General Science and Philosophy

1903 Submissions

[19] viXra:1903.0499 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-12 11:27:00

An Intimate Insight on Psychopathy and a Novel Hermeneutic Psychological Science

Authors: Emmanuel Taku
Comments: 4036 Pages. Latest version

This paper is rather a profound hermeneutic enunciation putting into question our present understanding of psychopathy. It further articulates, in complement, a novel theoretical and methodological conceptualisation for a hermeneutic psychological science. Methodology-wise, it puts into question a traditional more or less categorical and mechanical approach to the social and behavioural sciences as it strives to introduce a creative and insightful approach for the articulation of ideas. It rather seeks to construe the scientific method as being more about falsifiability and validation but driven by a sense of creative understanding and insight of notions laid out as open-ended conceptualisations. Theory-wise, it sees continuity between anthropology and psychology as anthropopsychology behind an entropic construct of human psychology based on a recurrent re-institutionalisation mechanism for intemporal-preservation-entropy/contiguity. Keywords: psychopathy, hermeneutic, theory, meaning, ontology
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1903.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 00:32:24

The Matter (In Nature, in Philosophy, in Physics) \\\\\ Материя (в природе, в философии, в физике)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 26 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> The matter (in nature, in philosophy, in physics) FEB 11, 2019

The question of matter is the main question of natural science. And he decides in favor of the materiality of nature around us. It is a fact that nature is material and dialectical. This fact is established by the natural science. This is the first step in our knowledge of nature and matter. This is the primary knowledge of nature through our sensory perception. The question of matter is the main question of philosophy. And he decides in favor of the dialectical materialism. At the same time, dialectical materialism in its decision is based on the conclusions and facts of the natural science. But the philosophy of dialectical materialism, based on the facts of the natural sciences, develops its generalized, abstract concept (category) of matter. The concept (category) of a matter is a concept abstracted from the specific content. The abstract concept of matter is the second step in our knowledge of nature, objective reality. This is a secondary, theoretically meaningful knowledge of nature and the matter of nature. This is a higher abstract level of knowledge of nature and matter. The third step in our knowledge of nature, of the material world is the transition from a theoretical-abstract, generalized understanding of nature and matter to a concrete, in-depth knowledge of nature. At this step in the knowledge of nature, we must indicate the concrete manifestation and representation of matter in nature. All of the above is the instructions and recommendations of the philosophy of dialectical materialism and its scientific method - the dialectical materialist method of knowledge. The founder of this method is K. Marx. The author of this article attempted to take this third step towards nature, adhering to the line of dialectical materialism and using the scientific dialectical materialist method of knowledge. The results were astounding. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ В настоящей статье предпринята попытка найти конкретную материю в природе. Материя – это основа, сущность и единственная субстанция природы. Это основное положение научной марксистско-ленинской философии (МЛФ) и её первого раздела диалектического материализма. А категория материи – это основная его категория, понятие. Понятие материи в философии диалектического материализма есть обобщённое, абстрактное представление, идеальный образ, «слепок» с того материального первоначала, прообраза, сущности, что существует в природе. Представляет интерес вопрос о конкретном представлении материи в природе. Это знание нам должны дать естествознание и физика. Но они молчат. Мы пользуемся уже несколько веков заключением, выводом естествознания прошлых лет, что все тела и предметы в природе материальны и состоят, в конечном счёте, из материи. Это правильно, это верно. На этом факте строится и базируется вся научная теория марксистской философии. Но наше понимание и знание природы, её устройства остаётся не полным, без указания на конкретное проявление материи в природе. Научный метод познания природы, общества, мышления, самого процесса познания – это диалектико-материалистический метод познания, созданный К. Марксом. Этот метод ориентирует нас, чтобы мы после обобщённого, абстрактного понимания и осмысления категории, понятия «материя», сделали шаг к конкретному представлению, проявлению материи в природе. Этого шага мы ждём от науки, от физики. Но современная физика находится в рабской зависимости от реакционной философии идеализма. Эта философия абсолютно не признаёт материю, материальность природы, первичность материи и является реальной преградой прогрессу, развитию естествознания и физики. Автор, твёрдо придерживаясь позиции философии диалектического материализма, используя диалектико-материалистический метод познания, нашёл конкретное представление материи в природе. Материя природы представлена пульсирующими квантами материи. Кванты материи – это содержимое элементарных частиц. Ключевые слова: природа, материя, объективная реальность, диалектический материализм, физика, истина, ложь.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1903.0434 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-01 17:01:51

A Few Thoughts on the Modus Operandi of Astronomers and Physicists

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper is to explain that astronomers and physicists do not need to deceive with intention (lie), to perpetuate a deception regarding information they teach their students. The case stands, deception can be taught as factual information and be protected by the peer review system as if it were true. This means the scientific method and peer review system over the short term of a few decades has shown to be enormously fallible. As well, academics M.O. or Modus Operandi is not suited for detecting deception or seeing the big picture. A working paradigm where the deception is the paradigm can even occur, which poisons all research. Explanation is provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1903.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-23 17:20:03

Locard's Exchange Principle and Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The single greatest contribution the theory of detection and criminology was provided by Edmond Locard, as his Exchange Principle. It is the notion that the perpetuator (nature or animal) always leaves some physical evidence at the crime scene, or event, and simultaneously takes some evidence away. This is to show that not all evidence will be immediately available, unless it can be interpreted in a light that makes sense and is congruous to the other facts presented. This is to mean that Nature and/or animal will always leave their signature on the event and are, in turn, contaminated by it. Explanation is provided to tie in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis to Locard's Exchange Principle.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1903.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-23 11:36:07

Heuer's "Review of Biases and Their Implications for Deception" and Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 9 Pages.

Perceptual biases, biases in estimating probabilities, and biases in evaluating evidence are presented with their implications concerning the continuation of modern astronomical/astrophysical deception. For new readers, it has been discovered that planets are older stars (planets and stars are the same objects), yet the biases plaguing astronomers and astrophysicists continue to keep the deception that a planet is something mutually exclusive of star, indefinitely. The outline is from Richards J. Heuer, Jr., "Cognitive Factors in Deception and Counterdeception," in Daniel & Herbig (1982), 62-63, and the experience portion is my own.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1903.0343 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 12:43:21

Classical Logic and the Division of Zero by Zero

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 45 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published:

Abstract Objective: The division of zero by zero turned out to be a long lasting and not ending puzzle in mathematics and physics. An end of this long discussion is not in sight. In particular zero divided by zero is treated as indeterminate thus that a result cannot be found out. It is the purpose of this publication to solve the problem of the division of zero by zero while relying on the general validity of classical logic. Methods: A systematic re-analysis of classical logic and the division of zero by zero has been undertaken. Results: The theorems of this publication are grounded on classical logic and Boolean algebra. There is some evidence that the problem of zero divided by zero can be solved. Conclusion: According to classical logic, zero divided by zero is equal to one. Keywords: Indeterminate forms, Classical logic, Zero divided by zero
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1903.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 12:35:15

Опыты яснопонимания

Authors: Попов Борис Михайлович
Comments: 46 Pages. Язык русский, ВНИИС. – Воронеж, 2005. – 46 с. ISВN 5-900777-13-8

В книге представлены опыты яснопонимания, производимые на методологической базе синергетического мировидения. Диапазон тем широк, а цель одна – инициировать проявление способности к интуитивному мышлению, так необходимому в наше неспокойное время. Рассчитана на широкий круг читателей, интересующихся наукой и паранаукой и настроенных на созидательную деятельность. Требования к исходным знаниям невысоки, но необходима склонность к философским размышлениям.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1903.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-15 06:07:59

Parçacık Fiziğinde Tıkanıklık Var Mı?

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: Pages.

”Parçacık fiziğinde tıkanıklık var mı?” sorusunun cevabını verebilmek için tarihsel olarak bilimin nasıl geliştiğine dair belli başlı ̈orneklere değineceğiz. Sonrasında parçacık fiziğinin gelişimini genel hatlarıyla ̈ozetleyeceğiz. Bu kısa tarihsel ̈ozeti, mezon ailelerinden biri olan çarmonyum ailesi ̈uzerine daha detaylı bir ̈ozet takip edecek. Burada aynı zamanda iki farklı potansiyel modelin karşılaştırması da yapılacak, ve bu iki başarılı modelin nasıl yorumlanabileceği ve ilerisi için neyi gösterdiği ̈uzerine değineceğiz. Sonra, bilimin nasıl ilerlediği ve problemlerin çözümlerinin nasıl bulunduğuna dair bazı örneklere değineceğiz ve bu örnekler aynı zamanda çözüm için ne yapılabilir sorusunun cevabını da daha iyi anlamamızı sağlayacak. Sonunda ise bu sürecin ve örneklerin parçacık fiziği ile ilgili ne anlattığına değinip, bundan sonrası için nasıl davranılabileceği konusunda çıkarımda bulunacağız.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1903.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-13 23:01:50

The 3 Years Mark I Was not Counting, Then All Went Beyond.

Authors: AR. Scholar
Comments: 4 Pages. special submission

What 3 Years and More of Human Effort in Science, and the Philosophy of Virtuous Scholar takes a Toll? A special 1000 publication, marks the long overdued 3 years human effort - unceasing to arrive to conclude the scholar phase, and yet had arrived at a scholar phase. The complexity in writing and complex reflections and questions posted, brings about the philosophy behind our scholar and academy of science cycle. And how science can be appreciated from the missing of 'humanity' or emotions that are soughted upon (eg. fulfilment to a task? a shared journey with scientist?). How science or education can be appreciated and improved, with the identificatio of "connection?", identification of reality sense, and to differentiate the extraordinary out of ordinary, and to react to ordinary and to response effectively to extraordinary.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1903.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 18:44:34

The Mass in Open Repositories – A Reality Check for All.

Authors: AR Scholar
Comments: 2 Pages.

We observed bizzare submissions at VIXRA and also at other open repositories. We also received different comments and feedbacks of depositers. We also need to look further the intent of each repository, and to discover the roots. We also need to have a reality check that some themes and emerging type of deposits can serve a purpose. There is a mass in open repositories. Open science, has long being practice, and will ever continue to lead now and in future. This 1 page reflection advocates for those who have chosen open repository for a rightful purpose, and also to advocate for 'treating each deposit' with respect and with impartial acceptance or impartial rejection. More importantly, the justification of quality - is always impartial, in group valuation terms.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1903.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 20:25:42

Cellular Automaton Graphics(6)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 105 Pages.

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1903.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 09:56:56

За пределами искусственного интеллекта

Authors: Попов Борис Михайлович
Comments: 132 Pages. Язык русский, Изд. 2-е, дополненное и исправленное. / АО «Концерн «Созвездие». – Воронеж, 2018. – 132 с.

В настоящей книге автор проводит мысль о том, что практически все знания человек получает из коллективного сознания. И потому его ум – это, по сути, искусственный интеллект. А кибернетики обнаружили, − искусственному интеллекту присуща параноидальная логика, и она присутствует во многих современных научных теориях. Отсюда у человека ограниченность представлений и понятий об окружающем мире, но выход из этого сложного положения есть. Внимательный читатель получит новые ответы на вечные вопросы: откуда берется наше сознание, насколько прочны основы наших знаний, свободна ли наша воля, насколько «логична» традиционная наука и даже насколько актуальна в наше время метафизика! Производными такого подхода является доступное раскрытие таких проблем как тайна пирамид, фрактальное структурирование, мотивационное управление. Детально освещается концептуальная метафизическая ограниченность классической физики, синергетическая сущность системных понятий. Книга рассчитана на широкий круг читателей, интересующихся вопросами науки и прочностью еѐ основ. Требования к исходным знаниям невысоки. Необходимые для понимания содержания книги сведения даются по ходу изложения, которое проиллюстрировано многочисленными примерами, облегчающими усвоение прочитанного материала. Читателю гарантируется стремительный рост знаний с продвижением от первого абзаца к последнему. Может рассматриваться преподавателями технических вузов на предмет использования в качестве дополнительного учебного пособия для студентов, осваивающих курсы дисциплин проектирования организационно сложных комплексов. В т. ч. проектирования, с использованием нанотехнологий. Книга отличается откровенной полемичностью. Такое изложение может вызвать замешательство у читателя, но именно к этому и стремится автор: побуждая читателя к самостоятельным размышлениям, а не к поглощению готовых ответов на возникающие вопросы.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1903.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 00:48:09

The Bible, the Quran Are Wrong. Matter Was First not God, Because a < H < S

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 318 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Bible, the Quran are wrong. Matter was first not God, because a < h < s The Bible says that God created the Heavens and the Earth in six days. The Quran says that Allah created the Universe in 6 days. I am not talking here about things you know, like we are star dust, the carbon atoms in organic molecules were produced in dying stars by fusing helium atoms, not created by God. I am talking here about things you did not learn from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists, from clerics. “There are 3 walls in our Universe: the Ferent wall with the constant ‘a’, the Planck wall with the constant ‘h’ and the Spiritual wall with the constant ‘s’.” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter, at Planck wall emerged Matter and at Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter.” Adrian Ferent The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, Dark Matter, M elementary particles, and Spiritual Matter, L elementary particles, evolving in time. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe: ” Adrian Ferent In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) I explained that a < h. Planck constant h Ferent constant a Ferent time tF In Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe, there are 3 choices: s < a < h a < s < h a < h < s Is what the Bible says: The Bible says that God created the heavens and the Earth in six days, Spiritual Matter was before Matter. Heaven, Saints were first, before Dark Matter. This means the Saints must have density as Black Holes, how I calculated and this is wrong. The saints from Heaven in visions look very beautiful, luminous visions… They are very soft. This means the Saints are made of Spiritual Matter and have a density much smaller than human body. Third choice is right, this means a < h < s and the Bible and the Quran are wrong. “I am the first who discovered that at Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter, after that at Planck wall emerged Matter and after that at Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter.” Adrian Ferent “God like Consciousness is Spiritual Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Because a < h < s, Spiritual density ρS < Planck density ρP < Ferent density ρF “ Adrian Ferent “Because a < h < s, Ferent time tF < Planck time tP < Spiritual time tS “ Adrian Ferent This means: “Dark Matter and Matter were first, not God” Adrian Ferent This means: “God did not create Dark Matter and Matter how you learned from the Bible, from the Quran…” Adrian Ferent “Allah, God did not create the Universe in 6 days” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who discovered Ferent Evolution Theory (FET) based on Consciousness Evolution; I am the first who discovered the Soul equation; I am the first who discovered that Matter was first, not God” Adrian Ferent That is why Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe is a very important equation! Professor Brian Cox from CERN and University of Manchester said: ‘CERN disproved the existence of ghosts’. Stephen Hawking wrote: ‘God does not exist’. I explained that the equation on Stephen Hawking gravestone is wrong! “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists, from clerics… about Dark Matter, Matter and God is wrong” Adrian Ferent I discovered the Soul equation, the Soul is a ghost made of Spiritual matter that can not be detected at CERN. At CERN they did not detect Dark Matter and in my view they did not discover the Higgs boson, the ‘God particle’ and the Nobel Prize was a Fraud; that is why now CERN is closed. I discovered the: “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter: ” Adrian Ferent That is why: “The Future of Science: the Ignorant scientists must be replaced by new Wise Scientists” Adrian Ferent What is the Soul, made of Spiritual Matter? I discovered that the Soul is a wave function; I answered to the question Who am I?: “The wave function of each man is unique and he can always be found by it” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation of the Soul: ” Adrian Ferent It is not easy to understand both Science and Spirituality. My Father helped me to understand Science and my Mother helped me to understand Spirituality and I read more than 200 books about Spirituality. In 2003 I discovered the Truth: "God is creating me, I am creating God" Adrian Ferent That is why my first book was: ‘I AM CREATING GOD’ by Adrian Ferent
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1903.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 02:48:50

Civilization,developing Algorithm of Civilization, Central Processing Unit of Atlandis (Chinese Edition, from 2016.12 to 2019.03)

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 330 Pages.

This is a series of science textbook written by Professor Jeff, which focus on mathematics and physics only in this volume. a person who has professional research level or a student being educated in a graduate school can read our textbook without much difficulty. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this textbook, it is better for you to study all the open problems mentioned in this textbook carefully. To write down your unique solutions and opening thought for these problems after your reading. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this series can be mailed to the author cheng.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1903.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 05:38:03

Resolution of the Ethical Trolley Problem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the trolley problem. While neither outcome is tautologous, the lesser of two evils is chosen as the ethical resolution because resulting values from one logic table are closer to the ideal state of tautology. In other words, while both outcomes are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4, the relative value of the results implies the ethical choice.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1903.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 01:57:51

Developing a Parallelized Hyperelastic Boundary-Element Code for the Real-Time Simulation of Deformation of a Kidney

Authors: Kirana Kumara P
Comments: 19 Pages. This is a draft of a project proposal that was submitted to SERB (a funding agency in India) in June 2018. The proposal was rejected in March 2019. The Principal Investigator is posting hereby a draft of the proposal.

It is widely believed that just like flight simulators are useful for training pilots, surgery simulators are useful for training surgeons. However, it is a long way for surgery simulators to reach the level of maturity the flight simulators have attained at present. Currently, most of the surgery simulators use models that are not physics based, thus sacrificing fidelity. Although the literature notes that physics based models are superior compared to other models, more work needs to be done before one can have a useful surgery simulator that uses a physics based model in the back-end. Hence the proposed project aims to build a simulator that can train surgeons in eye-hand coordination which is very important for many laparoscopic surgical procedures. Here, deformation of a kidney will be modeled using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) which is a physics based method. Since a kidney may be approximated to be hyperelastic, a hyperelastic BEM code has to be used in the back-end. Unfortunately, no hyperelastic BEM code is readily available. Hence a hyperelastic BEM code will be developed as part of the project. One has to parallelize the code and run the code on a computer cluster to speed up the computations and to achieve real-time performance, so that the simulations would be realistic. This requires a computer cluster with a multi-core processor. In fact, many cores are needed in one and only one processor to minimize the data transfer time. One may note that although BEM has been identified in the literature as a method that could be useful for building surgical simulators, none has attempted to build a surgical simulator based on nonlinear boundary elements. Once the simulator is built, as future work, the simulator may be offered to a few surgeons for testing/evaluation. If the product turns out to be successful, one can think of commercialization also. Anyway, the nonlinear BEM code may be released as free and open source software so that anyone can use it to solve a hyperelastic problem (even problems that are not related to surgical simulation).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1903.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 05:59:31

Astrobiology and Astrophilosophy: Subsuming or Bifurcating Disciplines?

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract Initially, astrobiology subsumed into philosophy. However, philosophy has increasingly subsumed into astrobiology concurrent with it steadily becoming an observational and experimental activity that mainly focuses on the link between life and the cosmos, rather than on extra-terrestrial life per se. However, the steadily increasing probability of locating such extra-terrestrial life and the questions this will lead to might require a refinement of astrobiology, with a bifurcation into astrobiology and astrophilosophy. There are many reasons for the emergence and necessity of astrobiology. One barely realized reason for its emergence, I will argue, is the dawning realization that biology, until now, has been under a geocentric limitation, which has unavoidably pervaded the perception of life. Additionally, as astrobiology can be said to be a long last movement away from this limitation, astrophilosophy represents a movement away from that limitation because philosophy has, strictly speaking, been restrained by the frames for one species, Homo sapiens. Thus, philosophy has, strictly speaking, been anthropomorphic. Thus, when philosophy, like astrobiology, incorporates the Copernican principle, assuming that terrestrial life, and the thinking of Homo sapiens, is not privileged in the universe, astrophilosophy emerges. Astrobiology and astrophilosophy are not competitors but are rather two distinct but complementary activities that address questions with their own well-defined methods and rigor while still informing each other in an inter-dependent manner. Astrophilosophy concerns questions that are philosophical in nature but are procured by an astrobiological perspective. By including scenarios procured by astrobiology, a number of questions regarding value, rights, communication and intelligence that could arise in the interaction between Homo sapiens and extra-terrestrial life can be addressed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1903.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-03 13:36:06

Intuition of Quantum Phenomena

Authors: Fernando Sánchez-Escribano Pérez
Comments: 16 Pages.

Natural intuitive explanations, given by my physical theory, of some key quantum phenomena, without any such in official theory, are exposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1903.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-01 13:53:53

The Speed of Communication and the Place of our Life

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 5 Pages.

ome considerations are given that we are either part of the communication - nervous - cosmological system. The estimation of the sizes of viable cosmological discreteness for a man and his society is made. The estimate is d=u*t, where d is the linear size of the discreteness, and u=c*k^n is the data transfer rate of the structural elements of the discreteness, in which c is the speed of light, k is the Zhirmunsky-Kuzmin scale factor e^(e^e)=3.814*10^6, n - the number of the level of the hierarchy. We assume that a social person is a measure of all things, then for him n=0 and t=(1 s)/(24 frames)=0.042 s - the sampling period is the reciprocal of the global frame rate standard. c*k^-1=79 m/s, d~3.3 m, bio-human c*k^0=2.998*10^8 m/s, d~13,000 km, geosocium c*k^1=1.143*10^15 m/s, d~320 au, heliosocium c*k^2= 4.362*10^21 m/s, d~20,000 ly galactosocium, here au is an astronomical unit, ly is a light year.
Category: General Science and Philosophy