronic orbits. It is confirmed by means of construction of the frequency distributions corresponding to virials. (Существование устойчивых планетных и электронных орбит объясняется вероятностными факторами, что подтверждается построением частотных распределений соответствующих вириалов).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[197] viXra:1303.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-19 09:37:22

Clmate Change

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 3 Pages. n/a

WORKING IN m theory the most fundamental article in string theory and physics in whole.i tackle climate change ,especially global warming caused by increased co2 levels
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[196] viXra:1303.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-14 18:57:01

What is Dark Matter Composed Off? (My Hypothesis)

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 1 Page.

Dark Matter, according to Theoretical Physics and Quantum Physics, is believed to be matter that composes a large amount of mass in our universe. Dark Matter can not be see with telescopes and it is believed to not emit light or electromagnetic radiation at any level. My hypothesis on Dark Matter is that it is that every thing is composed of it but dark matter can be different at some accounts. For example the matter that we are composed off are many atoms and particles that make up the cells of life. However the matter that the universe is composed off can be made out of different subatomic particles such as ones of lighter and ones heavier depending on the object or element that dark matter is composed off. I also think that trying to characterize everything as a composition of a single type of dark matter is scientifically incorrect.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[195] viXra:1303.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-08 21:54:33

A Short Analysis of an Extraterrestrial Spaceship Flyover in China

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

A few notes are taken concerning the extraterrestrial spaceship that appeared over China. Some characteristics are noted and the video is referenced on the second page of this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[194] viXra:1303.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 05:14:22

About Open Access Publishing

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

A large variety of types of open access publishing exist. Its advantages and problems are treated in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[193] viXra:1303.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-02 12:15:41

In Vestul Nesalbatic (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 130 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a lansat, în 2004, un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului de azi, dar şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit: fotojurnalul instantaneu, bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mână, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite. În această carte, autorul prezintă călătoriile sale recente prin vestul Statelor Unite ale Americii.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[192] viXra:1302.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-27 10:59:07

The Art of Persausion

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages.

Propaganda is a process of manipulation as well as persuasion by using advertising to help the winning candidate. Propaganda is not a type of word play but it is commonly used in political science as well as business and psychology. We all look at propaganda as marketing strategy whether someone is advertising for a political candidate, or for the next, “miracle product”. In the innovation industry, an inventor needs to find out the most cost efficient way to market an idea to entrepreneurs without spending a fortune. Propaganda is sometimes helpful and sometimes not. The main problem is that Propaganda is often considered bias or giving a richer candidate or marketer a higher advantage of winning over the others. A common technique in a presidential election is to insult the other candidates through name calling or mudslides, this is a way of manipulation and deception as well as a commonly thought out method of, “sneezy” advertising mainly because it is used more often in the liberal parties rather than the conservative political parties. Many people think it doesn’t make a difference but insulting the candidate can have up to an 80% difference on voter’s choice. This can let someone who did much worse things to the economy win just because of forms of advertising. This is all a type of marketing strategy. For example, president Obama provided an 8.4mil dollar loan to Google, in exchange they play his advertisements at least an average of 100 times on every monetized video on youtube, this may not seem like much but actually gave him exposure to over 380 mil people a month on that website alone. John Dunn, a major political theorist in cambridge, believes that advertising is one of the main reasons of a politician win, regardless of his moral value. However, this form of advertising can also be used in conservative parties as well, but most conservative parties use methods of repetition or bandwagon based on the idea of their views on the economy. The 8 types of propaganda include: Bandwagon (Everyone else has this hottest new product on the market), Plain Folks (This guy came from a small town and won the heart of america more than once, who thinks he wouldn’t win again, he is a citizen like you and me.), Testimonial (Wow you can get two for the price of one! You will never find this anywhere else!), Transfer (When you go into that ballot tonight, who do you think God would vote for!), Fear (This man is an anarchist and he will ruin your economy, kicking you and your children out of your own homes, vote for the right choice, the choice that will bring this country back up on the right track), Logical Fallacies (RFID Tags are implemented in the hand or the forehead, RFID Tags implements the number 666, RFID Tags are the mark of the beast), Glittering Generalities (We have right as americans and as people of democracy, vote no on proposal 62), Name-Calling (Do you want a weak, bully to run this country, or someone who actually got somewhere in life?).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[191] viXra:1302.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-16 07:55:32

Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Particles

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 8 pages, including 31 figures. Published: Progress in Physics, 2010, v.3, p.53-60

Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers), local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[190] viXra:1302.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 10:02:41

Rest Mass is a Mathematical Delusion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Rest mass as defined by a mathematical physicist is a delusion. Everything on Earth and in outer space is moving, meaning nothing is at rest and cannot possibly have rest mass. Their vague definition fails miserably to cover this basic understanding of nature. Explanation is provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[189] viXra:1302.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-01 10:28:14

The Definition of Knowledge

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustration

Plato described knowledge as a “true justified belief” but this is too complicated because what is true is arguable, what is justified is arguable and what constitutes a belief in relation to the two is arguable. Plato’s definition of knowledge is vague, inconsistent and depends on the opinion of the person or group. A more encompassing easy to understand definition of knowledge is given with a little explanation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[188] viXra:1301.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-28 10:26:05

The Definition of Time

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

A definition for time is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[187] viXra:1301.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-22 21:20:57

Commentary on Questioning the Possibiltiy of Asteroid Hit

Authors: Andrew Nassif, Talal Khalaf
Comments: 2 Pages. This document is a commentary rather then a research report. All of the items in the paper are opinions provided by real scientist.

The relationship between weather forecasters and the age of the Earth based on gravity of the earth now I think that the ground will change speed less spin around itself due to the change in the angle of rotation of the earth on its axis any increase angle and the occurrence of a major disaster in the ground in the coming years, or rather 2013. Had previously occurred disasters in the ground and there is evidence to prove it?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[186] viXra:1301.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-22 10:24:17

Alternatives to Radiation

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Radiation can often be found in devices we use everyday such as cell phones, wrist watches, laptops, and televisions. My research well include all these plus ways to avoid them. I will also make sure to talk about nuclear power and its harms and benefits as well as designs that can shorten usages and causes of radiation. The largest source of radiation is radioactive material found in soil. The second largest source of radiation is man-made radiation which is emitted in our everyday lives. "It is said that we literally live in a sea of radiation," says Dr.Dade W. Moeller. It is said that the largest sources for man made radiation are the United States, Russia, China, Japan, and the UK. This ranks the United States the highest source of radiation emitters, meaning that we cause much man made radiation in the public alone.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[185] viXra:1301.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-20 15:36:59

Failure of the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations

It is now common knowledge that the entire standard model of particle physics is wrong. Any Wikipedia page or scientific article that strives to explain anything with particles is probably wrong and can be disregarded as arbitrary.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[184] viXra:1301.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 13:34:33

Using Hydropower as an Electrical Resource

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages.

Renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight, water, or geothermic heat. One of the most common uses for renewable energy is hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity can be used for power plants such as the hoover dam power plant which supplies this country with 1/3 of its electricity, making it the biggest power plant in the country. The three largest power plants in the world are: the Three Gorges Dam, the Itaipu Dam, and the Guri Dam. Hydropower does
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[183] viXra:1301.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-13 13:57:22

The Decline of Global Per Capita Renewable Internal Freshwater Resources

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 8 Pages.

Supplies of per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are declining at alarming rates around the globe, necessitating efforts to better manage population growth and the use and distribution of freshwater. All major geographic regions saw substantial reductions in per capita renewable internal freshwater supplies between 1962 and 2011. Over this period, the global per capita freshwater stock declined by 54%, with decreases of 75% in Sub-Saharan Africa, 71% in the Middle East and North Africa, 64% in South Asia, 61% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 52% in East Asia and the Pacific, and 41% in North America. At current rates of depletion, global per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are projected to decline by 65% compared to 1962 values before stabilizing, having regional variation ranging from 60% in East Asia and the Pacific to 86% of the Middle East and North Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to reach a negative per capita renewable internal freshwater balance by the year 2120. Per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are declining more rapidly in low income countries than their middle and high income counterparts. All countries except Hungary and Bulgaria experienced declines in their per capita renewable internal freshwater supply between 1962 and 2011. Most countries (55%) experienced a decline of between 60% to 80% in per capita renewable internal freshwater resources over this period. The majority of nations are projected to maintain positive per capita renewable internal freshwater balances under steady-state conditions, although overall declines of between 80% to almost 100% from 1962 levels are dominant (~52% of all countries). A group of 28 nations is projected to reach zero per capita internal freshwater resources within the near future. African countries dominate the list of nations projected to reach zero per capita internal freshwater resources, comprising 16 of the 28 countries - of which six are landlocked. A further group of 25 nations have data records that are too short, and recent population dynamics that are generally too complex, for reliable trend extrapolation. Close attention will need to be paid to the per capita renewable internal freshwater resource trends for these countries over the coming decades in order to obtain a better understanding of their resource depletion rates.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[182] viXra:1301.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-11 10:49:37

Presentation of Hydrostatic Equilibriums

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 6 pages not including title and sources

Hydrostatic Equilibrium is a condition in which volume of the fluids are staying at rest or reaching a constant velocity. This term is very important in Physics, especially in fluid mechanics. This presentation will basically guide you easily to research in the field.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[181] viXra:1301.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-09 17:14:20

Fundamentals of Stoichiometry & Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stoichiometry is one of the most major branches in chemistry that deals with the relative qualities and quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry is based on the "Law of Conservation of Mass". Stoichiometry is broke into the subjects of: Reaction Stoichiometry and Composition Stoichiometry. Reaction Stoichiometry describe relationships of substances during a chemical reaction. Composition Stoichiometry describes the quantitative mass among elements and its relationship with compounds. Next their is Gas Stoichiometry which is part of Reaction Stoichiometry. Gas Stoichiometry involves chemicals and compounds in its relationship that involves gases, such as steam or burning magnesium. The term Stoichiometry itself derives from the greek word, "stoicheion metron", which means element measure or measurement of an element. Stoichiometry relies on scientific laws in chemistry to understand things better. The main use of Stoichiometry is to balance equations in chemical reactants.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[180] viXra:1301.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-05 06:56:34

Chrono Logic

Authors: Giorgio Fabretti
Comments: 11 Pages. "Chrono Logic" is a conceptual link of General Science and Philosophy, that some scholars required and would appreciate - in English - to "The Time and The All", printed, in Italian, on General Physics, on Vixra as well.

The Chrono Logic is the operational 'gravitational' abstract logic force that shapes the time conceived as an oriented dimensional field. To help imagine such a concept, let us imagine a non-paved country muddy street, lined with the footprints of animals, people and charts that have stepped into the muddy clay in different times. We can read in the dried materialized footprints the rhythmic cycles of walking people or wheeling charts. Investigative Police could even find relevant evidence for a Court, in analyzing the dried footprints, just like technological videocamera record the robbers of the night before at the nearby Seven Eleven market shop. A visionary philosopher of science, Giorgio Fabretti, even conceived the whole material universe as an immense footprint left by Logic in the Memory of Time, that is in the moldable clay of Time, whose Memory consists in its capacity of drying up and keeping witness of what happened. But why Time would need to materialize in dried footprints? The answer is "Logic". In fact, Logic is a "Concept that wants to become Reality". It is a biblical meaning, much more ancient than Greek classical philosophy. Having the creational definition of implementing a design, Logic tends at least to confirm itself by becoming dynamic, and so generating its time dimension. In the Greek Pagan Olimpus, leading gods had Chronos as a specialized god to serve and implement their divine designs on a mundane scale. The most advanced experimental physicists, who invented the atomic bomb and the computerized network to defend themselves from its destruction, have not developed a conception of the universe radically different from Biblical or from Greek ancestors. In contemporary natural sciences, the material reality is still a footprint of Logos on the Memory of Time. Now that you have heard this concept, it might seem as obvious as the password of your Credit Card. But, ask a thief to guess your password! How long would him take to guess? You might be waiting as long as your dog needs to typewrite by chance the Divine Comedy on your computer. It maybe took centuries before a philosopher and a scientist, Giorgio Fabretti, could climb on the shoulder of many scientists and discoveries, and see the 'ethical theory' of Synchronic Materialism (including Chrono Logic), theoretically leading to such a password definition of Logic and Time: where Time (Operational Chrono) serves the material purposes (Memory) of an excited logical field (Logic) oriented (Ethics) toward (Dynamic Time) a pristine equilibrium (Design. It is an elaborated cognitive historical anthropological equivalent, of the 'restored symmetry in the Big Bang vision', in theoretical physics. At the same time it is an elaboration of a computational vision of the material universe, as a 'classroom board', working as a flash memory for the teacher, to develop algebraic equations for his students till the final result. After the lesson ends, we would have had the creative mind of the teacher marking with chalk the blackboard and leaving a material storyboard of the cognitive stages of the equation - a sort of logic world map - that, through intrinsic logic energy, would lead to the final result: whose design finally implements the pristine creative idea of the teacher, who feels then calm, quiet, having been his duty accomplished. These are very simple visionary metaphors of how 'Reality's Clockwork' can be represented in the 3rd millennium. At the same time those metaphors help a wide non-specialized audience to understand the Chrono Logic' concepts. As Kuhn explained "it is a revolutionary cognitive jump', useful to stimulate new ways in the empirical researches. The major achievement is 'the link between Logic and Time', before physical concepts like Energy, Matter, Mass, Space are involved. Such a 'privileged position' of Logic and Time, has been consolidated after the limits of the theoretical physics occurred in the 20th century. As an instance: Einstein 'spacetime' theory ended on a dead alley, and could not realistically explain the dimensions and the timing of the universe, letting the door open to all kind of literary physics, even by well seasoned academics like Stephen Hawking. If a Sistine Chapel portrait of the universe has no better technique than painting, than it is better to call a complex artist like Michelangelo, while humankind waits for a Galileo Galilei to give a more coherent portrait. If a new Copernican world map was not yet ready, a Christopher Columbus was welcome to tell the 'tale of the western way to the Indies', as long as he could get financed by the Spanish Queen the 'discovery' of the Americas. History has not changed much since 1500. It is just a past time of 500 years, in a world where many people - like Prof. Fabretti - have been living in an eight hundred years old intact apartment in Viterbo, or wakes up in Rome facing a two thousand years old stadium called Colosseum. The nickname 'Coliseum' was first attributed to the Flavian Amphitheater by an erudite English monk of the 8th century, called 'Venerable Bede', who also stated that "world will last until Coliseum will stand". Indeed he had to come to Rome to get a 'worldvision', because Rome was, and still is, a place "where Time happens", and Colosseum still symbolizes today, to millions of tourists, 'The Temple of All Times'. Not by chance Prof. Fabretti - who used, when he was a child, to play 'hide-and-seek' and football inside the Colosseum - wrote an essay entitled "The Chronosseum", to add his 'chronologic' nickname to that of the English monk Bede in the 8th century. "Time is where space happens. And it is time to shape space, in the history of the universe, whose movie in the 'present' is just a still frame": it is how Fabretti puts it in his 'Chrono Logic vision'.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[179] viXra:1301.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-04 19:34:14

How Et, or an Intelligent Robot from the Future, Might Interpret Science and Maths

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

This suggests Lavoisier was correct to include heat and light in his list of the known elements. They aren't matter but they contribute to the formation of matter, according to quantum mechanics and the rewriting of Einstein's famous equation as m=E/c^2 (with our understanding of space-time being increasingly dominated by the Theory of Everything, it's important not to limit investigations to the material world but to consider matter's relation to energy ... and to the 4 fundamental forces). As we'll see, this more integrated way of viewing the universe leaves no room for the Standard Model's version of the Higgs field and boson. As well, it requires us to take another look at cosmology's Steady State theory and to reconsider 1) electroweak unification, and 2) quarks (Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow wrote on p.49 of their book "The Grand Design", "It is certainly possible that some alien beings ... would make the same experimental observations that we do, but describe them without quarks." So I’ll try to become a Little Green Man and describe quarks, and everything from quantum physics to the origin of life to cosmology, in a way that agrees with science’s observations but is also “alien”.) The words “Supplementary Material” in the text refer to material which is in no way essential to this article but merely additional, non-required, reading. It’s my earlier viXra submission “How the Pioneer anomaly refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time; and how equations he developed in 1919 show that the space warping in General Relativity extends to subatomic particles …”
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[178] viXra:1212.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-30 16:06:38

Hyper Klein Bottle Logophysics Ontopoiesis of the Cosmos and Life

Authors: Diego Lucio Rapoport
Comments: 131 Pages. Accepted for publication in Analecta Husserliana; copyrighted in IntellectArchive.com, Canada

HyperKleinBottle surfaces and their logics; the latter incorporates interrelations and hyper-contextualizations within an heterarchy of Otherness. We introduce the associated logo-physics, as a basis for the unification of science and phenomenology, by surmounting the Cartesian Cut. Dualism is found to be a projection of the former logic, not an independent primeval ontoepistemology. We present the phenomenology of these logics, with regards to the geometries and topologies of space and time; of thought and language; of semiosis and its geological, cosmological and astronomical signs linked to the Myth of Eternal Return; of perception and cognition; of the common ontopoiesis of life and the inanimate realms, and of biological shape departing from embryological development and its unfolding as body-plans and their anatomy-physiology, and discuss its bearing in evolutionary theory, all which we present as embodiments of this non-dual ontoepistemology. We contrast this paradigm with: 1) the dualism of the theory of autopoiesis and the purported interior/exterior divide, as a general principle, which these logics subvert by self and mutual reentrances of the heterarchies; 2) the dual membrane of cell biology; 3) evolutionary theory associated to the metabolic versus genomic dualism; 4) the mereological fallacies of the neurosciences and the hypercontextuality of metaphors and anthropomorphisms; 5) the dualisms of Newtonian physics, Einstein’s relativity and quantum mechanics which are found to be epistemic theories, and the assumption of non-contextualization in physics, chemistry and geology which we show not to be the case; 6) the psychophysics of visual, aural and musical spaces, 7) the anatomy-physiology of the sensorium and the healing reconstitution of integrity; 8) in the division of epistemology and ontology, of language and process, and the top-down and bottom-up systemic, and finally 9) the issue of design related to turning-inside-out of a sphere (the ovum), yet transcending creationism. We present their surmountal through the ontoepistemologies of the Klein and Hyper-Klein Bottles surfaces, of hyper-contextuality and complexity. We discuss teleological causation and design of processes/structures, in particular in paleogeology, physics, chemistry and biology, in terms of the latter ontoepistemologies and of the Golden Mean, generated by time waves and their guidance by the Fibonacci Algorithm. We apply this ontoepistemology to the interpretation of religious texts and discuss the relations with the evolution of science. We discuss the two-dimensionality of biology and the lifeworld, novelty and the time operators.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[177] viXra:1212.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-24 10:57:41

What "ETHICAL MATERIALISM" Means in the 3rd Millennium

Authors: Giorgio Fabretti (id.code: FBRGRG51E18H501B)
Comments: 6 Pages. A updated definition of "Ethical Materialism" abstracted by the original philosophical essays of Giorgio Fabretti on the unity of ethicity and materiality on a common ground of logical and synchronic reality.

"What ETHICAL MATERIALISM means in the 3rd millennium" is the title of a synthesis from the original philosophy of Giorgio Fabretti, Doctor in Philosophy and Anthropology since 1973 in the University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy, cured and translated by the editors of the foundation "Fondo Fabretti". The originality of "Ethical Materialism" is the unifying conception of reality as a relational 'continuum' of ancient and new dichotomies like logic versus matter, axioms vs. systems, ethical vs. realistic, subjectivity vs. objectivity - conceived through a sort of 'copernican cognitive evolution', due to his scientific studies on quantum physics, cybernetics & DNA discoveries - leading to a 'Weltanschauung', a vision of reality, an 'updated map of the universe', where matter directly comes from logic, it is made of logic, it never loose logic, it is driven by logic that operates in what humans in the 3rd millennium represent as stringent stochastic fractal logarithms: being the 'stringent' factor what human self-consciousness define as "the material properties of reality", being the Man the human factor within the logic operations. Being reality conceived here as a time-set logic system generating matter, it is possible to conceive its axiomatic foundations as the ethical premises and guides of logic operations, leading to an evolutionary design, a balanced synthesis of ethical and material reality, free fundamental choices (both in the 'big bang' universe and in self-conscious 'weltanshauung') and material (stochastic, non-linear, fractal) complexity. The synthetic definition of "ETHICAL MATERIALISM", (as explained in the attached short 6 pages) was a needed reference to update its meaning in the panorama of the new conceptions in GENERAL SCIENCE , radically evolved after the new scientific discoveries in Phisics, Computer Sciences and DNA Biology and Anthropology. Since it appears worldwide that all the epistemological conceptions of the past millennium have suddenly gone obsolete, straight into the Science Museums, this radically original systematic approach was a 'due attempt' to finally break the many conceptual 'ancient walls', between ethical and material reality, between human social sciences and natural mathematic sciences.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[176] viXra:1212.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-16 13:56:18

Nutritional Balance of Potato Crisps (Introduction)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of potato crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Potato crisps had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 44.98-fb, being particularly biased towards deficiency in fiber. They were also adequate in carbohydrate and sugar, high in fat, saturated fat and sodium, and low in protein.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[175] viXra:1212.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-15 02:00:43

Explaining the “Pioneer Anomaly” by Refinement of Gravitational Physics, and Related Topics Ranging from Cosmic to Human to Quantum Levels

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 16 Pages.

How the "Pioneer anomaly" refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time; and how equations he developed in 1919 show that the space warping in General Relativity extends to subatomic particles (with related topics: deflection of starlight, Optical Effect, electromagnetism, intergalactic and time travel, teleportation, the nuclear strong and weak forces, Theory of Everything or Unified Field Theory, quantum entanglement, retrocausality, dark matter, dark energy, Mobius strip, Klein bottle, Poincare conjecture, planet Mercury, precession, General Relativity, gravitation, dark flow, infinity, hidden variables, virtual particles, binary digits, wormholes, cosmic strings, quantum fluctuation, tides, origin of life, science-based eternal life, 5th-dimensional hyperspace (I think this can be called “prespacetime” which is a non-temporal and non-spatial domain theorized to be the foundation of spacetime), and the Law of Conservation of Energy).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[174] viXra:1212.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-13 03:26:41

Fruit as a Synchronic Gift

Authors: Giorgio Fabretti
Comments: 17 Pages. Resume by the Fruitarian Association (Associazione FRUIT in Italy) (Fruitarian Society of Gandhi re-founded in Italy 1972)

Translated resume from Giorgio Fabretti’s essays on the following subjects: WHAT MEANS HAVING REFOUNDED FRUITARIANISM SINCE OVER 40 YEARS (1972-2012); ETHICAL MATERIALISM APPLIED TO COMPLEXITY OF NUTRITION; MANAGING HUMAN EATING IN TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION; Bioethical foundations of fruit eating; “FRUIT = GIFT = SYNCHRONIZER THINK GLOBAL = SAVE THE PLANET SAVE YOUR HEALTH = SAVE YOUR MONEY … TROUGH EATING FRUITS (at least a 90-95% of the calories in your diet“; … resumed according to the ethical science of the anthropologist Giorgio Fabretti, founder of Fruitarianism, that means the philosophy of gift (of synchronized reciprocal just opportunities rather than predatory quantitative redistribution of goods), that is re-adapting humans to their moral nature of respecting people, animals, plants and environment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[173] viXra:1212.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-12 13:28:26

Nutritional Balance of Potato Crisps (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of potato crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. The distribution of nutritional balance clustered into two groups. The median was located at BNI 67.85 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 33 (P16) and BNI 78 (P84). There was a slight negative skewness (mean=61.02, zSkew=-1.29) as most of the products were grouped towards the unbalanced end.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[172] viXra:1212.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-10 14:35:54

Bni of Kinds of Corn Chips (Introduction)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Some corn chips are sold under generic brands (eg, a supermarket brand) while others are sold under proprietary brands. Thus, it is of interest to test whether such characteristic informs about overall nutritional balance (BNI) and, thus, whether it may help choose more balanced products. As part of a research on the nutritional balance of corn chips (2012a), Perezgonzalez (2012b) also assessed whether generic and proprietary brands differed in regards to overall nutritional balance. This article summarizes that research.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[171] viXra:1212.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-09 14:47:49

Bni of Kinds of Corn Chips (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

As part of a research on the nutritional balance of corn chips (2012b), Perezgonzalez assessed whether generic and proprietary brands differed in regards to overall nutritional balance. This article provides descriptive information both about the sample of products under research (foodBNI) as well as about hypothetical diets based on those products (dietBNI).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[170] viXra:1212.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-06 20:44:51

Bni of Kinds of Corn Chips (Inferential Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

As part of a research on the nutritional balance of corn chips (2012b), Perezgonzalez assessed whether generic and proprietary brands differed in regards to overall nutritional balance. This article provides inferential information both about the population of products under research (foodBNI) as well as about hypothetical diets based on those products (dietBNI).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[169] viXra:1212.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-04 19:34:37

Sleep Disruption on the Asia–Pacific Route

Authors: YIU Kam HP [ed]
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Lin, Qiu and Perezgonzalez (2010) presented the results of a study by Qiu (2010) examining the sleep pattern disruption suffered by a group of flight attendants working on an Asia-Pacific route. Results indicated that the rapid time zone transitions of about four hours affected the participants’ sleeping pattern, and that a longer duration of their sleep did not necessarily indicate better sleep quality. Furthermore, on the first day of arrival, some participants elected to adopt the local time to cue their sleep. These participants had a shorter duration of sleep and found it harder to wake up the following day. However, after that first day, all participants showed similar sleep attributes despite the different sleep strategy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[168] viXra:1212.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-03 15:44:50

Scandinavian SD - The SAFE Way; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Scandinavian SD - The SAFE Way", which can be found at: http://vixra.org/abs/1207.0045.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[167] viXra:1212.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-01 20:06:13

Protection of the Earth from the Asteroid

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 7 Pages.

For Protection of the Earth from asteroid we need in methods for changing the asteroid trajectory and theory for an estimation or computation the impulse which produces these methods. Author develops some methods of this computation. There are: impact of the space apparatus to asteroid, explosion the conventional explosive having form of plate and ball on asteroid surface, explosion the small nuclear bomb on the asteroids surface, entry asteroid to Earth atmosphere, braking of asteroid by parachute. Offered method may be also used for braking of apparatus reentering in the Earth from a space flight. The offered theory also may be used for protection the Earth from impact of a big asteroid.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[166] viXra:1212.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-02 04:00:28

Finding the Fine Structure of the Solutions of Complicate Logical Probabilistic Problems by the Frequent Distributions

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 4 pages, including 9 figures. Published: Progress in Physics, 2010, v.4, p.36-39.

The Author suggests that frequent distributions can be applied to the modelling the influences of stochastically perturbing factors onto physical processes and situations, in order to look for most probable numerical values of the parameters of the complicate systems. In this deal, very visual spectra of the particularly undetermined complex problems have been obtained. These spectra allows to predict the probabilistic behaviour of the system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[165] viXra:1211.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-28 16:30:19

Judgements of Likelihood Under Hypoxic Conditions (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Gilbey et al (2010) carried out a pilot study for ascertaining whether mild hypoxia led to more optimistic (or pessimistic) judgements about the likelihood of certain life events than otherwise. This article provides detailed descriptive information about the results of that research.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[164] viXra:1211.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-23 07:40:52

pygrametl: A Powerful Programming Framework for Extract-Transform-Load Programmers; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 48 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "pygrametl: A Powerful Programming Framework for Extract-Transform-Load Programmers", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1651291.1651301.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[163] viXra:1211.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-21 19:08:01

Judgements of Likelihood Under Hypoxic Conditions

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Gilbey et al (2010) carried out a pilot study for ascertaining whether mild hypoxia led to more optimistic (or pessimistic) judgements about the likelihood of life events than otherwise. Their results showed that a small group of participants did not change or only slightly changed their judgements about life events under normal and hypoxic conditions. That is, overall optimistic judgement did not change but remained slightly above average. Particular judgements did increase or decrease slightly depending on the condition, but perhaps not enough as for suggesting any sensible effect of mild hypoxia on judgement. Changes occurred in either direction, depending on the judgement, and so there was no tendency for just optimism (or pessimism) to appear more extreme under mildly hypoxic conditions than under normal conditions within this group.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[162] viXra:1211.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-20 22:29:47

Combining Snacks for the Mind with Extracts from Other Vixra Postings

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 9 Pages.

These are 6 short “Snacks for the Mind” combined with excerpts from “Intergalactic Plus Time Travel; Hyperspace and Space-Time’s Nature”, “Tomorrow’s Science Today”, “A New Earth And A New Universe”, etc. I’ve changed sentences here and there in the last 4, in an attempt to express my main thoughts (they were all very brief at first but #5 has become lengthy and #6 has had a long PS/PPS added to it – the PS talks about immortality while the PPS talks about Infinity, ESP, God and Satan the Devil). The first 2 are things I’ve been thinking about during the last week or two. Snack #1 - Cancer cells are incredibly difficult to eradicate completely. So let's take a lesson from the martial arts and use their own strength against them. Let them live - but only after they've been bioengineered to mutate back into healthy, functional cells and tissues that reproduce at a normal rate. Snack #2 - Can radio telescopes and infrared telescopes be adapted to allow amateur astronomers to view celestial phenomena through clouds and rain? Snack #3 - Reconciling the Dark Flow with the Poincare conjecture and Figure-8 Klein bottles to reinterpret parallel universes, cosmic strings and wormholes. Snack #4 - Cosmic-Quantum Unification and Einstein being centuries ahead of his time + Intergalactic and Time Travel Snack #5 - MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) that fits in your pocket or purse; De=Hv+G (Dark Energy = Hidden Variables + Gravitation) Snack #6 - God's existence proven by combining the inverse-square law with quantum entanglement! This Physics of the Impossible means evolution is not the Origin of Species - origin is due to a suprapantheistic unity of spacetime's spatial, temporal, hyperspatial, material, personality and mental parts; forming a union with humans in a cosmic unification (we know this as God). But "evolution" is still responsible for changes (adaptations) within species.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[161] viXra:1211.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-20 01:14:14

Snacks for the Mind More Details at Http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

These are 6 short “Snacks for the Mind” (Food for Thought that I’ve written during the last 2 days). Actually, most of these snacks are from articles I posted to vixra months ago. I’ve only changed a few sentences here and there in the last 4, in an attempt to express my main thoughts very briefly (but still clearly). The first 2 are things I’ve been thinking about during the last week or two. Snack #1 - Cancer cells are incredibly difficult to eradicate completely. So let's take a lesson from the martial arts and use their own strength against them. Let them live - but only after they've been bioengineered to mutate back into healthy, functional cells and tissues that reproduce at a controlled rate. Snack #2 - Can radio telescopes and infrared telescopes be adapted to allow amateur astronomers to view celestial phenomena through clouds and rain? Snack #3 - Reconciling the Dark Flow with the Poincare conjecture and Figure-8 Klein bottles to reinterpret parallel universes, cosmic strings and wormholes. Snack #4 - Cosmic-Quantum Unification and Einstein being centuries ahead of his time + Intergalactic and Time Travel Snack #5 - MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) that fits in your pocket or purse; De=Hv+G (Dark Energy = Hidden Variables + Gravitation) Snack #6 - God's existence proven by combining the inverse-square law with quantum entanglement! This Physics of the Impossible means evolution is not the Origin of Species - origin is due to a suprapantheistic unity of spacetime's spatial, temporal, hyperspatial, material, personality and mental parts; forming a union with humans in a cosmic unification (we know this as God). But "evolution" is still responsible for changes (adaptations) within species.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[160] viXra:1211.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-13 17:11:46

Simulation: Nutritional Balance of Breakfast Meals

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article presents the results of a simulation on the nutritional balance of breakfast meals, carried out as part of a research on the nutritional composition of breakfast in New Zealand. A breakfast meal is understood as a combination of breakfast cereals with water, milk, non-dairy milk or yogurt.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[159] viXra:1211.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-08 10:29:40

The Trouble with Believing and a Possible Way Forward ...

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 13 Pages.

As suggested by the modern view and use of the "axiomatic method" in science, a view and use which has placed belief to a very simple deep level and thus far away from the "axioms", as similar approach is suggested in religions. This would create a joint framework upon which both science and religion be based, and could pursue their development in appropriate ways, including possible useful interaction. Within such a joint framework, science would focus on those Laws of Nature which act more or less instantly, while religion would - as has always done it - focus on the Laws of Nature which need not always manifest themselves immediately.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[158] viXra:1211.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-07 09:36:50

John von Neumann and Self-Reference ...

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 12 Pages.

It is shown that the description as a "frog" of John von Neumann in a recent item by the Princeton celebrity physicist Freeman Dyson does among others miss completely on the immesnely important revolution of the so called "von Neumann architecture" of our modern electronic digital computers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[157] viXra:1211.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-05 16:07:20

A Scienceographic Comparison of Physics Papers from the arXiv and viXra Archives

Authors: David Kelk, David Devine
Comments: 9 Pages.

arXiv is an e-print repository of papers in physics, computer science, and biology, amongst others. viXra is a newer repository of e-prints on similar topics. Scienceography is the study of the writing of science. In this work we perform a scienceographic comparison of a selection of papers from the physics section of each archive. We provide the first study of the viXra archive and describe key differences on how science is written by these communities.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[156] viXra:1211.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-02 14:52:30

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces; in a Poster

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a poster of the paper entitled "Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces".
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[155] viXra:1210.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-29 17:24:24

Extensica. Fotojurnal Instantaneu Din Canton

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 171 Pages.

Cum să traduc din engleză în romȃnă cuvȃntul Extenics (care este conectat cu Extension)? M-am gȃndit la „Extenică” pentru început, romȃnizare a noţiunii, dar mai descriptiv se arată neologismul „Extensică” (amintind şi de Extins, sau Extindere - traducerea lui Extension). EXTENSICA este ştiinţa rezolvării problemelor contradictorii din multe domenii, introdusă de profesorul chinez Dr. Cai Wen în anul 1983. (Autorul) *** Această carte, despre sudul Chinei, continuă noul gen literarartistic lansat de Florentin Smarandache în 2004, numit FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit, bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite. (Editorul)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[154] viXra:1210.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-26 10:47:04

Faster than Light Speed as Arbitrary

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 reference

There is no experiment to have shown that light travels at a rate faster than 299,792,458 meters per second. Therefore any hypothesis that claims to have measured objects ejecting material in outer space at rates faster than light are simply arbitrary and ad hoc. Scientists can either keep the laws that we understand and can test, or they can make up fantasy after fantasy to suit their imaginations’ desire.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[153] viXra:1210.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-26 10:28:41

If Anything Can go Wrong, Pass it on to Someone Else! = Florentin’s Laws =

Authors: F. Smarandache
Comments: 26 Pages.

Being paradoxist in nature, Florentin’s Laws are especially deviations, modifications, generalizations, contra-sayings, parodies, or mixtures of the previous Murphy’s Laws and Peter’s Laws. And also of aphorisms, proverbs, known citations, clichés, scientific results (from physics, mathematics, philosophy, ...), etc. Alternatively, collations of opposite ideas - gathered from folklore, from ads, from literature, from familiar speech. For example, Murphy’s law “Anything that can go wrong will go wrong” which in Peter’s law is stated as: “If anything can go wrong, Fix It!” becomes in Florentin’s law, through deviation: “If anything can go wrong, pass it on to someone else!” in a Machiavelli way, as a mixture of pessimism / optimism and laugh! In the above example, while Murphy’s law output is negative and Peter’s law output is positive, Florentin’s law output is indeterminate [perversity] as in neutrosophic logic (i. e. the problem has not be solved, but passed to another person!... it’s a trickery (deception, cunning, dodge, swindle, caper, subterfuge). Each Florentin's Law should include: negative (pessimism) and positive (optimism) attributes, while its conclusion should be moderate – often trickery bended with humor.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[152] viXra:1210.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-26 10:38:22

The Art of Wag

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 19 Pages.

This is a unique booklet comprised of advices and possible tips you can use on how to make the best out of your pet/dog in workplace and other situations. Some of these gems come from our own experience, and some come from watching these practices surrounding us. As our last advice before you jump through this book, (a) do these advices at your own risks; (b) managing the dog outside is much easier than managing ‘the dog’ inside yourself; (c) don’t take your dog to workplace/office if you are not confident enough that your dog is always at your side.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[151] viXra:1210.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-19 18:08:09

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces".
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[150] viXra:1210.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-18 18:26:49

Nutritional Balance of Cured Meats (2e)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez studied the nutritional balance of cured meats in 2011. He found that sandwich-ready cured meats in New Zealand tend to be highly unbalanced, with average BNI values of around 145.09 (foodBNI). When cured meats are considered as part of a diet (ie, all cured meats are consumed approximately in the same proportion over time), such hypothetical diet show an average nutritional balance of BNI 140.91na (dietBNI), being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sodium. Being an animal-derived product, they are also high in protein, fat and saturated fat, and low in carbohydrate, sugar and fiber.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[149] viXra:1210.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-18 08:50:21

Cometary Ejection of Venus from Jupiter as Arbitrary

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The hypothesized ejection of a cometary Venus from Jupiter by Velikovsky is reliant on multiple arbitrary considerations and can be disregarded.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[148] viXra:1210.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-17 14:13:13

Nutritional Balance of Rice Milk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of (standard) rice milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Rice milk is made from rice and water. The average rice milk (in this sample) is low in protein, high in carbohydrate and sugar, low in fat and saturated fat, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, rice milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 42.17s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[147] viXra:1210.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-17 11:19:20

Seventh International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 216 Pages.

Paradoxism was set up and led by Florentin Smarandache since 2012. Paradoxism is a literary, artistic, and scientific movement based on excessive use of antinomies, paradoxes, contradictions in creations. There are 33 writers from 6 countries who contributed to this anthology: - from Chile: Pablo NERUDA; - from Germany: Bernd HUTCHENREURTHER; - from India: B. VENKATESWARA RAO; - from Israel: Morel ABRAMOVICI; - from Romania: George ANCA, Marian APOSTOL, Adrian BOTEZ, Gheorghe BURDUŞEL, Eugen EVU, Sergiu GĂBUREAC, Dumitru HURUBĂ, Liviu-Florin JIANU, Ion MARINESCU - PUIU, Mircea MONU, Doru MOTOC, Janet NICĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU – URICANI, Octavian PALER, Tudor PĂROIU, Ion PĂTRAŞCU, Marinela PREOTEASA,Andrei RADU, Puiu RĂDUCAN, Adriana STOENESCU, Ion URDA; - from U.S.A.: Tom DEIKER, Greg HALL, Kyle REVERAL, Wm MEYER, Mary Ellen WALSH, Eric PIERZCHALA, Peter SPECKER - TWIXT, Florentin SMARANDACHE.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[146] viXra:1210.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-17 10:21:49

Extensica în Conventional şi Neconventional

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Paroiu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Extensica nu este altceva decît mult discutata interdisciplinaritate aplicată în practică care în realitate este studiu al simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Ea nu analizează doar două sau mai multe contrarii sau “rezolvarea problemelor contradictorii” ea studiază şi încearcă rezolvarae simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Mai exact ea nu studiază doar contrariile ca elemente bipolare ci relaţia dintre două entităţi/univers nu neapărat contrare.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[145] viXra:1210.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-17 10:46:45

Quantum Mechanics is a Sociological Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that quantum mechanics is a sociological phenomenon and is not a scientific theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[144] viXra:1210.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-16 17:53:22

Nutritional Balance of Flavored Low-Fat Soymilk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of flavored low-fat soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Flavored low-fat soymilk is an illustrative example of the "unbalancing" effects of added sugar to an otherwise closer to nutritional balance low-fat soymilk. Indeed, the average flavored low-fat soymilk (in this sample) turns out to be adequate in protein, carbohydrate and fat, low in saturated fat, low in fiber, high in sodium, and extremely high in sugar. On average, flavored low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 79.18s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[143] viXra:1210.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-16 07:02:20

Equilibrium Theory of Everything :Energy Mass Relation

Authors: Samit Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Equilibrium Theory of Everything : Reformulating Energy Mass Relation..
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[142] viXra:1210.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-14 18:11:54

Nutritional Balance of Low-Fat Soymilk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Low-fat (light, or lite) soymilk is made from soybeans and water, and contains around 1.3% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average low-fat soymilk (in this sample) is adequate in fat and low in saturated fat, but also high in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and high in sodium (for its energetic content). On average, low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 27.08s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[141] viXra:1210.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-12 08:37:11

Conservation

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Because this is a General Systems website, I will occasionally point out parallels between the intuitive world views and systems of antiquity, mythology, and religion, and the rational world views and systems of modern-day science, as these convergences urge themselves upon me. This is not to be construed as advocacy of any religion, but as a further demonstration of the fractal nature of reality, including that of our intuitive perceptual modes. Nevertheless, I have no doubt that the existence of such parallels, whether consciously recognized or not, is one reason why the major religious systems have persisted so long and so successfully. I use Christian examples only because that is the religion in which I was raised and am most familiar with. Similar examples could certainly be found in the other major religions by those familiar with them - JAG.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[140] viXra:1210.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-11 19:49:40

Nutritional Balance of Standard Soymilk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Standard (original or regular) soymilk is made from soybeans and water, and contains around 3% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of standard soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average standard soymilk is high in fat but low in saturated fat, adequate in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, standard soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 43.16f, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of fat.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[139] viXra:1210.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-10 21:42:51

Nutritional Balance of Skimmed Milk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of skimmed milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Skimmed milk (including skim, low-fat, and trim milk, as well as fat-free, and super-trim milk) is that containing very little fat (around 0.2%). This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of skimmed milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average skimmed milk (in this sample) is low in fat and saturated fat, high in protein, adequate in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and high in sodium (for its energetic content). On average, skimmed milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 123.16s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[138] viXra:1210.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-09 16:51:38

Nutritional Balance of Semi-Skimmed Milk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Semi-skimmed (semi-skim, light, lite, or reduced fat) milk is defined as that containing about 1.7% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average semi-skimmed milk (in this sample) is adequate in fat but high in saturated fat, high in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, semi-skimmed milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 96.37s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[137] viXra:1210.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-08 14:19:20

Nutritional Balance of Standard Milk

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008). Standard (whole or full cream) milk is defined as that containing around 3.5% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of standard milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average standard milk is high in fat and saturated fat, but also adequate in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, standard milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 86.80s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[136] viXra:1210.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-07 19:31:48

Ergonomization Attitudes in General Aviation

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Casner explored the attitudes of general aviation pilots towards advanced cockpit systems (ACS, namely glass-cockpits) in 2008. He asked a group of general aviation pilots from the California Bay area about their attitudes towards ACS. Although the majority of pilots did not have flying experience with glass-cockpit aircraft, Casner's research found that, in general, pilots believed that ACS were a positive step forward, even when they also perceived them to be potentially problematic. These and other related attitudes towards ACS are not necessarily based on direct experience, thus they may not be particularly reliable and may only represent an idealistic understanding of ACS and their features.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[135] viXra:1210.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-07 11:23:09

The Reification of Space has Ruined Science

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

The reification of space on the deepest levels has ruined humanities’ ability to explain universal form and function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[134] viXra:1210.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-06 17:46:34

Ergonomization Needs in General Aviation

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez, Gilbey and Diaz Vilela explored the ergonomization needs of general aviation pilots in 2010. Namely, they asked a group of pilots which technological features (including costs) they thought were important to their main general aviation flight activity. The group was mostly made of New Zealand and North American pilots flying for purposes such as training, instructing, business and recreation. Yet, it included airplane, helicopter and glider pilots, male and female pilots, and pilots with licences ranging from no-licence (ab-initio student) to ATPL. The research found that, overall, the cost (of acquisition and operation) of any technology was the main worry for general aviation pilots (the results also suggested that this might be more important than any other benefit the technology may bring to their flying). Yet, among ergonomic features, all those supporting flight operations (from the calculation of weight and balance to traffic avoidance features) were also of medium importance. Less important were features such as tracking and real-time monitoring, followed by post-flight analysis and 3-D displays.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[133] viXra:1210.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-03 18:33:16

Ergonomization Needs of Student Pilots

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez & Lee explored the ergonomization needs of student pilots in 2009. They asked a group of student pilots which technological features they wanted to have when flying (with costs also included as part of those features). They also valued the selected features on their relative importance to each other. Overall, the student pilots valued highly technological features that helped them with their flying (eg, onboard display of navigation charts, airspace awareness functionality, pre-flight route planning, and TCAS functionality), low running costs, post-flight analysis displayed on navigation charts, and equipment portability.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[132] viXra:1210.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-02 22:49:12

Mistake About Time Travel by “Doctor Who” Writer

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 10 Pages.

On page 19 of "Doctor Who Magazine 447", Steven Moffat says "Time travel is impossible." Ouch!! That comment hurt. Here's a detailed, nonfictional explanation of why time travel is not impossible. [While the planned Mars mission of 2018 is robotic, we cannot limit our sights to that since we hope to follow with manned exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030’s. The physical bodies and psychology, as well as technology, we possess now or will possess in the foreseeable future are not well suited to prolonged space travel (e.g. our brains and bodies are vulnerable to radiation, muscle and bone loss, abnormal psychology, etc. when travelling in space … and simply reaching nearby stars would take hundreds or thousands of years). However, there is an alternative to astronauts (or cosmonauts, or taikonauts) reaching Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. We can thank the theories of Albert Einstein, an electrical engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in 2009, and some conclusions that logically follow from Einstein/Yale, for pointing the way to this alternative. When fully developed, the “Einstein-Yale Bridge” will take us anywhere in the universe and anywhen in time.]
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[131] viXra:1210.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-02 15:00:14

Nutritional Balance of no-Added-Sugar Chocolates

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of sugar-free chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 2011. He found that a sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Sugar-free chocolates, however, differed from other chocolates in also being adequate (or low) in sugar and, consequently, low in carbohydrate. On average, no-added-sugar chocolates have a nutritional balance of BNI 82.73f, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of fat.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[130] viXra:1210.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-01 17:10:54

Nutritional Balance of Sugary Chocolates

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of sugary chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 2011. He found that a sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Chocolates with extra source of sugars (eg, added caramel) differed from other chocolates in also being high in sugars and high in carbohydrate. On average, sugary chocolates have a nutritional balance of BNI 128.26s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugars.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[129] viXra:1209.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-30 21:46:09

Nutritional Balance of Typical Chocolates

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of typical chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 20111. A sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile yet differed enough as to being able to be separated into particular categories. The most populated categories shared a nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Typical chocolates, the most frequent category, differed from the others in also being high in sugar but low in total carbohydrate. On average, the typical chocolate has a nutritional balance of BNI 126.94-fb, being particularly unbalanced towards deficiency in fiber.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[128] viXra:1209.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-27 16:16:38

Balanced Nutrition Index (BNI)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™)7 is a technological application for assessing the nutritional balance of foods, recipes and diets. It uses dietary recommended intakes (RDIs) in order to analyse the nutrition composition of foods and assess their nutritional balance. Thus, it is able to index foods according to such balance. The BNI underlying principle is quite simple: subtract actual macronutrients contribution to foods from 'ideal' macronutrients contribution, add the differences and, in so doing, compile a unique figure that allows indexing a given food product according to its degree of nutritional balance (or, rather, unbalance).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[127] viXra:1209.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-27 05:12:29

TOE:Equilibrium Theory ,Wave Model & Grey Body Radiations

Authors: Real Samit
Comments: 7 Pages.

Grey Body Radiation and Interpretations of Intensity, Temperature and Wavelength Graph
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[126] viXra:1209.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-26 16:53:19

Nutritional Evolution of Chocolate Bars

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional composition of chocolate snack bars in New Zealand and Australia has remained unchanged in the four years between 2007 and 2011, according to a research done by Perezgonzalez (2011). That is, although individual chocolate bars may have changed slightly in nutritional composition, the average chocolate bar in 2007 and the average chocolate bar in 2011 were practically the same. Using a sample of 15 chocolate snack bars of the same brand and make for both periods, Perezgonzalez found no significant differences in either the nutritional composition of the snack bars or their overall nutritional balance. The average nutritional balance was BNI 124.05s in 2007 and BNI 123.53s in 2011, hardly any change at all. Results were also very similar for individual macronutrients, which showed that an average chocolate bar is extremely low in protein and fiber, and extremely high in sugars, fat and saturated fat; on the positive side, it is also extremely low in sodium.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[125] viXra:1209.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-20 18:38:12

Balanced Nutrition

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The concept of 'balanced nutrition' is a difficult one to anchor to a particular idea, namely because it is used for referring to different things. An appropriate dictionary meaning for balance when referring to nutrition is "to compute the difference between the debits and credits (of energy)", as well as being "nicely or evenly balanced, such as a well–balanced diet" (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2005). Thus, the concept of "balanced nutrition" in science could be restricted to using it for referring to the equilibrium in the amount of energy or nutritional chemicals ingested in relation to the energy or nutritional chemicals spent (Webb, 1995). A diet which provides either an excess or a deficiency of energy or nutrients can, thus, be considered to be unbalanced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[124] viXra:1209.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-19 22:55:56

Iphone GPS Reliability in General Aviation

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The reliability of the iPhone's GPS tracking feature was assessed empirically by Perezgonzalez in 2010. The research used an iPhone and a specialized tracking device (Spidertracks) on the same training flight. At the end of the flight, the data collected by both technologies were compared. More specifically, data regarding four flight parameters were correlated to assess the tracking variability of the two technologies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[123] viXra:1209.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-18 14:43:11

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 4 Pages. Appeared in the 20th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2012), Redondo Beach, California, The United States

Geographic information systems traditionally dealt with only outdoor spaces. In recent years, indoor spatial information systems have started to attract attention partly due to the increasing use of receptor devices (e.g., RFID readers or wireless sensor networks) in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Applications that employ these devices are expected to span uniformly and supply seamless functionality in both outdoor and indoor spaces. What makes this impossible is the current absence of a unified account of these two types of spaces both in terms of modeling and reasoning about the models. This paper presents a unified model of outdoor and indoor spaces and receptor deployments in these spaces. The model is expressive, flexible, and invariant to the segmentation of a space plan, and the receptor deployment policy. It is focused on partially constrained outdoor and indoor motion, and it aims at underlying the construction of future, powerful reasoning applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[122] viXra:1209.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-17 11:14:05

Ultimae Priorities for Space and Space Science

Authors: Paul. J. Werbos
Comments: 5 Pages. In press invited to inaugural issue of journal Space Philosophy

This paper asks what serious philosophy says about the ultimate goals and figures of merit, for use in evaluating and guiding activities such as NASA and other space program. It begins with a condensed review of a new viewpoint in philosophy, "the philosophy of sanity and integrity," citing papers in Neural Networks in more detail. More controversially, it presents concepts of the soul grounded in that philosophy, but also addressing more data from experience, bearing upon our goals in space and on earth as well.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[121] viXra:1209.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-14 13:38:57

A case study on Stuxnet and Flame Malware

Authors: K F Morton, David Grace
Comments: 5 Pages.

A vast numberof malware is packed by packers. Obfuscation tools are not only cost effective and readily available but also provide an effective camouflage to malware code. Unpacking and analyzing the malicious code may appear aoptimum solution to this problem; but provided with gigantic number of malware being released every single day, this is not a tranquil peace of work for security companies and researchers. In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of packer problem with practical demonstration of their effectiveness and we will be reviewing various generic techniques to handle this problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[120] viXra:1209.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-08 14:47:15

The Failure of the Gravity/Fusion—Centric Model of Astronomical Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is proposed that there are root assumptions that are stagnating human beings’ understanding of astronomy related issues. A few of these assumptions are listed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[119] viXra:1208.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:43:49

Experimental Work on Horizontal Axis PVC Turbine Blade of Power Wind Mill

Authors: H. S. Patil
Comments: 11 Pages.

Growing concern for the environment degradation has led to the world’s interest in renewable energy sources. Wind energy is rapidly emerging as one of the most cost-effective forms of renewable energy with very significant increases in annual installed capacity being reported around the world. The favoured form of turbines used for electricity generation purposes is the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) with low solidity ratio (ratio of blade area to swept area) and high tip speed ratio, λ = ΩR/Vwind, where R is the radius of the blades and Vwind is the wind velocity. This type of turbine has a high efficiency or coefficient of performance (Cp), but relatively low torque. Wind energy is kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. Wind energy systems for irrigation & milling have been in use since ancient times & since beginning of 20th century it is being used to generate electric power. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aero-generators can be used to charge large batteries. Five nations –Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain & India account for 80% of the worlds installed wind energy capacity. Wind energy continues to be fastest growing renewable energy source with worldwide wind power installed capacity. India ranks 5th in the world with a largest wind power capacities which have been established in commercial projects. In India the states Tamilnadu & Gujarat lead in the field of wind energy. There about a dozen wind pumps of various designs providing water for agriculture & domestic purposes all scattered over the country. Today India is a major player in global wind energy market. The present work was originally devised as a student project to examine the possibility of developing a small scale, high torque, self-starting HAWT for applications such as water pumping. In the following we outline the development of the concept of the PVC type HAWT, the development of a experimental setup of the device that includes the design, manufacture, commissioning and preliminary testing of the device
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[118] viXra:1208.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:44:37

Analysis of the Effect of Changes in Fuel Injector Position on Gas Turbine Combustion Efficiency Using Large Eddy Simulation (Les)

Authors: Shandy Kharisma Irianto, Gunawan Nugroho
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researches on gas turbine have been widely performed, especially on combustion chamber with a non-premixed combustion process. In this work, the research ofthe combustion chamber has been performed using the LES method. The aim of this study is to analyze the combustion process with various fuel injector angles and fuel rate. The analyzed aspects are flow pattern, temperature distribution and species concentration on stoichiometry condition. The mixing process between fuel and air at the combustion zone is affected by the increase in injector angle which, 33.55o (model 1) being the optimum injector angle to obtain the highest efficiency of 84.6%. It is noted that model 2 (injector 45o ) has the lowest emission containing waste gases of CH4 and CO, i.e. 0.75 and 0.089 times lower than those of model 1, respectively. However, the combustion efficiency of model 2 is lower than model 1, i.e. 82.7%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[117] viXra:1208.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:45:29

Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Caused by External Holes in Hydraulic Cylinders

Authors: A.N. El Kholy, M. A. Kamel, M. O. Mousa
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper evaluates simulations of holes in the wall of cylinder. The stresses generated incrementally in Finite Element Method under internal pressure. The holes, which can consider as a stress raiser, established in external surface. The effect of the hole depth, which varied between 0.5 to 4.5 mm, and the hole diameter, which varied between 1 to 2.5 mm, on the generated stresses are presented. It was found that, the hoop stress increase due to increase of the hole parameter, diameter and depth. Moreover, the characterizations of notch used to determine the maximum stress limit.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[116] viXra:1208.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:46:37

Static Response of Transversely Isotropic Elastic Medium with Irregularity Present in the Medium

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Madan, Anita Dahiya, Shamta Chugh
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the present paper, the closed form expressions for the displacements at any point of the transversely isotropic elastic medium with irregularity present in the medium have been obtained. A model is considered in which the irregularity is expressed by a rectangle shape and the medium is taken in a state of free from initial stress. To study the effect of irregularity present in the medium , the variation of displacements with horizontal distance have been drawn for different values of irregularity size. Also the comparison between the displacements for isotropic and transversely isotropic elastic medium is shown graphically. It is found that the irregularity have a notable effect on this deformation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[115] viXra:1208.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:48:22

TQM Model for the Competitive Advantages of an Electromechanical Company

Authors: Fabio De Felice, Antonella Petrillo
Comments: 18 Pages.

The present work shows the results of a study realized in an electromechanical company aiming at the qualification of a particular process, completely automatized. The work has been carried out by the employment of statistical techniques and instruments of Problem Solving. In particular, the determination of the causes of the main problems on this line has been realized by means of instruments such as the Ishikawa Diagram and Scatter Plots and Stratification. It was made the attempt to intervene on the main causes of the problems and to reduce each time the dispersion of the output values around the tendency value.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[114] viXra:1208.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:49:22

Titanium – Aluminium Intermetallic Thin Films Preparation by DC Sputtering and Their Characterization

Authors: Sudheendra P., A. O. Surendranathan, N. K. Udayashamkar, K. S. Choudhari
Comments: 6 Pages.

DC magnetron sputtering is a well-developed deposition technique for coatings and thin films used in industrial applications. The experiments were performed with unbalanced circular magnetron sputtering targets of aluminium (99.999%) and titanium (99.99%). Sputtering of aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) was carried out in pure argon (99.999%) atmosphere at base pressure of 4 × 10−6 torr and constant sputtering pressure of 5 × 10−3 torr. Substrate materials were mainly stainless steel (304) and aluminum plates. Characterization of TiAl films deposited onto different substrates was evaluated using XRD, SEM and EDS analysis techniques. The film surface and cross-section was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The TiAl phase was confirmed using XRD analysis. The composition of the TiAl film was determined using EDS technique. These characterizations revealed the growth of TiAl intermetallic thinfilm with a characteristic crystallite size of 123.9 Å and a lattice strain of 0.1352%. Also a columnar growth perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed repeatedly in our experiment. The microhardness of the TiAl film had an average value of 1873 HV.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[113] viXra:1208.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:50:16

Performance Effects of Increase in Hydrogen Percentage by Volume on CNG Sequential Injection 3 Cylinder S.i Engine

Authors: P. T. Nitnaware, J. G. Suryawanshi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Now days the Global warming has become the important issue. Nation is also facing the fuel crises due to increase in Automobiles sector. The blends of Hydrogen and CNG have the potential to satisfy Euro V norms with margin. Experimentation on 3 cylinder water cooled SI engine with eddy current Dynamometer, modified to CNG sequential Gas Injection system with varying percentage of hydrogen by volume shown the reduction in emission and increase in power output.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[112] viXra:1208.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:51:44

Effects of Inertia and Process Parameters on Isothermal High Speed Two-Layer Filament Jet Flow

Authors: Md. Abdul Wakil, Z. U. Ahmed
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper investigates the influences of inertia and process parameters on two-layer fiber spinning process for incompressible, isothermal and Newtonian filament jet flow. The present study focuses on the steady flow considering inertia, gravity and non-uniform velocity of each layer across the fiber. The governing equations are solved numerically as nonlinear two-point boundary value problem given the analytical solution is practically impossible. The effects of inertia and initial process conditions (draw ratio, initial velocity ratio and die exit radius ratio) are discussed. The velocity increases monotonically with the axial position in each layer due to inertia effect, at a rate that is relatively slower (faster) near the spinneret (take-up point) as Re increases. In contrast, the radii decrease monotonically with the axial position in each layer.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[111] viXra:1208.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:53:00

Study on Fuel Properties of Various Vegetable Oil Available in Bangladesh and Biodiesel Production

Authors: Md. Abdul Wakil, Z.U. Ahmed, Md. Hasibur Rahman, Md. Arifuzzaman
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present review aims to study the prospects and opportunities of introducing vegetable oils and their derivatives as fuel in diesel engines. Some fuel properties are always available in vegetable oils. In this investigation Cottonseed oil, Mosna oil and Sesame oil are chosen for producing biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Fuel-related properties of these oils are reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil with an alcohol such as methanol under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. Satisfactory amount of biodiesel is produced from Cottonseed oil at 3:1M ratio of methanol and oil. Biodiesel from cottonseed oil has various fuel properties which are similar to diesel. The cost of biodiesel production is also analyzed. This paper discusses in a general a perspective of biodiesel.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[110] viXra:1208.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:55:39

Some Innovations in Design of Low Cost Variable Compression Ratio Two Stroke Petrol Engine

Authors: A.Srinivas, G.Venkatasubbaiah, P.Venkateswar rao, M. Penchal Reddy
Comments: 9 Pages.

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, Internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. This paper deals with the design, analysis testing at different compression ratios, modification and engine fabrication. It is observed that the increase in compression ratio improves fuel efficiency and power output. The novelty in this work is to permit the two wheeler driver to change the compression ratio
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[109] viXra:1208.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:36:46

Analysis of a Wind Turbine Blade Profile for Tapping Wind Power at the Regions of Low Wind Speed

Authors: S. P. Vendan, S. Aravind Lovelin, M. Manibharathi, C. Rajkumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

The project is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. It is to be noted that most of the high wind power density regions in the zone of high wind speed are already being tapped and this offers a large scope for the development of this low wind speed turbines. Our study focuses primarily on designing the blade for tapping power in the regions of low wind power density. The aerodynamic profiles of wind turbine blades have crucial influence on aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbine. This involves the selection of a suitable airfoil section for the proposed wind turbine blade. The NACA 63 series is chosen as the basic group for investigation because they have good low speed characteristics and the power curve is better in the low and medium wind speed ranges. In this paper NACA 63-415 airfoil profile is considered for analysis of wind turbine blade. NACA 63-415 airfoil profile is created by using the co-ordinate file generated in JavaFoil. A C-Mesh Domain for the fluid around the airfoil is created using Design Modeler in ANSYS Workbench. The CFD analysis is carried out using STAR-CCM+ at various angles of attack from 00 to 160 . The coefficient of lift and drag values are calculated for low Reynolds number and the pressure distributions are also plotted. The airfoil NACA 63-415 is analyzed based on computational fluid dynamics to identify its suitability for its application on wind turbine blades and good agreement is made between results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[108] viXra:1208.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:37:55

Numerical Investigation of Supersonic Nozzle Producing Maximum Thrust For Altitude Variation

Authors: Muhammad Misbah-Ul Islam, Mohammad Mashud, Md. Hasan Ali, Abdullah Al Bari
Comments: 18 Pages.

The concentration of this numerical investigation is focused to generate data for developing optimum profile of Supersonic nozzle irrespective of the altitude of operation. The investigation has been carried out for different altitudes when the combustion conditions including combustion temperature, combustion pressure, specific heat ratio and molecular weight remain unchanged. Considering the aerodynamic issues, method of characteristics is chosen for profile generation. During the application of method of characteristics, exit pressure to atmospheric pressure ratio is maintained unity. The coding has been done in the MATLAB interface with an aim to generate maximum thrust at the outlet of the optimized supersonic nozzle. Both Mach and pressure distribution for maximum thrust generation are within the domain of interest of this investigation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[107] viXra:1208.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:38:50

Numerical Simulation to Describe the Soybean Glycine Max (L.) Drying Process: Influence of Air Velocity, Temperature and Initial Moisture Content

Authors: Camila Nicola Boeri, Oleg Khatchatourian
Comments: 12 Pages.

The production of soybean requires that the product is collected healthy and in advance, to minimize losses caused by the attack in the field of insects, diseases and microorganisms. Therefore and due to high moisture content at harvest, drying is one of the operations of primary importance among the techniques involved in the conservation of desirable qualities of products of plant origin. The objective of this work is to obtain the drying curves of soya, in the range of drying air temperature between 45 and 90°C, for the initial moisture content between 0.13 and 0.32 and drying air velocity of 0, 0.5, 0.9, 1.5 and 2.5m/s to determine the influence of these parameters in the process. The experimental phase was performed using a prototype of which was a hair metal tube with 0.15m in diameter, insulated throughout its surface with glass wool and canvas. The air was heated by six electrical resistance with power of 600W, while the temperature was controlled with the aid of thermocouples connected to the drying equipment. Were also performed numerical simulations, where the mathematical model used was proposed by Khatchatourian [1], and this search has changed the equation that describes the flow of mass, it is entering the parameters of air velocity and initial moisture content, obtaining a good agreement between experimental and simulated data. Was observed that the drying air velocity presents significant influence on the process, there is an increased withdrawal of water during the first hours of drying. Note that the influence of air temperature on the rate of drying is higher at the beginning of the experiment, reducing the processing time. The higher the temperature and airflow, the greater the drying rate and lower the total time of exposure to heated air.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[106] viXra:1208.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:39:43

Large Eddy Simulation (Les) of Effect in Swirl Number to the Efficiency of Gas Turbine Combustion

Authors: Farid Viko Bhaskarra, Gunawan Nugroho
Comments: 9 Pages.

A good mixing process are required in designing gas turbine combustor. Numerical simulations using Large Eddy Simulations are well suited to address these issues. In this study, a numerical simulation of non reacting flow in gas turbine combustor was performed. There were 5 variations of swirler’s angles (50 , 150 , 200 , 250 and 300 ). Perfomances of these new swirler were investigated. The main target of this investigation is to get the effect of swirler’s angle to combustion recirculation zone. The results show that the longest flame stagnation point of 45,26022 mm was obtained at 250 of swirler’s angle.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[105] viXra:1208.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:40:54

Life Prediction of Aileron Actuator Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kimi, Kyoungwoo Park, Hyeon-Hee Kim
Comments: 8 Pages.

The presented paper describes the application of a modern fatigue prediction tool based on FE-analysis results to highly specific to aerospace industry, fatigue life prediction a problem on a actuator system. The wings are mounted inside the actuator system in order to needs of aileron design and kinematic motion system and structural analysis, to ensure the structural safety analysis results are presented. FE Analysis can provide the estimation of the crack growth curves with sufficient accuracy, even in case of complicated aileron actuator structures which are crucial for preserving aileron integrity and which participate in transfer of load. Probability of crack detection or any other damage detection is a result of many factors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[104] viXra:1208.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:42:05

Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates Using Galerkin-Based Finite Element Method

Authors: Neffati M. Werfalli, Abobaker A. Karoud
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the present work a study of free vibration of thin isotropic rectangular plates with various edge conditions is conducted. This study involves the obtaining of natural frequencies by solving the mathematical model that governs the vibration behavior of the plate using a Galerkin-based finite element method. Cubic quadrilateral serendipity subparametric elements with twelve degrees of freedom are used in this analysis. Even though the order of polynomial used is the lowest possible, the effectiveness of the method for calculating the natura l frequencies accurately is demonstrated by comparing the solution obtained against the existing analytical results. The effect of the aspect ratio, the number of elements, and the number of sampling points on the accuracy of the solution is also presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[103] viXra:1208.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:43:02

Prospect of Bio-Diesel Production from Soybean Oil and Sesame Oil: an Alternative and Renewable Fuel for Diesel Engines

Authors: Md. Abdullah Al Bari, Hasan Ali, Mizanur Rahman, Rakibul Hossain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Energy is the prerequisite for modern civilization. Fossil fuel is still the main source of energy. But the endless consumption of fossil fuel has brought its reserve about to an end. As a result, fuel prices are gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. So we are always in search of alternative and cost effective fuels to meet our need. Diesel engines are more efficient and cost-effective than other engines. So diesel engines have versatile uses (i.e. automobiles, irrigation, power plants etc.). That is why; consumption of diesel fuel is much higher than other gasoline fuels. This paper estimates the feasibility of soybean oil and sesame oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. In the present paper, production of biodiesel from soybean oil and sesame oil, its properties and comparison of test results with the results of other biodiesels and diesel have been presented. Biodiesels are produced experimentally from soybean and sesame oils and obtained 89.75% and 82.64% respectively. Calorific values of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are obtained 41.57MJ/Kg and 43.67 MJ/Kg and the same for diesel is 44.5 MJ/Kg. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel extracted from soybean and sesame oils are 2.068*106m2/s and 2.292*106m2/s respectively while the same for diesel is 2.068*106m2/s. Again, flash point of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are obtained 96°C & 94°C and the same for diesel is 75°C. The production costs of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are Tk. 296.8 and Tk. 370 per liter respectively. These oils or any of its blends could be used as an alternative in case of crisis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[102] viXra:1208.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:55:33

Realization of Canopen Communication Control for Underactuated Anthromorphic Finger

Authors: Mohamad Khairi Ishak, Jamaludin Jalani
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternative control communication system through CANopen application which will be used for controlling an underactuated anthromorphic fingers. It is anticipated that the CANopen network can be developed easily and reliable to integrate with Bristol Elumotion Robot Hand (BERUL). The real-time network has to incorporate into dSPACE and a well-known Matlab Simulink-based controller prototyping system. Experimental result has proved that the CANopen is reliable to be implemented for underactuated anthromorphic fingers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[101] viXra:1208.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:56:58

Analysis of Piezoelectric Actuator for Vibration Control of Thin Cylindrical Shells

Authors: V. K. Srivastava
Comments: 10 Pages.

An analytical method is proposed for selecting the best suited actuator which can preferably be used in a variety of structural control applications. The selection is based on matching performance characteristics of the actuator, such as force and displacement, to the requirements of the given task. Relations between the mid surface strains and the strain induced in piezoelectric actuator due to application of electric field are derived to optimize the thickness of piezoelectric layer.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[100] viXra:1208.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:59:24

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Car by Vortex Generation

Authors: Md. Hasan Ali, Mohammad Mashud, Abdullah Al Bari, Muhammad Misbah-Ul Islam
Comments: 10 Pages.

One of the main causes of aerodynamic drag for sedan vehicles is the separation of flow near the vehicle’s rear end. To delay flow separation, bump-shaped vortex generators are tested for application to the roof end of a sedan. Commonly used on aircraft to prevent flow separation, vortex generators themselves create drag, but they also reduce drag by preventing flow separation at downstream. The overall effect of vortex generators can be calculated by totaling the positive and negative effects. Since this effect depends on the shape and size of vortex generators, those on the vehicle roof are optimized. This paper presents the optimization result, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects take place.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[99] viXra:1208.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:00:15

Through-Thickness Shearing Effects on Geometric Non-linear Behavior of Thin and Thick Functionally Graded Plates under Pressure Loads

Authors: M. Hajikazemi, M. H. Sadr, M. Ramezani-Oliaee
Comments: 11 Pages.

The effects of through-the-thickness shearing strain energy on the geometric non-linear behavior of thin and relatively thick rectangular functionally graded plates are studied in this paper. It is assumed that the mechanical properties of the plates, graded through the thickness, are described by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The plates are assumed to be under lateral pressure loads. The fundamental equations for rectangular plates of FGM are obtained using the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) for large deflection and the solution is obtained by minimization of the total potential energy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[98] viXra:1208.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:06:16

Modification of Determination Procedure of Numerical 3D Correction Factor (β) of Arcan Specimen

Authors: Masood Nikbakht, NaghdAli Choupani, Hossein Hosseini Todeshki
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper the mixed-mode interlaminar fracture behavior of Carbon-Epoxy composite specimens was investigated based on numerical analyses. Study of behavior of composite materials and determining their ultimate strength seems to be an essential issue in practical engineering. Hence, the behavior of Carbon-Epoxy laminated composite is studied numerically by modeling of Arcan specimen in ABAQUS finite element software. The modeling was fulfilled in the way that loading can be carry out in different loading angles and also analyses is repeated for wide range of crack length ratio between 0.1 to 0.9. The numerical analysis was performed with ABAQUS finite element software under a constant load of 1000 N. the entire test apparatus is modeled in both 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional. Results of numerical analyses are demonstrated is several diagrams. Also, a hypothesis about boundary conditions of 2 dimensional models is investigated and has been proved. The results show that some of conventional constraints must be modified to extract right correction factors from finite element models.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[97] viXra:1208.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:06:58

Modelling and Simulation of Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Naseem Ahmad Khan, Wasi ur Rahman
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents simulation investigation of a plate heat exchanger. Basically, it includes the development of a mathematical model to describe its operation and analysis. The model, after testing against the existing experimental data, has been solved to obtain the effect of various parameters like mass flow rate, number of flow channels, plate configuration and f low patterns. Model of a plate heat exchanger has been described by a set of continuity, momentum and energy equations with a number of simplifying assumptions. Heat transfer rate equation has also been included in the energy balance equation to take care of phenomena occurring therein. Mathematical model has been solved by the use of finite difference technique with interval of Δt =0.005s and Δz = 0.005m to obtain the transient and steady state behavior.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[96] viXra:1208.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:07:43

Production of Biodiesel from Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F.) seeds Oil

Authors: E.I. Bello, S.A. Anjorin, M. Agge
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, the work done on the extraction of oil from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F.) seeds, its transesterification methyl ester (biodiesel) and characterization is reported. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet extractor using normal hexane as solvent. The oil properties were measured and the free fatty acid was 3.59 mg KOH/g which is high for alkaline transesterification hence the oil was neutralized with hydrochloric acid before transesterification using with 3 g of sodium hydroxide per litre of methanol as catalyst and methoxide/oil in the volume ratio of 6:1. Gas chromatography analys is shows that the oil and its methyl ester contains primarily the short chain fatty acids oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2). The fuel properties were evaluated following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods for biodiesel. The fuel properties are very close to those of diesel fuel hence can be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Of particular importance is the high flash point which makes it a safe fuel and the low pour point will allows it to be used in cold climate.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[95] viXra:1208.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:14:48

Microstructural and Tribological Characterization of Tin Coated Aluminium Alloy (Al6061)

Authors: Anil Kumar H C, N.K. Udayashankar, Sudheendra P, H.S. Hebbar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Titanium Nitride (TiN) was deposited on aluminium alloy Al6061 using reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. X-Ray diffraction and EDAX confirmed the presence of TiN phase in the coating. Optical microscopy showed the golden bronze coloured TiN coating at a N2/Ar ratio of 0.47. Maximum composite Microhardness hardness of 2210 (HK) was obtained at 5g load for the coating deposited at a ratio (N2/Ar) of 0.60. The dry sliding wear behaviour was studied by pin-on-disc machine. Oxidation wear prevailed during the sliding test. Coatings deposited at a ratio (N2/Ar) of 0.47 and 0.60 showed better wear resistance as compared to uncoated specimens.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[94] viXra:1208.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:17:59

Appl Ication of the Hazard Rate Measure in Studying Change of Temperature in a Pulsating Heat Pipe

Authors: Pranab K. Barua
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this article, we have discussed the importance of applying the hazard rate measure in studying matters related to change of temperature in pulsating heat pipes. It has been found that the hazard rate decreases with increase in diameter of the heat pipe. Finally, it has been validated statistically that the hazard rate increases exponentially as the number of turns in the evaporator section of the heat pipe increases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[93] viXra:1208.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:18:43

Anti-Swing Control Strategy for Automatic 3 D.O.F Crane System Using FLC

Authors: Jamaludin Jalani
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a control strategy to overcome positioning control and anti-swing control for a 3 Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F) crane system. It is well known that the 3 D.O.F crane system is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves. It can be used to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. However, controlling the 3 D.O.F crane systems requires a good control method to achieve a high positioning control and in particular to suppress swing that produced during operation. Hence, choosing an appropriate control to resolve positioning control and swing angle is not a trivial task in particular to transfer payloads quickly, effectively and safely. Presently, the existing of 3 DOF systems used a conventional PID controller to control position and swing angle. The controllers were designed based on the model and parameter of the crane system. In general, modelling and parameter identifications are troublesome and time consuming. Therefore, we propose a Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) which has simpler and practical design approach. Effectively, it is anticipated that the FLC can be used to avoid a complex mathematical calculation which is always time consuming. In addition, the model derivation is often inaccurate due to the presence of nonlinearities and uncertainties. Throughout this paper, the FLC performances are compared with PID controller through experiment. The results showed that FLC has produced good result for positioning and anti-swing control for 3 D.O.F. crane system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1208.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:19:35

Optimization of 16” Plug Valve Body Using FEA And Experimental Stress Analysis Method

Authors: Deokar Vinayak Hindurao, D.S.Chavan
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the field of competition, all companies should supply their goods and services with high quality, in shortest period with lower prices than its competitors in order to keep their capacity and power to compete .Plug valves are machine elements which are commonly used for regulation of fluid, semi-liquid and granular medium flow on variety of tanks and pipeline systems. This paper discusses FEA analysis of Plug–valve body followed by Experimental stress analysis using strain gauge method for weight optimization. New optimized models were prepared on the basis of validation of the results obtained from stress analys is procedure. The weight reduction is done by changing the wall and rib thickness. The results clearly shows the maximum weight reduction is 24.86 kg (5.26%) weight of original weight while keeping maximum stress level up to 168.6 N/mm2 which is safe for the applied load.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[91] viXra:1208.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:20:47

Investigation of Thermal Performance of Electric Vehicle BLDC Motor

Authors: James Kuria, Pyung Hwang
Comments: 17 Pages.

Overreliance on petroleum products and environmental pollution from combustion emissions produced by automobiles has led to extensive research on hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and their components. A key component in these vehicles is the electric motor, used for traction as well as powering other appliances like the compressor. Overheating in electrical motors results in detrimental effects such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnet demagnetization, increase in Joule losses and decreased motor efficiency and lifetime. Hence, it is important to find ways of optimizing performance and reliability of electric motors through effective cooling and consequently reduce operating and maintenance costs. This study describes 3D CFD simulations performed on a totally enclosed air over fan cooled brushless D.C. motor to identify the temperatures of the critical components of the motor, and the effect of varying thermal parameters of these temperatures. The energy sources are obtained from electromagnetic losses computed using MAXWELL, a commercial FEA software and bearing losses obtained through numerical methods developed by the authors. A finned casing is used as the heat sink and the effect of varying the fin geometry on the cooling performance is examined using three heat sink designs. The results show that the highest temperature occurs at the end windings and that this temperature can be reduced by up to 15% by introduction of a suitable finned housing. These results show that CFD can be effectively used to optimize the cooling performance of electric motors. Experimental tests are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[90] viXra:1208.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:21:37

Effect of Post-Process Artificial Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of Sic Particle Reinforced Aa6061-T6 Surface Metal Matrix Composite Fabricated Via Friction Stir Process

Authors: Devaraju Aruri, Adepu Kumar, B Kotiveerachary
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper reports on studies of the influence of post-process artificial aging (PPAA) treatment on tensile properties of SiC particles reinforced AA6061-T6 surface metal matrix composite via Friction stir process (FSP). In FSPed composite the SiC particles were uniformly distributed in stir zone without any defect and exhibited higher micro hardness than as-received Al alloy. FSPed composite was exhibited lower tensile properties compared to as-received Al and after the application of post-process artificial aging treatment the tensile properties were increased around 50% than the untreated material at 170 o C for soaking period of 16hr.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[89] viXra:1208.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:22:34

Prediction on Reduction of Emission of Nox in Diesel Engine Using Bio-Diesel Fuel and Egr (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) System

Authors: Pooja Ghodasara, M.S. Rathore
Comments: 8 Pages.

Environmental degradation and depleting oil reserves are matters of concern round the globe. The search for energy independence and concern for cleaner environment have generated significant interest in biodiesel. It has shown that biodiesel fuelled engine produce less carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbon and smoke emission compared to diesel fuel but higher NOx emission. EGR is as effective technique to reduce NOx from diesel engine as it lowers flame temperature and reduce oxygen concentration in combustion chamber. The objective of this research is to investigate the usage of biodiesel and EGR simultaneously in order to reduce the emissions of all regulated pollutants from diesel engine. For this a single cylinder, air cooled, constant speed direct injection diesel engine was used and EGR was developed and fitted in engine. Various emissions such as HC, NOx, CO and smoke opacity were measured. The engine performance parameters were calculated from measured data.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[88] viXra:1208.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:48:24

Building a Prototype Prepaid Electricity Metering System Based on RFID

Authors: Fawzi Al-Naima, Bahaa Jalil
Comments: 17 Pages.

The prepaid meter is important in making the consumer having sense about his/her energy consumption which is important in eliminating the difficulties facing the electrical utility employee in getting the reading of the conventional electromechanical meter and eliminating any error incurred in bills issuing. This paper is aimed at developing a prototype of a management system for a prepaid electrical power meter. The designed prepaid meter consists of an RFID reader, a microcontroller, a digital meter and a wireless gateway. The proposed prototype metering system consists of two parts: clients and server. An RFID reader is used to read the ID of the credit card and a PC connected to a hardware simulated circuit which is designed and implemented to simulate the operation of the digital meter. The server is located in the local substation which receives the card’s ID from clients and sends ID’s information back to the client after checking and/or updating the database.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[87] viXra:1208.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-16 17:33:09

[86] viXra:1208.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-13 14:31:59

Consciousness, Time and Complexity

Authors: Vahid R. Ramezani
Comments: 11 Pages.

We explore the connection between the mind and the brain. We propose that consciousness is the consequence of processing information and that the solution to the binding problem does not entail quantum mechanical coherence or entanglement. We argue for an alternative inspiration from quantum mechanics and quantum field theory based on time-energy uncertainly: not to reduce consciousness to a quantum wave function but to see what quantum mechanics teaches us about information, time, complexity and transformation. We introduce three postulates and a law governing cognitive systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[85] viXra:1208.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-12 06:16:56

Unus Mundus is the Immanent + Transcendent ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 4 Pages.

Recently, in [3], a non-ontological definition of ontology was suggested with the help of four questions. Here several immediate developments are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[84] viXra:1208.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-11 04:24:17

Four Questions Can Define the Transcendental ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 3 Pages.

Usual definitions of the {\it transcendental} are given by {\it ontological assumptions}. Typical in this regard are those in various theologies or philosophies. And needless to say, such ontological assumptions can easily be challenged, if not in fact, they actually do invite such challenges. Plato's Cave Allegory in his book "Republic" is an exception, since it can be seen as a definition of the transcendental, albeit rather indirectly and through a quite involved story. And as such, it is not at all about any ontological assumption, but only about gnoseology, epistemology and pragmatics. Here, a similar definition of the transcendental is suggested, namely, a definition which does not use any ontological assumption, and instead, it only refers to gnoseology, epistemology and pragmatics. The novelty is in the fact that the mentioned definition consists of nothing more than four successive {\it questions}.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[83] viXra:1208.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-08 19:53:09

A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 44 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SERE.2012.25.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[82] viXra:1208.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-03 10:57:20

The Application of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems to Scientific Theories

Authors: Michael James Goodband
Comments: 24 Pages.

It is shown that there-exist conditions for which scientific theories qualify as Gödel’s 'related systems', and that observable features can exist which cannot be derived within the scientific theory. However, this is just a descriptive problem arising due to restricting scientific theories to be in physically-real terms, and can be circumvented by the use of non-physically-real terms, which is shown to give a derivation of Quantum Theory. Incompleteness is also shown to be possible in scientific theories of living cells, ecosystems and the economies of nations. The impact on natural language descriptions of these systems is also considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[81] viXra:1207.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 19:44:52

Belief in Information Flow; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 38 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Belief in Information Flow", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CSFW.2005.10.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[80] viXra:1207.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 19:52:59

Two Uncertain Things; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 41 Pages.

This is a slide presentation that deals with the notion of uncertainty in Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[79] viXra:1207.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 19:59:23

Data Anonymization Techniques; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Anastasia Tugaenko, Viktoria Gingina, Kira Matveeva, Mikhail Chupilko
Comments: 19 Pages. Presented at the Summer School in Software Engineering and Verification (SSSEV 2011), Moscow, Russia

This is a slide presentation that deals with data anonymization techniques.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[78] viXra:1207.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 20:05:09

Refining a Quantitative Information Flow Metric; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 44 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Refining a Quantitative Information Flow Metric", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NTMS.2012.6208689.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[77] viXra:1207.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 20:10:15

Effective Density Queries on Continuously Moving Objects; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 32 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Effective Density Queries on Continuously Moving Objects", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDE.2006.179.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[76] viXra:1207.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 20:15:18

An Adaptive Updating Protocol for Reducing Moving Object Database Workload; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 35 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "An Adaptive Updating Protocol for Reducing Moving Object Database Workload", which can be found at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1920841.1920935.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[75] viXra:1207.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 20:13:26

Prin Batrana Europa (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 167 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a lansat un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit, numit FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[74] viXra:1207.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-27 20:28:04

The BagTrack Project - An Overview

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Asif Iqbal Baba, Tanvir Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. Presented at the Second European Business Intelligence Summer School (eBISS 2012), Brussels, Belgium

This is a poster that gives an overview of the BagTrack project http://daisy.aau.dk/news/news.php#bagProbl.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[73] viXra:1207.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-21 04:48:43

Theory of Hyperobjects

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 108 pages + cover page. Russian. Published: MAX Press, Moscow, 2001.

By topological modelling some indications of a global cult of ancient priests were detected. Further studying of the cult gives discovering of some important objects. Among others very nontrivial results in tectogenesis are obtained.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[72] viXra:1207.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-17 22:58:15

Extention Transformation Used in I Ching

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we show how to using the extension transformation in I Ching in order to transforming a hexagram to another one. Each binary hexagram (and similarly the previous trigram) has a degree of Yang and a degree of Yin. As in neutrosophic logic and set, for each hexagram there is corresponding an opposite hexagram , while in between them all other hexagrams are neutralities denoted by ; a neutrality has a degree of and a degree of . A generalization of the trigram (which has three stacked horizontal lines) and hexagram (which has six stacked horizontal lines) to n-gram (which has n stacked horizontal lines) is provided. Instead of stacked horizontal lines one can consider stacked vertical lines - without changing the composition of the trigram/hexagram/n-gram. Afterwards, circular representations of the hexagrams and of the n-grams are given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[71] viXra:1207.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-15 19:44:38

One Reality of Universe Within Universe

Authors: Pal Asija
Comments: 38 Pages. Keep up the good work

A Systems View of One Reality of the Universe (FTPRDNBU) within Universe (IEVACXUU) delineating its Size, Structure and Soul and Our Special Status on the Privileged Planet. This paper and concomitant presentation comprise a Systems View of One Reality of the Universe (FTPRDNBU) within Universe (IEVACXUU) delineating its Size, Structure and Soul and Our Special Status on the Privileged Planet. It build upon a previously presented and published paper at an NPA forum by the author with a similar title. As the title implies, it is based on the premise that there is only one reality in-here and out-there notwithstanding multitudes of perceptions thereof. Accordingly problems in theory and practice of sciences cannot be solved without solving the problems in theory and practice of spirituality and vice versa. At the top level it begins with a systems view of the universe which by definition is one (Universe = All that there is) within what existed prior to its creation ex nihilo and sua sponte. An essential aspect of our universe is gravity which is created by combined effect of three motions in 3D Euclidian absolute space in three orthogonal frames of reference which are fed all the way back to earth via Virgo Cluster(s), Milky Way and the Solar System each in three different orthogonal planes. 1) Orbit of the earth around the Sun in the plane of the planets in the first frame of reference (horizontal plane along vertical axis) 2) Solar system around Milky Way Black Hole in the plane of the Milky Way which is perpendicular to the plane of the solar system in the second orthogonal frame of reference (Vertical plane along horizontal axis) 3) Orbit of the Milky Way and local group and perhaps some other galaxies around Black Hole of the Virgo cluster in the third Frame of Reference (Lateral vertical plane along lateral horizontal axis) which is orthogonal to both the previous planes Solar system plane and Milky Way Planes. In further detail it is a potpourri of One Reality NOW (Nuggets of Wisdom). There are no taboo topics or sacred cows. One Reality ignores man made boundaries of knowledge domains or credentials of the originator of a particular perception of reality. Any contradictions are purged from One Reality by employing familiar mathematical techniques such as LCM (Lowest Common Multiple) and HCF (Highest Common Factor) amongst other. The author supports his position by examples from a wide range and variety of sciences and spirituality. The only chance for solving the one reality jigsaw puzzle is by sharing the pieces of the puzzle from all sources of one and only one reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[70] viXra:1207.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-12 02:49:11

Scandinavian SD - The SAFE Way

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 10 Pages. Appeared in the 5th International Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development (EESD 2010), Gothenburg, Sweden

People of various interests talk about Sustainable Development (SD) and in their talks they understand SD very differently. A lexicographer for example may define SD according to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary as "the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment". While a passer-by may happily dub her society as sustainable if it is providing her with her life needs while considering the needs of generations to come over a very long time. To take it to an extreme edge, the philosopher Luc Ferry [1] defines SD by saying: "I know that this term is obligatory, but I find it also absurd, or rather so vague that it says nothing!". In this paper we try to define and measure SD in Scandinavian countries using a novel mathematical approach. We rely on a non-concrete model for this purpose; namely the SAFE model, which is based on concepts derived from fuzzy logic. It is widely believed that the application of fuzzy logic brings powerful reasoning abilities in disciplines where concrete mathematical models do not exist; and SD is one such discipline. In fact, fuzzy logic is an outstanding tool for mimicking human thinking and foresight. Based on the SAFE model, we give a careful assessments of sustainability in each of the Scandinavian countries. We also undergo a trend monitoring combined with a sensitivity analysis in order to stand on the most important sustainability factors in each of these countries.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[69] viXra:1207.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-01 05:33:33

Chalmers Science School for International and Swedish Students

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 5 Pages. Appeared in the International Conference on Educational and Information Technology (ICEIT 2010), Chongqing, China

This paper will describe the implementation of competitively based and highly structured scientific programs in a framework of a science school at Chalmers University of Technology. We discuss the implementation, advantages and disadvantages of those programs, the requirements students and supervisors should fulfill, whether from the academia or from the industry, and we present the selection method of participants. We also reflect on the results of a survey conducted recently among Chalmers academic staff. We believe that the installation of this science school at Chalmers brings many advantages to students, starting with a better understanding of industry practices and ending with an easier path to recruitment. It further helps employers in efficiently administering the process of hiring students and in discovering technological breakthroughs. Moreover, it enables the university to establish better connections with the industry and later use its feedback to enhance academic courses and the content of those courses. Our method derives from the successful practices of a pioneering science school at the Israeli Weizmann Institute of Science; namely the Kupcinet-Getz Science School for Israeli and International Students. The method further acquires practices from published literature of relevance to our discussion. We aspire Chalmers Science School to be a blueprint for any emerging or evolving science school at any educational institute worldwide.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[68] viXra:1206.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-20 06:41:46

Neutrosofia ca Reflectarea a Realităţii Neconvenţionale

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Păroiu
Comments: 130 Pages.

Oare omenirea chiar a ajuns la limita insensibilităţii sale unde este doar raţiune, unde sensibilul şi-a pierdut definitiv valoarea lui existenţială? Dacă este aşa înseamnă că Albert Camus are dreptate “singura soluţie logică este sinuciderea”. Ca să fugim de tenebrele morţii, de coşmarurile pe care noi înşine ni le propunem în numele ei avem cîteva soluţii printre care evident sinuciderea, sau de ce nu optimismul spectacolului vieţii. Sinuciderea este un veritabil faţă de optimismul reprezentat de -ul neutrosofic. Dacă acceptăm sinuciderea sau echivalemntul său este ca şi cînd am accepta să ne tăiem propria cracă de sub picioare, ori noi filozofii nu am inventat un ca să devenim noi înşine nici măcar nu l-am inventat, doar l-am promovat ca să devină vizibil. Aşa spune şi Brîncuşi că el nu crează frumosul, el doar înlătură materialul inutil pentru a ne fi nouă mai uşor să descoperim frumuseţea de lîngă el. La fel şi noi definim (dăm la o parte) pentru frumuseţea şi sensul lui , ca să fie vizibilă frumuseţea existenţei noastre în faţa inexistenţei. De inexistenţă îi este teamă oricărei existenţe, chiar şi Universului în Sine, poate doar Inexistenţei în Sine nu îi este teamă de ea însăşi, sau poate oamenilor care în existenţa lor uită sau nu ştiu că există.
Category:
General Science and Philosophy

[67] viXra:1206.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-12 16:42:21

Unstructured Matter

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 4 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Free macro bodies have a natural tendency to gradually reshape themselves to perfect spheres in three dimensional space. Sub-structured macro bodies tend to increase their existence into most number of spatial dimensions. This is the result of (apparent) interactions between its constituent matter particles. Contrary to this tendency of macro bodies, pure (unstructured) matter particles tend to reduce their existence into minimum number of spatial dimensions. This contradictory behaviour of matter (in its pure state and in sub-structured state) can be shown as the basis of all physical phenomena in nature, including creation, sustenance, (apparent) interactions and eventual destruction of macro bodies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[66] viXra:1205.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-13 03:33:15

Albert Einstein Shows Us The Way To Nonsurgical Sex Changes, Instant Intergalactic Travel And Time Travel (To Use A Few Dramatic Examples)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is the (possible) culmination of premonitions I've been having about the future of science for about 30 years. My ideas often come to me in a flash, almost fully formed. Sometimes I read something in a science magazine which gives me a feeling that it's incredibly special for some reason. Then I think about it for a few hours and end up writing down things that are insanely ridiculous according to present science (but I have no doubt everybody will accept them in the future). My latest article - I shouldn't call it mine because it feels like knowledge that belongs to the whole universe throughout all time - began with explanation of instant intergalactic and time travel which I then adapted into a scientific explanation for how magick spells work and how sex changes can be performed using only the mind. This last example relies on something which stimulates the emotions, and shows that emotion can be used to stimulate the mind's reasoning processes (of course, any medical doctor will tell you that it has only stimulated ridiculous insanity in my mind - a preconception reinforced by my lack of a university degree, or any formal qualifications beyond high school).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[65] viXra:1205.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-07 10:51:34

The Mythology of the Memristor

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 18 Pages.

Presentation from the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems discussing the mythology of the memristor in relation to the history of memory resistors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[64] viXra:1205.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-03 08:18:42

System Science: A Case Study of Solar Drying System

Authors: Timothy Eller, A. J. Kassler, F. Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

System science is an interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society and science. The aim of this study is to present a case study on the experimental performance of solar pump dryer. The drying curves are formed by the measurement of the material moisture content as a function of time under constant drying air condition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[63] viXra:1204.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-15 12:06:54

Not Before Christ, but B. DAS.: 47 Works

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 50 Pages.

A collection with 47 papers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[62] viXra:1204.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-12 21:49:32

Natural Operators, Social Operators and Symbolic Operators

Authors: Mark Burgin, Joseph E. Brenner
Comments: 45 Pages.

Operators, as both conceptual and physical entities, are found throughout the world as a common feature of human mind, nature and society. As a reflection, operators are the basic tool in physics, quantum chemistry and genetics, playing an important role in other sciences. Operators, and what they operate, their substrates, targets or operands, have a wide variety of forms, functions and properties. We systematize and study operators which range from the most abstract formal structures and symbols in mathematics and standard logic to real entities, human and non-human, and are responsible for effecting changes at both the individual and social level. The emphasis of this paper is on the analysis and characterization of relations between natural operators and operators in science. This allows us to explain the success of the operator approach in physics. By focusing on the nature and properties of operators in science and technology, we also acquire a possibility to achieve a more rigorous logical discussion of cognitive processes in the knowledge-centered information society. In this paper, we build an extensive classification of operators, demonstrate abundance of natural operators, explain how information operates in nature, analyze operators as a theoretical tool and describe to what extent a machine can be an operator. Studying self-operation, we explicate common features of several important phenomena, such as self-organization, self-regulation and self-management. Among our conclusions, we conjecture that the natural-social operator split provides a key criterion for determining what entities may be considered autonomous, morally responsible agents.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[61] viXra:1204.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-10 16:25:49

Universe from Nothing…Does Talking About Nothing Make Any Sense?

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 4 Pages. English + Italian.

Often, and especially in the last days, there is who talks about a Universe which appears from “nothing”; but does talking about nothing make any sense? Moreover, is it possible to imagine a perfect nothing? We will see that it’s exactly in those questions that one can find the legitimation for the Universe and for the physical consistency of its existence.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[60] viXra:1204.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-07 19:14:16

Multirelativitate (Interviuri)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 136 Pages.

Libertatea de a gândi altfel ne crează probleme – cu toată demagogia actuală despre democraţie şi libertate a presei politice sau ştiinţifice. Cine iese din gloată şi nu urmează orbeşte ceea ce declară mai marii (totuşi efemeri!) ai zilei, este pus la zidul infamiei. Deseori cei de la putere într-un domeniu au prezentat şi răspândit pseudo-gnoseologia lor ca... gnoseologie generală. Ontologia, după cum a fost văzută de cei de sus, a fost suprapusă/impusă celor de rând. Noi pledăm pentru un proces cogniscibil care să nu aibă îngrădiri de nici o formă. Din această cauză, hermeneutica se presupune a fi cât mai diversificată. Interviurile următoare împletesc cultura, ştiinţa, tehnica şi viaţa într-un multi-eu. De aceea volumul se numeşte multirelavititate: adică idei şi metodologii privite din unghiuri cât mai diferite de propaganda oficială. Gasiti in acest volum interviuri ale autorului cu: Valeria Tănase, Puşa Roth, Eugen Evu, Liliana Hinoveanu, Mihaela Năftănăilă, Puiu Popescu, Corina Negrea, Ion Jianu, Anca Lăpuşneanu, şi Marinela Preoteasa.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[59] viXra:1204.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-01 04:41:14

The Physical Universe as a Quantum Information Structure

Authors: Peter Kohut
Comments: 30 Pages.

The information essence of the Universe dominates over its physical aspect. Its dynamic hierarchic information structure is a manifestation of a divine Mind with its Idea (Intelligence), so the Universe is rational and comprehensible for us. Our individual consciousness as a part of universal consciousness of God deals with information carried by energy. Only consciousness can give the real sense to information coming to us from the objective world through energy supporters. Divine universal as well as our individual consciousness (subject) create the internal side of the Universe reflecting its external side (object) represented by structured quantum energy as a holder of divine information structure and architecture. Information encodes the creative power of consciousness. The physical Universe (non-living and living Nature) with its unbelievably rich information contents is a true food for our senses and our mind in the process of our conscious cognition and creativity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[58] viXra:1203.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2012-03-08 17:17:24

Impact of Video Games on Manual Dexterity

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 6 Pages.

The impact of video games on adolescent behaviour is well studied, with literature reporting both negative and positive relationships. This paper demonstrates a link between video game playing and time to complete a manual task. We conclude that the playing of 1 hour of video games has a dramatic effect on assembly time, more than halving the time to assemble the equipment, from 8 seconds to 4 seconds.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[57] viXra:1202.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-29 14:07:09

On Leveraging the Chaotic and Combinatorial Nature of Deterministic $n$-Body Dynamics on the Unit $m$-Sphere in Order to Implement a Pseudo-Random Number Generator

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to provide a short tutorial on how to implement a chaotic pseudo-random number generator using deterministic $n$-body dynamics on the unit $m$-sphere.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[56] viXra:1202.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-10 14:13:39

Group of Three

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 4 Pages.

Einstein's Energy Representation, Tunneling of Demand and On (Im)Proper Education.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1202.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-06 18:34:57

Causality vs Information: Postscript to "Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the 'tetrahedron Model'

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 Pages. postscript to an existing paper

While "Information" is a good and very general characterization of the fundamental significance of matter, both for the "Tetrahedron Model" and the Universe, it is not quite "active" enough in its meaning to successfully complement and connect to the other three conservation principles of the Tetrahedron Model. "Information" is an energy state or configuration, whereas the Conservation of Energy, Entropy, and the Conservation of Symmetry are aggressively protected conservation principles. Causality is also an actively protected conservation principle, and it connects with the other three in a very profound and illuminating way, as we shall hopefully see below. Meanwhile, although "Information" is to be demoted to a secondary position in terms of activity or action among the "Tetragrammaton" of conservation laws, it obviously remains of first importance as regards the description of the significance of the system in its entirety. It is in fact the potent combination of Causality and Information that makes up matter's "causal matrix" within the conservation domain of historic spacetime, the "Karma" and "Akashic Record" of metaphysical systems of thought. Causality and Information depend upon each other for much of their meaning, but the linkage to the remaining conservation laws is clearer and stronger in the case of Casualty. Finally, Causality necessarily implies Information, but not the reverse. Information therefore remains as a corollary of Causality. Information is a conserved parameter in quantum mechanics and in historical spacetime.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[54] viXra:1202.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-02 08:59:43

A General Systems Approach to the Unified Field Theory: Part 4 (General Systems Discussion)

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper is in four parts due to length

The author views certain religious, mythological, astrological, and occult "World Systems" or cosmologies as examples of ancient, intuitive General Systems which display relevant features of the universal 4x3 fractal algorithm, a pattern also seen in today's "scientific" or "rational" cosmologies. These intuitive systems are examined in the context of their General Systems properties only, without endorsement in any other sense.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[53] viXra:1201.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-31 11:57:15

Collection of Papers 2

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 36 Pages.

Collection of 34 papers, whose titles are: 3, A Term’s Spirit, Aggression and Trade, Aim Blockage and Diversification, Angle and Simplicity, Constancy Within Inconstancy, Defining Economic Demand, Demand-Line Realignment, Economic Numbers and Acts, Enclosing Representations, Geniuses, Tools and Phenomena, Goods, Services, People, Interspecies Similarity in Resource Affairs, Lines of Demand, Lines of Demand and Easiness of Economic Life, Observational Haze, Observer-Controlled Variables and Your Acts, On Complete Representation and Existence, On Luck, On Moving Observer-Controlled Variables, On the Universality of Possible Acts, On Work, Outside, Political Economy for Businesses, Problem Freedom and Significance, Problem Superiority, Problem and Aim Focus, Representational Truth-Crossing, Social Life, Inconstancy and Expenditure of Intellects, The Supply and Demand Face of Observers, Tools for Nothing, Understanding and Influencing Phenomena, Universality of Possible Acts and Intelligence, Unreachable Goals
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[52] viXra:1201.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-27 07:01:20

TOMORROW’S SCIENCE TODAY – Proposed Future Discoveries in Science, and How Everyone will see Everything Differently

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 427 Pages.

A broad outline of future discoveries concerning the workings of Nature, and of science's reconciliation with religion. "If a complete unified theory was discovered, it would only be a matter of time before it was digested and simplified ... and taught in schools, at least in outline. We should then all be able to have some understanding of the laws that govern the universe and are responsible for our existence." ("A Brief History of Time" by Stephen Hawking, Introduction by Carl Sagan) I saw a video ("Hidden Dimensions: Exploring Hyperspace") in which it was stated that mathematicians are free to imagine anything while physicists work in a very different environment constrained by experiment, and that the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-1988) said scientists work in a straitjacket. Well, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) said "Imagination is more important than knowledge" so let's see what happens when we throw away everyday tradition and conformity, let our imaginations fly (while trying to stay grounded in science and technology), and thus release science from its straitjacket!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[51] viXra:1201.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-19 20:43:23

Florentin Smarandache – Doctor Honoris Causa la Beijing!

Authors: Monu Mircea
Comments: 3 Pages.

„Doctor honoris causa” este un titlu onorific acordat de instituţiile de învăţământ superior unei personalităţi de mare prestigiu, din ţară sau din străinătate, pentru realizări deosebite în domeniul ştiinţei, tehnicii şi culturii, pentru servicii de mare însemnătate aduse patriei şi umanităţii.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[50] viXra:1201.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-19 20:54:55

Un Profesor Romȃn a Luat Premiul Statului New Mexico la Ştiinţă şi Matematică pe Anul 2011

Authors: M. Selariu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Profesoara W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, de la Institutul Indian de Tehnologie din Chennai - India, şi profesorul romȃn Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, au primit Premiul statului New Mexico la categoria Ştiinţă şi Matematică pentru cartea lor “Algebraic Structures Using Natural Class of Intervals”, publicată de Editura de Educaţie din oraşul Columbus, în anul 2011.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[49] viXra:1201.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-16 10:19:04

Neutrosophic Interpretation of the Analects of Confucius 弗羅仁汀·司馬仁達齊,傅昱華 論語的中智學解讀和擴充 —正反及中智論語 English-Chinese Bilingual(英汉双语)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Fu Yuhua
Comments: 268 Pages.

This book is the companion volume of "Neutrosophic Interpretation of Tao Te Ching,” its purpose is to extend the foundation and application range of “The Analects of Confucius.” The reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, we are willing to point out that The Analects of Confucius already has some limitations, because many questions we are interested in cannot be answered within “The Analects of Confucius.” For example, The Analects of Confucius basically discussed the matters in China, however considering all possible situations it should matter in foreign countries as well, i.e. the “global village.” This was impossible in Confucian time. Secondly, if the original The Analects of Confucius is regarded as “The Positive Analects of Confucius,” its opposite would be “The Negative Analects of Confucius,” while the intermediate or compound state is “The Neutral Analects of Confucius” or “The Neutrosophic Analects of Confucius.” Thus, our book presents the way to extend the original The Analects of Confucius in various neutrosophic interpretations. 本書是《道德經的中智學解讀和擴充—正反及中智道德經》的姊妹篇,其目的是試圖 從形式和內容上對《論語》進行求新、求變、求擴充的工作。首先我們願意指出,由於時 代的限制,《論語》具有很大的局限性,當代人感興趣的很多問題,在《論語》中根本不可 能涉及。舉例來說,《論語》討論的基本上都是中國的事情,然而考慮一切可能的情況,在 研究某些問題時,不但要考慮中國的事情,而且要考慮外國的事情,亦即考慮資訊網路時 代“地球村”的事情,這在孔子年代是不可能的。其次,如果將原有的“論語”視為“正 論語”,其對立面就是“反論語”,而處於中間或複合狀態的就是 “中性論語”(或“中智 論語”)。本書給出了對於原有的《論語》用中智學方法進行解讀和實施千變萬化的途徑, 使其可以在相當大的範圍內擴充。
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[48] viXra:1201.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-14 19:44:29

Time: Frequency, Irreversibility, and Connectedness of Matter

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 17 Pages.

A novel conceptual model is described for time, one that is independent of existing theories. The cordus conjecture suggests that time consists of frequency oscillations of matter. The arrow is applied to time where irreversibility arises. The interconnectedness of matter, via its fields, creates a patchwork of temporal cause-and-effect. At its most basic level time originates with the frequency cycles of the particules of matter and photons. The rate of time is thus determined by the mass of the particule, in turn how it is assembled, from what subcomponents, and the external environment (hence also time-dilation). Thus time is locally generated, and cordus rejects the idea of an absolute clock. The forward arrow is only applied to the ticks of time when irreversibility arises. The paper explains how the irreversibility arises, in terms of the interaction between two volumes of matter and the statistically impossibility of returning all particules in the system to their original positions and states. Thus decoherence, irreversibility, entropy, cause-and-effect, and the arrow of time all arise at the same discontinuity in physics. There is a connectedness between volumes of matter that are at different geometric locations. A phenomena that occurs in one volume is communicated via photons, or massy particules, or fields, to other matter around it. This communication applies cause positional constraints on the recipient. The combination of connectedness, frequency, and irreversibility, results in temporal cause-and-effect. Thus human perceptions of time are a construct, with all the potential for illusion that implies, founded on a real physical principle of temporal causality. Time is a series of delayed irreversible interactions (temporal ratchets) between matter, not a dimension that can be traversed in both directions. Cordus provides a more basic concept of time from which quantum mechanics and general relativity emerge as different approximations. The resulting conceptual model provides a novel integration of quantum mechanics, general relativity, and the human-perception models of time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[47] viXra:1201.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-07 07:33:58

What is the Form of Knowledge?

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 2 Pages.

A significant problem in education is pinpointing the importance of the information received. This work proposes a model, which argues that we can improve the understanding of the knowledge we are receiving through dividing it in two categories – problems and solutions/alleviations. The expected result of the model is an improved understanding of the knowledge received and its use, through critical thinking, and a way of understanding why the particular knowledge exists. It also provides us an understanding of the form of knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[46] viXra:1201.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-07 03:25:58

Mr. Wittgenstein: An Interpretation

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 1 Page.

We provide a new interpretation for Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein’s intellectual endeavors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[45] viXra:1201.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-07 03:42:03

Constancy and Linguistics

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 1 Page.

We discuss a rule of constancy and linguistics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[44] viXra:1201.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-07 03:54:35

World-Trapping the Concept of Science

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 1 Page.

Defining the concept of science in a manner which allows marking the line between science and non-science has been a longstanding problem in the philosophy of science, known as the demarcation problem. Here we propose a solution which arrests the problem through worldblocking it, that is, we categorize all that is in the world through three categories and leave all the rest as non-science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[43] viXra:1201.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-07 04:44:31

On What Is and What Is Properly Represented

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro
Comments: 1 Page.

A given phenomena can be x, yet can be properly represented to all purposes by a non-x. We solely provide this observation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[42] viXra:1112.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-17 14:42:00

Related Images from the Rendlesham Forest Ufo Event and Two Crop Formations

Authors: William C. Treurniet
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article demonstrates that the 1980 Rendlesham Forest UFO event, the 2002 Crabwood crop formation, and the 2010 Wilton Windmill crop formation are all logically connected. Each event yielded a set of binary data which was decoded using a single image decoding algorithm discovered in part of the Wilton Windmill data set. Remarkably, four meaningful images were decoded from that data set by ordering the data bits in different ways. One image shows a bipedal figure with one arm raised. Another shows the same figure in a different pose with the other arm raised. A third image shows a face with large ears as in a drawing of a bunny in a child's book. A fourth image shows what appears to be a child riding a tricycle. The data set from the Crabwood formation was decoded as a bipedal figure extending a three-fingered hand in greeting. Finally, the data set from the UFO encounter in Rendlesham Forest was decoded as the profile of a sitting cat or dog. Evidently, a plan was devised before 1980 to deliver the encoded images, and to allow them to be revealed only in 2010 when the decoding algorithm would be provided. The anomalous flight technologies reported by witnesses at Rendlesham Forest, the extraordinary methods and technology required to construct the Crabwood formation, and the extremely complicated way that images were encoded in the Wilton Windmill formation, are evidence that an agency with exceptional capabilities orchestrated the events. The symbols of greeting in the images and other benign content convey the message that a meeting is anticipated and that we should not fear it. This further implies that the meeting will be with non-terrestrial entities, else the message would be trivial.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[41] viXra:1112.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-11 05:22:24

Uncertainty Relations as Consequence of the Lorentz Transformations

Authors: V.N. Matveev, O.V. Matveev
Comments: 11 Pages.

It is believed that the uncertainty relation of momentum and coordinates, as well as the uncertainty relation of energy and time in practice are not observed in the macrocosm. The objective of the work at hand was to demonstrate the existence of general physical uncertainty relations that extend to macrobodies. A macroscopic object consisting of a rod equipped with a pair of synchronized clocks and a macroscopic object in and of itself performing the function of an ideal physical clock are examined. General physical relations are directly derived from Lorentz transformations for the case of the object's one-dimensional motion (along the X axis) – the uncertainty relation of the object's x coordinate and the projection of its impulse along the X axis, px, and the uncertainty relation of the object's observation time, t, and its energy, E. The relations take the form: ΔpxΔx ≥ H and ΔEΔt ≥ H. The H value in the relation has action dimensions and is dependent upon the precision of the object's clocks and/or upon the properties of the physical clock. Despite the interpretation of the concept of uncertainty being different from that in quantum mechanics, the relations derived in the limiting case with ideal physical clock take the form of ΔpxΔx ≥ h and ΔEΔt ≥ h, where h is the Planck constant.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[40] viXra:1112.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 10:50:41

Reminiscences on the End Of the Hope for Primates in Space

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 18 Pages. 18p. Draft for comment of invited submitted paper.

This paper addresses the question of whether humans will ever be able to settle space in an economically sustainable way and, if there is still hope of this, where the greatest hope may lie. It reviews key developments of the last 40 years relevant to this issue, such the space shuttle, the National Aerospace Plane, the Russian Ajax effort, nonlinear control challenges, challenges of developing a “skin” to withstand re-entry, current space programs around the world, and key markets for using such vehicles, such as energy from space and space manufacturing.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[39] viXra:1112.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-06 09:53:41

Realities Out of Total Simultaneity

Authors: Ir Wilhelmus P.C.M. de Wilde
Comments: 9 Pages.

After the wall of Planck reality as we perceive that “NOW” no longer exists, we are entering a “fifth” dimension the TOTAL SIMULTANAIETY , called TS , we pass the limits of causality at the quantum scale. This non causal side of TS can be “reached” on every point of our 4 dimensional universe, every quantum of the universe has the diameter of 1.616252 x 10^ -33cm, singularities only exist in our consciousness. The other limit of causality is the local speed of light c, where time stands still so there is no more before and after. In TS all information of all parallel universes and multiversity constitution is simultaneously present and available, our consciousness is able to align points out of this TS and so create the observable analogue universe that we are aware of. The totality of information from other universes (also partly observable by other consciousnesses) is influencing our linear causal deterministic universe, the origin of gravity , dark matter and the dark force possible emerge from here. The Big Bang is an imaginary non existing point in the TS area. Inflation is avoided by projecting inflation time into the area after the Wall of Planck, uniformity in the structure of space-time is so guaranteed. Our mind with its 100 billion neurones is able to cope with infinities because it has parallels with the qualities of TS. By entanglement we created our own baryonic universe.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[38] viXra:1112.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-01 21:12:19

Problems of Science Research and Technical Progress

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin, Shmuel Neumann
Comments: 15 pages

At the present time the USA’s Federal Government spends enormous sums of taxpayer money for Scientific Research and Development (R&D). How to best organize this vast governmental activity, how to best estimate its ultimate utility and profitability (real and potential), how to best increase efficiency of innovation and production, how to best estimate the worth of new discoveries and innovations, how to properly fund R&D of new concepts and innovations, and how to correctly estimate their results are all complex and pressing questions that require answers for further industrial progress and scientific improvements. These are critical macro-problems which because of its scope have evolved into new macro-systems that require a new approach for successful planning of scientific research. The authors consider these major-system problems and offer many remarkable innovations in organization, estimation, suggestions for entirely new research efficiency criteria, development, new methods for assessments of new ideas, innovations in science and industry, and new methods in patenting technology. These suggestions are based largely on the personal experiences of one of the authors, A.A. Bolonkin who worked for many years within the USA’s Federal Government entities (scientific laboratories of NASA, Air Force), and USSR and USA universities and industry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1111.0034 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2011

The Errors of Statistical Hypotheses and Scientific Theories

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 16 pages

The process of error recognition is explored first in statistics, and then in science. The Type II error found in statistical hypothesis testing is found analogous to Karl Popper's "logical probability" that is intended to measure the likelihood that a scientific theory can avoid its refutation. Nevertheless, Popper's reliance on deductive thinking is found detracting from his demarcation that separates science and metaphysics. An improved critical logic for science is presented that permits error recognition more broadly: for induction by Popper's falsification principle; but also for deduction and emotionality. The reality of induction creates a limitation for a science that has not accommodated a fuller menu of error recognition. The reality of induction places limits of what can be known from empiricism, and this has philosophical implications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1107.0054 [pdf] submitted on 25 Jul 2011

Introductory Questions About Symbolic Values

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 4 pages

Many distinct concepts including data, memes, and information are introduced. This manuscript aims to highlight the important role that unconscious physical reality plays in the creation and transmission of symbolic values.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1106.0038 [pdf] submitted on 16 Jun 2011

Correspondence Theory, Approaching a Metaphysical Descriptive Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Bryant Bishop
Comments: 10 pages.

I am not currently associated with any institution. My work is a result of private correspondence with Dr. Marie Louise von Franz, former director of the Jungian Institute in Zurich before her death in 1999. You see a problem is that a large bulk of the subjects of my studies are not taught in our traditional educational systems. My work is a result of independent study related to materials, the basis of which lies outside our standard curricula. The following document addresses the basis of what I had hoped to share and which I have been working on since 1988.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[34] viXra:1106.0021 [pdf] submitted on 11 Jun 2011

Draga Domnule Rotaru

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 118 pages, In Romanian

De la inceputul anului 1988 am purtat o corespondenta "inversunata" - as indrazni sa afirm, experimentala, avangardista cu prof. univ. dr. Ion Rotaru (n. 11 septembrie 1924, Valea lui Ion, Bacau - d. 18 decembrie 2006, Bucuresti), seful Catedrei de Limba si Literatura Romana de la Facultatea de Litere, Universitatea din Bucuresti.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1106.0020 [pdf] submitted on 11 Jun 2011

Congruente Paradoxiste

Authors: Gheorghe Niculescu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 106 pages

This volume of experimental literature, based on paradoxism, is structured in the following chapters: Outlined Sketches, Proverbial Distiches, Paradoxist Poetry, Comical Dialogues, Paradoxist Dictionary.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1105.0023 [pdf] submitted on 15 May 2011

A New Physics with a Different Vision About the Universe and Our Origin

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 8 pages, Report at the Fifteen Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Human Ideas on Ultimate Reality and Meaning, Toronto, August 5-8, 2009

Despite the achievements in different fields of natural science we are far from understanding our origin. The advancement in this field could not be successful if our vision about the Universe based on the adopted concept of space is wrong. The present model of expanding Universe relies on a concept of space adopted at the beginning of past century. Presently, some experiments and a large number of accumulated observations indicate that the adopted concept of space is not correct. This not only causes problems in Theoretical Physics, but is also responsible for the missing connections between Physics, Philosophy and Religion. Physics based on a new space concept provides a promising expectation for solving these problems while putting a new light about our origin.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1104.0039 [pdf] submitted on 11 Apr 2011

Paradossi Distici (Paradoxist Distiches in Italian Language)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 99 pages in Italian.

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."

Il Paradossismo e' movimento di avanguardia in letteratura, arte, filosofia, scienza fondato sull'uso eccessivo delle antitesi, antinomie, contraddidizioni, parabole, differenze, paradossi. Esso e' stato fondato e guidato dallo scrittore Florentin Smarandache fin dal 1980, quando disse: lo scopo e' un allargamento della sfera artistica attraverso elementi non artistici. Ma specialmente la creazione del contro-tempo, contro-senso. E anche attraverso l'esperimento.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30] viXra:1104.0007 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2011

Paradoxist Distiches

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 90 pages. Translated from English to Greek by Denis Koulentianos and Theodhora Blushi

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive used of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29] viXra:1104.0005 [pdf] submitted on 1 Apr 2011

Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 221 pages.

The Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism Started in 1980's as an anti-totalitarian protest based on excessive use of contradictions, antitheses, antinomies, deviations of sense, paradoxes in the creation process, the paradoxism as a literary movement was rapidly spread through the creators in the world, finding applications in many fields (such as geometry, physics, logics, literature), and his founder, University Professor Florentin Smarandache, Ph D, a refugee from Romania who now settles in New Mexico State, USA, became a well-known personality. The actual paradoxist anthology presents, at the beginning, articles and chronicles in various languages (English, French, Albanian, Spanish, Chinese, Romanian) about paradoxism and its applications, gathered from the folklore, from popular jokes, and also paradoxist arithmetic and geometries, paradoxist images from our today's reality. In the second part the anthology alphabetically groups 35 authors (translators included) and their literary paradoxist creations - from countries like Australia, Albania, Canada, China, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Spain, and United States.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1102.0029 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2011

Neutrosophic Interpretation of Tao Te Ching

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Fu Yuhua
Comments: 210 pages. English-Chinese Bilingual

The purpose of this book is to extend the foundation and application range of 'Tao Te Ching'. The reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, we are willing to point out that 'Tao Te Ching' already has some limitation, because many questions we are interested in cannot be answered within 'Tao Te Ching'. For example, 'Tao Te Ching' basically discussed the matters in China, however considering all possible situations it should matter in foreign countries as well, i.e. the "global village". This was impossible in Lao Tzu's time. Secondly, if the original "Tao Te Ching" is regarded as "Positive Tao Te Ching", its opposite is "Negative Tao Te Ching", while the intermediate or compound state is "Neutral Tao Te Ching". Thus, our book presents the way to extend the original "Tao Te Ching" in various neutrosophic interpretations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1101.0094 [pdf] submitted on 28 Jan 2011

Structure and Memory in Water II.

Authors: J. Dunning-Davies
Comments: 2 pages

This note draws attention to recent work by Nobel Prize Winner Luc Montagnier which seems to offer experimental support for the theoretical work reviewed in an earlier posting on this site. Once again, electromagnetic effects are introduced in an attempt to offer an acceptable explanation for some initially surprising experimental results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1101.0081 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jan 2011

Structure and Memory in Water

Authors: J. Dunning-Davies
Comments: 5 pages

Attention is drawn to a recent article, which appeared in the International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, discussing the amount of largely unrecognised structure present in water. This theoretical article supports and amplifies experimental work published by Benveniste in the journal Nature in 1988. The possible consequences for a solid scientific foundation for homeopathy are immediately obvious, although a great deal more work is necessary in order to be able to present a totally watertight justification for homeopathic remedies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1101.0064 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jan 2011

A Law of Nature

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 pages

Complexity plays an important role in all kinds of human activity as well as in nature. Complexity can be defined in terms of the number of relations that must be handled accounted relative to the number of potential relations. Modularization is an efficient methodology that helps reducing the number of relevant relations. It has the property that it becomes more efficient when the availability and the diversity of modules that can be coupled. Its efficiency can grow exponentially when modules can be generated out of simpler modules. In nature this effect leads to the generation of very complex creatures, such as intelligent species.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1011.0049 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Ultra Polemics with Upper and Lower Cases

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 129 pages, in Romanian

A short history on Smarandache's avant-garde movement called "paradoxism" in Romanian, English, Portuguese, French, Spanish. Also, polemics and manifestos on paradoxism, new literary species introduced by the author (paradoxist distichs, dualistic distichs, tautological distichs, etc.), reviews, interviews.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1011.0048 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Besides and Behind Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 127 pages, in Romanian

"Besides and Behind Paradoxism" comprises essays, in Romanian language, on Florentin Smarandache's literary non-paradoxist work (especially his diaries and metaphoric verses), by Silviu Popescu, Marian Barbu, Titu Popescu, Daniel Deleanu, Alexandru Lungu, Evelina Oprea, Lucian Chisu, Ion Radu Zagreanu, Ion Rotaru. Interviews by Florentin Smarandache with Octavian Blaga, Ada Cirstoiu, Mihail I. Vlad, A. D. Rachieru, Emil Burlacu, Veronica Balaj, Ion Stanica (Radio France Internationale). Florentin Smarandache in correspondence with 32 writers, among them: Andre Peragallo, Nancy Wilson, Gloria Badarau, Bernardo Schiavetta, Beverly J. Kleikamp, Jessie Hraska, Olof G. Tandberg, Harriet G. Hunt, Al. Cistelecan, Paul Goma, Dan Danila, Constantin Corduneanu, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1011.0046 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Hermeneutics of Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 122 pages, in Romanian

"Paradoxism's Hermeneutics" includes selected by the editor articles on paradoxism, in Romanian language, articles written by Marian Barbu, George Bajenaru, Radu Enescu, Ovidiu Ghidirmic, Dumitru Ichim, Alexandru Lungu, Mircea Marinescu, Ion Rotaru, Geo Vasile, etc. Paradoxism in science, arts and letters was set up by Florentin Smarandache in 1980 and then used in many creations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1011.0034 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Le Mouvement Littéraire Paradoxiste

Authors: Constantin M. Popa
Comments: 39 pages

The author studies the paradoxism, a movement originated by the dissident mathematician Florentin Smarandache in 1980's and based on usage of paradoxes and contradictions in arts, literature, philosophy, mathematics, science. The author compare paradoxism with other avant-gardes of the first part of the twenty's century.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1011.0033 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Chinese Neutrosophy and Taoist Natural Philosophy

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jiang Zhengjie
Comments: 152 pages

While Taoism is based on the union of opposites, Neutrosophy considers the union of opposites and the neutralities in between them. We thought that Neutrosophy and traditional Chinese Dialectics may be combined, and establish the Chinese Neutrosophy concept, with its premise about the existence of the universal absolute main body, whose existence may be theoretically proven through the establishment of Taoist Natural Philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1010.0026 [pdf] submitted on 14 Oct 2010

Paradoxism's Manifestos and International Folklore

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 157 pages

The book is structured in two parts as follows: - in the first part, the theory of paradoxism through its first six published worldwide manifestos (1983-2010); - in the second part, the paradoxism collected from the international (English, French, Spanish/Arabic, and Romanian) folklore in images and paradoxist situations. PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, oxymorons, inversions, digressions, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1010.0022 [pdf] submitted on 10 Oct 2010

Paradoxism and Folklore (Romanian), Book by Florentin Smarandache

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 139 pages, In Romanian

Polemics regarding the paradoxism are presented in the first part of this book through literary and social-political essays and interviews. In the second part, you'll see the paradoxism's actuality in today's contemporary society: by cliches, proverbs' deviations, and especially by the quotidian images taken from Internet - with political parables and ironies and with this primitive... modernization of the country (Romania). Look how present is the paradoxism in our life!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1009.0043 [pdf] submitted on 10 Sep 2010

Fifth Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 pages

Applications of Paradoxism in Science (information fusion, cybernetics, robotics, airspace, medicine, military, logics, set theory, probability and statistics, geometry, multispace and multistructure theory) at NASA, NATO, University of Berkeley, etc., also in Philosophy, Linguistics, Arts...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1009.0042 [pdf] submitted on 10 Sep 2010

Sixth Paradoxist (Scientific) Manifesto: to Paradoxism-Ize or to S-Deny a Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 pages

Paradoxism can be used in any domain. We can PARADOXISM-IZE (also said To S-Deny) any theory by partially validating and partially negating it, or only negating it but in multiple ways. In each case, we put together conflicting ideas in the same theory, whence the paradoxism. This is the first paradoxist SCIENTIFIC MANIFESTO to be used in the literary work, and the sixth paradoxist manifesto in general. By paradoxismizing a <notion> one can get a <pseudo-notion> or <quasi-notion> (for example: paradoxismizing the norm one gets a pseudo-norm in mathematics, or paradoxismizing the associativity we get the quasi-associativity in information fusion), but they are still useful in science. In this paper we introduce the operators of validation and invalidation (the second one is paradoxist in nature) of a proposition, and we extend the operator of paradoxismizing (or Sdenying)) a proposition, or an axiomatic system, from the geometric space to respectively any theory in any domain of knowledge, and show six examples in geometry, in mathematical analysis, and in topology.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1009.0019 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2010

Non-Conformist Manifesto, the First Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

This is the first published paradoxist manifesto in the world (1983), written by Florentin Smarandache who founded the Paradoxism in literature, arts, philosophy, and science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1009.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2010

A Very Short Presentation of Paradoxism, the Second Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

It was in 1980's when the movement began...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1009.0017 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2010

The Third Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

I left the totalitarianism and emigrated to the United States for the freedom.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1009.0016 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2010

The Paradoxist Distich Theory, The Fourth Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 pages

The PARADOXIST DISTICH consists of two verses, antithetic to each other, but which together amalgamate in a whole defining (or making connection with) the title.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1008.0070 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

The Creator and the Physicist How Not to Talk Physics in the Face of God

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 4 pages

This paper is less about religion than about science. It is meant as advice to physicists, physics teachers, biologists, or others who may find themselves confronted by Creationism when discussion of the theory of evolution, or of other scientific issues, is perceived as bearing on religious writings or dogma.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1005.0056 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Paradoxism's Main Roots

Authors: Florin Vasiliu
Comments: 62 pages

Paradoxism's Main Roots
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1005.0011 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

The Neutrosophic Research Method in Scientific and Humanistic Fields

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

The Neutrosophic Research Method is a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, and suggests that scientific and humanistic research will progress via studying not only the opposite ideas but the neutral ideas related to them as well in order to have a bigger picture of the whole problem to solve.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1004.0113 [pdf] submitted on 21 Apr 2010

Multispace & Multistructure. Neutrosophic Transdisciplinarity

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 802 pages.

The fourth volume, in my book series of "Collected Papers", includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors - all collected in the previous three decades (1980-2010) - but most of them are from the last decade (2000-2010), some of them being lost and found, yet others are extended, diversified, improved versions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1004.0077 [pdf] submitted on 9 Mar 2010

On the Relation Between Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Scientific Inquiry

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 17 pages

In this article, we will shortly review a few old thoughts and recent thoughts on the relation between Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. Of course, the classic references to this open problem will include Wigner's paper (1964); a more recent review article is Darvas (2008). But it appears that this issue is partly on the domain of natural philosophy and also philosophy of inquiry. Therefore we will begin with a review on some known thoughts of Kant, Bacon, Popper, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1004.0024 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

Neutrosophic Logic as a Theory of Everything in Logics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

Neutrosophic Logic (NL) is a Theory of Everything in logics, since it is the most general so far. In the Neutrosophic Propositional Calculus a neutrosophic proposition has the truth value (T, I, F), where T is the degree of truth, I is the degree of indeterminacy (or neutral, i.e. neither truth nor falsehood), and F is the degree of falsehood, where T, I, F standard or non-standard subsets of the non-standard unit interval ]-0, 1+[. In addition, these values may vary over time, space, hidden parameters, etc. Therefore, NL is a triple-infinite logic but, by splitting the Indeterminacy, we prove in this article that NL is a n-infinite logic, with n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... . Also, we present a total order on Neutrosophic Logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1004.0023 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

Blogs on Applications of Neutrosophics and Multispace in Sciences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 pages

The following blogs on applications of neutrosophics and multispace in sciences include meditations / reflections on science, comments, hypotheses, proposals, comparisons of ideas, possible projects, extensions or deviations or alternatives to classical knowledge, etc. selected from e-mails, letters, drafts, conversations, impressions, etc. We introduce the non-standard quaternion space and non-standard biquaternion space [and even a generalization of them to a general non-standard vector space of any dimension] as possible working spaces for connecting the micro- and macro-levels in physics. Neutrosophy is a MetaPhilosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1004.0019 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Self Knowledge and Knowledge Communication

Authors: Liu Feng, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

To deal with tough issues in knowledge management, the paper reexamines knowledge structure and has proposed a novel knowledge communication model based on the oriental cultural foundation. Knowledge discovery is not a simple addition or accumulation of information, but needs a feasible structural description. As an oriental approach, the paper constructs the structure on the bases of unity of opposites and their neutralities (as in neutrosophy; neutralities are the included middle of two opposites), which stresses the individualized self knowledge pattern or self knowledge structure. It signifies the dynamics in knowledge management - the principle of attraction between opposite natures and the neutralities in between them. It implies an identity in the opposites which serves as the impartial knowledge (since the opposites tend towards their neutralities), the completeness of knowledge, which is defined in the paper as imaginary part of knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1003.0239 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Of Intent, Citation Game, and Scale-Free Networks: a Heuristic Argument

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

A heuristic argument was presented in favor of hypothesis that scientific communication corresponds to a process known as scale-free network. As a result, it is argued that scientific referencing through citation follows the same process, therefore it could be expected that this shall also exhibit fractality as observed in various phenomena associated with scale-free networks. This argument appears conceivable because the process of citation involves a decision-making, coined here as 'citation game.' In this regard, it is recommended to conduct citation analysis to measure the fractality of this process. While at present this heuristic argument cannot be considered as conclusive, further research is recommended to verify or refute this hypothesis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1003.0082 [pdf] submitted on 5 Mar 2010

Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Salah Osman
Comments: 420 pages, v1 in Arabic, v2 in English

Neutrosophy is ascribed to Dr. Florentin Smarandache, professor of mathematics and sciences, and head of its department at the University of New Mexico - Gallup (USA). The main aim of this book is to provide the reader with the philosophy of neutrosophy and its application to the Arabic-Islamic thought. So the book is divided into two parts; the first belongs to prof. Smarandache, in which he exposes his philosophy of neutrosophy. The second belongs to Dr. Salah Osman, assistant professor of logic and the philosophy of science in Minufiya university - in which he applies the philosophy of neutrosophy to the Arabic-Islamic thought.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1003.0029 [pdf] submitted on 5 Mar 2010

Declaration of Academic Freedom

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 4 pages, translated by Florentin Smarandache, v1 in French, v2 in Romanian

The author pledge for the freedom of scientists to expose and publish their papers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Recent Replacements

[76] viXra:1403.0963 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-08 07:20:18

Complexity Class Collapse and Symmetric Group

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article prove that AC and PH is proper by using complexity class collapse and symmetric group. If some AC hierarchy collapse, all permutation can be embedded into the AC class. Therefore the AC class become symmetric group. The AC class can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict hierarchy theorem. Therefore AC is proper. In the same way, we can prove that PH is proper. If some PH hierarchy collapse, all permutation can be embedded into the PH class. Therefore the PH become symmetric group. The PH class can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict time hierarchy theorem. Therefore PH is proper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[75] viXra:1403.0963 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:24:43

Complexity Class Collapse and Symmetric Group

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper by using complexity class collapse and symmetric group. If some NC hierarchy collapse, all permutation can be embedded into the NC class. Therefore the NC become symmetric group. The NC class can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict time hierarchy theorem. Therefore NC is proper. In the same way, we can prove that PH is proper. If some PH hierarchy collapse, all permutation can be embedded into the PH class. Therefore the PH become symmetric group. The PH class can compute all problem such as EXPSPACE and contradict time hierarchy theorem. Therefore PH is proper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[74] viXra:1403.0941 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:16:38

Ceas de Taifas

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 96 Pages.

Dialoguri literare si stiintifice ale lui Florentin Smarandache cu Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, si Flavia Drăgan. *** Literary and scientific dialogues of Florentin Smarandache with Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, and Flavia Drăgan.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[73] viXra:1403.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-23 01:58:55

An Unifying Scientific Principle

Authors: francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. Note to the Editor of Nature (12 March 2013), rejected without justification

A generalization of the virial theorem, using the basic quantum proportionality between energy and frequency, leads to a Coherence Principle which applies both in atomistics, astrophysics and cosmology, with the determination of several so-called 'free cosmic parameters'. An application in biology is also proposed
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[72] viXra:1402.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-10 13:18:31

The Information as Absolute

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: Practically the same as the V1, but with Russian translation: English version – pages 1-33, Russian one (Apendix) – pages 33-70

This article presents and grounds (i.e. presents proof of the existence, the truth, the self-consistence and the completeness of) the informational conception (“the Information as Absolute” conception) in physics and philosophy. The conception defines the information as an ultimately common, real and fundamental concept/phenomenon – “Absolute”, which exists as an absolutely infinite set (“Information” Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) links between the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substance, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific - and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set - subset of the “Information” Set. The conception allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of the basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; in physics it allows to suggest reasonable model, which makes more clear basic physical notions, such as space, time, matter, etc. This paper is a next edition of the paper “The information as Absolute” http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.3712
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[71] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-23 07:10:30

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. We can prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC. This means L is not P. We can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between L and P. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[70] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-20 11:28:10

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. We can prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC. This means L is not P. We can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between L and P. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[69] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-19 11:25:30

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. We can prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC. This means L is not P. We can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between L and P. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[68] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-18 11:40:39

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. We can prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC. This means L is not P. We can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between L and P. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[67] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-16 01:41:39

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between logarithm space and polynomial time. Like this, we can also prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[66] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-15 03:04:03

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji Kobayashi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article describes about that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using problem reduction. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using difference between logarithm space reduction and polynomial time reduction. Like this, we can also prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[65] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-13 11:53:38

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article describes about that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using problem reduction. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using difference between logarithm space reduction and polynomial time reduction. Like this, we can also prove that NC is proper by using difference between AL0 and NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[64] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-11 06:16:13

Measuring Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article describes about that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using problem reduction. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using difference between logarithm space reduction and polynomial time reduction. Like this, we can also prove that NC is proper by using difference between AL0 and NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[63] viXra:1402.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-10 11:11:43

Measureing Complexity by Using Reduction to Solve P vs NP and NC & PH Hierarchy

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that NC/Polynomial hierarchy difference and P is not NP by using problem reduction. If L is not P, we can prove P is not NP by using difference between logarithm space reduction and polynomial time reduction. Like this, we can also prove NC hierarchy by using difference between AL0 and NC1. This means L is not P. Therefore P is not NP. And we can also prove Polynomial hierarchy by using P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[62] viXra:1402.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-15 14:08:14

Return to Innocence or Vaccine Against Atheism.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 90 Pages.

Here midst physics and spiritual is "neutral" area X. I wrote a book about this area. My proof of God is not a rejection of faith or its destruction, because all knowledge is faith. After the shame named "The God Delusion" the book glorifying God is best welcome. It must become the bestseller as our redemption after the feast of fools called "God Delusion". It will be our Return to Innocence -- the title of present bestseller. It is bestseller in the future, otherwise we have no future after releasing totally hellish well-selling book "God Delusion". Full of hatered. It is simply ill, it is illogical: in one part Dawkins argues, that no-one is responsible for anything. Another part tells, that the believers are responsible for everything. Also Dawkins argues, that atheists made no harm whatsoever. But history proves, that atheistic Soviet Union has killed many innocent Christians, especially the Orthodox priests.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[61] viXra:1402.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-06 04:14:27

Return to Innocence or Vaccine Against Atheism.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 90 Pages.

Here midst physics and spiritual is "neutral" area X. I wrote a book about this area. My proof of God is not a rejection of faith or its destruction, because all knowledge is faith. After the shame named "The God Delusion" the book glorifying God is best welcome. It must become the bestseller as our redemption after the feast of fools called "God Delusion". It will be our Return to Innocence -- the title of present bestseller. It is bestseller in the future, otherwise we have no future after releasing totally hellish well-selling book "God Delusion". Full of hatered. It is simply ill, it is illogical: in one part Dawkins argues, that no-one is responsible for anything. Another part tells, that the believers are responsible for everything. Also Dawkins argues, that atheists made no harm whatsoever. But history proves, that atheistic Soviet Union has killed many innocent Christians, especially the Orthodox priests.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[60] viXra:1402.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-02 08:43:24

Return to Innocence or Vaccine Against Atheism.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 87 Pages.

Here midst physics and spiritual is "neutral" area X. I wrote a book about this area. My proof of God is not a rejection of faith or its destruction, because all knowledge is faith. After the shame named "The God Delusion" the book glorifying God is best welcome. It must become the bestseller as our redemption after the feast of fools called "God Delusion". It will be our Return to Innocence -- the title of present bestseller. It is bestseller in the future, otherwise we have no future after releasing totally hellish well-selling book "God Delusion". Full of hatered. It is simply ill, it is illogical: in one part Dawkins argues, that no-one is responsible for anything. Another part tells, that the believers are responsible for everything. Also Dawkins argues, that atheists made no harm whatsoever. But history proves, that atheistic Soviet Union has killed many innocent Christians, especially the Orthodox priests.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[59] viXra:1402.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-15 07:35:16

Return to Innocence or Vaccine Against Atheism.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 85 Pages.

Here midst physics and spiritual is "neutral" area X. I wrote a book about this area. My proof of God is not a rejection of faith or its destruction, because all knowledge is faith. After the shame named "The God Delusion" the book glorifying God is best welcome. It must become the bestseller as our redemption after the feast of fools called "God Delusion". It will be our Return to Innocence -- the title of present bestseller. It is bestseller in the future, otherwise we have no future after releasing totally hellish well-selling book "God Delusion". Full of hatered. It is simply ill, it is illogical: in one part Dawkins argues, that no-one is responsible for anything. Another part tells, that the believers are responsible for everything. Also Dawkins argues, that atheists made no harm whatsoever. But history proves, that atheistic Soviet Union has killed many innocent Christians, especially the Orthodox priests.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[58] viXra:1401.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-31 07:33:50

Dissertatio Philosophica de Natura Discreta

Authors: Alexandru Iosif
Comments: 3 Pages.

We develop a prime number based model for discrete universes. We give some definitions and propositions and also ask if there is a discrete version of the brachistochrone problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[57] viXra:1312.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-07 08:17:31

The Invariances of the 5th Dimension

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 59 Pages.

The 5th dimension is the dimension of spatial size and speed of temporal clocks. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. ‘A Geometry is the study of the invariant properties of a space(time), under transformations within itself’ (Klein) As such, the geometry of the 5th dimension is defined by a co-invariant equation that relates 2 ‘inverse’ parameters, spatial energy and temporal information: SexTi=K, from where a series of invariant properties followed by all systems of the Universe can be deduced: the invariance of formal motions, of actions, of topological forms, of scales and of time ages. This paper will study them in it first part. The second part will prove that ALL systems of the Universe, in all its scales, from the smallest atom to the biggest galaxy, from the simplest cell to the planetary society follow those invariances. Since the 5th dimension and its formal laws and invariances are the ultimate why that unifies the laws of each science that studies the species, cycles, structures and events of each scale of reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[56] viXra:1312.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-19 10:56:52

Approach to Solve P vs NP by Using Bijection Reduction

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not NP by using bijection reduction between each problems. If injective reduction of each directions between CNFSAT and HornSAT exist, bijection between CNFSAT and HornSAT also exist. If P is NP, this bijection is polynomial time. But HornSAT description is polynomial complex and CNFSAT description is exponential complex. It means that there is no bijection in polynomial time. Therefore P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1312.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-13 11:05:44

Cardinals and Bijection of L and P and NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that L is not P and P is not NP by using bijection reduction between each problems. Deterministic Turing Machine (DTM) can easily change bijection DTM. Therefore, if L is P then bijection LDTM can reduce CIRCUIT-VALUE to UNDIRECTED-PATH. But CIRCUIT-VALUE have same cardinals' co-problem and UNDIRECTED-PATH have little cardinals' co-problem. Therefore, bijection LDTM cannot reduce CIRCUIT-VALUE to co-UNDIRECTED-PATH and L is not P. And using L is not P, we can prove P is not NP. All P problem have equivalent reversible function and DTM can reduce from NP-Complete problem to another NP-Complete problem by using this reversible function. If P is NP, equivalent Logarithm space reductcion exists. But that means L is P and contradict L is not P. Therefore, P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[54] viXra:1312.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-03 01:05:39

Symmetry as Turing Machine - Approach to solve L vs P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that L is not P and P is not NP by using difference of symmetry each problems. Deterministic Turing Machine (DTM) change configuration by using transition functions. This changing keep halting configuration. That is, DTM classfy these configuration into equivalence class. The view of equivalence class, there are different between L and P. L can compute equivalence class that cardinals is polynomial size, but P can compute exponential size. Therefore, L cannot compute P-Complete problems and L is not P. And using L is not P, we can prove P is not NP. All P problem have equivalent reversible function and DTM can reduce from NP-Complete problem to another NP-Complete problem by using this reversible function. If P is NP, equivalent Logarithm space reductcion exists. But that means L is P and contradict L is not P. Therefore, P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[53] viXra:1312.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-09 17:21:12

Popasuri Scriitoricesti pe Olt şi Olteţ

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 282 Pages.

Acest volum antologic probează un mai vechi gând al meu de a reuni într-o carte poeţi şi scriitori, născuţi sau transferaţi în aria noastră geografică, pe Olt şi Olteţ; spaţiul însemnând, poate, un nucleu de inspiraţie. Scriitori eleganţi, cu radicale convingeri, abordează în operele lor atotcuprinderea, atracţia vagului prinsă în zbateri de lumină, tumultul vieţii, toate constituindu-se în semen distinctive ale unui memento. Se urmăreşte evolutiv parcursul scriitorilor, care-şi agaţă ispitele sufleteşti de vaierul vorbelor purtate pe aripi de timp. Dubla determinare, trecut şi viitor, dăruieşte oamenilor şi locurilor în care au trait înţelepciunea şi diversitatea preocupărilor. Simţul neobosit al detaliului, sublimele gânduri, dinamismul nepotolit al veacului, necum al scriitorilor, împodobesc atmosfera de idei, desprinsă din creaţiile celor prezentaţi în volum, în ordine strict alfabetică. (FS) Scriitori antologaţi: Valeriu Anania, Bogdan Amaru, Nicolae Bălaşa, Ştefan Dumitrescu, Dumitru Gherghina, Virgil Ierunca, Gib Mihăescu, Alexandru Oprea, Petrache Poenaru, Ioan Şt. Popa, Irineu Popa, Marin Popescu – Diculescu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Dinu Săraru, Florentin Smarandache, Beatrice Silvia Sorescu, George Sorescu, Ion Sorescu, Marin Sorescu, George Ţărnea, şi Al. Florin Ţene. Alte scriitori din Bălceşti, Bulzeşti, Rusăneşti, Tetoiu, Valea Mare, şi personalităţi din judeţul Vâlcea sunt de asemenea incluse cu scurte prezentări.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[52] viXra:1311.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-01 23:03:14

Symmetry Debts: The "Tetrahedron Model VS the "Standard Model"

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 Pages. numerous small changes

Both the "Standard" and the "Tetrahedron Model" rely on symmetry principles to create unified theories of the "four forces of physics" (in the sense of Emmy Noether's great theorem relating symmetry and conservation). But in general I use the symmetries of the "forest", while the standard model uses the symmetries of the "trees". Obviously, these cannot be mutually exclusive categories; in most respects the two theories complement each other. Another major difference is that I use the concept of symmetry "debts" to solve qualitative "why" or conservation problems (Why gravity? What is the conservation reason that gravity must exist as a force in the universe?), whereas the "establishment" uses the concept of symmetry-in-action to solve quantitative "how" or mechanistic problems (how does gravity produce its effects and how can we calculate them?). (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' VS the 'Standard Model' of Physics: A Comparison".)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[51] viXra:1310.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-30 10:05:16

The Phases of Matter

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. numerous small changes

In this deeply thoughtful, informative, and rewarding book, Laughlin, a physics Nobel laureate (1998), discusses the emergence of natural law from organizational/collective principles in nature and in various phases of matter - as in (among many other and more exotic examples) the familiar shift from the laws of crystalline order to those of hydrodynamics and finally to the gas laws, as ice melts to water and water evaporates to vapor. He is at pains to point out that most of the phenomena in our daily lives are produced by the higher-level emergent principles and laws of phase organization due to the collective action of vast myriads of atomic constituents whose individual properties count for very little in the final social milieu - and not just because an individual atom is only one among many, but because totally different organizational principles are at work in the different phases of bulk matter, in contrast to those operating between small numbers of individual particles: for example, the quantum behavior of atoms vs the Newtonian behavior of bowling balls. Laughlin raises the question: which laws are the more fundamental - the quantum laws of the individual atoms, or the emergent laws of the collective? Although he identifies this as a semantic distinction that cannot be definitively answered, as a practical matter of survival (in biology), he comes down in favor of the collective.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[50] viXra:1308.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-22 11:50:41

Predictor of Bronchodilatation Response in Asthmatic Patients

Authors: H. Al-Ghadeer, Abdullah AlShimemeri, H. Al-Jahdali, M. Al-Moamary, Andrew Nassif
Comments: 7 Pages.

Bronchodilatation response is often used in theassessment and the diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Many clinics and peripheral hospitals have no facility for spirometry and post bronchodilatation response (PBR) assessment. To test the predictors of PBR in asthmatic patients we retrospectively reviewed 100 cases of asthmatic patients followed by our outpatient department. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFT) on first presentation, 45% M, 55% F, Mean age SD was 38.518 (range: 9-86 years), 92% of the cases were using medication: 89% inhaled beta agonists, 65% inhaled steroids, 7% Ipratropium, 32% oral theophylline, 4% sodium Cromoglycate, and 8% oral prednisone. 82% had shortness of breath, 62% wheezing, 71% cough, 51% nocturnal symptoms, 22% had associated allergic symptoms, and 33% had positive family history for asthma. 48% of the cases had significant PBR (ATS standards). Analysis of the above variables, revealed that a significant association between the bronchodilatation response and the use of medication (Odd Ratio OR=7.2, p ¡ 0.05), nocturnal symptoms (OR = 8:4, p < 0:001) and family history (OR = 2:9, p < 0:05). Conclusion: in asthmatic patients, current use of medications, presence of nocturnal symptoms, and positive family history of asthma , may predict the possibilities of the presence of a significant response post bronchodilatation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[49] viXra:1308.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-21 12:43:02

The Utilization of Exercise Tests in Evaluating Patients with Pulmonary Vascular Disease

Authors: Abdullah AlShimemeri, Itani M, Alghadeer H, Al-Jahdali H, Al-Moamary M, A. AlDuhaim, A. Mobeireek, Andrew Nassif
Comments: 12 Pages.

It is known that patients with pulmonary hypertension show an augmented ventilatory response to exercise defined as the slope of minute ventilation over carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). We suggested that the degree of ventilatory augmentation may be used to differentiate between patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), Eisenmenger (E.) and chronic thromboembolic (CH.TH.EM.) disease.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[48] viXra:1308.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-05 11:54:23

The Utilization of Exercise Tests in Evaluating Patients with Pulmonary Vascular Disease

Authors: Abdullah AlShimemeri, Itani M, Alghadeer H, Al-Jahdali H, Al-Moamary M, A. AlDuhaim, A. Mobeireek, Andrew Nassif
Comments: 24 Pages.

It is known that patients with pulmonary hypertension show an augmented ventilatory response to exercise defined as the slope of minute ventilation over carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). We suggested that the degree of ventilatory augmentation may be used to differentiate between patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), Eisenmenger (E.) and chronic thromboembolic (CH.TH.EM.) disease.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[47] viXra:1307.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-23 20:41:45

Fine Soccer(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 11 Pages.

We try to modify data of each game with partial normal distribution random numbers(inverse function method).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[46] viXra:1307.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-15 04:42:45

The Truth About Geometric Unity

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 7 Pages. minor edits, added content

In May of 2013 a pair of articles appeared on the Guardian newspaper website featuring a new candidate "theory of everything" called Geometric Unity. A cursory reading of each article gives the impression that Geometric Unity was developed by Eric Weinstein, but a closer reading reveals that Weinstein is not credited as such. The truth about Geometric Unity is that it was authored by this writer in several papers beginning in 2009. This article will describe the development and prominent features of the new theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[45] viXra:1307.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-10 21:42:57

The Truth About Geometric Unity

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 7 Pages. minor edits, added content

In May of 2013 a pair of articles appeared on the Guardian newspaper website featuring a new candidate "theory of everything" called Geometric Unity. A cursory reading of the article gives the impression that Geometric Unity was developed by Eric Weinstein, but a closer reading reveals that Weinstein is not credited as such. The truth about Geometric Unity is that it was authored by this writer in several papers beginning in 2009. This article will describe the development and prominent features of the new theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[44] viXra:1307.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-18 14:35:52

The Truth About Geometic Unity

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 6 Pages. minor edits, added content

In May of 2013 a pair of articles appeared on the Guardian newspaper website featuring a new candidate "theory of everything" called Geometric Unity. A cursory reading of the article gives the impression that Geometric Unity was developed by Eric Weinstein, but a closer reading reveals that Weinstein is not credited as such. The truth about Geometric Unity is that it was authored by this writer in several papers beginning in 2009. This article will describe the development and prominent features of the new theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[43] viXra:1306.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-19 20:17:07

Fine Soccer(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 4 Pages.

We try to modify data of games with Fine soccer.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[42] viXra:1304.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-30 00:11:28

Ultrapolemici cu Litere Mari şi Mici (Ediția a II-a, Corectată și Repaginată)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 199 Pages.

Paradoxismul este un curent de avangardă care se bazează pe folosirea excesivă – atât în spaţiu mic, cât şi la nivel global al operei – de antiteze, antinomii, antipozi, oximoroane, contradicţii, aporii, situaţii paradoxale, plus experimente în literatură, filosofie, artă. Etimologic, evident: paradox+ism. Scopul este lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice. Dar, mai ales, creaţia în răspăr, în contra-timp, în contra-sens. Se preconizează că sensul are un non-sens şi, reciproc, non-sensul are un sens. Ca motto se foloseşte paradoxul “Totul este posibil, chiar şi imposibilul!”. Iar emblema este o spirală, ca iluzie optică ori ca un cerc vicios. Direcţiile de dezvoltare cuprind crearea de lucrări literare, artistice, filosofice, chiar ştiinţifice, care să releveze contradicţii, antagonisme, plus experimente în acest scop.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[41] viXra:1304.0088 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-19 02:34:24

Oglinzi Paralele şi Perpendiculare

Authors: editor Octavian Blaga
Comments: 136 Pages.

Volumul de faţă adună o mână de studii, articole şi consemnări din presa românească despre scriitorul şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache, mişcarea literar-artistică pe care a iniţiat-o (Paradoxismul) şi una dintre teoriile pe care le-a dezvoltat (Viteza Supraluminală); câteva mesaje adresate acestuia şi o addenda ilustrată vin să contureze peisajul ştiinţific, artistic şi uman în care se mişcă unul dintre cei mai prolifici, mai interesanţi şi mai apreciaţi români ai momentului.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[40] viXra:1302.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-08 19:30:13

Water Suspension Craft(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Wings which generate centripetal force which is necessary for a turn are installed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[39] viXra:1212.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2013-01-02 05:15:04

What Ethical Materialism Means in the 3rd Millennium

Authors: Giorgio Fabretti (Id.no.: FBRGRG51E18H501B)
Comments: 20 Pages. An updated definition of "Ethical Materialism", radically new after DNA discoveries, abstracted by the original philosophical essays of Giorgio Fabretti, plus 2 appendixes reasonably needed after the first comments to the 1st submission on Vixra

"What ETHICAL MATERIALISM means in the 3rd millennium" is the title of a synthesis from the original philosophy of Giorgio Fabretti, Doctor in Philosophy and Anthropology since 1973 in the University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy, cured and translated by the editors of the foundation "Fondo Fabretti". The originality of "Ethical Materialism" is the unifying conception of reality as a relational 'continuum' of ancient and new dichotomies like logic versus matter, axioms vs. systems, ethical vs. realistic, subjectivity vs. objectivity - conceived through a sort of 'copernican cognitive evolution', due to his scientific studies on quantum physics, cybernetics & DNA discoveries - and leading to a 'Weltanschauung', a vision of reality, as an 'updated map of the universe'. In such a new copernican map of reality, 'matter' language directly comes from the logic, it is made of logic, it never loose its logic, it is driven by the logic that operates in what humans in the 3rd millennium represent as stringent stochastic fractal logarithms: being the 'stringent' factor what human common language and self-consciousness translate and define as "the material properties of reality" (being the Man the human factor within the logic operations). Being reality conceived here as a time-set logic system generating matter, it is possible to conceive its axiomatic foundations as the ethical premises and instructional guides and glossary of logic operations, leading to an evolutionary design. That is a balanced synthesis of ethical and material reality, free fundamental choices (both in the 'Big Bang' universe and in self-conscious 'Weltanschauung') and material (stochastic, non-linear, fractal) complexity. The synthetic definition of "ETHICAL MATERIALISM", (as explained in the attached short 6 pages) was a needed reference to update its meaning in the panorama of the new conceptions in GENERAL SCIENCE , radically evolved after the new scientific discoveries in Phisics, Computer Sciences and DNA Biology and Anthropology. Since it appears worldwide that all the epistemological conceptions of the past millennium have suddenly gone obsolete, straight into the Science Museums, this radically original systematic approach was a 'due attempt' to finally break the many conceptual 'ancient walls', between ethical and material reality, between human social sciences and natural mathematic sciences. It also includes an appendix 2 on the biographical origin of the new conception of Ethical Materialism related to DNA discoveries, and an appendix 3 on the ETHICAL MATERIALISM as a return trip from empirical science to religious faith and viceversa, made easier by the recent scientifical and technological discoveries in physics, genetics and computer sciences.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[38] viXra:1212.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-21 23:13:25

Explaining the “Pioneer Anomaly” by Refinement of Gravitational Physics, and Related Topics Ranging from Cosmic to Human to Quantum Levels

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 18 Pages. Intriguing! I support the Big Bang but have arrived at calculations Steady State theory proposed. Could reality be a "big bang-steady state" hybrid?

How the "Pioneer anomaly" refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time; and how equations he developed in 1919 show that the space warping in General Relativity extends to subatomic particles (with related topics: deflection of starlight, Optical Effect, electromagnetism, intergalactic and time travel, teleportation, the nuclear strong and weak forces, Theory of Everything or Unified Field Theory, quantum entanglement, retrocausality, dark matter, dark energy, Mobius strip, Klein bottle, Poincare conjecture, planet Mercury, precession, General Relativity, gravitation, dark flow, infinity, hidden variables, virtual particles, binary digits, wormholes, cosmic strings, quantum fluctuation, tides, origin of life, science-based eternal life, 5th-dimensional hyperspace [I think this can be called “prespacetime” which is a non-temporal and non-spatial domain theorized to be the foundation of spacetime], the Law of Conservation of Energy, and how data from both the Big Bang and Steady State theories is essential).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1212.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-09 21:14:39

Water Suspension Craft(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 12 Pages.

Water suspensions are symbolized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1210.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-24 13:08:40

Imaginary Physics

Authors: Philip J. Carter
Comments: 71 Pages. Version 3, corrected and updated.

The ubiquity of complex numbers throughout fundamental physics has never been satisfactorily explained. Moreover, the mathematical primacy of complex and imaginary numbers suggests the primacy of complex and imaginary structures in Nature, while further implying the existence of imaginary spatial dimensions preceding real dimensions. On this basis a consistent cosmological framework is erected, guided by a direct reading of the empirical and theoretical evidence, embracing essential principles of quantum theory, relativity theory, and string/M-theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1210.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-24 23:05:39

Imaginary Physics

Authors: Phil J. Carter
Comments: 76 Pages. Version 2.

The ubiquity of complex numbers throughout fundamental physics has never been satisfactorily explained. Moreover, the mathematical primacy of complex and imaginary numbers suggests the primacy of complex and imaginary structures in Nature, while further implying the existence of imaginary spatial dimensions preceding real dimensions. On this basis a consistent cosmological framework is erected, guided by a direct reading of the empirical and theoretical evidence, embracing essential principles of quantum theory, special relativity, and string/M theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[34] viXra:1210.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2012-10-22 15:56:13

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces".
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1210.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-14 22:58:34

Intergalactic Plus Time Travel, Hyperspace and Space-Time’s Nature (These Conclusions Address Unusual Things Like Dark Energy by Associating the Work of Einstein, Early Quantum Theorists, Computer Science and Isaac Newton in Unusual Ways.)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 27 Pages.

Here's a detailed, nonfictional explanation of why time travel (into both the future and past) is not impossible – I’ve tried to exclude mathematics as much as possible since my goal is to present an explanation of physical reality, and to make it comprehensible to the nonmathematician (I have referred to some maths, e.g. the Poincare conjecture, but have always used English). My text also seeks to explain, in nonfictional terms, phenomena such as intergalactic travel, hyperspace and space-time’s nature. This last point includes a new way of viewing gravity which explains dark energy and is based on Einstein’s work – as well as viewing gravity as fundamental to the nuclear forces and electromagnetism as well as fundamental to the composition of matter and mass (also based on Einstein’s work). The article does speak of God, but definitely not in any way you’ve heard of. And while I don’t believe evolution accounts for the origin of living species, I have no doubt that it does cause modifications in those species. To grossly oversimplify the article, intelligent beings spend thousands of years learning more and more about science. Then they discover how to time travel into the past (early 21st-century physics only believes in time travel to the future) where they put future biotechnology and computer science into practice (these sciences are far more advanced than today’s science). While the planned Mars mission of 2018 is robotic, we cannot limit our sights to that since we hope to follow with manned exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030’s. The physical bodies and psychology, as well as technology, we possess now or will possess in the foreseeable future are not well suited to prolonged space travel (e.g. our brains and bodies are vulnerable to radiation, muscle and bone loss, abnormal psychology, etc. when travelling in space … and simply reaching nearby stars would take hundreds or thousands of years). However, there is an alternative to astronauts (or cosmonauts, or taikonauts) reaching Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. We can thank the theories of Albert Einstein, an electrical engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in 2009, and some conclusions that logically follow from Einstein/Yale, for pointing the way to this alternative. When fully developed, the “Einstein-Yale Bridge” will take us anywhere in the universe and anywhen in time. There are 2 bonuses - Bonus #1 – Infinite universe, and Bonus #2 – How "Pioneer anomaly" refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1210.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-07 00:55:08

Intergalactic Plus Time Travel, Hyperspace and Space-Time’s Nature (These Conclusions Address Unusual Things Like Dark Energy by Associating the Work of Einstein, Early Quantum Theorists, Computer Science and Isaac Newton in Unusual Ways.)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 23 Pages. Being a perfectionist, I need to explain certain ideas more thoroughly e.g. separation of objects only going to zero in quantum entanglement when their centres coincide, science-based eternal life, my revision of gravity (hence the update).

Here's a detailed, nonfictional explanation of why time travel (into both the future and past) is not impossible – I’ve tried to exclude mathematics as much as possible since my goal is to present an explanation of physical reality, and to make it comprehensible to the nonmathematician (I have referred to some maths, e.g. the Poincare conjecture, but have always used English). My text also seeks to explain, in nonfictional terms, phenomena such as intergalactic travel, hyperspace and space-time’s nature. This last point includes a new way of viewing gravity which explains dark energy and is based on Einstein’s work – as well as viewing gravity as fundamental to the nuclear forces and electromagnetism as well as fundamental to the composition of matter and mass (also based on Einstein’s work). The article does speak of God, but definitely not in any way you’ve heard of. And while I don’t believe evolution accounts for the origin of living species, I have no doubt that it does cause modifications in those species. To grossly oversimplify the article, intelligent beings spend thousands of years learning more and more about science. Then they discover how to time travel into the past (early 21st-century physics only believes in time travel to the future) where they put future biotechnology and computer science into practice (these sciences are far more advanced than today’s science). While the planned Mars mission of 2018 is robotic, we cannot limit our sights to that since we hope to follow with manned exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030’s. The physical bodies and psychology, as well as technology, we possess now or will possess in the foreseeable future are not well suited to prolonged space travel (e.g. our brains and bodies are vulnerable to radiation, muscle and bone loss, abnormal psychology, etc. when travelling in space … and simply reaching nearby stars would take hundreds or thousands of years). However, there is an alternative to astronauts (or cosmonauts, or taikonauts) reaching Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. We can thank the theories of Albert Einstein, an electrical engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in 2009, and some conclusions that logically follow from Einstein/Yale, for pointing the way to this alternative. When fully developed, the “Einstein-Yale Bridge” will take us anywhere in the universe and anywhen in time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1210.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2013-01-20 08:55:27

Cometary Ejection of Venus from Jupiter as Arbitrary

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 pictures

The hypothesized ejection of a cometary Venus from Jupiter by Velikovsky is reliant on multiple arbitrary considerations and can be disregarded.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30] viXra:1210.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-01 09:05:47

Seventh International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 214 Pages.

Paradoxism was set up and led by Florentin Smarandache since 2012. Paradoxism is a literary, artistic, and scientific movement based on excessive use of antinomies, paradoxes, contradictions in creations. There are 34 writers from 6 countries who contributed to this anthology: - from Chile: Pablo NERUDA; - from Germany: Bernd HUTCHENREURTHER; - from India: B. VENKATESWARA RAO; - from Israel: Morel ABRAMOVICI; - from Romania: George ANCA, Marian APOSTOL, Adrian BOTEZ, Gheorghe BURDUŞEL, Eugen EVU, Sergiu GĂBUREAC, Dumitru HURUBĂ, Liviu-Florin JIANU, Ion MARINESCU - PUIU, Constantin MATEI, Mircea MONU, Doru MOTOC, Janet NICĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU – URICANI, Octavian PALER, Tudor PĂROIU, Ion PĂTRAŞCU, Marinela PREOTEASA,Andrei RADU, Puiu RĂDUCAN, Adriana STOENESCU, Ion URDA; - from U.S.A.: Tom DEIKER, Greg HALL, Kyle REVERAL, Wm MEYER, Mary Ellen WALSH, Eric PIERZCHALA, Peter SPECKER - TWIXT, Florentin SMARANDACHE.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29] viXra:1210.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-05 17:36:05

Seventh International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: Pages.

Paradoxism was set up and led by Florentin Smarandache since 2012. Paradoxism is a literary, artistic, and scientific movement based on excessive use of antinomies, paradoxes, contradictions in creations. There are 34 writers from 6 countries who contributed to this anthology: - from Chile: Pablo NERUDA; - from Germany: Bernd HUTCHENREURTHER; - from India: B. VENKATESWARA RAO; - from Israel: Morel ABRAMOVICI; - from Romania: George ANCA, Marian APOSTOL, Adrian BOTEZ, Gheorghe BURDUŞEL, Eugen EVU, Sergiu GĂBUREAC, Dumitru HURUBĂ, Liviu-Florin JIANU, Ion MARINESCU - PUIU, Constantin MATEI, Mircea MONU, Doru MOTOC, Janet NICĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU – URICANI, Octavian PALER, Tudor PĂROIU, Ion PĂTRAŞCU, Marinela PREOTEASA,Andrei RADU, Puiu RĂDUCAN, Adriana STOENESCU, Ion URDA; - from U.S.A.: Tom DEIKER, Greg HALL, Kyle REVERAL, Wm MEYER, Mary Ellen WALSH, Eric PIERZCHALA, Peter SPECKER - TWIXT, Florentin SMARANDACHE.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1210.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-24 19:58:35

Water Surface Craft(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The performance of takeoff and turn improves setting wing variable.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1209.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-28 12:24:17

Physical Theory

Authors: Fernando Sánchez-Escribano
Comments: 32 Pages. English translation followed by Spanish original.

This new theory explains physical phenomena according to the dictates of intuition historically recognized (determinism of their laws, absolute character of instants, lack of speed limit...) and assuming all verified achievements of classical and quantum theories, while replacing the principles considered erroneous with new ones, which allow to derive all fields of force from a single (gravelectric) potential, generated by matter each of whose (elementary) particles consists of two semiparticles (antiparticles one another), endowed with charges of types (gravon or lectron) and values (positive or negative) opposite each other, associated with senses of translation (dextrorse or sinistrorse, each own of one of both transor components of any rotor, in the postulated geometry of space) also contrary each other, and in mutually determined solidary states. Some particular achievements of this theory are: – New concepts (all defined mathematically, denoted some with neologisms) of: (physical point) medium; spatial (global character) geometry; medial (local character) geometry; particle; semiparticle (or semiparticular component of particle: gravon or lectron); particle charge; semiparticle charge; semiparticle transorial sense; semiparticle density field (scalar of charge, rectorial of current); fundamental field (scalar of medium density, rectorial of physical point velocity); gravelectric potential (scalar, rectorial); total (gravonic or lectronic) density field (of charge, of current); gravonic (time advanced) and lectronic (time retarded) components of the gravelectric potencial; semiparticle (transorial) current; semiparticle (scalar) coenergy and (rotorial) coimpulse; semiparticular (gravonic and lectronic) momenta (scalar energies, rotorial impulses) of particle; semiparticle comass and particle mass; semiparticle coinertia and particle inertia; particle own (rotorial) velocity and primary and secondary components of its own; active and passive charges of a body…. – New quite intuitive postulates interrelating: medial geometry and propagation of gravelectric waves; fundamental field (relative to a space-time reference system) and gravelectric potential (absolute, nonrelative to space-time reference system); continuity condition of fundamental field and Lorentz condition of gravelectric potential; medial geometry and gravelectric potential; type of charge (lectronic, gravonic) and temporal sense (normal, antinormal) of wave generation; transorial senses of both antiparticles; impulse, inertia and velocity primary component of particle; semiparticle densities (of charge and of current) and semiparticle (quantum) wave function…. – Unquestionable explanations of: tridimensional appearance of physical space; existence of (elementary) particles, of two semiparticle charge types and of two transorial senses (of spin); result of Michelson-Morley experiment; bending of light rays by gravitational fields; slowing down of wave frequencies when generated in gravitational fields; origin of terrestrial electric and magnetic field; non-detection (by ordinary means) of photons with velocity appreciably higher than usual constant…. – Natural explanations of: greater accuracy of relativistic quantum theory –errors of the first are offset each other better than those of the second– than of classical theory (providing some feasible experiments for the failure of relativistic predictions); apparent lack of effectiveness of the electric (gravelectric much stronger than ordinary gravitational) fields on conventional neutral corpuscles (with the same number of protons as electrons, but with gravonic net charge); similarity –both are essentially equivalent– of Newton’s and Coulomb’s force laws; quasi-cyclical evolution of ordinary matter universe…. – Intuitive models of stable corpuscle structures, corresponding to proton, neutron, neutrinos, atomic nuclei…, that allow to explain and control their disintegration processes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1209.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-04 09:58:32

Fernán: Teoría Física

Authors: Fernando Sánchez-Escribano
Comments: 30 Pages.

This new theory explains physical phenomena with full respect for the dictates of intuition historically recognized (determinism of their laws, absolute character of instants, absence of limit for speed...) and assuming all verified achievements of classical and quantum theories, though reforming their principles in order to make experience and common sense compatible, and to be able to derive all fields of force from only one potential, the so called gravelectric, hence opening new ways that allow us to get further off.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1209.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2012-10-19 18:02:40

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 4 Pages. Appeared in the 20th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2012), Redondo Beach, California, The United States

Geographic information systems traditionally dealt with only outdoor spaces. In recent years, indoor spatial information systems have started to attract attention partly due to the increasing use of receptor devices (e.g., RFID readers or wireless sensor networks) in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Applications that employ these devices are expected to span uniformly and supply seamless functionality in both outdoor and indoor spaces. What makes this impossible is the current absence of a unified account of these two types of spaces both in terms of modeling and reasoning about the models. This paper presents a unified model of outdoor and indoor spaces and receptor deployments in these spaces. The model is expressive, flexible, and invariant to the segmentation of a space plan, and the receptor deployment policy. It is focused on partially constrained outdoor and indoor motion, and it aims at underlying the construction of future, powerful reasoning applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1209.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2012-10-06 09:06:50

Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen
Comments: 4 Pages. Appeared in the 20th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2012), Redondo Beach, California, The United States

Geographic information systems traditionally dealt with only outdoor spaces. In recent years, indoor spatial information systems have started to attract attention partly due to the increasing use of receptor devices (e.g., RFID readers or wireless sensor networks) in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Applications that employ these devices are expected to span uniformly and supply seamless functionality in both outdoor and indoor spaces. What makes this impossible is the current absence of a unified account of these two types of spaces both in terms of modeling and reasoning about the models. This paper presents a unified model of outdoor and indoor spaces and receptor deployments in these spaces. The model is expressive, flexible, and invariant to the segmentation of a space plan, and the receptor deployment policy. It is focused on partially constrained outdoor and indoor motion, and it aims at underlying the construction of future, powerful reasoning applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1208.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-19 20:13:49

Fine Soccer

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This soccer has a fine score system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1208.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-17 13:37:57

A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 44 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SERE.2012.25.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1207.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-04 19:32:52

Prin Batrana Europa (Fotojurnal Instantaneu)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 167 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a lansat un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit, numit FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1207.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-16 18:25:58

The BagTrack Project - An Overview

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein, Asif Iqbal Baba, Tanvir Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. Presented at the Second European Business Intelligence Summer School (eBISS 2012), Brussels, Belgium

This is a poster that gives an overview of the BagTrack project http://goo.gl/sVngj.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1207.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-19 20:21:37

Water Suspension Craft

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 37 Pages.

A turning radius in which a wse craft does not collide with a ship is obtained.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1207.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-16 19:25:41

Scandinavian SD - The SAFE Way

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 10 Pages. Appeared in the 5th International Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development (EESD 2010), Gothenburg, Sweden

People of various interests talk about Sustainable Development (SD) and in their talks they understand SD very differently. A lexicographer for example may define SD according to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary as "the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment". While a passer-by may happily dub her society as sustainable if it is providing her with her life needs while considering the needs of generations to come over a very long time. To take it to an extreme edge, the philosopher Luc Ferry [1] defines SD by saying: "I know that this term is obligatory, but I find it also absurd, or rather so vague that it says nothing!". In this paper we try to define and measure SD in Scandinavian countries using a novel mathematical approach. We rely on a non-concrete model for this purpose; namely the SAFE model, which is based on concepts derived from fuzzy logic. It is widely believed that the application of fuzzy logic brings powerful reasoning abilities in disciplines where concrete mathematical models do not exist; and SD is one such discipline. In fact, fuzzy logic is an outstanding tool for mimicking human thinking and foresight. Based on the SAFE model, we give a careful assessments of sustainability in each of the Scandinavian countries. We also undergo a trend monitoring combined with a sensitivity analysis in order to stand on the most important sustainability factors in each of these countries.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1204.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-04 19:28:49

Multirelativitate (Interviuri)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 136 Pages.

Libertatea de a gândi altfel ne crează probleme – cu toată demagogia actuală despre democraţie şi libertate a presei politice sau ştiinţifice. Cine iese din gloată şi nu urmează orbeşte ceea ce declară mai marii (totuşi efemeri!) ai zilei, este pus la zidul infamiei. Deseori cei de la putere într-un domeniu au prezentat şi răspândit pseudo-gnoseologia lor ca... gnoseologie generală. Ontologia, după cum a fost văzută de cei de sus, a fost suprapusă/impusă celor de rând. Noi pledăm pentru un proces cogniscibil care să nu aibă îngrădiri de nici o formă. Din această cauză, hermeneutica se presupune a fi cât mai diversificată. Interviurile următoare împletesc cultura, ştiinţa, tehnica şi viaţa într-un multi-eu. De aceea volumul se numeşte multirelavititate: adică idei şi metodologii privite din unghiuri cât mai diferite de propaganda oficială. Gasiti in acest volum interviuri ale autorului cu: Valeria Tănase, Puşa Roth, Eugen Evu, Liliana Hinoveanu, Mihaela Năftănăilă, Puiu Popescu, Corina Negrea, Ion Jianu, Anca Lăpuşneanu, şi Marinela Preoteasa.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1202.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-12 15:30:18

On Leveraging the Chaotic and Combinatorial Nature of Deterministic N-Body Dynamics on the Unit M-Sphere in Order to Implement a Pseudo-Random Number Generator

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 10 Pages. Made corrections and added paragraph about prediction-correction.

The goal of this paper is to describe how to implement a pseudo-random number generator by using deterministic n-body dynamics on the unit m-sphere. Throughout this paper we identify several types of patterns in dynamics, along with ways to interrupt the formation of these patterns.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1202.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-06 20:08:48

On Leveraging the Chaotic and Combinatorial Nature of Deterministic $n$-Body Dynamics on the Unit $m$-Sphere in Order to Implement a Pseudo-Random Number Generator

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 10 Pages. Corrected section 1, expanded remaining sections. Mentioned the prediction-correction method of avoiding cycles.

The goal of this paper is to describe how to implement a pseudo-random number generator by using deterministic $n$-body dynamics on the unit $m$-sphere. Throughout this paper we identify several types of patterns in dynamics, along with ways to interrupt the formation of these patterns.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1112.0018 [pdf] replaced on 16 Dec 2011

Reminiscences on the End Of the Hope for Primates in Space

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 19 Pages. draft for comment. This version adds a paragraph on the current situation.

This paper addresses the question of whether humans will ever be able to settle space in an economically sustainable way and, if there is still hope of this, where the greatest hope may lie. It reviews key developments of the last 40 years relevant to this issue, such the space shuttle, the National Aerospace Plane, the Russian Ajax effort, nonlinear control challenges, challenges of developing a "skin" to withstand re-entry, current space programs around the world, and key markets for using such vehicles, such as energy from space and space manufacturing.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1101.0064 [pdf] replaced on 31 Jun 2011

A Law of Nature

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 pages

Complexity plays an important role in all kinds of human activity as well as in nature. Complexity can be defined in terms of the number of relations that must be handled accounted relative to the number of potential relations. Modularization is an efficient methodology that helps reducing the number of relevant relations. It has the property that it becomes more efficient when the availability and the diversity of modules that can be coupled increase. Its efficiency can grow exponentially when modules can be generated out of simpler modules. In nature this effect leads to the generation of very complex creatures, such as intelligent species. In fact it is possible to interpret this tendency as a new law of nature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1101.0064 [pdf] replaced on 26 Jan 2011

A Law of Nature

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 pages

Complexity plays an important role in all kinds of human activity as well as in nature. Complexity can be defined in terms of the number of relations that must be handled accounted relative to the number of potential relations. Modularization is an efficient methodology that helps reducing the number of relevant relations. It has the property that it becomes more efficient when the availability and the diversity of modules that can be coupled increase. Its efficiency can grow exponentially when modules can be generated out of simpler modules. In nature this effect leads to the generation of very complex creatures, such as intelligent species.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1009.0043 [pdf] replaced on 11 Sep 2010

Fifth Paradoxist Manifesto

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 pages

Applications of Paradoxism in Science (information fusion, cybernetics, robotics, airspace, medicine, military, logics, set theory, probability and statistics, geometry, multispace and multistructure theory) at NASA, NATO, University of Berkeley, etc., also in Philosophy, Linguistics, Arts...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1004.0065 [pdf] replaced on 17 Nov 2010

S-Denying a Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 pages

In this paper we introduce the operators of validation and invalidation of a proposition, and we extend the operator of S-denying a proposition, or an axiomatic system, from the geometric space to respectively any theory in any domain of knowledge, and show six examples in geometry, in mathematical analysis, and in topology.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1004.0023 [pdf] replaced on 7 Apr 2010

Blogs on Applications of Neutrosophics and Multispace in Sciences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 21 pages

The following blogs on applications of neutrosophics and multispace in sciences include meditations / reflections on science, comments, hypotheses, proposals, comparisons of ideas, possible projects, extensions or deviations or alternatives to classical knowledge, etc. selected from e-mails, letters, drafts, conversations, impressions, my diary, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1003.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-20 18:35:37

Is There Life After Death?

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 11 Pages.

Our sense of individual immortality is a consequence of the self-awareness of the Universe caught knowingly in the act of looking at itself through human eyes. I am how the Universe becomes self-aware and experiences itself. The immortality of the Universe is therefore quite naturally intuited to be my own. The Universe is a conservation domain: all parts of the Universe are immortal or otherwise conserved. Our true immortality is the eternal nature of the Universe itself - including its capacity to continuously evolve and create information, life, and self-knowledge. Human life oscillates between a generalized (genomic) and a specific (individual) expression. The creation of a new human being is remarkably analogous to the creation of a new elementary particle: both processes require a symmetric energy state which recapitulates the original environmental conditions of its specialized domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1003.0082 [pdf] replaced on 6 Mar 2010

Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Salah Osman
Comments: 293 pages, v1 in Arabic, v2 in English

Neutrosophy is ascribed to Dr. Florentin Smarandache, professor of mathematics and sciences, and head of its department at the University of New Mexico - Gallup (USA). The main aim of this book is to provide the reader with the philosophy of neutrosophy and its application to the Arabic-Islamic thought. So the book is divided into two parts; the first belongs to prof. Smarandache, in which he exposes his philosophy of neutrosophy. The second belongs to Dr. Salah Osman, assistant professor of logic and the philosophy of science in Minufiya university - in which he applies the philosophy of neutrosophy to the Arabic-Islamic thought.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1003.0029 [pdf] replaced on 6 Mar 2010

Declaration of Academic Freedom

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 4 pages, translated by Florentin Smarandache, v1 in French, v2 in Romanian

The author pledge for the freedom of scientists to expose and publish their papers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:0912.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-05 14:29:38

Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the "Tetrahedron Model"

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 13 Pages.

The realm of matter is a conserved, asymmetric, local form of the "ideal" global realm of light and perfect symmetry. It is due to its asymmetric character, expressed as charge and information, and its entropic drives, both positive and negative, that this alternative form of reality has the potential not just for conservation, but for change, growth, and evolution, even bringing forth life from inanimate atoms. Life evolves to self-knowledge, explores the Cosmos and new modes of creativity, producing new forms of beauty. The four principles of the "Tetrahedron Model" (conservation of energy, entropy, conservation of symmetry, causality) are as much "spiritual" principles of "divine law" as they are "scientific" principles of "natural law". This is another example of the convergence of physical scientific thought and metaphysical, spiritual, or religious thought, of the merging of rational and intuitive world views. The "Tetrahedron Model" represents a fundamental example and iteration of a 4x3 algorithmic hierarchy of fractal models, developed in the context and format of "General Systems". "General Systems" is a synthetic conceptual science which excels at bridging apparently disparate disciplines and world views. I will consider each of the 4 principles in turn.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:0911.0037 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-07 17:27:17

Introduction to the General Systems Papers

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Because the papers themselves can be difficult for the uninitiated, in spite of my efforts to make them simple and clear, I have written a series of introductory papers designed as a guide to assist the interested reader in working through them. I will try to bring out the main points of the paper, its relation to the remaining body of work, and perhaps make a few comments on its history and structure. There is almost no mathematics in these papers; for the most part, the papers deal only with conservation principles, although of course I make reference to the mathematical theories which provide the formal basis for the conceptual synthesis of this work (Noether's theorem, Einstein's "Interval" and energy relations, the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, etc.).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:0910.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-26 15:05:06

The Human Connection

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 15 Pages. adding new section

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light leading to atomic matter and charge conservation. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between atoms and light, charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and latent information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:0910.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-13 19:22:25

The Human Connection

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages. removing final section to a separate file

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light leading to atomic matter and charge conservation. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between atoms and light, charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and latent information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:0910.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-11 14:31:37

The Human Connection

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 13 Pages.

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light leading to atomic matter and charge conservation. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between atoms and light, charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and latent information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..."
Category: General Science and Philosophy