General Science and Philosophy

1604 Submissions

[7] viXra:1604.0350 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-26 23:38:55

Let's Talk

Authors: Anthony J. Browne
Comments: 60 Pages.

A conversation on the importance of conversating.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1604.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 07:29:32

Panta Rhei - Towards an Objective Understanding of Flowing Time

Authors: Tim Moon
Comments: 7 Pages.

This contribution tries to pioneer an objective understanding of flowing time. It takes the form of a sketchy, pre-scientific sort of story but is intended to be broadly congruent with established scientific knowledge. The true nature of flowing time remains almost uncharted territory, so the aim is tentative exploration - to provide a hypothetical picture which is sufficiently intelligible that it could serve heuristically. It might have the potential to help future efforts to make scientific headway in this notoriously paradoxical domain. To formulate this story it's been necessary to adopt one of the radical views of space that modern physics offers. Some physicists see space in purely relational terms, not as an independent entity. But in sharp contrast to this view, and in accordance with the perspective inherent in quantum field theory (QFT), this story about time is based on the premise that space is the primary reality of the universe. What we normally think of as bits of matter are seen by QFT as secondary, as spatial field disturbances. The quantum fields of space are considered to be substantive, structurally complex and ubiquitously energetic. What moves the story a step beyond current science is that it also takes on board the ancient aphorism that "everything flows". Accordingly, the heart of space everywhere is imagined to be in an incessant state of turbulence and flow. The unfolding tale suggests how this hypothesis, were it true, might help explain the fleeting passage of time within an enduring, law-bound material world, much as we perceive and have begun to know it.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1604.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 12:59:33

About an Intuition Primate in the Clinical Medicine

Authors: Kutlumuratov A.B., Kutlumuratov S.B.
Comments: The misprints, grammatical mistakes and stylistic discrepancies are eliminated from the text. The numbering of the pages is inserted .

The importance of physician intuition in epistemology of medicine is discussing from positions of philosophical pragmatism and E. Husserl's phenomenology in this article. Pragmatism reduces essence of scientific knowledge to adequate understanding of person interests, and asserts applicability of knowledge for achievement of practical goals as criterion of truth. Phenomenology reduces essence of scientific knowledge to intuitions of subject essences of thing: consciousness seizes subject relation with thing with meanings helping. Our consciousness uses meanings to control subjects. Husserl's intuitivism implies, that primate of signification in modern scientific thinking determines distinctions between empirical and theoretical sciences. Empirical sciences are theorizing objects of material world; theoretical sciences are theorizing ideal objects. Regions' essences are researching in theoretical and empirical sciences, and each subject is considered example of carrier of these essences. Essence of separate subject is not goal of such sciences. Usually we represent knowledge as result only of signification conscious activity: we have meanings of theoretical objects in theoretical sciences and theoretical meanings of real objects - in empirical sciences. Intuition does not take into consideration. However, when management by single object becomes goal of scientific cognition, role of intuitions in constitution of subject's singularity becomes obvious. Disciplines, which are investigating essences of unique objects, and controllability of them we can define as "practical sciences". This distinguishes them from theoretical and empirical sciences. Humanitarian sciences are practical disciplines. Thus, we can consider combined effect of acts of signification and discretion of essences as important epistemological principle for the modern pragmatism. Perception by physician of person's individual nature in direct contact with patient is basic subject of medicine. Physician perceives health nature of each person across all regions of realities. To help to patient a physician uses knowledge of various sciences, and the individual nature of patient, and he researches self-applicability of patient. Physician controls identical semantic perception of individual nature of patient by unceasing intuiting during all process doctoring of patient. Doctoring is adequately ending, when intuiting of painful essences of individual patient's nature depletes. Nevertheless, intuition as cognition method works in modern medicine spontaneously. Intuition as facility of control of rational applying by physician of empiric and theoretic methods has not investigates. It is necessary serious scientific comprehension of this fact by philosophizing physicians together with medical and philosophical community. Key words: pragmatism, phenomenology, intuition, signification, empirical sciences, theoretical sciences, practical sciences, doctoring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1604.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 08:04:48

Essays on Psychologistic Themes

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 350 Pages.

Psychologistics is a new field of study, described in my treatise on trial logic, which is available at The current work presents ten relatively independent essays on Psychologistics, which form supplementary material to the treatise. The subject matters of these essays can be recapitulated as follows. Essay 1 addresses various trends of psychology in historical prospect; Essay 2 addresses the complete taxonomy of the senses of a man; Essay 3 is a discussion of native languages and their codes, and also of artificial (contrived) languages; Essay 4 treats special quotations and some relevant topics in greater detail as compared to their treatment in Preface of the trial logic treatise; Essay 5 addresses my solution of the problem of universals; Essay 6 addresses taxonomies of bionts, i.e. instances of hierarchal systems of irregular, or proper, classes of bionts as opposed to regular, or small, classes of objects, called also sets; Essay 7 deals with basic biochemistry including basic principles of genetic theory (theory of DNA macromolecules); Essay 8 comprises historical remarks on philosophy, logic, and psychology; Essay 9 presents formulation and proof of generalized associative and commutative laws for an abstract binary composition operator; Essay 10 comprises some general remarks on the trial logic and Psychologistics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1604.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 19:44:20

Paradoxismul Civic (Nonsensul Sensului), Pamflete

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Andrușa R. Vătuiu
Comments: 176 Pages.

Paradoxismul este o mișcare internațională de avangardă în literatură, artă, filozofie, chiar și în știință, bazată pe folosirea excesivă de antiteze, antinomii, contradicții, oximorone, parabole, inversări sau devieri de sensuri, interpretări de la figurativ la propriu, paradoxuri etc. în creație. A fost înființat de către scriitorul, artistul și omul de știință Florentin Smarandache, în anii 1980, în România, dorind lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice și prin experimente contradictorii; în special creație în contra-timp, contra-sens. Primul manifest paradoxist a fost publicat în limba franceză, în anul 1983, în prima carte paradoxistă, Le Sens du Nonsens / Sensul Nonsensului, apărută în Maroc. Inițiatorul paradoxismului împreună cu Andrușa R. Vătuiu propun acum publicului exprimarea paradoxismului în sociologie.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1604.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 04:48:26

Florentin Smarandache, a Unifying Field in Logics: Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability (Fifth Edition)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 157 Pages.

The neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics etc. were introduced by Florentin Smarandache in 1995. 1. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. This theory considers every notion or idea together with its opposite or negation and with their spectrum of neutralities in between them (i.e. notions or ideas supporting neither nor ). The and ideas together are referred to as . Neutrosophy is a generalization of Hegel's dialectics (the last one is based on and only). According to this theory every idea tends to be neutralized and balanced by and ideas - as a state of equilibrium. In a classical way , , are disjoint two by two. But, since in many cases the borders between notions are vague, imprecise, Sorites, it is possible that , , (and of course) have common parts two by two, or even all three of them as well. Neutrosophy is the base of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability, and neutrosophic statistics that are used in engineering applications (especially for software and information fusion), medicine, military, airspace, cybernetics, physics. 2. Neutrosophic Logic is a general framework for unification of many existing logics, such as fuzzy logic (especially intuitionistic fuzzy logic), paraconsistent logic, intuitionistic logic, etc. The main idea of NL is to characterize each logical statement in a 3D Neutrosophic Space, where each dimension of the space represents respectively the truth (T), the falsehood (F), and the indeterminacy (I) of the statement under consideration, where T, I, F are standard or non-standard real subsets of ]-0, 1+[ with not necessarily any connection between them. For software engineering proposals the classical unit interval [0, 1] is used. For single valued neutrosophic logic, the sum of the components is: 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 3 when all three components are independent; 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 2 when two components are dependent, while the third one is independent from them; 0 ≤ t+i+f ≤ 1 when all three components are dependent. When three or two of the components T, I, F are independent, one leaves room for incomplete information (sum < 1), paraconsistent and contradictory information (sum > 1), or complete information (sum = 1). If all three components T, I, F are dependent, then similarly one leaves room for incomplete information (sum < 1), or complete information (sum = 1). In a general Refined Neutrosophic Logic, T can be split into subcomponents T1, T2, ..., Tp, and I into I1, I2, ..., Ir, and F into F1, F2, ...,Fs, where p+r+s = n ≥ 1. Even more: T, I, and/or F (or any of their subcomponents Tj ,Ik, and/or Fl) can be countable or uncountable infinite sets. 3. Neutrosophic Set. Let U be a universe of discourse, and M a set included in U. An element x from U is noted with respect to the set M as x(T, I, F) and belongs to M in the following way: it is t% true in the set, i% indeterminate (unknown if it is) in the set, and f% false, where t varies in T, i varies in I, f varies in F. Statically T, I, F are subsets, but dynamically T, I, F are functions/operators depending on many known or unknown parameters. Neutrosophic Set generalizes the fuzzy set (especially intuitionistic fuzzy set), paraconsistent set, intuitionistic set, etc. 4. Neutrosophic Probability is a generalization of the classical probability and imprecise probability in which the chance that an event A occurs is t% true - where t varies in the subset T, i% indeterminate - where i varies in the subset I, and f% false - where f varies in the subset F. In classical probability n_sup <= 1, while in neutrosophic probability n_sup <= 3+. In imprecise probability: the probability of an event is a subset T in [0, 1], not a number p in [0, 1], what’s left is supposed to be the opposite, subset F (also from the unit interval [0, 1]); there is no indeterminate subset I in imprecise probability. 5. Neutrosophic Statistics is the analysis of events described by the neutrosophic probability. The function that models the neutrosophic probability of a random variable x is called neutrosophic distribution: NP(x) = ( T(x), I(x), F(x) ), where T(x) represents the probability that value x occurs, F(x) represents the probability that value x does not occur, and I(x) represents the indeterminate / unknown probability of value x.
General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1604.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-05 07:47:32

The Cyberphysics of Tomorrow's World

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 34 Pages.

This article would appeal to people interested in new ideas in sciences like physics, astronomy and mathematics that are not presented in a formal manner. Biologists would also find the paragraphs about evolution interesting. I was afraid they'd think my ideas were a bit "out there". But I sent a short email about them last year to a London biologist who wrote an article for the journal Nature. She replied that it was "very interesting". The world is fascinated by electronics. Computer scientists, as well as computer buyers, would be intrigued by the fundamental role given to human electronics in creation of the universe. This obviously can only be done if time travel to the past is possible. I explain in scientific terms how it could be done (the world is also fascinated by the prospect of time travel). My ideas on trips through time grew from the related topic of interstellar, and even intergalactic, travel (and those ideas are inspired by an electrical-engineering experiment at Yale University in 2009). After the ideas on time travel came the realization that this technology could be used to totally eliminate the problems of muscle and bone weakness, radiation exposure etc associated with a lengthy journey to Mars. The exquisitely ordered cosmos proposed would have great appeal to religion and philosophy. Dealing as it does with time that does not exclusively operate in a straight line, the book could not only present a new view of evolution (present theory assumes time is always a straight line from past to future). Nonlinear time might also give religionists a new concept of who God is. This could possibly be that of humans from the remote future who are quantum entangled with all past, present and future states of the whole - infinite and eternal - universe; and thus have all God's powers. Such infinite power could be pantheistic but would naturally include the ability to manifest as an individual. (I know this article is very far removed from what is traditionally considered scientific. Just remember: science is the search for knowledge of how this universe works, and that search must be pursued wherever it leads - even if it leads into traditionally nonscientific areas such as religion.) Finally - if we're entangled with the whole universe, we'd have to be entangled with each other. On a mundane level, this gives us extrasensory and telekinetic abilities. On a higher level, it eliminates crime and war and domestic violence since people don't normally desire to harm themselves in any way.
Category: General Science and Philosophy