General Science and Philosophy

1405 Submissions

[29] viXra:1405.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 06:58:00

Measuring Complexity

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: Pages.

"This text is chapter 2.3 of the book 'A unified Theory of Complexity'. It briefly explains the four complexity measures proposed in the theory, and reviews different currently existing Complexity conceptualizations and measures. From the revision, we draw conclusions that support the proposed theory which conceptualizes Complexity from four perspectives: Organization, Emergence, Meaning and Logic. The text does not try to be 'exhaustive' but to concisely explain the reviewed issues, support the proposed perspective and set the basis for the mathematical formulation of Complexity that is developed later in the text [Chapter 3]"
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1405.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-24 21:38:33

Who Created the Universe: if God is the Answer, What is the Question?

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 69 Pages.

The strange stuff unexplained: The scriptural teaching on the origin of the universe is found in fatal bible. God: The Fatal delusion.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1405.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-20 13:00:08

Just Too Many People: Towards a Sustainable Future Earth

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 10 Pages. Submitted for FQXi 2014 Essay Contest on "How Should Humanity Steer the Future?"

Our modern civilization is built on cheap energy from fossil fuels, which produces carbon dioxide, which produces global warming. The only way to avoid catastrophe is to shift away from fossil fuels to solar and nuclear energy, well before all fossil fuel reserves have been burned. But this transition cannot be achieved with a projected global population of 10 billion (10B); we need to return to a level of 100 to 200 years ago, when the population was ~1-2B. A peaceful transition is possible only if humanity collectively takes ownership of the problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1405.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-10 05:10:43

A Systemic Approach to Sustainability

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 32 Pages.

This text is chapter 2.1 of the book 'A mathematical Theory of sustainability and Sustainable Development'. It reviews and conceptualizes sustainability/sustainable development from six different theories: Systems Theory, Complexity Theory [as both 'organization' and 'emergence']; Coevolution; Ecology; Chaos Theory and Adaptive Systems Theory
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1405.0258 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-20 11:41:22

The Strange Stuff Unexplained: if God is the Answer, What is the Question?

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 68 Pages.

Why something? Why not anything? All our life, we have been bugged by the strange questions that face us, and have tried to find answers to them from the day we begin to make sense of what we see. Overall so far disconcert seems to be an instinct on a personal level. The universe is full of strange sounding ideas and unremarkable truths. Mankind’s lust for knowledge never winds up with certainty. Who created the universe? The scriptural teaching on the origin of the universe is found in fatal bible. God: The Fatal delusion.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1405.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:51:40

Assessment of Dissolved Salts Concentration of Seawater in the Vicinity of Karachi

Authors: A. Q. Jakhrani, S. R. Samo, Z. A. Siyal, Habibur Rahman Sobuz, Md. Alhaz Uddin, M. J. Ahsan, Noor Md. Sadiqul Hasan
Comments: 9 Pages.

The steady movement salts swept from the earth’s crust by multiplicity of sources drained towards sea. Finally the evaporation of seawater to the atmosphere makes the ocean salty. Gaseous and solid discharges from volcanic activity, suspended solids run-off, and dissolving of materials from deposition of sediments on the oceanic floor also contribute the high salt concentration in the seawater. The quantity of total dissolved salts is reduced as a result of precipitation, surface water run-off or melting of ice caps over the sea. This study was conducted to investigate the amount of dissolved salt present in seawater in the vicinity of Karachi. For this purpose six locations were selected around the city; such as, Lyari River, Sand Pits, Karachi Port Trust, Kiyamari, Manhora and PRC Towers. It was found that the amount of total dissolved salt in seawater was more or less similar at five locations except one place at the joining point of Lyari River. The chlorides, sodium, sulfates, potassium, magnesium and conductivity were found 22, 18, 13, 06, 09 and 13 times lower at Lyari among other places. It is concluded that fresh water from Lyari drain reduced the dissolved salt content near the joining point of fresh water with seawater.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1405.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:52:33

Effect of Hybrid Fibres on the Properties of Class C Fly Ash Based Concrete

Authors: Rama Mohan Rao, P Ravi Chandra. A
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper steel and palm fibres (natural fibres) was used as hybrid fibre volume fractions with class C fly ash as cement replacement material has been studied. This study aims the optimization of volume faction of steel and palm fibre content in class C fly ash concrete. In this study the percentage of total volume fraction of hybrid fibre is limited to 1.0 and the replacement level of class C fly ash in binder was maintained at 40%. In total five different concrete mixes was used. For each mix standard sizes of cubes, cylinders and prisms were cast as per Indian standards and tested for the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength , modulus of elasticity at age of 28 and 90 days. Compare the experimental results of different hybrid volume fractions of reinforced concrete with 1.0% volume fraction of steel fibre reinforced concrete mix. The test results showed that hybrid fibres (steel + palm) were most effective in improving the mechanical strength characteristics particularly comparable with concrete mix without fibres.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1405.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:53:51

CBR Test on Fibre Reinforced Silty Sand

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz
Comments: 9 Pages.

Geosynthetic fibres are an established family of geomaterials used in a wide variety of civil engineering applications such as pavement systems. In pavement design, CBR ratio count as an important parameter. This study aims to investigate effect of fibre inclusion on CBR ratio. A series of laboratory investigation were carried out to evaluate effects of reinforcing the sub grade soil in pavement system with randomly distributed plastic fibres. In this study, one type of soil (i.e silty sand) and two type of fibre were used. CBR test were conducted on unreinforced samples as well as reinforced ones at different fibre contents (i.e. 0.1%, 0.3%) and different fibre length (i.e. 10mm , 20 mm and 40mm).The results of CBR test showed that the CBR ratio for reinforced silty sand increased even more than two times in some cases as fibre content and fibre length increased. The results proved that application of short randomly distributed fibre is a good method to apply in practical projects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1405.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:54:51

Effect of Synthesizing Parameters on Compressive Strength of Flyash Based Geopolymer Paste

Authors: Kushal Ghosh, Partha Ghosh
Comments: 11 Pages.

The objectives of the present research is to appreciate the effect of synthesizing parameters on engineering properties of Geopolymer composites manufactured using locally available low calcium fly ash . Fly ash used are lignite coal based and falls under class F category. The current research utilizes low calcium fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant located near Kolkata, India. The broad areas of present research include: Manufacturing of Geopolymer and a comprehensive study on the effect of synthesizing parameters on compressive strength of Geopolymer paste. The effect of synthesizing parameters such as Alkali content (Na2O/Al2O3), Silica content (SiO2/Al2O3) and Water to Geopolymer binder ratio have been studied and arrived at certain level of understanding regarding manufacturing and compressive strength, which will be useful to the researchers and manufacturers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1405.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:55:58

Flexural Behaviour of Low Calcium Fly ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Beams

Authors: S.Kumaravel, S.Thirugnanasambandam
Comments: 7 Pages.

The production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) causes pollution to the environment, due to the emission of CO2. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is an alternate material for OPC. Low calcium fly ash, a by-product from the coal industry is widely available in the world. Silicate and alumina are rich in fly ash and hence reacts with alkaline solution to produce alumina silicate gel that binds the aggregate to produce a good concrete. The designed compressive strength of concrete is 50 N/mm2. A total of four beams is cast over an effective span of 3000 mm and tested up to failure under static loads. The flexural behaviour of GPC beams and OPC beams are examined. The load displacement response of those beams are obtained and compared with the theoretical results. The deflections at different stages including service load and ultimate load stage are higher and exhibit increased flexural strength for GPC beams.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1405.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 02:13:16

A Simple Mathematical Model for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Solar Water Heating System with Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Srinivas, S. Venkataiah
Comments: 12 Pages.

A simple mathematical model for estimating energy transfer in a solar hot water tank fitted with thermosyphon heat exchanger and operating in a thermosyphon loop is developed. The model is used for evaluating the effectiveness of the heat exchanger operating under different mass flow rates. An experimental test facility for the heat exchanger is fabricated in which an electric geyser is used for hot water supply. Comparison of experimental results with the theoretical results yielded the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. It is found to vary between 0.7 to 1.0 for the normal range of flow rates encountered in a thermosphon solar water heating system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1405.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 02:14:27

Comparison of Methods Controlling Slug Pulling by Using an Indirect Method in Automotive Industry

Authors: Viktor Tittel, Ľuboš Bernadič
Comments: 15 Pages.

Slug pulling occurs if a slug is caught to the punch face and afterward the punch pulls the slug up from the die. Slug pulling is a cause of problems. The aim is to give an answer which of methods is more effective than the others. Researched holes were cut by using a press with various cutting tools. Slug pulling rate was observed by an indirect method of slug pulling rate measurement. The method is based on observation of indentations on workpieces caused by pulled slugs. It was found that a slug is most often pulled by common punch while on the other hand usage of ejector punches and special dies with grooves is more effective with no pulled slug. A surprise is that efficiency of the aeration punch has been higher than expectation. The shear ground punch and the stepped punch are placed in the middle of the chart.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1405.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 02:15:58

Preparation of 5083 al-Sic Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing and Its Mechanical Characterization

Authors: Dharmpal Deepak, Ripandeep Singh Sidhu, V.K Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this study, surface composite based on 5083Al matrix reinforced with nano-sized silicon carbide particles has been fabricated by Friction stir processing (FSP). Microstructure, hardness and wear behavior of the surface composite have been investigated and compared with those of 5083Al alloy. It is observed that the friction stir processed (FSPed) sample possess higher hardness, especially in the nugget zone, as compared to 5083Al. The tribological studies showed that wear resistance of the surface composite is observed to be significantly inferior to that observed for 5083Al, as a result of high coefficient of friction and higher friction force developed during the course of sliding wear. This leads to detachment of hard SiC particles from the surface of FSPed sample. Microstructural analyses of worn track and wear debris reveal that the primary wear mode in FSPed is abrasive whereas in 5083Al both abrasive and adhesive wear modes are operative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1405.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:29:10

Optimization of Suspension Damping Using Different Mathematical Car Models

Authors: Arshad Mehmood, Ahmad Ali Khan, Ayaz Mehmood
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper gives an insight on the suspension dynamics of the two most widely used models for vehicle dynamics with their complete state space analysis, simulated by using Mat Lab platform. In this paper we investigate the responses of the quarter car and a half car model as the vehicle ride performance is generally assessed at the design stage by simulating the vehicle response to road excitation. This requires the development of a vehicle model to analysis its responses. The time responses and frequency responses of the sprung and unsprung masses have been studied. The optimal solution here is the damping, which has been optimized with the given set of fixed parameters.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1405.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:31:19

Optimization of Geometric Parameters of a New Wedge Brake Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Nouby M. Ghazaly, Mostafa M. Makrahy, K. R. Mahmoud, k. A. Abd El-Gwwad, Ali M. Abd-El-Tawwab
Comments: 13 Pages.

The main objective of the present study is to optimize the geometric parameters of wedge disc brake for improving brake performance by applying the Taguchi method with orthogonal array robust design. The experimental tests using brake dynamometers are integrated with Taguchi method to find out the significant contributions of different types of geometric parameters for effective increasing of the brake performance. From Taguchi method results, the effective geometric parameters to improve the performance of wedge brake are obtained. Results of this work show that the most significant geometric parameters on wedge brake performance can be achieved through combination of the friction material thickness and friction material length.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1405.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:33:26

Optimization of Green Sand Casting Process Parameter by Taguchi Method: a Review

Authors: S.S.Jamkar, M.J.Deshmukh, N.A. Vidhate
Comments: 7 Pages.

Casting is a age old production technique wherein cavities are formed by a pattern into a porous and refractive material, usually sand, and then liquid metal is poured into the cavity so that it takes up the shape of the cavity, thus forming the required metal product. Green sand casting process involves many process parameters which affect the quality of the casting produced. The objective of this review paper is to optimize green sand casting process parameter by Design of Experiment method such as Taguchi method. The Taguchi Method is a powerful problem solving technique for improving process performance, yield and productivity. Using Taguchi analysis the effect of various process parameters at different levels on casting quality can analyze and optimal setting of the various parameters can obtained.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1405.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:34:21

Optimization of Gating System Using Mould Flow Software: a Review

Authors: N.A.Dukare, R.M. Metkar, N.A. Vidhate, S.D.Hiwase
Comments: 7 Pages.

Casting as a manufacturing process to make complex shapes of metal materials in mass production may experience many different defects such as porosity and incomplete filling. Gating/riser system design is critical to improving casting quality. The objective of this review paper is to optimize gating/riser systems based on CAD and simulation technology with the goal of improving casting quality such as reducing incomplete filling area, decreasing large porosity and increasing yield. Therefore in this paper, an optimization framework is presented based on CAD and simulation technology.Prepare a CAD model of part design and after converting to a casting model, it is the first step to evaluate castability of the casting design. Then the runner and risers are represented parametrically, and CAD models generated by varying parameters can be used in the simulation. After analyzing simulation results, the gating/riser system design is optimized to improve casting quality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1405.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:35:25

Comparative Study of Cooling Of Small Buildings Using Different Techniques-Water Sprinkled Gunny Bags And White Roof Paint

Authors: Arshad Mehmood, Ayaz Mehmood
Comments: 15 Pages.

In hot and humid region, air-conditioning is increasingly used to attain thermal comfort. Air-conditioning is highly energy intensive and it is desirable to develop alternative low- energy means to achieve comfort. A comparison of overall cost reduction in providing thermal comfort in a building by the use of (i) Wetted roof surface and (ii) Painted roof, against bare roof surface .For this purpose M.R reading hall of M.A Library A.M.U Aligarh is chosen as the subject building and the mathematical model available in the literature have been used for prediction of roof outside surface temperature and consequent heat transmission in the building through the roof. Calculations were carried out for a typical summer day of May for Aligarh (India). The difference between the wetted & bare roof and painted & bare roof is compared to conclude that wetted roof surface cooling technique is much better than the painted roof surface.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1405.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:41:02

Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam Containing Steel Slag as Coarse Aggregate

Authors: Arivalagan. S
Comments: 10 Pages.

Results of an investigation conducted to study the flexural strength of steel slag reinforced concrete (SSRC) containing steel slags of mixed aspect ratio are presented. Approximately ten beam specimens of size 150 mm x 150 mm x 900 mm were tested under four-point static flexural loading in order to obtain the flexural performace lives of SSRC at different stress levels. The specimens incorporated 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% volume fraction of steel slag fibres. From the experimental investigation it has been observed that the moment capacity of SSRC beams was higher than NWC beams. Thus, the SSRC beams showed a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened. SSRC beams also exhibited a lot of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small. The other advantage for SSRC beams was deflection. The SSRC beams exhibited higher deflection under constant load until failure, compared to NWC beams that failed in brittle manner without warning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1405.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:41:45

Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Fly Ash Concrete Beams

Authors: Arivalagan. S
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper deals with an experimental study on the properties of concrete containing fly ash .The flexural behaviour of fly ash concrete beams with and without reinforcement was conducted in this study. The addition of fly ash content used was 10% and 20% of mass basis. All beams had the same dimensions tested under two point load. The experiment results showed that addition of fly ash into Portland cement improves the tensile strength and improves the cracking behaviour in terms of significant increase in first crack load and the formation of large number of finer cracks. However, only marginal improvement was observed in the case of ultimate load.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1405.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:42:30

On the Instrumentation of an Oedometer for Hoop Strain Measurement

Authors: Chee-Ming Chan
Comments: 11 Pages.

Oedometer cells are commonly used in geotechnical engineering laboratory to determine the one-dimensional deformation of soil samples. The cell is simply a short open-ended cylinder, capped with a pair of porous discs, for containing the soil. Load is applied on the sample with a lever arm mechanism, which transfers the load from weights placed on a hanger suspended away from the oedometer cell. In the laterally-confined test condition, simultaneous measurement of radial stress of the soil sample under vertical load is understandably desirable, to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the soil’s behaviour at-rest. Direct measurement of the soil body is almost impossible in an oedometer cell, but radial stress can be indirectly gauged by instrumentation of the cell wall. This paper describes the design and building of an instrumented floating type oedometer cell, which concurrently measures vertical deformation as well as radial stress of stabilized soils. Based on fundamental hoop strain principles, 2 pairs of micro-strain foil gauges, perpendicularly arranged and affixed on opposite sides of the cell’s outer wall, were connected in a Wheatstone full-bridge circuit for maximum voltage output. The design, construction and installation procedure as well as calibration methods are detailed in this paper to illustrate feasibility of the instrumentation adopted. The technique can be easily duplicated for similar rigid type cells and provide an economical means of monitoring hoop strain, and hence redial stress of soils under loading.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1405.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:43:17

Packaged Drinking Water Quality Characteristics at Chennai City, Tamilnadu

Authors: J.S.Sudarsan, Renganathan.K
Comments: 6 Pages.

The inadequacy of protected water supplies in urban centre is a growing problem. In recent years, as communities resort to buy water from vendors, bubble top cans and bottled water became major sources of drinking water in the households and at work. This study is conducted in Chennai city to assess the physiochemical and bacteriological quality of packaged water sold in several key locations of study area. The three main source of packaged water includes bottled water, sachet and Bubble top cans. At the time of study 40 key locations were identified in study area. From each location samples were collected from various vendors and subjected to physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis. World Health Organization (WHO) standards were adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI). WQI provides an easy and rapid method of monitoring of water quality. Water quality indices revealed that drinking water of Bubble top cans and Sachet were found to be contaminated, comparing to bottled drinking water, so they needs some degree of more treatment before consumption.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1405.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:44:15

Flow and Scouring Processes Around the RCC Spurs

Authors: Mohammad Nazim Uddin, Md. Munsur Rahman
Comments: 21 Pages.

Different types bank protection works have been constructed along the both banks of the braided Jamuna River. Some of the structures are constructed in the main channel and some of them are in the secondary channel of the Jamuna River. The structures constructed either in the main channel or in the secondary channel are affected by failure problems. Among them two Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) spurs (Betil and Enayetpur) constructed in the secondary channel are selected for the present study. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is used to measure the hydraulic data around the Betil and Enayetpur spurs. It is found from the hydraulic data analysis that the oblique flow, strong parallel flow and flow circulation normal to the earthen shank and the belmouth are generated around the spurs. The generated shear velocity near the earthen shank is five times higher than the critical shear velocity. Due to above types of flow and higher shear velocity near the earthen shank and belmouth deep channel is developed adjacent to the earthen shank. As a result the Betil and Enayetpur spurs frequently damaged when the flood flow comes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1405.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:44:53

Socio Economic Impact of Jaipur Metro Project-a Case Study

Authors: R. Sathish Kumar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Jaipur, the symphony in pink, is the land of superlatives, where breathtaking beauty and rich & culture blend superbly. The present situation of traffic scenario in Jaipur city is quite alarming with lot of congestion, parking problems, accidents, air and noise pollution etc. The situation is going to be more critical in the coming year and hence a comprehensive and integrated approach to traffic and transport management is the need of the hour. The accidental and environmental problem in Jaipur city is primarily due to high growth of personalized vehicle and private owned public transport vehicles, so in that case metro will be one of the best option of mass transits system which will help in reducing accidental and environmental problems.. The Socio Economic Impact of Jaipur Metro is very important issue for people residing along metro corridors. In the present study an attempt is made to study the socio economic impact of the proposed metro project with respect to transportation issues, business issues, tourism, health and education with the help of Questionnaires and opinion surveys. Jaipur city represent the cities of developing countries in true sense, hence the outcome of the present study can very well be implemented in other similar cities of the developing countries.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1405.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:46:06

Evaluation of CP and BP Function Algorithm (Ann) to Prediction of Penetration Development of Dense Jet

Authors: Peiman Abbasi, Javad Ahadiyan
Comments: 17 Pages.

A dense jet stream is used in discharging of wastewater and concentrated currents into the acceptor water source. Wastewater is discharged through the medium of the jet causes mixture between the discharged and receptive fluid to reduce the destructive impact on the environment. Using neural networks and artificial BP and CP intelligence algorithms, this study aimed at investigating the influence of a dense jet fluid density which was extended by means of trajectory curve. In this regard, the hydraulic jet data, environmental parameters, and geometric parameters which affect submerged circular jet stream, was collected and introduced to neural network. In that model, data were gathered from a physical model, various tests on geometry and different viscous flow. The performed physical tests consisting five variables in the environmental, geometric, and hydraulic parameters. Also, presented data to the network, was the coordinates of the (x,y) and was the curves trajectory. The employed data were obtained from 215 Experiments, which consisted of 1995 coordinate data for trajectory curve. Network training data with 60% of them, test with 20% and data validation with 20% of the data were performed. Artificial neural network algorithms were used from propagation of error (BPNN) and (CPNN) types with different structures. In this respect, neural networks in terms of structure and function of the transfer function test for the up and down trajectory and suitable network is selected, Generally 4 inputs for the neural network were defined. The interesting results were one hidden layer with 7 neurons and two layers. The network structure of the compound (1-7-4) was calculated. The RMSE error for the test network with 20 % of the data in this case was 0/1425 and R2 was calculated 0/8982. Simulation results indicated that the network is able to estimate trajectory submerged jet which is in congruent with physical model results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1405.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:47:00

Formaldehyde as Screen Printing Indoor Pollutant

Authors: Jelena Kiurski, Ljubo Nedović, Savka Adamović, Ivana Oros, Jelena Krstić, Lidija Čomić
Comments: 8 Pages.

The presence of formaldehyde in indoor air samples has been detected in five screen printing facilities of Novi Sad, Serbia. Air was sampled five times during one working week for each screen printing facility. The sampling was conducted continuously during 4 hours. The concentrations of formaldehyde were determined by UV-VIS spectrometry at 580 nm. The average concentrations of formaldehyde were in the range from 0.413 to 0.836 ppm. Comparison of the detected concentration levels with the permissible exposure limit of 0.75 ppm (the OSHA standard) and 0.016 (the NIOSH standard) indicated that the average formaldehyde concentration in facility 5 was 1.11 and 52.25 times higher than prescribed values, respectively.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1405.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:47:59

Application of Chaos Theory and Genetic Programming in Runoff Time Series

Authors: Mohammad Ali Ghorbani, Hossein Jabbari Khamnei, Hakimeh Asadi, Peyman Yousefi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nowadays, prediction of runoff is very important in water resources management and their permanent development. Along with scientific advances in recent years, various intelligent methods and regression and mathematical methods have been presented to estimate the runoff. In this paper, Two different methods are used, Chaos analysis and genetic programming. The performances of models are analyzed and result showed that runoff have had chaotic behavior. Application of genetic programming models in estimating the runoff is also studied in this paper. The data that has been used has chaotic behavior and a mathematical model of genetic programming with rainfall and runoff as model inputs was result.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1405.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:48:57

Approaches for Estimating Liquefaction Potential of Soils

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Kumar Venkatesh, Yeetendra Kumar
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, assessment of liquefaction of soils by various approaches have been reviewed and presented in chronological order. The study focuses on procedural requirements and assessment for conventional and computational methods. Simplified method given by Seed, Tokimatsu-Yoshimi (T-Y) and Idriss & Boulanger methods of liquefaction assessmenthave been analyzed. Computational methods like artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy technique (NF) is also discussed as capable in liquefaction assessment using database either from SPT or CPT results. Feed forward network with back propagation learningalgorithm for ANN and TSK reliant NF has been evaluated. Conventional methods with extended application using concept of correction factors were induced in the analysis. Taking on familiarity from past literatures all methods were critically reviewed and measures are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1405.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 03:50:10

Evaluation of Dissolved Salts and Heavy Metals in Groundwater

Authors: A. Q. Jakhrani, S. R. Samo, Z. A. Siyal, Habibur Rahman Sobuz, Md. Alhaz Uddin, Noor Md. Sadiqul Hasan
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is believed that groundwater is naturally protected from the pollutants. However, it gets contaminated from percolation of dissolved salts and heavy metals associated with wastewater from the surface of the earth. The main purpose of the study was to assess the concentration of dissolved salts and heavy metals present in the groundwater. The amount of sodium and potassium was determined by flame photometer. Titration method is applied for the examination of other dissolved salts. Heavy metals were investigated by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometer. It was found from the analyses that the concentration of chlorides in the groundwater samples was five times higher than European Union guidelines values. The values of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulfates were 5, 3, 2, 2 and 1 times higher than the standards respectively. The amount of heavy metals was low except cadmium, lead and nickel. Their results were 3.5, 2.5, and 1.1 times higher than World Health Organization Standards respectively. It was concluded that the groundwater quality was deteriorated by the percolation of dissolved salts and by two heavy metals namely cadmium and lead.
Category: General Science and Philosophy