General Science and Philosophy

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[786] viXra:1611.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 20:49:24

Establishing The Second Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 10 Pages.

Problems, objectives, and resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[785] viXra:1611.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 09:48:10

Problem Forest in P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes about P vs NP by using “Problem forest” that is directed graph with transition functions edges and computational configuration nodes with effective range of tape. Problem forest of Deterministic Turing machine (DTM) is two tree graph which root are accepting & rejecting configuration, which leaves are starting configuration, and which trunks are computational configuration with effective range of tape. This tree shows DTM's interpretation of symmetry and asymmetry of each input. DTM remove each inputs asymmetry and merge to same configuration trunk. That is, transition functions can yield some asymmetry configurations to symmetry configuration. DTM have limitation that transition functions can translate some asymmetry configurations to symmetry configuration atmost size of transition functions set in one step. Problem forest of Nondeterministic Turing machine (NTM) is directed acyclic graph (DAG). Each input have many (nondeterministic) transition functions branch and merge separately to other input branch. Each trunk means these input's symmetry variety (asymmetry). We can prove that such type of merging trunk to other input are over polynomial size of input. Therefore, DTM cannot compute some NP problems in polynomial time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[784] viXra:1611.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 15:18:26

Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I.
Comments: 18 Pages. In English by Google

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[783] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:49:32

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[782] viXra:1611.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:08:26

U.s. Voted for Change in Approach to Politics – I Vote for Change in Approach to Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages.

What kind of President will Donald Trump be? I don't know. It's possible that in the 22nd century, virtually nobody will remember his name. It's also possible that he'll be called a great man who gave America and the world exactly the kind of change the world of this time required. In an article for the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia ("How to Prepare for the Presidency"), President John F. Kennedy said, "… greatness depends on the times as well as the man." By the way - I once saw a photo of Bill Clinton, the former President and husband of the losing candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton, shaking hands with President Kennedy in the early 1960's. In his article, John has this advice for Hillary: "… if some chance keeps you from the presidency, you will still know that you are prepared to serve well your nation as a citizen." The President-elect has no previous experience in politics. Neither does he feel obligated to conform to political traditions. Little me has no formal qualifications in science – while I recognize the necessity of using the various branches of science and mathematics as an indispensable guide, there is no feeling that scientific tradition must be followed because the centuries show that today's science is often tomorrow's obsoleteness. I'm in the mood to stop taking baby steps, and to try and explain much of the universe in one message. I know it isn't considered scientific to try and explain so much in one sitting. But I'm not a professional scientist, so me and my intuition are free to explore all the outrageous ideas I feel like – they satisfy my curiosity and imagination and are interesting, if nothing else.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[781] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 18:25:17

Andreus A.I.

Authors: ABC of the meaning of life. Scale Andreus.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[780] viXra:1611.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 01:53:14

L'inéluctable Effondrement D'une Science Officielle Sans éthique

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page. in French

Dramatic violations of basic ethics result in the crash of the Modern Scientific System through elementary scientific refutations of the Big Bang model, directly checkable, even by the layman.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[779] viXra:1610.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:35:48

Damnation Risk: Possibility of Eternal Torment

Authors: Anti Procreation
Comments: 5 Pages.

Roko’s Basilisk is an idea that was suggested by Roko in LessWrong.com in 2010, that an AI would be motivated to eternally torture people who have not helped to bring it into existence. The more likely possibility of eternal torment is, I think, a sadistic AI. A Reddit user TheFaggetman suggested the possibility of a sadistic AI in 2015, Brian Tomasik suggested a possibility of sadists take control of an AI. Although the major focus on AI research is an existential risk, I think human extinction only bad as much as an annihilation of the people thereby annihilated is bad. Although there's no knock-down argument to prove eternal torment is worse than annihilation, as we can see on 'Better red than dead' v. 'Better dead than red' debate, if we at least think that whereas eternal torment may be infinite times worse than annihilation, annihilation may be only finite times (e.g. 10 times) worse than eternal torment, perhaps moral priority shall be given to prevention of eternal torment caused by AI-molecular-assembler than annihilation caused by AI. (This Paper was originally published as a part of a book called 'Procreation Is a Murder: Why Procreation Is the Root of All Evils)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[778] viXra:1610.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 01:11:51

The Formal Systems

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Formal System is something created that allow you to answer some questions or to solve some problems. A Classic Formal System (Strongly Deterministic Formal Systems) is a system in which the answer to any ques- tion we can get a finite number of steps. In the article we consider some properties of the Formal Systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[777] viXra:1610.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 14:05:21

The Ordinalcy & Residuality Foundations: And Now for Greater Simplicity

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed distinct yet intertwined notions or programmed of Orduality and Residuality embark on how completeness begets asymmetry, duality, and simplicity while extending beyond the previous conjugation of Azimuthality and Gradiency. Higher-order relationships are deemed capable of revisiting functionality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[776] viXra:1610.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 17:26:52

Gradiency: A Two-Tier Introduction

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present paper sketches a dichotomy of Gradiency versus Azimuthality referring to how the positivist tradeoffs can be mitigated or revisited
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[775] viXra:1610.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 07:35:10

The Dark Side of the EM Drive

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 Pages.

The EM Drive, if validated, offers the possibility of interstellar travel by obtaining higher speeds in much shorter times than current propulsion techniques. The same energy acquired by an EM Drive can also be a significant concern at a global level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[774] viXra:1610.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 17:24:52

Estimating Remaining Lifetime of Humanity

Authors: Yigal Gurevich
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we estimate the remaining time for human existence, applying the Doomsday argument and the Strong Self-Sampling Assumption to the reference class consisting of all members of the Homo sapiens, formulating calculations in traditional demographic terms of population and time, using the theory of parameter estimation and available paleodemographic data. The remaining lifetime estimate is found to be 170 years, and the probability of extinction in the coming year is estimated as 0.43%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[773] viXra:1610.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 18:36:54

Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Limits of Computation, Theism and the Universe as Computer-the Ultimate Turing Theorem

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even independent of the laws of physics, so they apply across computers, physics, and human behavior. They make use of Cantor's diagonalization, the liar paradox and worldlines to provide what may be the ultimate theorem in Turing Machine Theory, and seemingly provide insights into impossibility, incompleteness, the limits of computation,and the universe as computer, in all possible universes and all beings or mechanisms, generating, among other things,a non- quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and a proof of monotheism. There are obvious connections to the classic work of Chaitin, Solomonoff, Komolgarov and Wittgenstein and to the notion that no program (and thus no device) can generate a sequence (or device) with greater complexity than it possesses. One might say this body of work implies atheism since there cannot be any entity more complex than the physical universe and from the Wittgensteinian viewpoint, ‘more complex’ is meaningless (has no conditions of satisfaction, i.e., truth-maker or test). Even a ‘God’ (i.e., a ‘device’ with limitless time/space and energy) cannot determine whether a given ‘number’ is ‘random’ nor can find a certain way to show that a given ‘formula’, ‘theorem’ or ‘sentence’ or ‘device’ (all these being complex language games) is part of a particular ‘system’.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[772] viXra:1610.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:40:21

Special Relativity: Scientific or Philosophical Theory?

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article, we argue that the theory of special relativity, as formulated by Einstein, is a philosophical rather than a scientific theory. What is scientific and experimentally supported is the formalism of the relativistic mechanics embedded in the Lorentz transformations and their direct mathematical, experimental and observational consequences. This is in parallel with the quantum mechanics where the scientific content and experimental support of this branch of physics is embedded in the formalism of quantum mechanics and not in its philosophical interpretations such as the Copenhagen school or the parallel worlds explanations. Einstein theory of special relativity gets unduly credit from the success of the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations. Hence, all the postulates and consequences of Einstein interpretation which have no direct experimental or observational support should be reexamined and the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations should be treated in education, academia and research in a similar fashion to that of quantum mechanics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[771] viXra:1610.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 20:17:39

The Harmonic Principle

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. in French

The Harmonic Principle explains the Universe existence by making concrete mathematical beauty. This means Art and Science strong interconnections, in particular a steady-state Cosmology (no Big Bang), implying matter to be a 10^104 Hz matter-antimatter oscillation leading to an interpretation of Black Matter,and visible Universe to be only a tiny fraction (10^-120) of an underlying tachyonic world. This favors an egyptian origin for Science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[770] viXra:1609.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 10:24:35

The CNO Cycle and Proton-Proton Chain Reaction Powering Stars is Pseudoscience

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle and the Proton-Proton Chain Reaction processes supposedly powering stars are pseudoscientific.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[769] viXra:1609.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:42:49

The Majority of the Beginnings of Life Evolution have no Evidence on Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars are the locations for the beginning of life. In this paper it is reasoned that no real evidence for the earliest of life evolution can be found on Earth, as the processes begin in early star evolution, when the Earth was vastly more alien.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[768] viXra:1609.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:44:40

Changing Worldview due to New Stellar Evolution Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis the worldview of the objects in the galaxy, the Earth, and life and humans is very different than what is accepted by modern scientists.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[767] viXra:1609.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 10:23:45

Seeing With the Two Systems of Thought—a Review of ‘Seeing Things As They Are: a Theory of Perception’ by John Searle (2015)

Authors: Michael R Starks
Comments: 34 Pages.

As so often in philosophy, the title not only lays down the battle line but exposes the author’s biases and mistakes, since whether or not we can make sense of the language game ‘Seeing things as they are’ and whether it’s possible to have a ‘philosophical’ ‘theory of perception’ (which can only be about how the language of perception works), as opposed to a scientific one, which is a theory about how the brain works, are exactly the issues. This is classic Searle—superb and probably at least as good as anyone else can produce, but lacking a full understanding of the fundamental insights of the later Wittgenstein and with no grasp of the two systems of thought framework, which could have made it brilliant. As in his previous work, Searle largely avoids scientism but there are frequent lapses and he does not grasp that the issues are always about language games, a failing he shares with nearly everyone. After providing a framework consisting of a Table of Intentionality based on the two systems of thought and thinking and decision research, I give a detailed analysis of the book.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[766] viXra:1608.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 03:49:12

The Scientific Age: Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Protocol
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[765] viXra:1608.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:50:00

Analysis of DSm Belief Conditioning Rules and Extension of Their Applicability

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 22 Pages.

Analysis of belief conditioning rules (BCRs) is presented in this chapter. Some simplifications of formulas for BCRs are suggested. A comparison of BCRs with classic rules of conditioning is performed. Finally, definition domains and applicability of BCRs are extended. Full formal definition of the extended version of BCR12 is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[764] viXra:1608.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:51:33

Attribute Information Evaluation in C&C Systems

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter describes what particular pieces of information about a source should be taken into account in order to get a reasonable assessment of an attribute information retrieved based on the sensor data or human originated information. It has been proven that actual sensor weights and hypotheses masses do not change randomly, but they vary in time according to tracked target motion, however not directly to the target position. It is postulated that the knowledge about target position only is insufficient and at least two dynamical coordinates target state vectors are required to reflect the target orientation, which has an influence on actual hypotheses assessment formed, on the basis of the sensor data or visual sightings.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[763] viXra:1608.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:52:34

Automatic Goal Allocation for a Planetary Rover with DSmT

Authors: Massimiliano Vasile, Matteo Ceriotti
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose an approach for assigning an interest level to the goals of a planetary rover. Assigning an interest level to goals, allows the rover to autonomously transform and reallocate the goals. The interest level is defined by data-fusing payload and navigation information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[762] viXra:1608.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:53:24

Definition of Evidence Fusion Rules Based on Referee Functions

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 32 Pages.

This chapter defines a new concept and framework for constructing fusion rules for evidences. This framework is based on a referee function, which does a decisional arbitrament conditionally to basic decisions provided by the several sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[761] viXra:1608.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:55:18

Fusion of Esm Allegiance Reports Using DSmT

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Pierre Valin, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic Support Measures consist of passive receivers which can identify emitters coming from a small bearing angle, which, in turn, can be related to platforms that belong to 3 classes: either Friend, Neutral, or Hostile.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[760] viXra:1608.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:56:33

Implementing General Belief Function Framework with a Practical Codification for Low Complexity

Authors: Arnaud Martin
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose a new practical codification of the elements of the Venn diagram in order to easily manipulate the focal elements. In order to reduce the complexity, the eventual constraints must be integrated in the codification at the beginning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[759] viXra:1608.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:57:25

Improvement of Multiple Ground Targets Tracking with Fusion of Identification Attributes

Authors: Benjamin Pannetier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 31 Pages.

Multiple ground targets (MGT) tracking is a challenging problem in real environment. Advanced algorithms include exogeneous information like road network and terrain topography.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[758] viXra:1608.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:58:42

Information Fusion for Natural Hazards in Mountains

Authors: Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert
Comments: 96 Pages.

From a real case application based on snow-avalanche risk management, an integrated framework mixing evidential reasoning and multi-criteria decision analysis (ER-MCDA) is proposed. This methodology considers a simplified decision sorting problem based on qualitative and quantitative criteria on which more or less reliable sources provide uncertain and imprecise evaluations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[757] viXra:1608.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:00:15

Map Regenerating Forest Stands Based on DST and DSmT Combination Rules

Authors: Brice Mora, Richard A. Fournier, Samuel Foucher
Comments: 20 Pages.

Our results demonstrated the ability of the Free Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) model to improve thematic classification of forest regeneration overthe use of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a classical Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[756] viXra:1608.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:01:45

Multimodal Information Retrieval Based on DSmT. Application to Computeraided Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Christian Roux
Comments: 33 Pages.

We propose in this chapter a content-based information retrieval framework to select documents in a database, consisting of several images with semantic information. Information in these documents is not only heterogeneous, but also often incomplete.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[755] viXra:1608.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:02:46

Multiple Cameras Fusion Based on DSmT for Tracking Objects on Ground Plane

Authors: Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano
Comments: 15 Pages.

This chapter presents comparative results of a model for multiple cameras fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[754] viXra:1608.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:03:42

Non-Numeric Labels and Constrained Focal Elements

Authors: Christophe Osswald, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 24 Pages.

The theory of belief functions allows to build a large family of combination operators, based mostly on intersections and unions between the focal elements expressed by the experts, and multiplications and additions on the masses affected to these focal elements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[753] viXra:1608.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:04:41

Performance Evaluation of a Tracking Algorithm Including Attribute Data

Authors: Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Ludmil Bojilov, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[752] viXra:1608.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:05:48

Satellite Image Fusion Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Abdenour Bouakache, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa, Gregoire Mercier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Free and hybrid models of multisource satellite images fusion are developed using the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache. The aim of this work is to show the contribution of these fusion models for improving the thematic classification and the quantification of change.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[751] viXra:1608.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:06:53

Utilizing Classifier Conflict for Sensor Management and User Interaction

Authors: Willem L. van Norden, Catholijn M. Jonker
Comments: 17 Pages.

This chapter describes how the conflict encountered by the PCR6 rule can be utilized in sensor management. We therefore discuss the classification model that is used in the fusion problem and two different types of conflict. To enable operators to exert constraints on singletons we propose a (slightly) altered PCR6 rule, dubbed PCR6a. We show how the algorithm works and we illustrate how the amount of conflict can be used for sensor management and/or for operator feedback by using an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[750] viXra:1608.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:15:19

A Class of Fusion Rules Based on the Belief Redistribution to Subsets or Complements

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Jean Dezert
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this chapter we present a class of fusion rules based on the redistribution of the conflicting or even non-conflicting masses to the subsets or to the complements of the elements involved in the conflict proportionally with respect to their masses or/and cardinals. At the end, these rules are presented in a more general theoretical way including explicitly the reliability of each source of evidence. Some examples are also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[749] viXra:1608.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:16:34

An Introduction to DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly conflicting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving artificial reasoning. In this introduction, we present a survey of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed for dealing with imprecise, uncertain and conflicting sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[748] viXra:1608.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:19:03

Fusion of Qualitative Information Using Imprecise 2 Tuple Labels

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Li Duan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, Herrera-Mart´ınez’ 2-tuple linguistic representation model is extended for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) or from Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) frameworks.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[747] viXra:1608.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:20:08

New Fusion Rules for Solving Blackman’s Association Problem

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents a new approach for solving the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem. It utilizes a new class of fusion rules based on fuzzy T-conorm/T-norm operators together with Dezert-Smarandache theory and the relative variations of generalized pignistic probabilities measure of correct associations defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-power set.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[746] viXra:1608.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:21:22

Object Identification Using T-Conorm/norm Fusion Rule

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

This small chapter presents an approach providing fast reduction of total ignorance in the process of target identification. It utilizes the recently defined fusion rule based on fuzzy T-conorm/Tnorm operators, as well as all the available information from the adjoint sensor and additional information obtained from the a priori defined objective and subjective considerations, concerning relationships between the attribute components at different levels of abstraction. The approach performance is estimated on the base of the pignistic probabilities according to the nature of the objects considered here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[745] viXra:1608.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:22:28

Probabilistic PCR6 Fusion Rule

Authors: Frederic Dambreville, Francis Celeste, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter defines and implements a non-Bayesian fusion rule for combining densities of probabilities, derived from imprecise knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[744] viXra:1608.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:23:17

Target Type Tracking with DSmP

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this chapter we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[743] viXra:1608.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:27:29

Transformations of Belief Masses Into Subjective Probabilities

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose in the DSmT framework, a new probabilistic transformation, called DSmP, in order to build a subjective probability measure from any basic belief assignment defined on any model of the frame of discernment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[742] viXra:1608.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:00:20

Comparison Between DSm and Minc Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 20 Pages.

Both DSm and minC rules of combination endeavor to process conflicts among combined beliefs better. The nature of conflicts as well as their processing during the belief combination is sketched. An presentation of the minC combination,an alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, follows. Working domains, structures and mechanisms of the DSm and minC combination rules are compared in the body of this chapter. Finally, some comparative examples are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[741] viXra:1608.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:01:33

Conflict Free Rule for Combining Evidences

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 29 Pages.

Recent works have investigated the problem of the conflict redistribution in the fusion rules of evidence theories. As a consequence of these works, many new rules have been proposed. Now, there is not a clear theoretical criterion for a choice of a rule instead another. The present chapter proposes a new theoretically grounded rule, based on a new concept of sensor independence. This new rule avoids the conflict redistribution, by an adaptive combination of the beliefs. Both the logical grounds and the algorithmic implementation are considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[740] viXra:1608.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:04:50

Florentin Smarandache: Mă Consider om de știință, Dar în Aceeași Măsură și om de Cultură

Authors: Ion Paraianu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache, trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător,care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins !
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[739] viXra:1608.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:08:08

Generalized Data Association for Multitarget Tracking in Clutter

Authors: A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova, Jean Dezert
Comments: 23 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present an approach for target tracking in cluttered environment, which incorporates the advanced concept of generalized data (kinematics and attribute) association (GDA) to improve track maintenance performance in complicated situations (closely spaced and/or crossing targets), when kinematics data are insufficient for correct decision making. It uses Global Nearest Neighbour-like approach and Munkres algorithm to resolve the generalized association matrix.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[738] viXra:1608.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:09:26

Generalized Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Applied to Sonar Imagery and Radar Targets Classification

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this chapter, we present two applications in information fusion in order to evaluate the generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule presented in chapter [7]. Most of the time the combination rules are evaluated only on simple examples. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on real data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. Two applications are presented here: a fusion of human experts opinions on the kind of underwater sediments depicted on a sonar image and a classifier fusion for radar targets recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[737] viXra:1608.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:11:56

Neutrosophic Frameworks for Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 34 Pages.

In situation analysis, an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices,human reports and databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[736] viXra:1608.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:13:14

On Conjunctive and Disjunctive Combination Rules of Evidence

Authors: Hongyan Sun, Mohamad Farooq
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this chapter, the Dempster-Shafer (DS) combination rule is examined based on the multi-valued mapping (MVM) and the product combination rule of multiple independent sources of information. The shortcomings in DS rule are correctly interpreted via the product combination rule of MVM. Based on these results, a new justification of the disjunctive rule is proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[735] viXra:1608.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:15:25

Power and Resource Aware Distributed Smart Fusion

Authors: Shubha Kadambe
Comments: 28 Pages.

Large distributed sensor networks (DSN) with disparate sensors, processors and wireless communication capabilities are being developed for a variety of commercial and military applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[734] viXra:1608.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:16:28

Pre-Boolean Algebra, Ordered DSmT and DSm Continuous Models

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 24 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyper-power sets, which are indeed free structures. However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints. In this chapter, the logical constraints will be related to a predefined order over the logical propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[733] viXra:1608.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:17:22

Probabilized Logics Related to DSmT and Bayes Inference

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 28 Pages.

This work proposes a logical interpretation of the non hybrid Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT). As probability is deeply related to a classical semantic, it appears that DSmT relies on an alternative semantic of decision.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[732] viXra:1608.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:18:31

Reducing DSmT Hybrid Rule Complexity Through Optimization of the Calculation Algorithm

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 67 Pages.

The work covered here had for objective to write a MatlabTM program able to execute efficiently the DSmT hybrid rule of combination. As we know the DSmT hybrid rule of combination is highly complex to execute and requires high amounts of resources. We have introduced a novel way of understanding and treating the rule of combination and thus were able to develop a MatlabTM program that would avoid the high level of complexity and resources needs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[731] viXra:1608.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:20:33

Scientia Magna

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientia Magna is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[730] viXra:1608.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:21:52

Scientia Magna, International Book Series (Vol. 11, No. 1)

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientia Magna international book series publish original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[729] viXra:1608.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:09:46

Quantization of Photonic Energy and Photonic Wave Length

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assuming that space is quantized by Planck-length, we show that Mass and Velocity of elementary particles as well as photonic energy must be also quantized. Furthermore, since the photonic energy is quantized it is a type of discrete function and might be measured from observations of energetic cosmological photonic radiations or even with the Large Hadron Collider in CERN (LHC). Such successful measurements can prove that space is quantized. Once assuming that space-time is quantized it obviously raises the question what is there between the Planck-length quanta pieces of space. We suggest a new theory claiming that between the quantum cells there are extra non local grid like dimensions that divide space and connect all the pieces together. These non-local new dimensions might explain today's Quantum Theory's non-local phenomena’s like Schrodinger’s probability wave instant collapse all over space, entanglement, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[728] viXra:1608.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 18:16:50

Beauty

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of a general definition of beauty
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[727] viXra:1608.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 19:49:53

The Mobility, Volume and Gravity Principles of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Three Principles of life formation are presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[726] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 22:33:54

The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein and John Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 74 Pages.

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[725] viXra:1608.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 05:30:59

The Phenomenon of a Transfer of the Consciousness Structure by View and the Concept of Alive Matter

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 8 pages, Russian. Consciousness and physical reality, 2004, v. 9, N 4, p. 51-56.

The event of a transference of the consciousness structure from one person to another using the sight is described. A detected side result is discussed: by some people matter is perceived as alive.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[724] viXra:1608.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:56:56

Computing Machinery, Intelligence and Undecidability

Authors: P. Castro
Comments: 6 Pages.

In 1950 Alan Turing proposed a decision criteria for intelligence validation in a computer. Most simply if a human judge was incapable of deciding from two witnesses which was the computer and which was the human, the machine would have acquired artificial intelligence. In this paper I will argue that the Turing test has a fundamental problem, making it impossible to provide human intelligence validation. Furthermore I will reason that all empirical tests destined to identify intelligence behavior cannot provide an answer and that consequently artificial intelligence identification is an undecidable problem. Since this must mean that there is no algorithmic procedure tolist humanely intelligent systems, it must also mean that human intelligence is not computable and therefore that there is no pragmatic theory one can write to build an humanely intelligent robot.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[723] viXra:1607.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:40:47

Degrees of Membership > 1 and < 0 of the Elements With Respect to a Neutrosophic OffSet

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

We have defined the Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars ([16]-[37]) and did more publishing during 2007-2016 ([1]-[15]). These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[722] viXra:1607.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:52:18

Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory & Decision Making Process

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. In neutrosophic set, indeterminacy is quantified explicitly and truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership are independent.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[721] viXra:1607.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:55:43

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Book Series

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 144 Pages.

This volume is a collection of seventeen papers, written by different authors and co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): F. Smarandache, K. Bhutani, M. Kumar, G. Garg, S. Aggarwal, P. Biswas, S. Pramanik, B.C. Giri, J. Ye, A. Mukherjee, M. Datta, S. Sarkar, N. Shah, M. K. EL Gayyar, S. K. Patro, B. C. Cuong, P. H.Phong, A. A. Salama, I. M. Hanafy, H. Elghawalby and M. S. Dabash, R. Roy, P. Das, D. Mandal, Santhi R.,Udhayarani N., F. Yuhua, S. A. Akinleye, A.A.A. Agboola, and J. Chen.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[720] viXra:1607.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:58:38

Innovative and Increased Risks from CBR Disasters and Effective, Economical, Adaptive Countermeasures

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ten years after 9-11 we are at a crucial junction point in our preparedness and defenses for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) events initiated by terrorists, accidents or natural causes. Despite a decade of intensified work and significant expenditure aimed at providing more effective prevention as well as response to a variety of WMD-type incidents, society (USA and worldwide) is facing a higher probability for disruptive events, particularly “CBR” (chem.-bio-rad) that can cripple nations and their economies. This statement is in contradiction to common public opinions expressed on the subject. Why are CBRN risks in fact higher than before, and why are some of the types of countermeasures, particular those focused strongly upon terrorist-origin CBR threats, insufficient for preparing and responding in ways required for maintaining social resilience and sustainability? Included in our assessment are non-terrorist events that can be potentially of greater damage and consequence than terrorist acts. We also examine the diversity and unpredictability by which principally CBR threats can be brought into a large and mobile population and how such events can be amplified and made more destructive, not only by physical measures, but by psychological impact and caused by mass-panic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[719] viXra:1607.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 03:13:10

The Current Status of the Physicalist Program [PHPR]

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Status of PHPR.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[718] viXra:1607.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:45:37

Aggregation of Triangular Fuzzy Neutrosophic Set Information and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is devoted to propose triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets by combining triangular fuzzy numbers with single valued neutrosophic set and define some of its operational rules. Then, triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging operator are defined to aggregate triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[717] viXra:1607.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:47:22

A Projection Model of Neutrosophic Numbers for Multiple Attribute Decision Making of Clay-Brick Selection

Authors: Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brick plays a significant role in building construction.So we should use the effective mathematical decision making tool to select quality clay-bricks for building construction. The purpose of this paper is to present a projection model of neutrosophic numbers and its decision-making method for the selecting problems of clay-bricks with neutrosophic number information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[716] viXra:1607.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:49:28

Assessing it Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in Comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Kanika Bhutani, Megha Kumar, Gaurav Garg, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[715] viXra:1607.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:52:13

Critical Review, Vol. Xii, 2016

Authors: Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman
Comments: 114 Pages.

We have proposed two multi-criteria decision making methods, Extended α-D MCDM and α-D MCDM-TOPSIS models that allow to work for consistent and inconsistent MCDM problems. In addition, three examples have demonstrated that the α-D MCDM-TOPSIS model is efficient and robust.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[714] viXra:1607.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:56:11

Nω –CLOSED Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Santhi R., Udhayarani N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[713] viXra:1607.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:57:38

Neutrosophic Crisp α-Topological Spaces

Authors: A.A.Salama, I.M.Hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.S.Dabash
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a generalization of the neutrosophic topological space is presented. The basic definitions of the neutrosophic crisp α-topological space and the neutrosophic crisp α-compact space with some of their characterizations are deduced. Furthermore, we aim to construct a netrosophic crisp α-continuous function, with a study of a number its properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[712] viXra:1607.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:59:12

Neutrosophic Goal Programming Applied to Bank: Three Investment Problem

Authors: Rittik Roy, Pintu Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper represents a new multiobjective Neutrosophic goal programming and Lexicographic goal programming to solve a multiobjective linear programming problem. Here we describe some basic properties of Neutrosophic sets. We have considered a multi-objective Bank Three Investment model to get optimal solution for different weights.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[711] viXra:1607.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:00:21

Neutrosophic Hyperideals of Semihyperrings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced neutrosophic hyperideals of a semihyperring and considered some operations on them to study its basic notions and properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[710] viXra:1607.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:03:25

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 12, 2016

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Said Broumi, A.A.Salama
Comments: 144 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[709] viXra:1607.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:05:15

Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Mithun Datta, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short). Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[708] viXra:1607.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:06:30

Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: M. K. EL Gayyar
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[707] viXra:1607.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:07:36

Some Studies in Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Nasir Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of neutrosophic graphs, weak isomorphisms, co-weak isomorphisms and isomorphisms between two neutrosophic graphs. It is proved that the isomorphism between the two neutrosophic graphs is an equivalence relation. Some other properties of morphisms are also discussed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[706] viXra:1607.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:09:08

Value and Ambiguity Index Based Ranking Method of Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the paper ARE to introduce single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers(SVTrNNs), which is a special case of single-valued neutrosophic numbers and to develop a ranking method for ranking SVTrNNs. Some operational rules as well as cut sets of SVTrNNs have been introduced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[705] viXra:1607.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:01:22

Parallel Universes and Causal Anomalies: Links Between Science and Religion

Authors: Roman Sverdlov
Comments: 34 Pages. Original article was written in 2010, when I was in Raman Research Institute, but I am posting it in 2016 when I am at University of Mississippi (Spring) and University of New Mexico (Fall)

In [6] it was proposed to define "god" as a region of a universe that is subject to circular causality. While we do not adapt the exact definition of "god" that is being introduced in that paper, we do accept the concept that "god" has something to do with causal anomalies: either circular causality or else two competing causal structures. We will show that the presence of a causal anomaly (whatever it happens to be) might allow us to define trinity in non-contradictory way. That is, we will show how the members of trinity can be separate entities and, yet, have the same identity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[704] viXra:1607.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 13:59:58

Art Definition

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of definition of art
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[703] viXra:1607.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 21:36:52

The Human Connection: Part II

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 Pages. original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light - leading to our "matter-only" cosmos, charge conservation, atoms, the Periodic Table, chemistry, biology, and humanity. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between light and matter (atoms), charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..." (Wordsworth)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[702] viXra:1607.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:34:54

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella Paratyphi a: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. paratyphi A. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. paratyphi A were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while lyophilized treated cells assessed on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. paratyphi A showed significant (60%) alteration in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of S. paratyphi A also showed significant (53.12%) alteration in Gr. II and on day 10 while, no alteration was found in Gr. on day 5 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 18.18% biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (53001040, S. paratyphi A), on day 10 (57101050, Citrobacter freundii complex) as compared to control (53001000, S. paratyphi A). Besides, biotype number was also changed in Gr. III (53001040, S. paratyphi A) as compared to control. The overall result suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. paratyphi A in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biotype number.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[701] viXra:1607.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 11:15:08

The Existence of Quantum Computer

Authors: Petr E. Pushkarev
Comments: 8 Pages.

We extend the empirically grounded theory of the existence of quantum computer. The main question that we are considering is a question about the possibility of existence and creation of quantum computer. As empirical evidence we use logic which we examine in cognitive perspective. For definition of the computer we use a formal definition of Turing machine. By formulating many definition abstract we go around the areas of quantum physics, quantum computing and other quantum-related fields of science which could give unambiguous answer for the question about the essence of quantum computer and which is developed so they can't. In many ways, it makes this theory about the existence of quantum computer universal for these areas, although less applied in them. We consider some corollary of the essences of quantum computer, including the refutation of possibility of the quantum computer for the human. The philosophical basis of the definition of human which we follow in our theory is scientific materialism.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[700] viXra:1607.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 05:17:58

Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation But not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

Authors: Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Comments: 15 Pages.

Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoid- ance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF lev- els and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exer- cise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spa- tial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[699] viXra:1607.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 16:51:39

Applied Mathematics Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 1 Page.

Studies in Applied Mathematics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[698] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 09:22:19

Multidimensional, Wave-Function Superconductivity and Cosmology

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Cooper pair state is responsible for superconductivity, as described in the BCS theory developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer for which they shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. A Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper. These have some bosonic properties – properties similar to photons, gravitons and the Higgs boson. Bosons, at sufficiently low temperature, can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena (quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent). The best-known examples of macroscopic quantum phenomena are superfluidity and superconductivity. The fact that bosons can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is related to superconductivity hints at superconductivity being a wave-function phenomenon. Also, the Complex Number Plane of mathematics in conjunction with the so-called Imaginary Time of physics suggests this wave-function might find practical application beyond abstract maths and could be multidimensional having "real", "imaginary" and "complex" types. The explanation of superconductivity by means of Cooper pairs confirms the validity of wave-particle duality. This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, and black holes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[697] viXra:1606.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 03:39:14

Chemistry Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 1 Page.

Studies in Chemistry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[696] viXra:1606.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 23:22:59

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Antimony Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) has gained extensive attention in solar cells due to their potential as a low-cost and earth abundant absorber material. In solar cell absorber, the optoelectrical properties such as energy band gap and absorption coefficient of Sb2S3play an important role, which have strong relationships with their crystal structure, lattice parameter and crystallite size. Hence in the present investigation, Sb2S3 powder samples were exposed to biofield treatment, and further its physical, structural and spectral properties are investigated. The particle size analysis showed larger particle size and surface area after treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed polycrystalline orthorhombic structure with superior crystallinity in treated Sb2S3along with significant changes in the lattice parameters, which led to changes in unit cell volume and density. XRD data analysis indicates that crystallite size was increased by around 150% in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, strong absorption band was observed at 400-700cm-1, which confirms the presence of Sb2S3. Further, the absorption peak intensity in IR spectra was significantly reduced after treatment that was probably due to change in metal sulphur dipolar interaction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[695] viXra:1606.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 07:49:01

Studies of the Atomic and Crystalline Characteristics of Ceramic Oxide Nano Powders after Bio field Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biofield treatment significantly changed the lattice strain in unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities in ceramics oxide powders. The computed molecular weight of the treated samples exhibited significant variation. FT-IR spectra indicated that biofield treatment has altered the metal-oxygen bond strength. Since biofield treatment significantly altered the crystallite size, lattice strain and bond strength, we postulate that electrical and magnetic properties in TMOs (transition metal oxides) can be modulated by biofield treatment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[694] viXra:1606.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 08:18:46

The Enigma that is Light

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 11 Pages.

The presently accepted notion of wave/particle duality, especially when applied to light, is undoubtedly a cause of great unease for many. Here the issue is examined afresh in the light of ideas put forward in recent years, especially by Mayants, while not forgetting the contributions of those great scientists of the past. Explanations and interpretations are then offered to account for seemingly paradoxical effects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[693] viXra:1606.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 04:59:18

Differential Activation of ER Stress Signal Pathways Contributes to Palmitate-Induced Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis

Authors: Xiaofang Zhao
Comments: 9 Pages.

Saturated free fatty acids-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in hepatocyte lipoapoptosis induced by the saturated free fatty acid palmitate (PA). However, the underlying mechanisms of the role of ER stress in hepatocyte lipoapoptosis remain largely unclear. In this study, we showed that PA and tunicamycin (Tun), a classic ER stress inducer, resulted in differential activation of ER stress pathways. Our data revealed that PA induced chronic and persistent ER stress response, but Tun induced acute and transient ER stress response. Compared with Tun treatment, PA induced much lower glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a central regulator of ER homeostasis, accumulation. It is noteworthy that GRP78 over-expression not only inhibited PA-induced ER stress but also decreased PA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that the differential activation of ER stress signal plays an important role in PA-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. More detailed studies on the mechanisms of PA in repressing the accumulation of GRP78 will contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of lipoapoptosis. Article Tools Abstract PDF (1841KB) HTML Follow on us AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Google+Share to LinkedInMore AddThis Share options
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[692] viXra:1606.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 15:14:00

The Cornell Effect

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new cognitive bias/fallacy is given definition so that it can be spotted in the future based on the author’s experience with sharing a new understanding of nature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[691] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 03:53:40

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 5 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[690] viXra:1606.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 10:44:58

Philosophical Libellus on Matching Descriptions

Authors: Tozzi A, Peters JF
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is about beings and principles. Topology, the mathematical branch that assesses objects and their properties preserved through deformations, stretching and twisting, allows the investigation of the most general systems features. In particular, the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) states that, if a single point projects to a higher spatial dimension, it gives rise to two antipodal points with matching description. Physical and biological counterparts of BUT and its variants allow a philosophical inquiry of world and events. The opportunity to treat systems as topological structures makes BUT a universal principle underlying natural and artificial phenomena. Here we focus on Universe development and brain function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[689] viXra:1606.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 03:44:54

Halting Problem for Turing Machine

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I write some ideas on the halting problem that I have not verified experimentally (it seem right theorically). It may be interesting so that I share with you.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[688] viXra:1605.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 15:12:41

An Interplay and the Scientific Method

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Interplay and methodology
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[687] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 14:08:10

A Review of Drive

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 1 Page.

A brief review of life and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[686] viXra:1605.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-16 08:37:31

To Donald Trump: the Holy Mom and Sin-Drunk World, the Smarter One Is?

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

you are a strong and powerful candidate for the US Presidency. But how you would try to win, if your nation does not distinguish between true and false? Therefore, you need my proof of the Bible, the proof of the Jesus Christ. Please, promote the text among the people. You can do it, brother in Christ, because you are rich, smart, brave and powerful!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[685] viXra:1605.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 20:21:21

Expanding Comparative Literature into Comparative Sciences Clusters with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on. In addition, comparative literature itself can also be expanded. Under the two main categories of research and practice, comparative literature can be expanded into: comparative literature research, comparative literature practice (including comparative essay, comparative fiction, comparative poetry, comparative drama, and so on), comparative literature research and practice, and so on. This paper discusses the applications of comparative method in comparative sciences clusters and their various branches. Point out that in the existing fields of social sciences and natural sciences, many sprouts of comparative sciences clusters can be found, but a wide range of the achievements of comparative sciences clusters, still are the virgin lands to be developed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[684] viXra:1605.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-12 10:35:45

The Way to a General Theory of Physics

Authors: H. de Lara
Comments: 1 Page.

3 different paradigms in XXth century emerge interconnected in XXI
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[683] viXra:1605.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-05 09:49:20

Short-Term and Long-Term Strategic Concerns of the First Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Strategic Concerns of the First Task of PHPR
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[682] viXra:1605.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 18:31:48

Building Bridges Between the Sciences with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A diagram with explanation is given so that people understand where the bridges are formed with the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. The bridges will be expanded as theory development continues without any acknowledgement from establishment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[681] viXra:1605.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-03 17:55:16

Detailed Analysis of Possible Adverse Consequences of the First Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 9 Pages.

Policy, Resolution, and Outcome.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[680] viXra:1604.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 07:29:32

Panta Rhei - Towards an Objective Understanding of Flowing Time

Authors: Tim Moon
Comments: 7 Pages.

This contribution tries to pioneer an objective understanding of flowing time. It takes the form of a sketchy, pre-scientific sort of story but is intended to be broadly congruent with established scientific knowledge. The true nature of flowing time remains almost uncharted territory, so the aim is tentative exploration - to provide a hypothetical picture which is sufficiently intelligible that it could serve heuristically. It might have the potential to help future efforts to make scientific headway in this notoriously paradoxical domain. To formulate this story it's been necessary to adopt one of the radical views of space that modern physics offers. Some physicists see space in purely relational terms, not as an independent entity. But in sharp contrast to this view, and in accordance with the perspective inherent in quantum field theory (QFT), this story about time is based on the premise that space is the primary reality of the universe. What we normally think of as bits of matter are seen by QFT as secondary, as spatial field disturbances. The quantum fields of space are considered to be substantive, structurally complex and ubiquitously energetic. What moves the story a step beyond current science is that it also takes on board the ancient aphorism that "everything flows". Accordingly, the heart of space everywhere is imagined to be in an incessant state of turbulence and flow. The unfolding tale suggests how this hypothesis, were it true, might help explain the fleeting passage of time within an enduring, law-bound material world, much as we perceive and have begun to know it.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[679] viXra:1604.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 01:35:42

About an Intuition Primate in the Clinical Medicine

Authors: Kutlumuratov A.B., Kutlumuratov S.B.
Comments: 56 Pages.

The importance of physician intuition in epistemologies of medicine is discussing from positions of philosophical pragmatism and E. Husserl's phenomenology in this article. Pragmatism reduces essence of scientific knowledge to adequate understanding of person interests, and asserts applicability of knowledge for achievement of practical goals as criterion of truth. Phenomenology reduces essence of scientific knowledge to intuitions of subject essences of thing: consciousness seizes subject relation with thing with meanings helping. Our consciousness uses meanings to control subjects. Husserl's intuitivism implies primate of signification in modern scientific thinking determines distinctions between empirical and theoretical sciences. Husserl's intuitivism implies, that primate of signification in modern scientific thinking determines distinctions between empirical and theoretical sciences. Empirical sciences are theorizing objects of material world; theoretical sciences are theorizing ideal objects. Regions' essences are researching in theoretical and empirical sciences, and each subject is considered example of carrier of these essences. Essence of separate subject is not goal of such sciences. Usually we represent knowledge as result only of signification conscious activity: we have meanings of theoretical objects in theoretical sciences and theoretical meanings of real objects - in empirical sciences. Intuition does not take into consideration. However, when management by single object becomes goal of scientific cognition, role of intuitions in constitution of subject's singularity becomes obvious. Disciplines, which are investigating essences of unique objects, and controllability of them we can define as "practical sciences". This distinguishes them from theoretical and empirical sciences. Humanitarian sciences are practical disciplines. Thus, we can consider combined effect of acts of signification and discretion of essences as important epistemological principle for the modern pragmatism. Perception by physician of person's individual nature in direct contact with patient is basic subject of medicine. Physician perceives health nature of each person across all regions of realities. To help to patient a physician uses knowledge of various sciences, and the individual nature of patient, and he researches self-applicability of patient. Physician controls identical semantic perception of individual nature of patient by unceasing intuiting during all process doctoring of patient. Doctoring is adequately ending, when intuiting of painful essences of individual patient's nature depletes. Nevertheless, intuition as cognition method works in modern medicine spontaneously. Intuition as facility of control of rational applying by physician of empiric and theoretic methods has not investigates. Key words: pragmatism, phenomenology, intuition, signification, empirical sciences, theoretical sciences, practical sciences, doctoring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[678] viXra:1604.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 08:04:48

Essays on Psychologistic Themes

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 350 Pages.

Psychologistics is a new field of study, described in my treatise on trial logic, which is available at http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0118. The current work presents ten relatively independent essays on Psychologistics, which form supplementary material to the treatise. The subject matters of these essays can be recapitulated as follows. Essay 1 addresses various trends of psychology in historical prospect; Essay 2 addresses the complete taxonomy of the senses of a man; Essay 3 is a discussion of native languages and their codes, and also of artificial (contrived) languages; Essay 4 treats special quotations and some relevant topics in greater detail as compared to their treatment in Preface of the trial logic treatise; Essay 5 addresses my solution of the problem of universals; Essay 6 addresses taxonomies of bionts, i.e. instances of hierarchal systems of irregular, or proper, classes of bionts as opposed to regular, or small, classes of objects, called also sets; Essay 7 deals with basic biochemistry including basic principles of genetic theory (theory of DNA macromolecules); Essay 8 comprises historical remarks on philosophy, logic, and psychology; Essay 9 presents formulation and proof of generalized associative and commutative laws for an abstract binary composition operator; Essay 10 comprises some general remarks on the trial logic and Psychologistics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[677] viXra:1604.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 19:44:20

Paradoxismul Civic (Nonsensul Sensului), Pamflete

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Andrușa R. Vătuiu
Comments: 176 Pages.

Paradoxismul este o mișcare internațională de avangardă în literatură, artă, filozofie, chiar și în știință, bazată pe folosirea excesivă de antiteze, antinomii, contradicții, oximorone, parabole, inversări sau devieri de sensuri, interpretări de la figurativ la propriu, paradoxuri etc. în creație. A fost înființat de către scriitorul, artistul și omul de știință Florentin Smarandache, în anii 1980, în România, dorind lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice și prin experimente contradictorii; în special creație în contra-timp, contra-sens. Primul manifest paradoxist a fost publicat în limba franceză, în anul 1983, în prima carte paradoxistă, Le Sens du Nonsens / Sensul Nonsensului, apărută în Maroc. Inițiatorul paradoxismului împreună cu Andrușa R. Vătuiu propun acum publicului exprimarea paradoxismului în sociologie.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[676] viXra:1604.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 04:48:26

Florentin Smarandache, a Unifying Field in Logics: Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability (Fifth Edition)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 157 Pages.

The neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics etc. were introduced by Florentin Smarandache in 1995. 1. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. This theory considers every notion or idea together with its opposite or negation and with their spectrum of neutralities in between them (i.e. notions or ideas supporting neither nor ). The and ideas together are referred to as . Neutrosophy is a generalization of Hegel's dialectics (the last one is based on and only). According to this theory every idea tends to be neutralized and balanced by and ideas - as a state of equilibrium. In a classical way , , are disjoint two by two. But, since in many cases the borders between notions are vague, imprecise, Sorites, it is possible that , , (and of course) have common parts two by two, or even all three of them as well. Neutrosophy is the base of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability, and neutrosophic statistics that are used in engineering applications (especially for software and information fusion), medicine, military, airspace, cybernetics, physics. 2. Neutrosophic Logic is a general framework for unification of many existing logics, such as fuzzy logic (especially intuitionistic fuzzy logic), paraconsistent logic, intuitionistic logic, etc. The main idea of NL is to characterize each logical statement in a 3D Neutrosophic Space, where each dimension of the space represents respectively the truth (T), the falsehood (F), and the indeterminacy (I) of the statement under consideration, where T, I, F are standard or non-standard real subsets of ]-0, 1+[ with not necessarily any connection between them. For software engineering proposals the classical unit interval [0, 1] is used. For single valued neutrosophic logic, the sum of the components is: 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 3 when all three components are independent; 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 2 when two components are dependent, while the third one is independent from them; 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 1 when all three components are dependent. When three or two of the components T, I, F are independent, one leaves room for incomplete information (sum < 1), paraconsistent and contradictory information (sum > 1), or complete information (sum = 1). If all three components T, I, F are dependent, then similarly one leaves room for incomplete information (sum < 1), or complete information (sum = 1). In a general Refined Neutrosophic Logic, T can be split into subcomponents T1, T2, ..., Tp, and I into I1, I2, ..., Ir, and F into F1, F2, ...,Fs, where p+r+s = n ≥ 1. Even more: T, I, and/or F (or any of their subcomponents Tj ,Ik, and/or Fl) can be countable or uncountable infinite sets. 3. Neutrosophic Set. Let U be a universe of discourse, and M a set included in U. An element x from U is noted with respect to the set M as x(T, I, F) and belongs to M in the following way: it is t% true in the set, i% indeterminate (unknown if it is) in the set, and f% false, where t varies in T, i varies in I, f varies in F. Statically T, I, F are subsets, but dynamically T, I, F are functions/operators depending on many known or unknown parameters. Neutrosophic Set generalizes the fuzzy set (especially intuitionistic fuzzy set), paraconsistent set, intuitionistic set, etc. 4. Neutrosophic Probability is a generalization of the classical probability and imprecise probability in which the chance that an event A occurs is t% true - where t varies in the subset T, i% indeterminate - where i varies in the subset I, and f% false - where f varies in the subset F. In classical probability n_sup <= 1, while in neutrosophic probability n_sup <= 3+. In imprecise probability: the probability of an event is a subset T in [0, 1], not a number p in [0, 1], what’s left is supposed to be the opposite, subset F (also from the unit interval [0, 1]); there is no indeterminate subset I in imprecise probability. 5. Neutrosophic Statistics is the analysis of events described by the neutrosophic probability. The function that models the neutrosophic probability of a random variable x is called neutrosophic distribution: NP(x) = ( T(x), I(x), F(x) ), where T(x) represents the probability that value x occurs, F(x) represents the probability that value x does not occur, and I(x) represents the indeterminate / unknown probability of value x.
Category:
General Science and Philosophy

[675] viXra:1604.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-05 07:47:32

The Cyberphysics of Tomorrow's World

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 34 Pages.

This article would appeal to people interested in new ideas in sciences like physics, astronomy and mathematics that are not presented in a formal manner. Biologists would also find the paragraphs about evolution interesting. I was afraid they'd think my ideas were a bit "out there". But I sent a short email about them last year to a London biologist who wrote an article for the journal Nature. She replied that it was "very interesting". The world is fascinated by electronics. Computer scientists, as well as computer buyers, would be intrigued by the fundamental role given to human electronics in creation of the universe. This obviously can only be done if time travel to the past is possible. I explain in scientific terms how it could be done (the world is also fascinated by the prospect of time travel). My ideas on trips through time grew from the related topic of interstellar, and even intergalactic, travel (and those ideas are inspired by an electrical-engineering experiment at Yale University in 2009). After the ideas on time travel came the realization that this technology could be used to totally eliminate the problems of muscle and bone weakness, radiation exposure etc associated with a lengthy journey to Mars. The exquisitely ordered cosmos proposed would have great appeal to religion and philosophy. Dealing as it does with time that does not exclusively operate in a straight line, the book could not only present a new view of evolution (present theory assumes time is always a straight line from past to future). Nonlinear time might also give religionists a new concept of who God is. This could possibly be that of humans from the remote future who are quantum entangled with all past, present and future states of the whole - infinite and eternal - universe; and thus have all God's powers. Such infinite power could be pantheistic but would naturally include the ability to manifest as an individual. (I know this article is very far removed from what is traditionally considered scientific. Just remember: science is the search for knowledge of how this universe works, and that search must be pursued wherever it leads - even if it leads into traditionally nonscientific areas such as religion.) Finally - if we're entangled with the whole universe, we'd have to be entangled with each other. On a mundane level, this gives us extrasensory and telekinetic abilities. On a higher level, it eliminates crime and war and domestic violence since people don't normally desire to harm themselves in any way.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[187] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 09:19:46

Азбука смысла жизни. Шкала Андреуса. Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I. Andreus A.I.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[186] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-06 08:46:55

The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Mind and Language in Wittgenstein and Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 81 Pages. newest version 11/6/16

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[185] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 23:21:34

Integrating Imagination with Reality Because Science Needs a Reboot

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 70 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): INTEGRATING IMAGINATION WITH REALITY.pdf. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3486755.v2 Retrieved: 04 11, Aug 28, 2016 (GMT)

I have the most intense desire to understand how everything works (my main interest is cosmology). My feeling as I typed these hypotheses (ideas) has always been that they already exist (though, since physics' Unification appears to connect every point and time in the Cosmos, not on early 21st-century Earth in every case). And I'm just a student, learning about them. Albert Einstein is quoted as saying, "For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand." Experiments and mathematics have done a superb job of integrating the human mind's reasoning abilities with the universe. I believe we have now reached the point where the separateness maths and experiments rely on must be surpassed. The trend of discoveries in physics is towards unification of the whole universe, and all time, into one thing ... one event. Start with 19th century scientist James Clerk Maxwell uniting electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Then consider Albert Einstein's attempt in the 20th century to unite electromagnetism with gravitation and produce a Unified Field Theory. Lastly, think of modern physics' dream to unite everything into the TOE (Theory of Everything). One day, the Unified Field or TOE will be successfully achieved and it might extend far beyond the wildest hopes of today's science. In 1911 Vladimir Varićak asserted that length contraction is “real” according to Lorentz, while it is “apparent or subjective” according to Einstein. Einstein replied: “The author unjustifiably stated a difference of Lorentz’s view and that of mine concerning the physical facts. The question as to whether length contraction really exists or not is misleading. It doesn’t “really” exist, in so far as it doesn’t exist for a comoving observer; though it “really” exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer.” (a non-comoving observer is eg an experimenter in a scientific facility or medical lab) Since "non-comoving" maths/experiments have done an excellent job of integrating our reasoning with the cosmos, my ideas relating to them will be referenced frequently and occupy the greatest portion of this article. However, "co-moving" with Unification now opens the door for other aspects of the mind, such as imagination and intuition, to become an essential part of our comprehension of the universe we live in. Albert Einstein once said, “The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.” Some readers will view this article as too far fetched. But that doesn't mean it can't be true. I'm fascinated by the distant future - so I started with known science and let my imagination see what that science could develop into. Someone from 200 years ago could have combined known science with imagination, and developed a picture of possibilities for today. In the early 1800's, it would have sounded impossibly far fetched ... but it might have come true. Maybe the imaginations of the few give other people goals to approach with baby steps – and goals that eventually come true. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, black holes and many other topics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[184] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-10 08:41:27

Integrating Imagination with Reality

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 54 Pages.

Albert Einstein is quoted as saying, "For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand." Experiments and mathematics have done a superb job of integrating the human mind's reasoning abilities with the universe. I believe we have now reached the point where the separateness maths and experiments rely on must be surpassed. The trend of discoveries in physics is towards unification of the whole universe, and all time, into one thing ... one event. Start with 19th century scientist James Clerk Maxwell uniting electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Then consider Albert Einstein's attempt in the 20th century to unite electromagnetism with gravitation and produce a Unified Field Theory. Lastly, think of modern physics' dream to unite everything into the TOE (Theory of Everything). One day, the Unified Field or TOE will be successfully achieved and it might extend far beyond the wildest hopes of today's science. In 1911 Vladimir Varićak asserted that length contraction is “real” according to Lorentz, while it is “apparent or subjective” according to Einstein. Einstein replied: “The author unjustifiably stated a difference of Lorentz’s view and that of mine concerning the physical facts. The question as to whether length contraction really exists or not is misleading. It doesn’t “really” exist, in so far as it doesn’t exist for a comoving observer; though it “really” exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer.” (a non-comoving observer is eg an experimenter in a scientific facility or medical lab) Since "non-comoving" maths/experiments have done an excellent job of integrating our reasoning with the cosmos, they will be referenced frequently and occupy by far the greatest portion of this article. However, "co-moving" with Unification now opens the door for other aspects of the mind, such as imagination and intuition, to become an essential part of our comprehension of the universe we live in. This article is definitely is too far fetched if we look at it from the viewpoint of today's science. But that doesn't mean it can't be true. I'm fascinated by the distant future - so I started with known science and let my imagination see what that science could develop into. Someone from 200 years ago could have combined known science with imagination, and developed a picture of possibilities for today. In the early 1800's, it would have sounded impossibly far fetched ... but it might have come true. Maybe the wild imaginations of the few give other people goals to approach with baby steps - and goals that eventually come into reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[183] viXra:1606.0270 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-26 07:39:10

The Purpose of Project Economic Models

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 7 Pages.

Models come in different forms: visual, arithmetic, mental, physical. The most common type of model is arguably the mental model, which people use to view and interpret the world. A model can be described as a representation of a problem or a situation – a simplified representation. The process of building or developing a model is called modeling. A model once developed by the modeller, can be ‘owned’ by a manager or decision maker. The ideal is to make the model an extension of the user’s ability to think about and analyse problems or situations. When used properly – taking into consideration its limitations – an economic model for a project can provide insight for decision makers, when making the crucial decision to approve a project. An economic model for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project is shown as an example
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[182] viXra:1606.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-25 11:16:34

Physics Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 2 Pages.

Studies in Physics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[181] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-26 06:15:56

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 6 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[180] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-08 16:17:33

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria - Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 6 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[179] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 10:03:59

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 5 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[178] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-08 14:39:38

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 5 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[177] viXra:1606.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-01 06:26:30

Halting Problem for Turing Machine

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I write some ideas on the halting problem that I have not verified experimentally (it seem right theorically). It may be interesting so that I share with you.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[176] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 20:11:08

A Review of Drive

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 4 Pages.

A brief review of life drive and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[175] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-31 11:19:28

A Review of Drive

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 2 pages.

A brief review of life drive and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[174] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 09:54:08

A Review of Drive

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 2 Pages.

A brief review of life drive and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[173] viXra:1605.0174 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-22 08:43:02

To Donald Trump: the Holy Mom and Sin-Drunk World, the Smarter One Is?

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages. the text is checked by the most famous Editing service

you are a strong and powerful candidate for the US Presidency. But how you would try to win, if your nation does not distinguish between true and false? Therefore, you need my proof of the Bible, the proof of the Jesus Christ. Please, promote the text among the people. You can do it, brother in Christ, because you are rich, smart, brave and powerful!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[172] viXra:1604.0350 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-26 23:38:55

Let's Talk

Authors: Anthony J. Browne
Comments: 60 Pages.

A conversation on the importance of conversating.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[171] viXra:1604.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 12:59:33

About an Intuition Primate in the Clinical Medicine

Authors: Kutlumuratov A.B., Kutlumuratov S.B.
Comments: The misprints, grammatical mistakes and stylistic discrepancies are eliminated from the text. The numbering of the pages is inserted .

The importance of physician intuition in epistemology of medicine is discussing from positions of philosophical pragmatism and E. Husserl's phenomenology in this article. Pragmatism reduces essence of scientific knowledge to adequate understanding of person interests, and asserts applicability of knowledge for achievement of practical goals as criterion of truth. Phenomenology reduces essence of scientific knowledge to intuitions of subject essences of thing: consciousness seizes subject relation with thing with meanings helping. Our consciousness uses meanings to control subjects. Husserl's intuitivism implies, that primate of signification in modern scientific thinking determines distinctions between empirical and theoretical sciences. Empirical sciences are theorizing objects of material world; theoretical sciences are theorizing ideal objects. Regions' essences are researching in theoretical and empirical sciences, and each subject is considered example of carrier of these essences. Essence of separate subject is not goal of such sciences. Usually we represent knowledge as result only of signification conscious activity: we have meanings of theoretical objects in theoretical sciences and theoretical meanings of real objects - in empirical sciences. Intuition does not take into consideration. However, when management by single object becomes goal of scientific cognition, role of intuitions in constitution of subject's singularity becomes obvious. Disciplines, which are investigating essences of unique objects, and controllability of them we can define as "practical sciences". This distinguishes them from theoretical and empirical sciences. Humanitarian sciences are practical disciplines. Thus, we can consider combined effect of acts of signification and discretion of essences as important epistemological principle for the modern pragmatism. Perception by physician of person's individual nature in direct contact with patient is basic subject of medicine. Physician perceives health nature of each person across all regions of realities. To help to patient a physician uses knowledge of various sciences, and the individual nature of patient, and he researches self-applicability of patient. Physician controls identical semantic perception of individual nature of patient by unceasing intuiting during all process doctoring of patient. Doctoring is adequately ending, when intuiting of painful essences of individual patient's nature depletes. Nevertheless, intuition as cognition method works in modern medicine spontaneously. Intuition as facility of control of rational applying by physician of empiric and theoretic methods has not investigates. It is necessary serious scientific comprehension of this fact by philosophizing physicians together with medical and philosophical community. Key words: pragmatism, phenomenology, intuition, signification, empirical sciences, theoretical sciences, practical sciences, doctoring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[170] viXra:1604.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-13 16:47:30

PHPR in the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

It's founding and scope.
Category: General Science and Philosophy