General Science and Philosophy

1208 Submissions

[38] viXra:1208.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:43:49

Experimental Work on Horizontal Axis PVC Turbine Blade of Power Wind Mill

Authors: H. S. Patil
Comments: 11 Pages.

Growing concern for the environment degradation has led to the world’s interest in renewable energy sources. Wind energy is rapidly emerging as one of the most cost-effective forms of renewable energy with very significant increases in annual installed capacity being reported around the world. The favoured form of turbines used for electricity generation purposes is the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) with low solidity ratio (ratio of blade area to swept area) and high tip speed ratio, λ = ΩR/Vwind, where R is the radius of the blades and Vwind is the wind velocity. This type of turbine has a high efficiency or coefficient of performance (Cp), but relatively low torque. Wind energy is kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. Wind energy systems for irrigation & milling have been in use since ancient times & since beginning of 20th century it is being used to generate electric power. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aero-generators can be used to charge large batteries. Five nations –Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain & India account for 80% of the worlds installed wind energy capacity. Wind energy continues to be fastest growing renewable energy source with worldwide wind power installed capacity. India ranks 5th in the world with a largest wind power capacities which have been established in commercial projects. In India the states Tamilnadu & Gujarat lead in the field of wind energy. There about a dozen wind pumps of various designs providing water for agriculture & domestic purposes all scattered over the country. Today India is a major player in global wind energy market. The present work was originally devised as a student project to examine the possibility of developing a small scale, high torque, self-starting HAWT for applications such as water pumping. In the following we outline the development of the concept of the PVC type HAWT, the development of a experimental setup of the device that includes the design, manufacture, commissioning and preliminary testing of the device
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1208.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:44:37

Analysis of the Effect of Changes in Fuel Injector Position on Gas Turbine Combustion Efficiency Using Large Eddy Simulation (Les)

Authors: Shandy Kharisma Irianto, Gunawan Nugroho
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researches on gas turbine have been widely performed, especially on combustion chamber with a non-premixed combustion process. In this work, the research ofthe combustion chamber has been performed using the LES method. The aim of this study is to analyze the combustion process with various fuel injector angles and fuel rate. The analyzed aspects are flow pattern, temperature distribution and species concentration on stoichiometry condition. The mixing process between fuel and air at the combustion zone is affected by the increase in injector angle which, 33.55o (model 1) being the optimum injector angle to obtain the highest efficiency of 84.6%. It is noted that model 2 (injector 45o ) has the lowest emission containing waste gases of CH4 and CO, i.e. 0.75 and 0.089 times lower than those of model 1, respectively. However, the combustion efficiency of model 2 is lower than model 1, i.e. 82.7%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1208.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:45:29

Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Caused by External Holes in Hydraulic Cylinders

Authors: A.N. El Kholy, M. A. Kamel, M. O. Mousa
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper evaluates simulations of holes in the wall of cylinder. The stresses generated incrementally in Finite Element Method under internal pressure. The holes, which can consider as a stress raiser, established in external surface. The effect of the hole depth, which varied between 0.5 to 4.5 mm, and the hole diameter, which varied between 1 to 2.5 mm, on the generated stresses are presented. It was found that, the hoop stress increase due to increase of the hole parameter, diameter and depth. Moreover, the characterizations of notch used to determine the maximum stress limit.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1208.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:46:37

Static Response of Transversely Isotropic Elastic Medium with Irregularity Present in the Medium

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Madan, Anita Dahiya, Shamta Chugh
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the present paper, the closed form expressions for the displacements at any point of the transversely isotropic elastic medium with irregularity present in the medium have been obtained. A model is considered in which the irregularity is expressed by a rectangle shape and the medium is taken in a state of free from initial stress. To study the effect of irregularity present in the medium , the variation of displacements with horizontal distance have been drawn for different values of irregularity size. Also the comparison between the displacements for isotropic and transversely isotropic elastic medium is shown graphically. It is found that the irregularity have a notable effect on this deformation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[34] viXra:1208.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:48:22

TQM Model for the Competitive Advantages of an Electromechanical Company

Authors: Fabio De Felice, Antonella Petrillo
Comments: 18 Pages.

The present work shows the results of a study realized in an electromechanical company aiming at the qualification of a particular process, completely automatized. The work has been carried out by the employment of statistical techniques and instruments of Problem Solving. In particular, the determination of the causes of the main problems on this line has been realized by means of instruments such as the Ishikawa Diagram and Scatter Plots and Stratification. It was made the attempt to intervene on the main causes of the problems and to reduce each time the dispersion of the output values around the tendency value.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1208.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:49:22

Titanium – Aluminium Intermetallic Thin Films Preparation by DC Sputtering and Their Characterization

Authors: Sudheendra P., A. O. Surendranathan, N. K. Udayashamkar, K. S. Choudhari
Comments: 6 Pages.

DC magnetron sputtering is a well-developed deposition technique for coatings and thin films used in industrial applications. The experiments were performed with unbalanced circular magnetron sputtering targets of aluminium (99.999%) and titanium (99.99%). Sputtering of aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) was carried out in pure argon (99.999%) atmosphere at base pressure of 4 × 10−6 torr and constant sputtering pressure of 5 × 10−3 torr. Substrate materials were mainly stainless steel (304) and aluminum plates. Characterization of TiAl films deposited onto different substrates was evaluated using XRD, SEM and EDS analysis techniques. The film surface and cross-section was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The TiAl phase was confirmed using XRD analysis. The composition of the TiAl film was determined using EDS technique. These characterizations revealed the growth of TiAl intermetallic thinfilm with a characteristic crystallite size of 123.9 Å and a lattice strain of 0.1352%. Also a columnar growth perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed repeatedly in our experiment. The microhardness of the TiAl film had an average value of 1873 HV.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1208.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:50:16

Performance Effects of Increase in Hydrogen Percentage by Volume on CNG Sequential Injection 3 Cylinder S.i Engine

Authors: P. T. Nitnaware, J. G. Suryawanshi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Now days the Global warming has become the important issue. Nation is also facing the fuel crises due to increase in Automobiles sector. The blends of Hydrogen and CNG have the potential to satisfy Euro V norms with margin. Experimentation on 3 cylinder water cooled SI engine with eddy current Dynamometer, modified to CNG sequential Gas Injection system with varying percentage of hydrogen by volume shown the reduction in emission and increase in power output.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1208.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:51:44

Effects of Inertia and Process Parameters on Isothermal High Speed Two-Layer Filament Jet Flow

Authors: Md. Abdul Wakil, Z. U. Ahmed
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper investigates the influences of inertia and process parameters on two-layer fiber spinning process for incompressible, isothermal and Newtonian filament jet flow. The present study focuses on the steady flow considering inertia, gravity and non-uniform velocity of each layer across the fiber. The governing equations are solved numerically as nonlinear two-point boundary value problem given the analytical solution is practically impossible. The effects of inertia and initial process conditions (draw ratio, initial velocity ratio and die exit radius ratio) are discussed. The velocity increases monotonically with the axial position in each layer due to inertia effect, at a rate that is relatively slower (faster) near the spinneret (take-up point) as Re increases. In contrast, the radii decrease monotonically with the axial position in each layer.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30] viXra:1208.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:53:00

Study on Fuel Properties of Various Vegetable Oil Available in Bangladesh and Biodiesel Production

Authors: Md. Abdul Wakil, Z.U. Ahmed, Md. Hasibur Rahman, Md. Arifuzzaman
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present review aims to study the prospects and opportunities of introducing vegetable oils and their derivatives as fuel in diesel engines. Some fuel properties are always available in vegetable oils. In this investigation Cottonseed oil, Mosna oil and Sesame oil are chosen for producing biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Fuel-related properties of these oils are reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil with an alcohol such as methanol under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. Satisfactory amount of biodiesel is produced from Cottonseed oil at 3:1M ratio of methanol and oil. Biodiesel from cottonseed oil has various fuel properties which are similar to diesel. The cost of biodiesel production is also analyzed. This paper discusses in a general a perspective of biodiesel.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29] viXra:1208.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:55:39

Some Innovations in Design of Low Cost Variable Compression Ratio Two Stroke Petrol Engine

Authors: A.Srinivas, G.Venkatasubbaiah, P.Venkateswar rao, M. Penchal Reddy
Comments: 9 Pages.

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, Internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. This paper deals with the design, analysis testing at different compression ratios, modification and engine fabrication. It is observed that the increase in compression ratio improves fuel efficiency and power output. The novelty in this work is to permit the two wheeler driver to change the compression ratio
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1208.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:36:46

Analysis of a Wind Turbine Blade Profile for Tapping Wind Power at the Regions of Low Wind Speed

Authors: S. P. Vendan, S. Aravind Lovelin, M. Manibharathi, C. Rajkumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

The project is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. It is to be noted that most of the high wind power density regions in the zone of high wind speed are already being tapped and this offers a large scope for the development of this low wind speed turbines. Our study focuses primarily on designing the blade for tapping power in the regions of low wind power density. The aerodynamic profiles of wind turbine blades have crucial influence on aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbine. This involves the selection of a suitable airfoil section for the proposed wind turbine blade. The NACA 63 series is chosen as the basic group for investigation because they have good low speed characteristics and the power curve is better in the low and medium wind speed ranges. In this paper NACA 63-415 airfoil profile is considered for analysis of wind turbine blade. NACA 63-415 airfoil profile is created by using the co-ordinate file generated in JavaFoil. A C-Mesh Domain for the fluid around the airfoil is created using Design Modeler in ANSYS Workbench. The CFD analysis is carried out using STAR-CCM+ at various angles of attack from 00 to 160 . The coefficient of lift and drag values are calculated for low Reynolds number and the pressure distributions are also plotted. The airfoil NACA 63-415 is analyzed based on computational fluid dynamics to identify its suitability for its application on wind turbine blades and good agreement is made between results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1208.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:37:55

Numerical Investigation of Supersonic Nozzle Producing Maximum Thrust For Altitude Variation

Authors: Muhammad Misbah-Ul Islam, Mohammad Mashud, Md. Hasan Ali, Abdullah Al Bari
Comments: 18 Pages.

The concentration of this numerical investigation is focused to generate data for developing optimum profile of Supersonic nozzle irrespective of the altitude of operation. The investigation has been carried out for different altitudes when the combustion conditions including combustion temperature, combustion pressure, specific heat ratio and molecular weight remain unchanged. Considering the aerodynamic issues, method of characteristics is chosen for profile generation. During the application of method of characteristics, exit pressure to atmospheric pressure ratio is maintained unity. The coding has been done in the MATLAB interface with an aim to generate maximum thrust at the outlet of the optimized supersonic nozzle. Both Mach and pressure distribution for maximum thrust generation are within the domain of interest of this investigation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1208.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:38:50

Numerical Simulation to Describe the Soybean Glycine Max (L.) Drying Process: Influence of Air Velocity, Temperature and Initial Moisture Content

Authors: Camila Nicola Boeri, Oleg Khatchatourian
Comments: 12 Pages.

The production of soybean requires that the product is collected healthy and in advance, to minimize losses caused by the attack in the field of insects, diseases and microorganisms. Therefore and due to high moisture content at harvest, drying is one of the operations of primary importance among the techniques involved in the conservation of desirable qualities of products of plant origin. The objective of this work is to obtain the drying curves of soya, in the range of drying air temperature between 45 and 90°C, for the initial moisture content between 0.13 and 0.32 and drying air velocity of 0, 0.5, 0.9, 1.5 and 2.5m/s to determine the influence of these parameters in the process. The experimental phase was performed using a prototype of which was a hair metal tube with 0.15m in diameter, insulated throughout its surface with glass wool and canvas. The air was heated by six electrical resistance with power of 600W, while the temperature was controlled with the aid of thermocouples connected to the drying equipment. Were also performed numerical simulations, where the mathematical model used was proposed by Khatchatourian [1], and this search has changed the equation that describes the flow of mass, it is entering the parameters of air velocity and initial moisture content, obtaining a good agreement between experimental and simulated data. Was observed that the drying air velocity presents significant influence on the process, there is an increased withdrawal of water during the first hours of drying. Note that the influence of air temperature on the rate of drying is higher at the beginning of the experiment, reducing the processing time. The higher the temperature and airflow, the greater the drying rate and lower the total time of exposure to heated air.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1208.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:39:43

Large Eddy Simulation (Les) of Effect in Swirl Number to the Efficiency of Gas Turbine Combustion

Authors: Farid Viko Bhaskarra, Gunawan Nugroho
Comments: 9 Pages.

A good mixing process are required in designing gas turbine combustor. Numerical simulations using Large Eddy Simulations are well suited to address these issues. In this study, a numerical simulation of non reacting flow in gas turbine combustor was performed. There were 5 variations of swirler’s angles (50 , 150 , 200 , 250 and 300 ). Perfomances of these new swirler were investigated. The main target of this investigation is to get the effect of swirler’s angle to combustion recirculation zone. The results show that the longest flame stagnation point of 45,26022 mm was obtained at 250 of swirler’s angle.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1208.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:40:54

Life Prediction of Aileron Actuator Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kimi, Kyoungwoo Park, Hyeon-Hee Kim
Comments: 8 Pages.

The presented paper describes the application of a modern fatigue prediction tool based on FE-analysis results to highly specific to aerospace industry, fatigue life prediction a problem on a actuator system. The wings are mounted inside the actuator system in order to needs of aileron design and kinematic motion system and structural analysis, to ensure the structural safety analysis results are presented. FE Analysis can provide the estimation of the crack growth curves with sufficient accuracy, even in case of complicated aileron actuator structures which are crucial for preserving aileron integrity and which participate in transfer of load. Probability of crack detection or any other damage detection is a result of many factors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1208.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:42:05

Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates Using Galerkin-Based Finite Element Method

Authors: Neffati M. Werfalli, Abobaker A. Karoud
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the present work a study of free vibration of thin isotropic rectangular plates with various edge conditions is conducted. This study involves the obtaining of natural frequencies by solving the mathematical model that governs the vibration behavior of the plate using a Galerkin-based finite element method. Cubic quadrilateral serendipity subparametric elements with twelve degrees of freedom are used in this analysis. Even though the order of polynomial used is the lowest possible, the effectiveness of the method for calculating the natura l frequencies accurately is demonstrated by comparing the solution obtained against the existing analytical results. The effect of the aspect ratio, the number of elements, and the number of sampling points on the accuracy of the solution is also presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1208.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 10:43:02

Prospect of Bio-Diesel Production from Soybean Oil and Sesame Oil: an Alternative and Renewable Fuel for Diesel Engines

Authors: Md. Abdullah Al Bari, Hasan Ali, Mizanur Rahman, Rakibul Hossain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Energy is the prerequisite for modern civilization. Fossil fuel is still the main source of energy. But the endless consumption of fossil fuel has brought its reserve about to an end. As a result, fuel prices are gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. So we are always in search of alternative and cost effective fuels to meet our need. Diesel engines are more efficient and cost-effective than other engines. So diesel engines have versatile uses (i.e. automobiles, irrigation, power plants etc.). That is why; consumption of diesel fuel is much higher than other gasoline fuels. This paper estimates the feasibility of soybean oil and sesame oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. In the present paper, production of biodiesel from soybean oil and sesame oil, its properties and comparison of test results with the results of other biodiesels and diesel have been presented. Biodiesels are produced experimentally from soybean and sesame oils and obtained 89.75% and 82.64% respectively. Calorific values of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are obtained 41.57MJ/Kg and 43.67 MJ/Kg and the same for diesel is 44.5 MJ/Kg. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel extracted from soybean and sesame oils are 2.068*106m2/s and 2.292*106m2/s respectively while the same for diesel is 2.068*106m2/s. Again, flash point of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are obtained 96°C & 94°C and the same for diesel is 75°C. The production costs of biodiesels from soybean and sesame oil are Tk. 296.8 and Tk. 370 per liter respectively. These oils or any of its blends could be used as an alternative in case of crisis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1208.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:55:33

Realization of Canopen Communication Control for Underactuated Anthromorphic Finger

Authors: Mohamad Khairi Ishak, Jamaludin Jalani
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternative control communication system through CANopen application which will be used for controlling an underactuated anthromorphic fingers. It is anticipated that the CANopen network can be developed easily and reliable to integrate with Bristol Elumotion Robot Hand (BERUL). The real-time network has to incorporate into dSPACE and a well-known Matlab Simulink-based controller prototyping system. Experimental result has proved that the CANopen is reliable to be implemented for underactuated anthromorphic fingers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1208.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:56:58

Analysis of Piezoelectric Actuator for Vibration Control of Thin Cylindrical Shells

Authors: V. K. Srivastava
Comments: 10 Pages.

An analytical method is proposed for selecting the best suited actuator which can preferably be used in a variety of structural control applications. The selection is based on matching performance characteristics of the actuator, such as force and displacement, to the requirements of the given task. Relations between the mid surface strains and the strain induced in piezoelectric actuator due to application of electric field are derived to optimize the thickness of piezoelectric layer.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1208.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 08:59:24

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Car by Vortex Generation

Authors: Md. Hasan Ali, Mohammad Mashud, Abdullah Al Bari, Muhammad Misbah-Ul Islam
Comments: 10 Pages.

One of the main causes of aerodynamic drag for sedan vehicles is the separation of flow near the vehicle’s rear end. To delay flow separation, bump-shaped vortex generators are tested for application to the roof end of a sedan. Commonly used on aircraft to prevent flow separation, vortex generators themselves create drag, but they also reduce drag by preventing flow separation at downstream. The overall effect of vortex generators can be calculated by totaling the positive and negative effects. Since this effect depends on the shape and size of vortex generators, those on the vehicle roof are optimized. This paper presents the optimization result, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects take place.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1208.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:00:15

Through-Thickness Shearing Effects on Geometric Non-linear Behavior of Thin and Thick Functionally Graded Plates under Pressure Loads

Authors: M. Hajikazemi, M. H. Sadr, M. Ramezani-Oliaee
Comments: 11 Pages.

The effects of through-the-thickness shearing strain energy on the geometric non-linear behavior of thin and relatively thick rectangular functionally graded plates are studied in this paper. It is assumed that the mechanical properties of the plates, graded through the thickness, are described by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The plates are assumed to be under lateral pressure loads. The fundamental equations for rectangular plates of FGM are obtained using the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) for large deflection and the solution is obtained by minimization of the total potential energy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1208.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:06:16

Modification of Determination Procedure of Numerical 3D Correction Factor (β) of Arcan Specimen

Authors: Masood Nikbakht, NaghdAli Choupani, Hossein Hosseini Todeshki
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper the mixed-mode interlaminar fracture behavior of Carbon-Epoxy composite specimens was investigated based on numerical analyses. Study of behavior of composite materials and determining their ultimate strength seems to be an essential issue in practical engineering. Hence, the behavior of Carbon-Epoxy laminated composite is studied numerically by modeling of Arcan specimen in ABAQUS finite element software. The modeling was fulfilled in the way that loading can be carry out in different loading angles and also analyses is repeated for wide range of crack length ratio between 0.1 to 0.9. The numerical analysis was performed with ABAQUS finite element software under a constant load of 1000 N. the entire test apparatus is modeled in both 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional. Results of numerical analyses are demonstrated is several diagrams. Also, a hypothesis about boundary conditions of 2 dimensional models is investigated and has been proved. The results show that some of conventional constraints must be modified to extract right correction factors from finite element models.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1208.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:06:58

Modelling and Simulation of Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Naseem Ahmad Khan, Wasi ur Rahman
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents simulation investigation of a plate heat exchanger. Basically, it includes the development of a mathematical model to describe its operation and analysis. The model, after testing against the existing experimental data, has been solved to obtain the effect of various parameters like mass flow rate, number of flow channels, plate configuration and f low patterns. Model of a plate heat exchanger has been described by a set of continuity, momentum and energy equations with a number of simplifying assumptions. Heat transfer rate equation has also been included in the energy balance equation to take care of phenomena occurring therein. Mathematical model has been solved by the use of finite difference technique with interval of Δt =0.005s and Δz = 0.005m to obtain the transient and steady state behavior.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1208.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 09:07:43

Production of Biodiesel from Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F.) seeds Oil

Authors: E.I. Bello, S.A. Anjorin, M. Agge
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, the work done on the extraction of oil from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F.) seeds, its transesterification methyl ester (biodiesel) and characterization is reported. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet extractor using normal hexane as solvent. The oil properties were measured and the free fatty acid was 3.59 mg KOH/g which is high for alkaline transesterification hence the oil was neutralized with hydrochloric acid before transesterification using with 3 g of sodium hydroxide per litre of methanol as catalyst and methoxide/oil in the volume ratio of 6:1. Gas chromatography analys is shows that the oil and its methyl ester contains primarily the short chain fatty acids oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2). The fuel properties were evaluated following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods for biodiesel. The fuel properties are very close to those of diesel fuel hence can be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Of particular importance is the high flash point which makes it a safe fuel and the low pour point will allows it to be used in cold climate.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1208.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:14:48

Microstructural and Tribological Characterization of Tin Coated Aluminium Alloy (Al6061)

Authors: Anil Kumar H C, N.K. Udayashankar, Sudheendra P, H.S. Hebbar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Titanium Nitride (TiN) was deposited on aluminium alloy Al6061 using reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. X-Ray diffraction and EDAX confirmed the presence of TiN phase in the coating. Optical microscopy showed the golden bronze coloured TiN coating at a N2/Ar ratio of 0.47. Maximum composite Microhardness hardness of 2210 (HK) was obtained at 5g load for the coating deposited at a ratio (N2/Ar) of 0.60. The dry sliding wear behaviour was studied by pin-on-disc machine. Oxidation wear prevailed during the sliding test. Coatings deposited at a ratio (N2/Ar) of 0.47 and 0.60 showed better wear resistance as compared to uncoated specimens.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1208.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:17:59

Appl Ication of the Hazard Rate Measure in Studying Change of Temperature in a Pulsating Heat Pipe

Authors: Pranab K. Barua
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this article, we have discussed the importance of applying the hazard rate measure in studying matters related to change of temperature in pulsating heat pipes. It has been found that the hazard rate decreases with increase in diameter of the heat pipe. Finally, it has been validated statistically that the hazard rate increases exponentially as the number of turns in the evaporator section of the heat pipe increases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1208.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:18:43

Anti-Swing Control Strategy for Automatic 3 D.O.F Crane System Using FLC

Authors: Jamaludin Jalani
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a control strategy to overcome positioning control and anti-swing control for a 3 Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F) crane system. It is well known that the 3 D.O.F crane system is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves. It can be used to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. However, controlling the 3 D.O.F crane systems requires a good control method to achieve a high positioning control and in particular to suppress swing that produced during operation. Hence, choosing an appropriate control to resolve positioning control and swing angle is not a trivial task in particular to transfer payloads quickly, effectively and safely. Presently, the existing of 3 DOF systems used a conventional PID controller to control position and swing angle. The controllers were designed based on the model and parameter of the crane system. In general, modelling and parameter identifications are troublesome and time consuming. Therefore, we propose a Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) which has simpler and practical design approach. Effectively, it is anticipated that the FLC can be used to avoid a complex mathematical calculation which is always time consuming. In addition, the model derivation is often inaccurate due to the presence of nonlinearities and uncertainties. Throughout this paper, the FLC performances are compared with PID controller through experiment. The results showed that FLC has produced good result for positioning and anti-swing control for 3 D.O.F. crane system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1208.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:19:35

Optimization of 16” Plug Valve Body Using FEA And Experimental Stress Analysis Method

Authors: Deokar Vinayak Hindurao, D.S.Chavan
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the field of competition, all companies should supply their goods and services with high quality, in shortest period with lower prices than its competitors in order to keep their capacity and power to compete .Plug valves are machine elements which are commonly used for regulation of fluid, semi-liquid and granular medium flow on variety of tanks and pipeline systems. This paper discusses FEA analysis of Plug–valve body followed by Experimental stress analysis using strain gauge method for weight optimization. New optimized models were prepared on the basis of validation of the results obtained from stress analys is procedure. The weight reduction is done by changing the wall and rib thickness. The results clearly shows the maximum weight reduction is 24.86 kg (5.26%) weight of original weight while keeping maximum stress level up to 168.6 N/mm2 which is safe for the applied load.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1208.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:20:47

Investigation of Thermal Performance of Electric Vehicle BLDC Motor

Authors: James Kuria, Pyung Hwang
Comments: 17 Pages.

Overreliance on petroleum products and environmental pollution from combustion emissions produced by automobiles has led to extensive research on hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and their components. A key component in these vehicles is the electric motor, used for traction as well as powering other appliances like the compressor. Overheating in electrical motors results in detrimental effects such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnet demagnetization, increase in Joule losses and decreased motor efficiency and lifetime. Hence, it is important to find ways of optimizing performance and reliability of electric motors through effective cooling and consequently reduce operating and maintenance costs. This study describes 3D CFD simulations performed on a totally enclosed air over fan cooled brushless D.C. motor to identify the temperatures of the critical components of the motor, and the effect of varying thermal parameters of these temperatures. The energy sources are obtained from electromagnetic losses computed using MAXWELL, a commercial FEA software and bearing losses obtained through numerical methods developed by the authors. A finned casing is used as the heat sink and the effect of varying the fin geometry on the cooling performance is examined using three heat sink designs. The results show that the highest temperature occurs at the end windings and that this temperature can be reduced by up to 15% by introduction of a suitable finned housing. These results show that CFD can be effectively used to optimize the cooling performance of electric motors. Experimental tests are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1208.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:21:37

Effect of Post-Process Artificial Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of Sic Particle Reinforced Aa6061-T6 Surface Metal Matrix Composite Fabricated Via Friction Stir Process

Authors: Devaraju Aruri, Adepu Kumar, B Kotiveerachary
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper reports on studies of the influence of post-process artificial aging (PPAA) treatment on tensile properties of SiC particles reinforced AA6061-T6 surface metal matrix composite via Friction stir process (FSP). In FSPed composite the SiC particles were uniformly distributed in stir zone without any defect and exhibited higher micro hardness than as-received Al alloy. FSPed composite was exhibited lower tensile properties compared to as-received Al and after the application of post-process artificial aging treatment the tensile properties were increased around 50% than the untreated material at 170 o C for soaking period of 16hr.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1208.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 07:22:34

Prediction on Reduction of Emission of Nox in Diesel Engine Using Bio-Diesel Fuel and Egr (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) System

Authors: Pooja Ghodasara, M.S. Rathore
Comments: 8 Pages.

Environmental degradation and depleting oil reserves are matters of concern round the globe. The search for energy independence and concern for cleaner environment have generated significant interest in biodiesel. It has shown that biodiesel fuelled engine produce less carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbon and smoke emission compared to diesel fuel but higher NOx emission. EGR is as effective technique to reduce NOx from diesel engine as it lowers flame temperature and reduce oxygen concentration in combustion chamber. The objective of this research is to investigate the usage of biodiesel and EGR simultaneously in order to reduce the emissions of all regulated pollutants from diesel engine. For this a single cylinder, air cooled, constant speed direct injection diesel engine was used and EGR was developed and fitted in engine. Various emissions such as HC, NOx, CO and smoke opacity were measured. The engine performance parameters were calculated from measured data.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1208.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:48:24

Building a Prototype Prepaid Electricity Metering System Based on RFID

Authors: Fawzi Al-Naima, Bahaa Jalil
Comments: 17 Pages.

The prepaid meter is important in making the consumer having sense about his/her energy consumption which is important in eliminating the difficulties facing the electrical utility employee in getting the reading of the conventional electromechanical meter and eliminating any error incurred in bills issuing. This paper is aimed at developing a prototype of a management system for a prepaid electrical power meter. The designed prepaid meter consists of an RFID reader, a microcontroller, a digital meter and a wireless gateway. The proposed prototype metering system consists of two parts: clients and server. An RFID reader is used to read the ID of the credit card and a PC connected to a hardware simulated circuit which is designed and implemented to simulate the operation of the digital meter. The server is located in the local substation which receives the card’s ID from clients and sends ID’s information back to the client after checking and/or updating the database.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1208.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-16 17:33:09

[5] viXra:1208.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-13 14:31:59

Consciousness, Time and Complexity

Authors: Vahid R. Ramezani
Comments: 11 Pages.

We explore the connection between the mind and the brain. We propose that consciousness is the consequence of processing information and that the solution to the binding problem does not entail quantum mechanical coherence or entanglement. We argue for an alternative inspiration from quantum mechanics and quantum field theory based on time-energy uncertainly: not to reduce consciousness to a quantum wave function but to see what quantum mechanics teaches us about information, time, complexity and transformation. We introduce three postulates and a law governing cognitive systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1208.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-12 06:16:56

Unus Mundus is the Immanent + Transcendent ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 4 Pages.

Recently, in [3], a non-ontological definition of ontology was suggested with the help of four questions. Here several immediate developments are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1208.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-11 04:24:17

Four Questions Can Define the Transcendental ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 3 Pages.

Usual definitions of the {\it transcendental} are given by {\it ontological assumptions}. Typical in this regard are those in various theologies or philosophies. And needless to say, such ontological assumptions can easily be challenged, if not in fact, they actually do invite such challenges. Plato's Cave Allegory in his book "Republic" is an exception, since it can be seen as a definition of the transcendental, albeit rather indirectly and through a quite involved story. And as such, it is not at all about any ontological assumption, but only about gnoseology, epistemology and pragmatics. Here, a similar definition of the transcendental is suggested, namely, a definition which does not use any ontological assumption, and instead, it only refers to gnoseology, epistemology and pragmatics. The novelty is in the fact that the mentioned definition consists of nothing more than four successive {\it questions}.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1208.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-17 13:37:57

A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities; in Slides

Authors: Sari Haj Hussein
Comments: 44 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "A Precise Information Flow Measure from Imprecise Probabilities", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SERE.2012.25.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1208.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-03 10:57:20

The Application of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems to Scientific Theories

Authors: Michael James Goodband
Comments: 24 Pages.

It is shown that there-exist conditions for which scientific theories qualify as Gödel’s 'related systems', and that observable features can exist which cannot be derived within the scientific theory. However, this is just a descriptive problem arising due to restricting scientific theories to be in physically-real terms, and can be circumvented by the use of non-physically-real terms, which is shown to give a derivation of Quantum Theory. Incompleteness is also shown to be possible in scientific theories of living cells, ecosystems and the economies of nations. The impact on natural language descriptions of these systems is also considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy